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- 1. Presented by Bhawana Regmi Angira Chaudhary
- 2. MAGDA E. NASSAR, HALA AHMED ABDOU*, NAGLAA A. MOHMOUD Faculty of Nursing, Nursing Administration, Alexandria, Egypt
- 3. Dramatic changes in the healthcare environment over the last decade. Nursing shortages, staff retention, and turnover the prime concern of the health care organization. Healthcare organizations need to redesign their traditional management models
- 4. Management styles play a vital role in promoting workplace empowerment, organizational commitment and job satisfaction Retention of nurses is a recognized issue for the health organization
- 5. To determine the relationship between management styles and nurses’ retention at private hospitals.
- 6. Study design: a correlational descriptive research design. Study area: Three private hospitals affiliated to nongovernmental for profit sector at Alexandria governorate. Each hospital has a bed capacity more than 50 beds namely: El Salama New hospital (8 units), Alexandria New Medical Center (four units), and El Shefaa hospital (four units)
- 7. • Study population: All nurses affiliated to work in the selected hospitals and available at the time of data collection Sample size: n=228 Alexandria New Medical Center n = 79 nurses, El Salama New hospital n = 113 nurses and El Shefaa hospital n = 36 nurses.
- 8. Tool: Profile of Organizational Characteristics (POC) a modified version developed by Likert et al., to measure nurses’ perception of management styles in their work unit . Consists of 16 items classified into four parts called systems; each system represented different management patterns which are exploitative/authoritative management style Benevolent management style, consultative management style, and participative management style.
- 9. The four management systems have been compared with one another on the basis of: leadership processes (three items), motivation forces (three items), communication process (four items), decision making process (two items), goals setting (two items), and control process (two items).
- 10. A pilot study on 10% of nurses from inpatients units at the International Cardiac Center (ICC) not included in the study were selected. Submitted to a panel of eight experts in the field of study to be tested for its statement relevance. The reliability coefficient of POC has been previously established with alpha coefficient 0.92 < 0.05. For the current questionnaire POC, alpha coefficient was 0.89 < 0.05.
- 11. Permission for study was obtained from: The ethical committee of the Faculty of Nursing Directors of the studied hospitals to collect necessary data.
- 12. Included three phases as follow: Phase I Obtained a list about numbers and names of all nurses employed at least 3 months having diploma or baccalaureate degree from the head nurses in studied hospitals (units). Individualized structured interview was conducted which lasted for interview lasted 30– 45.
- 13. Phase II Returned to the previous studied hospitals after 9 months to collect data from director of nursing and head nurses about the numbers and names of nurses who had quit and reasons for leaving their units. The reasons for quitting hospitals : obligatory and non-obligatory reasons. A record form designed including the number and the names of nurses who had quit from hospitals, hospital name, reasons for quitting, and work duration until quitting. Nurses’ retention was calculated.
- 14. Data : Data were analyzed using SPSS (with version (v = 11.5 for windows) for tabulation and statistical analysis Descriptive and inferential statistics were used. Level of significance selected for this study was 5% (p < 0.05).
- 15. Result is congruent with Chappell and Prince who found that non-family obligation is an important obligatory reasons. Force MV showed that work-related factors are instrumental in nurses’ employment decisions, and must be addressed if retention is to be improved.
- 16. The present study: Gives strong support towards understanding of nurses’ perception of management styles and their retention at Private Hospitals. Has shown significant difference between management styles and nurse’ retention. Highest mean percentage was apparent for exploitive/authoritative management style.
- 17. Hospital leaders should plan and implement effective strategies to promote nurses’ retention by: Creating a more supportive professional nursing practice that allows nurses to practice to their full opportunities for professional interactions. Motivating nurses through providing job enrichment and developing reward systems for nurses based on their workloads.
- 18. Can assess retention strategies between governmental and private nurses, by further comparative studies.
- 19. Title Brief, clear and interesting Total words 10. Setting not stated. Dependent and independent variables could not be identified. Not in title case
- 20. Abstract Structured, Beginning of the article the key information: Introduction Methods Results Keywords Conclusion not stated. Words:
- 21. Introduction According to the title of the study Related relevant literature included Objectives of the study Clearly stated Variables not listed. Population clearly identified. Research Hypothesis: Not mentioned Conceptual framework not given.
- 22. Research Correlation descriptive research design Sampling Design Sampling design not mentioned. Sample design: Size calculation Only the desired sample size mentioned but hadn’t talked about how it was calculated!!!!
- 23. Data Standardized instrument was used. Validity and reliability of the tool was done. Given that data were collected in 3 phases but only 2 phases were mentioned. Data Collection Tools processing and analysis: Clearly mentioned and appropriate computer software was used. Inclusion criteria was mentioned. Ethical consideration was obtained from concerned committee.
- 24. Important results discussed Tables are well understandable and selfexplanatory. Descriptive as well as appropriate inferential statistics were used.
- 25. Discussion : Discussion well mentioned and properly referenced. Conclusion: Clearly stated Recommendation and implication clearly stated. Limitation of the study not mentioned. Referencing: Vancouver referencing style is maintained. References adequate (35). Only few of the references were older than 10 years.
- 26. Well written and documented. Abstract adequately summarized. Well organized, no use of jargons No irrelevant details.
- 27. Study would have been better if it would have: Clearly stated the dependent and independent variable. Description about the sampling technique and calculation of sample size.
- 28. DISCUSSION
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How to critique a journal article
Published by Holly Merritt Modified over 4 years ago
Presentation on theme: "How to critique a journal article"— Presentation transcript:
Critical Reading Strategies: Overview of Research Process
Just What Is Science Anyway???
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Critiquing Research Articles For important and highly relevant articles: 1. Introduce the study, say how it exemplifies the point you are discussing 2.
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Research Critique: - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
The simulated evolution of biochemical guilds: reconciling gaia theory and natural selection ... simple differential-equation model to refute gaia theory criticisms ... – powerpoint ppt presentation.
- The Simulated Evolution of Biochemical Guilds Reconciling Gaia Theory and Natural Selection
- K. Downing P. Zvirinsky, 2000
- Neo-Darwinism vs. Gaia Theory
- Guild Model
- Simulation Results
- Critique of Guild Model
- Inheritability of Acquired Characteristics The giraffes stretched their necks, and so their children and subsequent generations were born with long necks.
- Survival of the fittest
- Giraffes born with long necks had a better chance of survival than those born with short necks, and so had an increased reproduction rate. Over time, the giraffe population became long-necked.
- Survival of the fittest individual selection, not group selection
- Combines Darwins views with genetics
- Neo-Darwinism is the most widely taught and accepted view on evolution
- Organisms both affect and regulate their environment. James Lovelock
- Local biotic mechanisms regulate global chemical concentrations
- NP ratio in oceans is identical to NP ratio in algae and zooplankton
- There exist efficient recycling pathways for poorly-supplied nutrients
- High cycling ratios for carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus support far more biomass than what external fluxes alone can support
- How do recycling networks and chemical regulation emerge? Neo-Darwinists accuse Gaia theory of
- Group selection
- Adaptationist wing of Neo-Darwinism states that organisms adapt to their environment, while Gaia Theory claims that organisms adapt but also influence their environment
- Simple differential-equation model to refute Gaia theory criticisms
- Simulation of two species of daisies living on a planet
- Same preferred temperature of 22.5C
- Black daisies have a low albedo, creating warmer local temperatures
- White daisies have a high albedo, creating cooler local temperatures
- Daisyworld is subject to levels of increasing temperature
- At low temperatures, black daisies proliferate
- As the temperature increases, white daisies take over
- Inevitably, temperature becomes too hot and no daisies survive
- Observation For a limited range of temperature inputs, daisies are able to keep the temperature at 22.5 C
- Conclusion Simple local interactions among the biota can have global regulatory consequences
- Small genotype space doesnt show relationship between evolution and regulation
- What if Daisyworld was extended to include genotypes for temperature preference? At any point in the simulation, the population comprises daisies that
- prefer the current temperature
- prefer a higher temperature and have a low albedo or
- prefer a lower temperature and have a high albedo
- Simulations show that daisies will simply adapt to the rising temperature, rather than regulate it
- Objective To simulate the emergence of nutrient recycling networks and chemical ratio regulation using natural selection mechanisms
- Key element borrowed from Daisyworld
- Organisms are able to create local buffers against the environment
- Biochemical Guild Organisms that have the same nutrient inputs and outputs
- Organisms cannot consume and produce the same chemical
- Nutrients N1Nn
- Input fluxes
- Output fluxes
- Environment chemicals (internal amount)
- enZyme genes Zk 1 means that organism produces an enzyme to free Nk from the detritus
- Chemical genes
- Fin percentage of each nutrient consumed (input)
- Fout percentage of each nutrient produced (output)
- Rf base feeding rate
- Rm metabolism rate
- ksat satisfaction
- An organisms satisfaction is based the deviation of its local perception of the relative fractions of the environmental nutrients from a user-defined optimal ratio
- An individuals input and output fractions are taken into account when computing the effective nutrient fractions that it experiences
- The closer the ratio is to the user-defined optimal ratio, the higher the satisfaction
- Afeed X0.75 rf S
- Example X0.75 900, rf 0.01, S 1, then Afeed 9. The organism attempts to consume 9 units of nutrients, in the proportion specified by its input alleles.
- The input nutrients are immediately converted into biomass
- Ametab X0.75 (rm nz costz)
- An organism dies if it cannot access sufficient input nutrients
- Mortality rate is dependent on population density
- The biomass of a dead organism is partitioned into the detritus in direct proportion to its input nutrients
- An organism feeds on detritus only if there are no available nutrients left to feed on, and if it produces a nutrient-specific enzyme to free the nutrient from the detritus
- Reproduction is permitted only if the population has not reached its carrying capacity
- Reproduction through replication an organism splits into two when it has doubled its biomass
- Mutations may occur during replication
- A percentage of organisms are randomly selected for conjugation (chromosomal crossover)
- An efficiently recycling ecosystem is where
- The outputs of one guild are consumed by another guild
- The detritus of one guild is freed by the enzymes of another guild and immediately consumed
- These processes prevent chemical loss from the environment and increase the biomass
- The amount of nutrients consumed over the amount available from the input flux
- The higher the ratio, the more self-sufficient the environment is
- IFD error compares the ratio of the available nutrients (environment and detritus) against the average input nutrient ratio of the biota.
- Essentially, IFD measures how well the biota has adapted to its environment. The biota has completely adapted when IFD 0
- Initial population size 100
- Max population size 2000
- Number of generations 800
- Timesteps per generation 50
- Mutation rate / individual 0.5
- Conjugation fraction / generation 0.2
- Number of nutrients 4
- Initial biomass units 20
- Homogenous population of 100 individuals
- All individuals produce N1
- All individuals consume N2
- No individuals produce enzymes
- Nutrient inputs
- 20,20,20,20 (Generations 1 400)
- 5,10,25,50 (Generations 401 600)
- 50,25,10,5 (Generations 601 800)
- Goal environmental chemical ratios
- Initially every individual consumes N2, but there is not enough N2 to support the whole population. Population size drops to below 50 at startup.
- Due to mutation, some individuals can now consume a nutrient other than N2. With an alternative nutrient to feed on, the population starts increasing after 100 generations.
- At startup, all individuals produce N1 and consume N2
- Over 300 generations, the production and consumption of the 4 nutrients converge to an equal proportion
- Increasing enzyme production in the first 100 generations is followed by decreased enzyme production in generations 101 - 300
- There is insufficient detritus to support the growing number of decomposers, and so the metabolic cost of producing enzymes does not pay off
- After 300 generations, an N1-only consumer emerges
- Because all individuals produced N1 at startup, there is an abundant amount of N1 in the environment
- Conditions for N1-only consumers are ideal, and so the population of N1-only consumers multiplies rapidly
- Increased diversity, but constant biomass
- Advent of N1-only consumer allows conversion of N1 into biomass
- The output nutrients of the N1-only consumers supply other organisms with nutrients this triggers a population boom as organisms feed and multiply. Population size is now over 900
- Throughput of the recycling networks increase. Cycling ratios increase
- When the population exceeds 900, the system reaches a new steady-state limit, which can only be increased by changes in the external nutrient fluxes
- At this density, competition for nutrients is fierce. Enzyme production is an advantage, allowing individuals to tap into the nutrients stored in the detritus.
- Increased detritus feeding increases the cycling ratio
- Prior to the population-size and recycling booms, N1 made up a large fraction of the environmental nutrients.
- After generation 300, the input diversity is diverse enough to ensure the consumption of most available nutrients, rather than having them left untouched in the environment.
- Recycling loops primed by N1 consumption then facilitate a biomass increase
- Input flux 5,10,25,50
- Optimal ratio 1/18,10/18,5/18,2/18
- Control is only feasible when biotic diversity reduces the dominance of any one nutrient. After this, the chemicals partition into values close to the desired ratios
- Agents move around a 2D grid, eat nutrients and produce other nutrients as metabolic waste
- Additional vision and metabolic genes
- Gene mutations occur throughout a lifetime, but phenotypic results are manifest only in the next generation
- Findings are consistent with the simulations in the 1D environment
- Emergence of nutrient recycling networks
- Set of nutrients vast number of organisms ? resource competition ? emergence of many biochemical guilds ? nutrient recycling networks
- Emergence of global regulation of chemical ratios
- Under-consumed nutrients new consumers ? population explosion ? increase in cycling ratios ? high transfer fluxes between guilds ? control of global chemical ratios, via their cumulative production and consumption.
- Coordinated behaviour is not due to group selection or teleology. It can be explained by individual-based natural selection
- Previous models such as Daisyworld support the compatibility of Gaia and natural selection, but they exhibit a certain hard-wiredness
- The Guild Model showed that global regulation can also emerge from the aggregate metabolism of a community
- In the real world, recycling networks refer to when the same nutrient cycles through the network (albeit in different forms). An organism cannot feed on a nutrient and then output an arbitrary nutrient as waste
- Recall the Law of Conservation of Matter Matter cannot be created or destroyed
- Limited genotype space what if biota adapted to the current chemical ratios, rather than trying to change it?
- Guild Model supports the view that the emergence of nutrient recycling networks and regulation of chemical ratios are consequences of natural selection
- Needs to strengthen its argument by revising its chemical model and the issue of evolving preferences
- http//alife.tuke.sk/projekty/mag_html/guild/guild .html
- http//www.idi.ntnu.no/grupper/ai/eval/guild/guild .html
- http//userpage.chemie.fu-berlin.de/steffen/bcc/1 11.html
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Critiquing Research Articles
Critiquing Research Articles. For important and highly relevant articles: Introduce the study, say how it exemplifies the point you are discussing Say how the study is similar to yours, in purpose and / or method Report its methodology in detail Critique the methodology
- Maxime Garnier
- statistical tests
- findings related
- research study
- general findings related
- statistical tests interpreted correctly
- More by User
Critiquing Research Articles For important and highly relevant articles: • Introduce the study, say how it exemplifies the point you are discussing • Say how the study is similar to yours, in purpose and / or method • Report its methodology in detail • Critique the methodology • Report details of the findings that relate to your topic • If its findings are limited or unjustified, tell how • Give its implications for your study
Critiquing Research Articles For studies moderately related to yours: • Introduce the study, saying how it exemplifies the point you’re discussing • Report its general methodology • Report its general findings related to your topic • If its findings are limited or conclusions unjustified, tell how • Give its implications for your study
Critiquing Research Articles • For studies somewhat related, used for background information: • Introduce the study, saying how it exemplifies the point you are discussing • Give the “gist” of its findings related to your topic • Give its implications for your study
How to Critique a Research Study • The Introduction Section: • Is the problem clearly stated? • Are the argument and rationale for the study convincing? • Are primary terms and concepts clearly defined? • Are the author’s assumptions made clear? • Are the research questions or hypotheses stated in testable form?
How to Critique a Research Study The Method Section: • Research Design • What type of design was selected? Is it appropriate? • Were extraneous and confounding variables controlled by the design? • Are independent and dependent variables adequate to test the questions and hypotheses? Is the predicted relationship between (among) them clear?
How to Critique a Research Study • Participants • Was the sample size large enough? • Were subjects selected randomly? • Are the relevant characteristics of the sample described? • If subjects were not randomly assigned to experimental groups, were they comparable on relevant characteristics?
How to Critique a Research Study • Measures • Do selected measures appropriately operationalize the variables? • Are satisfactory reliability and validity data provided for all measures? • For interpretive measures, was scoring objective? • For two or more raters, was satisfactory inter-rater reliability found? • Are measures administered consistently to different groups?
How to Critique a Research Study • Results • Do the data fulfill assumptions underlying statistical tests? • Are the statistical tests appropriate for the questions and hypotheses? • Are the appropriate statistics reported for each test? • For multiple statistical tests, do authors adjust alpha error levels? • For statistical tests, are adequate statistics (means, SD, shared variance for correlations etc.) presented?
How to Critique a Research Study • Interpretation and Discussion • Are statistical tests interpreted correctly? • Are generalizations only to the population from which the sample was drawn? • Do authors identify problems of control that weren’t addressed by the design or analysis? • Do authors mention other limitations of the study? • Are conclusions consistent with statistical results? • Are alternative conclusions considered? • Are theoretical and / or practical implications discussed?
How to Critique a Research Study Overview Questions: • Was the method reported in sufficient detail that you could replicate the study? • What was the theoretical context for the study? • What issues were raised and not addressed? • What assumptions were made? • What did the authors overlook? • Were there any major problems that invalidate the study? • What contribution did the study make? • How does the study relate to your topic?
Your Literature Review • Must have 7-10 current references from academic journals cited • Written in APA format • Copies of journal articles used must be turned in to professor with the assignment • Should be 5 typed pages • Literature review should include introduction, summary and critique of journal articles, a justifications for your research project and the hypotheses for your research project
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NSG 430 Week 5 Research Article Critique Presentation.
Presented by Bhawana Regmi Angira Chaudhary. ... Research critique example rmt 3. Oct. 30, 2013. • 19 likes • 14,746 views ... My dessertation ppt.
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Essays.io ✍️ Research Article Critique, Power Point Presentation Example from students accepted to Harvard, Stanford, and other elite schools.
Every presentation you listen to is an opportunity for a critique. ... You can learn a lot from your critiques of others'.