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Expatriate Assignments Are on the Rise

Jan 24, 2019

By AMA Staff

The number of employees on international assignments has doubled over the last three years as part of the continuing trends toward globalization, according to a new survey conducted by Mercer. Mercer’s 2008/2009 Benefits Survey for Expatriates and Globally Mobile Employees covers 243 multinational companies worldwide, including over 94,000 expatriates (compared to 50,000 in 2005/2006). Mercer conducts the survey every three years to provide an overview of expatriate policies in large multinational firms. According to the report, 47% of companies surveyed said they had increased the deployment of traditional expatriates (employees on 1–5 year assignments) and 38% reported an increase in “global nomads” (employees that continuously move from country to country on multiple assignments). “The desire to be globally competitive has driven growth in expatriate assignments. As companies launch new ventures overseas, they continue to bring experts from their other locations to lead projects on a short-term basis, rather than rely on local talent,” said Duncan Smithson, leader of Mercer’s international consulting business in the Midwest. “These seasoned professionals who move from assignment to assignment in the same multinational company transfer experience, knowledge and consistent approaches to conducting business.” According to Mr. Smithson, “International assignments are part of multinationals’ global leadership development programs. Gaining experience in different geographies continues to be seen as an essential part of career growth in many international firms.” Benefit policies The majority of companies surveyed (86%) consider benefit provision for expatriate employees a medium or high business priority. However, 26% admit to having no overarching policy for providing expatriate benefits. “International policies are essential for remaining competitive, maintaining geographical consistency and controlling costs,” said Dany Mathieu, principal in Mercer’s international consulting business. “Even in uncertain economic times, companies compete for the best talent and those that are lax will lose out.” When asked to rate the success factors for their expatriate benefits plan, survey participants ranked supporting the company’s business and HR strategies the highest (63%). Being valued by employees and remaining cost effective were also deemed important factors (both 59%). However, the survey found that nearly two-thirds of companies (64%) have no specific procedures in place to measure the success of their expatriate benefit programs. “Creating and maintaining benefit plans for expatriates is an expensive and complicated undertaking. By failing to assess the value of these programs to the company or to the employees themselves, many organizations miss the opportunity to improve their benefit offering and sharpen their competitive edge,” said Mr. Mathieu. International retirement plans The majority of companies surveyed keep their expatriates in host or home country retirement plans. However, 32% of companies offer international plans* – an increase from 23% in 2005. Close to three-quarters (73%) of companies with an international plan restrict eligibility to certain expatriates who cannot be kept in the home or host plan. “More expatriates are going on multiple assignments across several geographies. Over time it becomes difficult for companies to justify the link to the office in the expatriates’ original home location when they have not worked there for many years. And swapping an employee from one host plan to another is often an unattractive option,” said Mr. Smithson. “Furthermore, based on the location, retaining expatriates in the home country pension plan may create compliance and regulatory problems.” He continued, “In these instances, setting up an international plan is often the most attractive option for multinational companies that want to provide pension benefits to their globally mobile employees.” Other benefits The majority of respondents provide medical benefits for their expatriates, whether via international plans or via home- or host-country plans. However, more than 80% do not consider the local social security provision when providing these benefits. Mr. Mathieu explained, “Some multinational companies have considered tailoring their medical plans to integrate with local social security provisions in order to achieve cost savings. However, it is debatable whether the potential cost savings justify the expense of doing this. The data suggest few have yet to implement such plans, although a growing number of organizations are exploring this approach.” The majority of respondents cover their expatriates for death benefits (86%) and long-term disability benefits are provided by more than three-quarters of participating companies (78%). North American companies are more likely to offer benefits at a cost to the employee, typically by way of deductibles or co-payments. *International plan: A retirement plan exclusively for Globally Mobile Employees (e.g., an offshore plan financed via a trust or insurance contract in an offshore tax sheltered location). Copies of Mercer’s 2008/2009 Benefit Survey for Expatriates and Globally Mobile Employees are available from or by calling 800-333-3070.

About The Author(s)

American Management Association is a world leader in professional development, advancing the skills of individuals to drive business success. AMA’s approach to improving performance combines experiential learning—“learning through doing”—with opportunities for ongoing professional growth at every step of one’s career journey. AMA supports the goals of individuals and organizations through a complete range of products and services, including seminars, Webcasts and podcasts, conferences, corporate and government solutions, business books and research.

most expatriate assignments are of which type

most expatriate assignments are of which type

Regardless of the reason, two major challenges face expatriate assignments: costs and family considerations. To overcome these issues, HR needs to design flexible expatriate assignments that match company needs, as well as those of the employee and their family.

Short Term Expatriate Assignment

Many companies are turning to short term expatriate assignments as an answer to cost and family issues. Employees work overseas for a fixed term, usually for a period of three months to one year, on an unaccompanied basis. Home leave allowances are an integral part of the assignment to enable regular trips back to the home country, or family visits to the host country. The benefit for the employee is that there is no need to uproot the entire family and relocate them overseas. The company makes considerable savings from the absence of costs associated with relocation like school fees, shipping of goods, vehicle transportation and furniture storage. 

However, even if the employee is only overseas for three months, HR needs to manage the assignment effectively to make it a successful undertaking on both sides. There are a number of factors to incorporate into a package, even for a short term posting overseas:

Long term Expatriate Assignments 

Typically overseas for three to five years, long term expatriate assignments are the traditional form of overseas placements. An employee and family members relocate to a host country for the duration of the assignment. This requires company support and payments for the housing situation in the host and home countries, school allowances, dual career support or spousal assistance, shipment of goods, storage of belongings,  pet relocation , relocation service provisions, tax assistance, cost-of-living adjustment and expatriate allowances. 

Whilst there are many justifiable and cost effective business reasons for sending staff on long-term expat assignments, particularly in situations requiring continuity and a transfer of skills, family issues can make these types of assignments notoriously harder to manage than other forms of expatriate postings. 

Many surveys indicate that families feel HR adopt an "out of sight, out of mind" attitude to its expatriate staff; ensuring that employees cannot say the same about your HR team increases the chances of a successful overseas posting. 

Home Commuters

Living in one country during the week, and travelling home for the weekends is another popular form of expatriate assignments. A home commuting arrangement allows companies to send talent where the business needs it most, on a short-term basis, without relocating an entire family. In addition to the same advantages offered by a short-term assignment, a home commuter arrangement offers a better work life balance for the employee with weekly trips home. However, home commuting is not sustainable in the long-term, unless there are no family considerations. 

Frequent Flyers

This increasing trend in international working brings its own set of challenges with it. In essence, an employee makes regular (extended) business visits overseas and works remotely from the home country. This may mean virtual meetings and phone calls across time zones, so work life balance issues need to be managed carefully if such an assignment is to be successful. Frequent flyer arrangements require flexibility on the part of the company, the employee, and the employee's family, but certainly cause much less upheaval than a traditional expatriate posting. 

Family Matters

No matter the duration of the posting, it is important to remember that family issues need to be at the heart of expatriate assignment design; family concerns is the number one reason for failed expatriate postings. Integrating support for both the employee and the spouse throughout the assignment duration, regardless of the spouse's location, is undoubtedly an essential element of the design of an expatriate assignment. 

Compare  relocation service companies  or search for serviced apartments worldwide to provide hassle free relocations for your employees and their family. 

The Best Types of Expat Assignments for your Mobility Program

by WHR Global | Feb 20, 2018 | News

Finding the right person for an open position can be difficult, so when you find that perfect fit you’ll do what it takes to get them to their new location, even if that new location is abroad. However, relocating someone internationally has never been an easy task. Even if you offer your employees a pay raise,  ship their household goods , or help them find the most amazing new home, expatriate assignments often go awry over time.

Housing, cultural adjustment, family adjustment, and a new work environment can all lead to poor productivity, especially if the assignment takes someone far away from their loved ones for an extended period of time.

There are many preparations and arrangements that go into sending your workers abroad, which is why it is important that you understand the advantages and disadvantages of the most common types of expatriate assignments: long-term, short-term, and typical business travel.

Some companies choose to use just one type of assignment or include multiple different options, depending on the employee and the position available. Either way, finding the best fit for both your company and your employee will ensure both are successful long term.

What is a long-term expatriate assignment?

There is no single definition of what constitutes a long-term expatriate assignment because companies vary in how they define long term versus short term. Still, a  long-term expatriate assignment  generally has a 12-month to 36-month duration. Some companies may define a long-term expatriate assignment as work that lasts a minimum of two years but not longer than five years. One of the most important things to note is that this type of assignment is not a permanent transfer; the employee intends to return to his or her home country after the long-term assignment is complete.

The benefits of expatriate work go both ways. You have the opportunity to dispatch your best talent to international partners and help them build and grow their international business; and, your workers have the opportunity to expand their knowledge of different cultures and markets and enhance their careers with overseas experience.

The specifics of each long-term assignment vary greatly depending on industry and location. In the past, it was important to instill the culture of the parent company into the foreign entity and help drive revenue growth in the overseas location. Today this still exists, but the opposite is also true. Overseas workers are being deployed to the parent country or other countries to gain experience, transfer knowledge, and run specific project-based work. How companies handle expatriate assignments are changing as global travel is now just as common as traveling within your own country.

Companies know that  employee dissatisfaction  with long-term expatriate assignments is a problem. The most striking example of employee dissatisfaction is when workers move their entire family overseas. It’s common for many staff to encounter buyer’s remorse as stress and unfamiliarity with new surroundings begin to affect loved ones.

Costs are extremely high for expatriate assignments and many companies don’t properly vet the individual taking the assignment. They don’t test the person’s ability to thrive in a “foreign” location and adapt culturally. Additionally, many companies forego cultural and language training that is essential in providing a foundation for a successful transition. Simple things like how to conduct a business meeting, learning the norms for handing out a business card, finding what time is appropriate for arriving at meetings, knowing what to do if invited to dinner, etc. are just some of the numerous and subtle social and business norms that will ensure success. However, many companies choose not to or don’t know the importance of this investment.

Consequently, increases in employee dissatisfaction and high costs with long-term assignments has led many companies to reevaluate their long-term policies. Many companies have chosen another route: short-term assignments.

What is a short-term expatriate assignment?

This type of expatriate assignment can last between three months to a full year. Similar to long-term assignments, each company defines short-term assignments differently. Because the employee plans on returning home after such a short amount of time, there are additional benefits that must be considered. Many companies will not allow the family to accompany the employee on these short-term assignments but will provide other options such as more frequent trips home, furnished accommodations, per diems, travel allowances, etc. Relocation management companies, such as WHR Group, can help manage short-term expatriates and provide the structure and benefits available to this group of assignees.

The problems of dissatisfaction and homesickness became apparent with long-term moves, so short-term overseas engagements were developed as an alternative to pulling up roots and moving families across the globe for extended periods. From your company’s perspective, a short duration generally costs less upfront, and it gives you more flexibility when developing a mobile, global workforce. Additionally, the consequences of  individuals becoming “taxable”  in the foreign location can be managed effectively, thus significantly decreasing the cost of the assignment.

The cons of short-term expatriate assignments revolve around demands to rotate a variety of personnel, which requires more planning and administrative time for everyone involved. There is a trade-off between a series of short-term assignments versus a single long-term assignment. What works for your company may not work well for others.

Extended business traveler

These types of expatriate assignments can really rack up frequent flier miles. If your workers travel internationally on business for a duration that only lasts a week or two, they are still, technically, expatriates. Typically, these employees are not on a formal assignment; however, there are still potential tax and  immigration considerations  that need to be made when sending someone on these extended business trips.

For everyone involved, business traveling simply causes less disruption. Your workforce has much more control over how they perform duties and you don’t have to permanently allocate resources to a foreign location.

Work visa requirements differ widely from country to country and can be impacted by the home and host locations involved. In some instances a worker may enter into the country on a work permit waiver, but in other countries it may be illegal to perform a single work duty without having the proper work visas in place.

Regardless of the assignment type that is considered, each type of expatriate assignment has its own strengths and pitfalls. Every company needs to determine what is optimal for their workforce and the business need requiring these assignments.

Read More: The Importance of Repatriation Assistance

Read into How the Preparation of Your Expats Can Ease Their Transition

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most expatriate assignments are of which type

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Solutions by assignment type

Mercer offers a wide array of international HR management solutions designed to help HR professionals get the most out of their talent mobility strategies. Discover innovative tools, reports, surveys, and more, all backed by Mercer's years of global workforce experience and designed to fit your unique talent mobility needs. Optimize compensation and benefits plans for expatriates on long-term assignments, international business travelers, and every assignment category between.

Virtual assignments

Virtual expatriate assignments jumped to the forefront during the global pandemic. Although not a replacement for every type of international assignment, virtual ones have quickly been established as viable options for some situations. Find out how to assess the viability of virtual assignments for your organization's global talent needs.

Long-term assignments

Enhance your long-term assignment strategies with the most accurate international relocation data available, featuring insights on expatriate allowances, local housing data, expat tax rates, and other essentials for managing a globally mobile workforce.

Short-term assignments

Take advantage of advanced innovative expatriate management tools and cost calculators for your employees on short-term international assignments—while also saving organizational costs and resources.

Localized compensation

From localized pay to local plus compensation to host-based approaches, Mercer's expertise in global rewards helps you navigate your options, understand local benefits, and build appropriate expatriate compensation packages.

Domestic relocations

For companies who need to transfer people within the United States and Canada, Mercer's international cost of living and housing data and detailed local salary information offer unmatched insights on pay and incentives.

Business travel

Business travel remains an essential, but expensive, part of international commerce. Learn how to cut costs, accurately estimate budgets, and set fair reimbursement guidelines for you global road warriors.

Assignment segmentation

The expatriate mobility landscape is fast evolving and companies find it increasingly difficult to have only one policy covering all international assignments. Segmenting policy by duration and purpose is the key to flexibility and cost savings.

Flexible working policies and practices The way we work is changing. As many organizations lean towards flexible work options it’s important to establish what flexibility looks like for your employees. Discovering what’s sustainable long-term is key to fully identifying short-term flexibility decisions vs. a long-term plan.

Where to start? Whether you have a large and established mobility program in need of optimization or are just starting a global expansion, Mercer can help. Contact us today to start the conversation.

Get the latest global mobility news, event invitations, and articles from Mercer. sign up now

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Other sets by this creator, salesforce interview questions, the muse sales interview questions, sales bootcamp interview questions, verified questions.

Zeng Company reports the following data:

Finished Goods Inventory: Beginning balance, in units 300 Units produced 2,900 Units sold (1,600) ‾ Ending balance, in units 1,600 ‾ ‾ Production Costs: Variable manufacturing costs per unit $ 57 Total fixed manufacturing costs 26,100 \begin{array}{lrr} \hline\\ \text{Finished Goods Inventory:}\\ \hspace{10pt}\text{Beginning balance, in units}&\text{300}\hspace{4pt}\\ \hspace{10pt}\text{Units produced}&\text{2,900}\hspace{4pt}\\ \hspace{10pt}\text{Units sold}&\underline{\text{\hspace{5pt}(1,600)}}\\ \hspace{10pt}\text{Ending balance, in units}&\text{\underline{\underline{\hspace{8pt}1,600}}}\hspace{4pt}\\ \text{Production Costs:}\\ \hspace{10pt}\text{Variable manufacturing costs per unit}\hspace{10pt}&\text{\$\hspace{20pt}57}\\ \hspace{10pt}\text{Total fixed manufacturing costs}&{\text{26,100}}\\ \\\hline \end{array} Finished Goods Inventory: Beginning balance, in units Units produced Units sold Ending balance, in units Production Costs: Variable manufacturing costs per unit Total fixed manufacturing costs ​ 300 2,900 (1,600) ​ 1,600 ​ ​ $ 57 26,100 ​ ​

Calculate the product cost per unit and the total cost of the 1,600 units in the ending inventory using absorption costing and variable costing.

What legislative support agency should lawmakers consult if they want to know how appropriated funds for the Head Start program are being spent?

This activity will require two teams to retrieve cash flow statement information from the Internet. One team is to obtain the most recent year’s statement of cash flows for Johnson & Johnson , and the other team the most recent year’s statement of cash flows for JetBlue Airways Corp.

The statement of cash flows is included as part of the annual report information that is a required disclosure to the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). SEC documents can be retrieved using the EdgarScanTM service at

To obtain annual report information, key in a company name in the appropriate space. EdgarScan will list the reports available to you for the company you’ve selected. Select the most recent annual report filing, identified as a 10-K or 10-K405. EdgarScan provides an outline of the report, including the separate financial statements. You can double-click the income statement and balance sheet for the selected company into an Excel spreadsheet for further analysis.

As a group, compare the two statements of cash flows.

b. Compute and compare the free cash flow for each company, assuming additions to property, plant, and equipment replace current capacity.

Gravity. The equation

F = G m 1 m 2 r 2 F=G\frac{m_1m_2}{r^2} F = G r 2 m 1 ​ m 2 ​ ​

is Newton’s law of universal gravitation. G G G is a constant and F F F is the gravitational force between two objects having masses m 1 m_1 m 1 ​ and m 2 m_2 m 2 ​ that are a distance r r r from each other. Use implicit differentiation to find d r d F \frac{dr}{dF} d F d r ​ . Assume that m 1 m_1 m 1 ​ and m 2 m_2 m 2 ​ are constant.

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An Employer’s Guide to Expatriate & Compensation Benefits


When a first-time, or returning, expat is sent internationally to complete an assignment, there are questions that may seem difficult to answer. An employer might be questioned about the competitiveness of what’s on offer, or whether it’s even attractive enough for employees.

Consider, for example, the following: 

When growing companies send staff abroad on international assignments, a level of negotiation is often needed when it comes to agreeing compensation and benefits. It’s important that employees are properly incentivized and rewarded, however such arrangements also must make financial sense for the company.

Read on to find out about best practices and what might be expected when it comes to expatriate benefits and compensation.

Agreeing Expatriate Benefits and Compensation

Usually, when a business decides to expand internationally, it’s useful to expatriate existing employees to ‘set up shop’ or establish a business in a foreign market. This is because these employees will already be familiar with the way the company works, as well as its ethos and goals.

When approaching staff for an international assignment, business leaders need to ensure they properly incentivise the move for the best outcomes. Whilst some employees may look upon expatriation favourably, others may have reservations unless the offer is attractive enough. This is especially so if the employee(s) have dependants and other commitments outside of work, such as schooling considerations or are anxious about housing opportunities.

Employers should consider the following allowances when it comes to international relocation:

In either case, it’s important for employers to understand that the opportunity to move and work abroad is a substantial one for any employee.

To properly incentives and benchmark employee relocation, careful consideration should be given to expatriate benefits and compensation. Business leaders need to offer an appropriate salary, cover the costs of relocation, and include various other employee benefits in an expat package (including any tax complications).

Importantly, any agreements should be made in negotiation between employee and employer.

Finding the Right Expatriate Benefits

While a competitive salary and the cost of relocation should be simple enough to determine, expatriate benefits can be somewhat more complicated to agree on and arrange. This is partially because expatriate benefits will need to be flexible enough to work compliantly and competitively in different locations across the globe. 

Compliance should prioritize which benefits are offered in the first instance. A host country may have different employment laws from the location where a business is headquartered, so benefits will need to carefully negotiate both compliance and employee expectations.

Certain employee benefits may not always work as expatriate benefits. Examples of this include:

This would only be useful if the expatriated employee is confidence enough – and legally able – to drive in their new country. Where this is not the case, access to a personal driver, or public transport passes may be more useful.

In the US, many companies offer access to private healthcare as an employee benefit. In many European countries, however, this is not worthwhile because all residents have access to public healthcare, which is of high quality.

Other expatriate benefits are, on the other hand, considered more desirable. Those include:

Where in the US many states do not require employers to offer staff overtime pay, in other countries this may be expected, or even lawfully compulsory.

If employees are being expatriated to a country where they do not speak the language, offering access to language classes as a benefit can help them to properly integrate into society.

Expectations Among Expat Communities

There are many parts of the world in which expatriated employees are more common, and often communities around expat lifestyles start to develop here. Exposure to these communities could be valuable, as employees become less isolated in their new roles and have local reassurance from a similar type of worker.

But benchmarking benefits and compensation is critical in ensuring that these remain competitive and that employees are satisfied.

Common Places for Expat Assignments

The following is a list of the biggest expat communities across the world, according to International Money Transfer .

When a business expands into one of these areas, it can be beneficial for company representatives to do their homework. It’s advisable to research the types of expatriate benefits that other companies are offering their staff. In addition to relocation costs, any of the following could be common expatriate benefits in these locations:

In addition to finding out which types of expatriate benefits are often seen in the new location; business leaders also need to make sure they are fully compliant with the employment law in that location. When it comes to benefits, there are some which may be legally compulsory – such as overtime pay – and others which may need to be reported to the local tax jurisdiction.

Achieving Compliance

The most reliable way for a business to ensure they achieve compliance with HR and payroll law in a new location is to procure the services of an experienced team. The experts at IRIS FMP have experience in navigating employment legislation all over the world, and we know how to make sure your company operates well within the law.

The two main considerations regarding compliance when it comes to expatriate benefits are:

Offering Lawfully Compliant Benefits

All over the world there are different employee benefits that must be offered by companies operating in certain countries. Getting familiar with employment law in a country where you intend to expand your business is vital but can seem like a daunting undertaking. See our individual in-country guides as a starting point.

Compulsory benefits that may need to be offered, in spite of what is usually offered in the company’s origin country, include:

Reporting Benefits  to the Tax Jurisdiction

Employment law in different countries may also stipulate that some expatriate benefits need to be reported for tax purposes. The reason for this is because employees and/or employers may need to pay tax on these benefits.

Examples of this include in the UK, where the following benefits need to be  reported to HMRC :

And in the US, where the following need to be included on employees’ annual W – 2 Wage and Tax Statement :

Payroll teams in expanding companies need to keep track of all expatriate benefits issued, and determine when and if they should be reported, and to whom.

Offering the right expatriate benefits and compensation to staff on international assignments is an important part of ensuring business expansion is successful. The reason for this is because only with appropriate expat packages will employees feel valued and fully supported. Employees who feel like this will then feel more inclined to deliver their best work, allowing the new company branch to thrive.

For all the advice you need regarding expatriate benefits and compensation , and supporting staff on international assignments, get in touch with IRIS FMP.

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Best Expatriate Assignments Require Much Thought, Even More Planning

Members may download one copy of our sample forms and templates for your personal use within your organization. Please note that all such forms and policies should be reviewed by your legal counsel for compliance with applicable law, and should be modified to suit your organization’s culture, industry, and practices. Neither members nor non-members may reproduce such samples in any other way (e.g., to republish in a book or use for a commercial purpose) without SHRM’s permission. To request permission for specific items, click on the “reuse permissions” button on the page where you find the item.

International assignments are fast becoming key components of leadership and employee development. Still, the statistics surrounding many companies’ expatriate assignment success rates can be dismal.

But they don’t have to be. The success of every expatriate hinges on, to a large extent, the person’s ability to influence individuals, groups and organizations with a different cultural perspective in the host country to achieve the company’s goals. Employers can nurture this “global mind-set” in employees by developing certain personal attributes, according to research conducted by the global relocation firm Worldwide ERC Foundation’s for Workforce Mobility and Thunderbird School of Global Management .

“It takes a special blend of characteristics to add up to an outstanding expat who can be productive and accepted in an unfamiliar setting,” said Cris Collie, CEO of Worldwide ERC, in a press release about the research. “The right combination of characteristics—the global mind-set—is more crucial than ever with the labor pool diminishing around the world and competition for workforce talent at an all-time high. This study provides important insight to companies who wish to hone their selection and assessment processes to ensure a positive return on their investment for global employee assignments.”

Mainstreaming Expatriation

International assignments are hitting the mainstream as an integral part of the business strategy of today’s global businesses. They can represent a significant investment of several hundred thousand dollars per employee. Selecting the right individuals for international postings—those with a higher-than-average likelihood of outstanding performance—will provide a critical competitive advantage for companies that build the competency to identify success potential in their new hires and/or current employees.

Also compelling is the fact that a failed international assignment can cost a company far more than the original investment, plus the potential loss of key management talent and productivity.

“If we recognize that global mind-set is a mix of individual attributes that support consensus-building among colleagues from different cultures, it is clear that the absence of this trait will make it difficult, if not impossible, for an expat to succeed in the international assignment,” wrote Mansour Javidan, professor and director for the Garvin Center for Cultures and Languages of International Management for Thunderbird, in the report Global Mindset Defined: Expat Success Strategy.

Traditionally, companies have relied on technical, job-related skills as the main criteria for selecting candidates for overseas assignments, but it is becoming apparent that assessing global mind-set is equally, if not more, important.

Worldwide ERC Foundation-sponsored interviews with senior executives from various industries reveal that in the compressed climate of a short-term assignment, expatriates have little opportunity to learn as they go, so they must be prepared before they arrive. Therefore, it is essential to ensure that the screening process for potential expatriates includes an assessment of their global mind-set.

Building, Banking on Human Capital

The research points to three major global mind-set attributes that successful expatriates possess:

“Intellectual capital translates into understanding the global business and industry—knowing how competition works in the global industry and what it means to the expatriate’s company,” Javidan wrote.

With regard to psychological capital, he noted, “openness to cultural diversity—or having a non-judgmental attitude toward those from other cultures—also was rated very highly,” as was self-confidence, adaptability and willingness to change.

Successful expatriates generate positive energy and excitement among their local stakeholders, are collaborative and connect with stakeholders on a personal level.

Global mind-set awareness will continue to shape the leadership pipeline of today’s business organizations—from hiring profiles to incentive structures. Companies armed with the tools to identify the best candidates for global positions will have a major advantage in this increasingly open workplace, the study concludes.

Theresa Minton-Eversole is manager of SHRM Online’s Staffing Management Focus Area.

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IHRM and Alternative Expatriate Assignments Essay


Global business environment today is changing very fast forcing Multi-National Corporations to aggressively seek new ways of maximizing the utility of expatriate assignments in order to survive. Because of these changes and the nature of business environment in today’s information age has led to the emergence of different alternative expatriate assignments most of which are self – initiated. Thomas et al (2005) argued that these alternatives are based on the nature of the modern international global careers which know no bounds. Recently in the international management literature the dominating research agenda has been the topic of international assignments.

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Because of these changes caused by the dynamism of the business industry, shortages of international managers have continued to grow, thus the increased difficulty for MNCs to meet their objectives (Evans et al, 2002; Scullion, 1994). The changes are the major cause of challenges especially on issues such as dual careers and family disruption. Although women are storming with full force in the international arena as Adler (2002) strongly put it, “Global managers; no longer men alone”, but still shortages of international managers are increasing. This is because, most MNCs have a weakness in their HRM policies in regards attracting and keeping quality employees of international level.

Small and medium enterprise (SME) have been very aggressive in the international arena and some are even competing with the strongest MNCs (Anderson and Boocock, 2002) thus making international expatriates even “hotter” a commodity. Having said this, it can be seen that the concern is mostly about employee turnover and selection issues. Recently, these issues have increased the need for alternative types of international assignments for expatriates. This paper intends to compare and contrast two alternative types of international assignments namely short-term and commuter assignments and critically analyze the challenges faced by the organizations as well as individuals as far as these alternative international assignment types are concerned.

Alternative assignment types

Currently we have all been witnesses to a “jam” as far as global business travelling is concerned. The current recession on the global financial system and the current state of the housing market have worsened the situation as far as international employment and global business travelling are concerned. All these have continued to popularize even more the alternative international assignments because they brought a solution to complicated sstaffing issues in the international environment (Torbiorn, 1997). Although there are many alternative types of assignments such as virtual assignments, international business travel and so forth but here after I will compare and contrast commuter and short-term assignments.


It has been a while now since MNCs started to use of short-term and commuter assignments. As time went on, these two alternatives proved to be more suitable than long-term traditional international assignments thus gaining more popularity. For the past decade there has been debate on international career concerns specifically on family issues. Such alternative types of assignments like short-term and commuter were both seen by families as not only convenient but also suitable. Today, these types of assignments have gained even more popularity because of the expansion of air travel which has lowered the prices thus maximizing their utility.

Basically, both alternative assignments (short term and commuter) enable employees without much disruption to the family to gain experience and cultural exposure as they take up international career jobs. Because of the options now presented by these alternative assignments, families now can maintain their lifestyles without disturbing their social lives. Even special cases like taking care of the sick and the old can be met.

These arrangements to families have received favour because the family gets to take care of their home because their house is occupied as secure all the time during the assignment thus relieving the fears of exposing it to risks. Indeed, it is very risky for the family to sell their home when on assignment. This is because owing to the unexpected changes in the housing market can make purchase or re-purchase very difficult after the completion of the assignment. As the house prices keep on decreasing due the current global financial situation, make it extremely difficult to get house loans thus raises the fear of loosing a home. But with these alternative forms of international assignments the family won’t have to worry about the home as they get to keep it.

Commuter assignments in a nutshell mean that expatriates on international assignments commute on a weekly or bi-weekly basis to and from the new location without taking the family along; this can also be seen on short-term assignments though in this case the duration may be longer, usually not more than twelve months (Tahvanainen et al., 2005). Both short term and commuter assignments are characterized by intra- regional assignments as entrepreneurs are increasingly becoming cognizant of the importance of international employees.

The two alternative assignments are both used as means of organizational development, as they help to transfer knowledge within the Corporation. Remuneration considerations are also similar for Short-term and Commuter assignments which include salary- usually home based, incentives, hardship premiums, accommodation, transport, home visits etc are usually met by the Company.


Duration is the major difference between short term assignments and commuter assignments. Both alternatives are opted for by couples and single professionals because of their flexibility but essentially they take different lengths of time. Commuter assignments require an employee to commute (weekly or fortnightly) to and from the new location while short term assignments might take 3-12 months usually with some consideration to home visits (frequency depends on distance).

Short-term assignments, suits project-based business sectors best (Tahvanainen et al., 2005). The MNCs use these short- term assignments to send employees to foreign regions to for example oversee the execution of a project which usually takes a couple of months. Depending on the distance between the employee’s home and the work station the frequency of having weekends with family on the company’s expense if any might be considered. On the other hand, commuter assignments are more or less a direct means of surveillance over subsidiary operations which may take a couple of days, a week or two.

Career development and training opportunities are some of the benefits of short term assignments as they tend to take a longer duration than commuter assignments thus suit best young unattached expatriates to gain experience. These types of international assignments also ease repatriation problems. On the other hand, commuter assignments have an advantage especially when MNCs want to use expatriate employees in exerting closer control and coordination of international subsidiaries. Commuter assignments are best to those deals which needs to be closed or those managerial trips or networking assignments which may take a couple of days or a week maximum. These assignments provide a new and broader global perspective on modern business operations.

Challenges faced by Organizations

Policy implications.

These alternative assignments, short-term and commuter are also known as ‘flexpatriate’ assignments in the international mobility literature (Forster, 2000). As we may have known that business trips as well as assignments both require frequent flyers. But domestically, the car, train or plane can be a suitable means for such movements. In order for these kinds of assignments to succeed the distance to commute has to be reasonable. This is because trains and planes are frequent victims of delays, and roads are even riskier.

The remuneration of such assignment must be considered because of its importance and sensitivity. It is necessary to observe equity as its importance is paramount especially when designing policies which to MNCs is still a major challenge.

This is because of some imbalances in remunerations and incentives given to some expatriates. For example, those employees who are on a short-term international assignments abroad, the frequency of visiting their family back home is very low compared to those of employees who are based in locations nearer to home. This is inequitable because those employees close to their families can easily be able to arrange for their own visits to their families during weekends (Scullion and Collings, 2006c). These situations results in complex remuneration structures which is a hurdle to most international firms.

Both of these alternative international assignments may increase costs due to the resulting high transfer costs. Employee’s commuting and renting costs when on domestic assignments might have to be covered by the Company. Also disruption, time and location might be compensated which can prove very costly to the Corporation compared to the utility of the assignment. Apart from costs another challenge is that Corporations face the possibility of encountering local government restrictions. Different laws of the foreign regions might cause complex issues which might end up escalating operational costs.

Sometimes employees who are sent on international assignments might require additional administration. This is also one of the challenges as it doesn’t only contribute in the cost increase but also complicate the remuneration structure even more. This, as I have mentioned before is one of the factors that are of great importance in Global HRM as far as policies implications are concerned. As global competition intensifies the greatest international talent management challenge for Multi National Corporations (Scullion and Collings, 2006c) is to find new ways of identifying, attracting and keeping new cohort of international employees (Black et al, 2000; Mayrhofer and Scullion, 2002). The employee turnover is very high considering these are most sought after employees because of the obvious perception that the employees will be the MNCs’ most precious assets

Challenges faced by Individuals

Family disruptions.

The two alternative assignments though flexible and convenient still present some difficulties. In such a mobile lifestyle, financial and human costs are unavoidable. Current research studies show that as frequent as the travelling is the more the individual is prone to stress thus a health advice urging to keep the travelling to a minimum. Current research studies show that families don’t favor the disturbances associated with international assignments (Forster, 2000).

This can mean that only unmarried employees are more suitable than those with family ties, despite the fact that both alternatives advocate family harmony so as to attract and enable dual-career couples with children who still attend school to maintain the harmony of the home.

Although the two alternatives advocate convenience to couples but still causes stresses and create family problems. Specifically to those employees on short –term assignments this family separation might contribute to low performance. But commuter assignments have a different effect altogether. Most expatriates on these types of assignments tend to suffer jetlag more than the stress caused by being far from family. The traditional international assignments were a bit tough on the family as compared to these current alternatives though. This is why MNCs have managed to maximize the utility of international assignments using commuter and short-term assignments.

Culture adjustments

Both short-term and commuter international assignments give some kind of international life style coupled with some cultural exposure, but it might be argued that the assignees undertaking them do not truly become culturally conversant, as they are not long enough in-country, or that they do not attempt to build a social life, as they return home at weekends. But all in all they all must orient themselves so as to understand the global business environment. Also get a chance to develop the required skills for excellent effectiveness in different cultures which is a herculean challenge.

Because both alternative assignments involve foreign regions some complex tax issues may arise. This could be the greatest challenge to individual expatriates as sometimes a surprise might hit on their income due to some unknown foreign tax laws. Alien tax laws and resulting complications in the global tax system have now and then been a blow to financials of international expatriates and as I have said before regular cultural adjustments are thus required so as to be able to blend in and minimize whatever cultural risks that might jeopardize the assignments success.

Other challenges encountered by individuals are peculiarities of the foreign environment. Most employees from Africa working in Europe or vice versa will definitely find it hard to cope and/ or to blend and feel un-alien. It is even more challenging because there is no support whatsoever from the Corporations to provide these employees with the necessary cultural training so that they can work effectively. In their empirical works Cascio (2006) and Oddou and Mendenhall (2000) observed that some expatriates complained of the low level of support provided by the HQ.

Indeed the literature on International Human resource Management (IHRM) has largely focus on analyses of traditional expatriate international assignments. But in the recent past a cohort of researchers exploring the benefits of the alternative international assignments emerged. This is the result of the associated challenges with such international assignments which have managed to attract the attention of these academics.

Multi National Companies in their quest to minimize costs, staff turnovers and cope with international travel slowdown opt to the use of alternative types of international assignments. These include short-term assignments which usually take not more than a year to complete. Then there are commuter assignments which like international business travel require frequent travelling. Lastly there are virtual assignments which are mostly handled electronically (see Dowling and Welch, 2004).

As I have afore mentioned, the literature suggests the emergence of alternative different types of international assignment within the MNC as compared to the traditional assignments (Roberts et al, 1998). Considering the two alternative assignments, commuter and short-term, which are considerably similar in terms of time saving, family impacts, and a host of other characteristics, there is still a need for Multi National Corporations to develop effective international HRM policies and practices to strengthen the implementation of their global strategies.

Also, arising from the operations of expatriates on international assignments particularly short term and commuter, one can see the similarities in the advantages of using the two alternatives like solution to family disruptions and cost effective especially to employees and expensive to the firm as rent and other costs are covered by the MNCs, also allowances are usually a part of the remuneration package.

The two alternatives differ as well on their durations for example and of course they are suitable to use in different kinds of operations. This paper also analyses some of the major challenges faced by MNCs and individuals on assignments which include family and the employees’ work/life balance, human and financial risks due to frequency of travel and complex tax implications on income, culture policy implications and stress and burnout for some short-term international assignees (Brewster et al, 2001).

Lastly the paper critically analyzed the challenges presented to individuals in regards to the two alternative international assignments. As mentioned above the manner in which these challenges arise are very complex thus causing a lot of problems to international expatriates. The risk factor is very high because both assignments require frequent movements involving such long distances. Sometimes employees are required to travel into war zones and unstable political situations. The companies that operate in Gaza and Iraq today send employees to manage and/or oversee their interests. The nature of the international business environment as I have afore mentioned creates financial risks. For an international employee working abroad may be surprised when receiving allowances which are usually home based and realize the tax bill was more than affordable.

Adler, N. (2002) Global Managers: no longer men alone. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 13: 743-60.

Anderson, V and Boocock, G. (2002) Small Firms and Internationalization: Learning to Manageand Managing to Learn. Human Resource Management Journal 12: 5-24.

Black, J.S., Morrison, A. & Gregersen, H.B. (2000) Global Explorers: The Next Generation of Leaders , London: Routledge.

Brewster, C, Harris, H., and Petrovic, J. (2001) Globally mobile employees: managing the mix. Journal of Professional Human Resource Management , 25 : 11-15.

Cascio, W.F. (2006) Global Performance Management Systems in G.K. Stahl and I. Björkman (eds) Handbook of research in international human resource management, Cheltenham, UK, Edward Elgar.

Dowling, P. and Welch, D. (2004). International Human Resource Management : Managing People in a Global Context , 4th ed., London: Thomson Learning.

Evans, P., Pucik, V. and Barsoux, J.L. (2002) The Global Challenge: Frameworks for international human resource management, Boston, MA, McGraw-Hill.

Forster, N. (2000) The myth of the International manager. International Journal of Human Resource Management , 11: 126-142.

Mayrhofer, W and Scullion, H. (2002) Female expatriates in international business: empirical evidence from the German clothing industry. International Journal of Human Resource Management , 13: pp. 815-836.

Roberts, K., Kossek, E.and Ozeki, C. (1998) Managing the Global Workforce: Challenges and Strategies, Academy of Management Executive, 12 (4) : 93-106.

Scullion, H. (1994) Staffing Policies and Strategic Control in British Multinational. International Studies of Management and Organization 4 (3): 18-35.

Scullion, H. and Collings, D.G. (2006c) Alternative forms of international assignments in H. Scullion and D.G. Collings (eds) Global Staffing, London, Routledge.

Tahvanainen, M., Welch, D. and Worm, V. (2005) Implications of short-term International assignments. European Management Journal, 23, 663-73.

Torbiorn, I. (1997) Staffing for international operations. Human Resource Management Journal, 7: 3: 42-51.

Welch, D, Worm, V and Fenwick, M (2003) Are virtual assignments feasible? Management International Review, 43, 95-114.

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5 Tips for Managing Successful Overseas Assignments

most expatriate assignments are of which type

Stay in constant touch and have a plan for their return.

Sending talented employees overseas can be a promising way to leverage the benefits of a global economy. But expatriate assignments can be extremely expensive: up to three times the cost of a person’s typical annual salary, according to some statistics. And despite the investment, many organizations lack the know-how for optimizing the potential benefits, leaving them disappointed with the results. The unfortunate reality is that even companies providing well-crafted relocation packages (including the all-important cultural training) may not have the talent management mechanisms in place to truly leverage the valuable skills expatriate employees gain during their assignments.

We spoke with seven different executives and consultants with deep experience managing the expat process, asking what they’ve learned over the years about how to maximize the value of these critical assignments. We discovered five tips for increasing the return on investment of your overseas assignments.

Have a compelling purpose — and the right person.

Before you send anyone abroad, it’s critical to make a business case for the assignment, just like you would for any other important investment or decision. There should be a clear organizational need and a compelling reason that this need can’t be met through a local hire. Everyone we spoke with also emphasized the importance of selecting the right people, for the right reasons. This involves three things: choosing a person who is open-minded and committed enough to adapt to the local culture, thinking about the specific skills that this person will develop as a result of the assignment, and identifying how these new skills will ultimately benefit the organization.

In some companies, for example, international experience is a requirement for moving into leadership positions. In others, there may be a particular need at an overseas office that only a person with a specific skill set can meet. If you can’t think of meaningful ways that the assignment will help both the person and the business move forward, you should probably rethink the assignment.

Assign top-notch home and host sponsors.

As assignees delve into their new roles overseas and companies plug the holes left behind by absent employees, it’s easy for companies to lose touch with people they send abroad. Just as with remote or virtual employees, expats find that keeping up with their email isn’t necessarily the same as having their finger on the pulse of the office, which can be a constant reminder of how different and faraway their former life really is. To prevent your worker from feeling adrift, provide sponsors to oversee the assignee’s experience on both ends — one at the home base and another at the destination. These individuals are the point people and mentors for ensuring the fit from the company perspective, the fit from the assignee’s perspective, and for comanaging the process throughout. In short, they are the people that the assignee can turn to whenever problems emerge.

The most successful sponsors are typically people who have been abroad themselves and are empathetic and understanding about the experience — not only with regard to what an assignment entails and what can be gained but also with how challenging it can be to go overseas and return. They should also have enough experience in the organization that they can help mentor the assignee on how to maneuver around potential obstacles and make the most of the assignment.

Stay in frequent contact throughout the assignment.

If there was one tip that everyone we spoke with agreed on, it was the critical importance of open, frequent communication throughout the assignment. While the assignee needs to be proactive in reaching out to his or her home sponsor, the home sponsor should keep soon-to-be-returning employees top of mind, identifying how the company can leverage what they are learning and how the employee can take the next steps in their own development at the company as a result of their overseas experience. This communication should follow a highly structured process. For example, one company we spoke with builds in monthly check-ins. The assignee can update the host, home sponsors, and other relevant stakeholders not only on how the assignment is proceeding but also on any important knowledge they have acquired that may be of immediate use to the organization, such as information about how a marketing campaign could be more effective in the assignment country.

Make a plan for reintegration.

Communication should also include a conversation six months before the end of the assignment to discuss the reintegration process. This is a time for the employee to outline the top skills, qualifications, and insights achieved during the assignment and express how he or she would like to incorporate them at the home office (or in some cases on the next assignment). In exchange, the sponsors should elaborate on how they envision the employee leveraging the experience, being frank about what kinds of opportunities might be in the pipeline.There may not be an ideal position for them back in the firm that leverages their talent and fits the needs of the company. But, according to our experts, that’s precisely the reason for the constant communication throughout and toward the end of the assignment. Anticipate these contingencies so that both the organization and the employee have realistic expectations and a plan moving forward.

Once next steps have been established, build in time when the employee comes home to reintegrate. They will still likely need transition time to relearn the old corporate culture and process their experience. This may be as little as a few days or even a week or more. While the timeline may vary, it’s critical to build in a structured transition process with a mixture of check-ins and downtime so reacclimation is a seamless reentry rather than a crash landing.

Develop ways to share knowledge from the assignee’s experience.

Finally, for companies to get the most out of expat assignments, the organization must be proactive in helping employees catalog and disseminate what they have learned. There are a number of ways to go about this. One organization we spoke to asks assignees to blog about their experiences — both during and after the assignment. These posts are shared via internal social media and commented on by others throughout the company. Others make use of metadata on employee profiles to highlight the skills acquired during the assignment; this not only enhances returning expats’ credibility but also enables anyone else in the organization to find them when searching for their specific expertise. Companies can also host special sessions or brown bag lunches on managing global work and intercultural communication, including returning expats alongside outside guest speakers and panel discussions.

However it’s done, the key is to find ways for people to share what they’ve experienced and learned so they can process the experience, reinforce the importance of these global assignments within the organization, and, most importantly, transfer the valuable knowledge they’ve acquired back into the company.

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Expatriate Assignment definition

Examples of expatriate assignment in a sentence.

In addition, Executive shall cooperate with the Company following any termination of Executive’s employment for any reason in satisfaction of the Company’s and Executive’s relative tax obligations hereunder and under the Company’s Expatriate Assignment Policy.

In the event the Executive’s principal place of employment is relocated (whether outside of the United States, from a location outside of the United States back to the United States, or otherwise), the Executive will, in accordance with the Expatriate Assignment Policy, receive a payment in the amount of $20,000, along with such other relocation benefits provided under the Company’s relocation policy.

CASCases asserting anti-doping rule violations may be heard directly at CAS, with no requirement for a prior hearing, with the consent of the Athlete, IDO, WADA, and any other Anti-Doping Organization that would have had a right to appeal a first instance hearing decision to CAS.[Comment to Article 8.3: Where all the parties identified in this Article are satisfied that their interests will be adequately protected in a single hearing, there is no need to incur the extra expense of twohearings.

Grants of Awards and payments of Awards made to expatriate Employees will be, pursuant to the Company’s Expatriate Assignment Policy, tax normalized based on typical income taxes and social security taxes in the expatriate Employee’s home country relevant to the expatriate Employee’s domestic circumstances.

This letter of understanding and the enclosed International Temporary Expatriate Assignment Policy (“IA Policy”) contain important information concerning your international secondment (the “Assignment”) from Skype Inc.

April 2008 PRIVATE & CONFIDENTIALAjaypal BangaChief Executive OfficerCitigroupNew YorkUSADear Mr. Banga:Global Expatriate Assignment — Letter of UnderstandingOn behalf of Global Mobility, I am pleased to confirm the terms and conditions relating to your expatriate assignment to Asia Pacific Region including Japan in Hong Kong.

This Agreement supercedes all prior agreements and understandings (including verbal agreements) between Executive and the Company and/or its affiliates regarding the terms and conditions of Executive's employment with the Company and/or its affiliates, including, without limitation, the Expatriate Assignment Agreement, dated November 28, 1998, by and between LucasVarity plc and Executive and the Noncompete and Confidentiality Agreement, dated August 11, 1997, between LucasVarity plc and Executive.

In addition, the Company will continue to provide you a housing and education allowance thru June 30, 2009 pursuant to the terms of your Expatriate Assignment Letter between us dated September 23, 2005 (the “ Expatriate Assignment Letter”) as detailed in Exhibit “B” attached hereto.

Kim, K., and Slocum Jr, J.W. (2008), Individual Differences and Expatriate Assignment Effectiveness: The Case of US-Based Korean Expatriates, Journal of World Business, 43(1), pp.

Expatriate Assignment Extension AgreementAs disclosed in more detail in the Compensation Discussion and Analysis in the subsection entitled ‘‘Savings, Retention and Other Plans and Arrangements,’’ in April 2014 the Compensation Committee approved a new agreement forMr. Hughes regarding certain terms in connection with the extension of his expatriate assignment as the CEO of JLL’s Asia Pacific business segment.

Related to Expatriate Assignment

prospective assignment means an assignment that is intended to be made in the future, upon the occurrence of a stated event, whether or not the occurrence of the event is certain;

Lease Assignment has the meaning set forth in Section 3.6(d).

Insurance Assignment means the valid and effective first legal assignment of the Insurances (together with the notice thereof), to be executed by the Borrower in respect of the Vessel in favour of the Trustee and the Commercial Loan Trustee, such assignment and notice to be in the form and on the terms and conditions required by the Agent, the Hermes Agent and the Commercial Loan Agent and agreed on the signing of the Original Loan Agreement and as specified in paragraph 47 of Schedule 4;

Charterparty Assignment means, in relation to a Ship, an assignment of the rights of the Borrower who is the owner of that Ship under the Charter relative thereto executed or to be executed by that Borrower in favour of the Security Trustee in the Agreed Form;

Mortgage Assignment means an assignment of the Mortgage in recordable form, sufficient under the laws of the jurisdiction wherein the related Mortgaged Property is located to reflect the sale of the Mortgage.

Collateral Assignment means, with respect to any Contracts, the original instrument of collateral assignment of such Contracts by the Company, as Seller, to the Collateral Agent, substantially in the form included in Exhibit A hereto.

Loan Assignment has the meaning set forth in the Purchase and Sale Agreement.

First Assignment means: the relevant Assignment; or if, prior to the relevant Assignment: the Agency Worker has worked in any assignment in the same role with the relevant Hirer as the role in which the Agency Worker works in the relevant Assignment; and the relevant Qualifying Period commenced in any such assignment, that assignment (an assignment being (for the purpose of this defined term) a period of time during which the Agency Worker is supplied by one or more Temporary Work Agencies to the relevant Hirer to work temporarily for and under the supervision and direction of the relevant Hirer);

Lease Assignments means the assignments of real property leases and subleases by and between a member of the Nuance Group, as assignor, and a member of the SpinCo Group, as assignee, in each case as set forth on Schedule XII under the caption “Lease Assignments.”

Contract Assignment means, with respect to the Mortgaged Property, the Assignment of Contracts, Licenses, Permits, Agreements, Warranties and Approvals, dated as of the Closing Date and executed by the Borrower.

Collateral Assignments means, collectively, the Assignment of the Development Agreement, and the Assignment of Management Agreement, the Assignment of the Right to Receive Tax Credits, Capital Contributions and Partnership Interests, each in form and substance satisfactory to the Significant Bondholder and the Financial Monitor and as each may be amended or supplemented from time to time with the prior written consent of the Significant Bondholder.

IP Assignment a collateral assignment or security agreement pursuant to which an Obligor grants a Lien on its Intellectual Property to Agent, as security for its Obligations. IRS: the United States Internal Revenue Service.

Collateral Assignment Agreement has the meaning set forth in Section 10.05.

Assignment / job means the work to be performed by the Consultant pursuant to the Contract.

Lender Assignment Agreement means a Lender Assignment Agreement substantially in the form of Exhibit D hereto.

General Assignment means, in respect of each Vessel, the deed of assignment of its earnings, insurances and requisition compensation executed or to be executed by the relevant Owner in favour of the Security Trustee in such form as the Agent and the Majority Lenders may require in their sole discretion and in the plural means both of them;

term assignment means, in relation to an employee, i. a term assignment within the meaning of the local collective agreement, or ii. where no such definition exists, a term assignment will be defined as twelve (12) days of continuous employment in one assignment

Long Term Supply Assignment means, in relation to an employee,

Assignment of Contracts shall have the meaning assigned thereto in Section 6.1(b)(iv).

Permitted Loan Purchase Assignment and Acceptance means an assignment and acceptance entered into by a Lender as an Assignor and Holdings, the Borrower or any of the Subsidiaries as an Assignee, as accepted by the Administrative Agent (if required by Section 9.04) in the form of Exhibit G or such other form as shall be approved by the Administrative Agent and the Borrower (such approval not to be unreasonably withheld or delayed).

Assignment and Conveyance An assignment and conveyance of the Mortgage Loans purchased on a Closing Date in the form annexed hereto as Exhibit 4.

Assignment Date means the Anniversary Date or such earlier date as shall be acceptable to the Company, the relevant Assignors, the relevant Assignees and the Administrative Agent.

Assignment Details Form means written confirmation of the assignment details to be given to the Agency Worker upon acceptance of the Assignment;

Patent Assignment each patent collateral assignment agreement pursuant to which an Obligor assigns to Agent, for the benefit of Secured Parties, such Obligor’s interests in its patents, as security for the Obligations.

IP Assignment Agreement means the Intellectual Property Assignment agreement set forth as Exhibit D hereto.

Intellectual Property Assignment Agreement has the meaning set forth in Section 7.2(c)(viii).


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    In most short-term assignments, expatriates are unaccompanied by family and receive less company benefits to support the relocation. [6] Extended assignments are extended short term assignments that last up to one year. MNCs have traditionally sent employees on t raditional longterm assignments. [3]

  6. Types of Expatriate Assignment

    Home Commuters Living in one country during the week, and travelling home for the weekends is another popular form of expatriate assignments. A home commuting arrangement allows companies to send talent where the business needs it most, on a short-term basis, without relocating an entire family.

  7. The Best Types of Expat Assignments for your Mobility Program

    There are many preparations and arrangements that go into sending your workers abroad, which is why it is important that you understand the advantages and disadvantages of the most common types of expatriate assignments: long-term, short-term, and typical business travel.

  8. Bx3152 Flashcards

    B) HCN: Host Country National. C) TCN: Third Country National. D) None of the above. B) culture shock. 2. New behaviors and customs can cause expatriates to become psychologically disoriented. They are experiencing. A)Laurent's first step to true IHRM. B) culture shock.

  9. Most expatriate assignments are of which type? technical

    Most expatriate assignments are of which type? technical developmental strategic functional Business Management Human Resource Management Answer & Explanation Solved by verified expert All tutors are evaluated by Course Hero as an expert in their subject area. Answered by Griffins_ken Most expatriate assignments are technical.

  10. Alternative International Assignments Survey

    In the last decade, the diversification of international moves and the segmentation of assignment types have accelerated. The 2020/2021 edition of the Alternative International Assignments (AIA) Survey continues our research into the use of international assignments other than long-term expatriate assignments: short-term assignments, permanent moves / one-way transfers, and commuter assignments.

  11. Solutions by Assignment Type

    Long-term assignments. Enhance your long-term assignment strategies with the most accurate international relocation data available, featuring insights on expatriate allowances, local housing data, expat tax rates, and other essentials for managing a globally mobile workforce. Learn more . Short-term assignments

  12. IBUS ch 5 Flashcards

    1. trends in expatriate assignment (Perspective of the expatriate) in recent years, shorter assignments, more junior level employee assignments, and employees from emerging markets being sent to developed countries 2. the young, the old, and the restless (Perspective of the expatriate)

  13. Most expatriate assignments are of which type? A. technical B

    Most expatriate assignments are of which type? A. technical B. developmental C. strategic D. functional Business Management Human Resource Management Answer & Explanation Solved by verified expert All tutors are evaluated by Course Hero as an expert in their subject area. Rated Helpful Answered by Griffins_ken

  14. The Right Way to Manage Expats

    They end expatriate assignments with a deliberate repatriation process. Most executives who oversee expat employees view their return home as a nonissue. The truth is, repatriation is a time of ...

  15. An Employer's Guide to Expatriate & Compensation Benefits

    Common Places for Expat Assignments. The following is a list of the biggest expat communities across the world, according to International Money ... It's advisable to research the types of expatriate benefits that other companies are offering their staff. In addition to relocation costs, any of the following could be common expatriate ...

  16. Best Expatriate Assignments Require Much Thought, Even More Planning

    International assignments are fast becoming key components of leadership and employee development. Still, the statistics surrounding many companies' expatriate assignment success rates can be...

  17. IHRM and Alternative Expatriate Assignments Essay

    Specifically to those employees on short -term assignments this family separation might contribute to low performance. But commuter assignments have a different effect altogether. Most expatriates on these types of assignments tend to suffer jetlag more than the stress caused by being far from family.

  18. 5 Tips for Managing Successful Overseas Assignments

    But expatriate assignments can be extremely expensive: up to three times the cost of a person's typical annual salary, according to some statistics. And despite the investment, many...

  19. Expatriate Assignment Definition

    Related to Expatriate Assignment. prospective assignment means an assignment that is intended to be made in the future, upon the occurrence of a stated event, whether or not the occurrence of the event is certain;. Lease Assignment has the meaning set forth in Section 3.6(d).. Insurance Assignment means the valid and effective first legal assignment of the Insurances (together with the notice ...