5+ Best Research Paper About Online Learning

Research papers are an important part of any academic life. They are required for many courses and have become an integral part of the research process.

Here are some of the Research Papers Written about Online Learning or distance learning.

Online Learning Research Paper Example 1

Online learning research paper example 2, online learning research paper example 3, online learning research paper example 4, example of research paper for online learning 5.

Research Title:  Negative Impacts From the Shift to Online Learning During the COVID-19 Crisis: Evidence from a Statewide Community College System Paper Type:  Research Paper Major:  Education and Information Technologies Writer/Author:  Kelli A. Bird, Benjamin L. Castleman, Gabrielle Lohner Year:  January 2022 University:  University of Virginia, University of California Research Paper Link: https://www.edworkingpapers.com/sites/default/files/ai20-299.pdf

Example of Research Paper For Online Learning 6

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Background of the Study

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The rise in the use of the internet has led to many changes in our daily life. In particular, this rise has also led to the rise of online gaming. Online gaming can refer to any type of game that someone can play through the internet or over a computer network. Most of the time, online gaming refers to the video games played over the internet, where multiple players are in different locations around the world. In most cases, online games are freeware programs that can be used for an unlimited time and are available for free. Most percentage of web games available nowadays is written in Flash, Shockwave and Java languages. Because of that, they feature more primitive game play than downloadable games.

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This study explored the effects of online games to socialization among children. Specifically, it aimed to determine the: 1) profile of the respondents in terms of age, motivation and preferred online game; 2) level of socialization of the respondents in terms of family, school and neighbors; and 3) significant effect of online game to the level of socialization among the children. This descriptive research used purposive sampling, descriptive and inferential statistics. The result shows that most of the respondents belong to ages 7-8 and 11 – 12, majority of the respondents are rated very good in motivation to play online games, mostly prefer to play NBA than DOTA2. The respondents are also rated very good in socialization with parents, good with teachers and fair with neighbors. Moreover, the higher the respondents engage in playing computer, there is a corresponding decrease in their level of socialization. This points to significant effect in the socialization level. Computer games are played outside of home, implying the outside to be more attractive. This connects to higher challenge for parents to reach out more to their children. Moreover, parents have to establish partnership with school PTA and through their teacher. In like manner teachers have to regularly reach out also to their parents to strengthen the partnership.

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Acknowledgement First and foremost, the researchers would like to thank the Almighty Father for giving us the strength and guidance to finish this research paper. Second gratitude goes to our dear adviser, Prof. Imelda Benitez who has contributed her knowledge towards our understanding that have guided us throughout this research. We would like to thank our beloved parents for their love and support. Lastly, the researchers would like to thank everyone who have helped them to finish this research paper because without them this research would not be completed.

Francis Jesoro

Marielle San Pedro

This study entitled, “Online Gaming: Influence on the Social Behavior and Psychological Well-being”, discusses on the effects caused by the practice of online gaming to the students’ social and psychological behavior. It will center on the relationship of gaming engagement to the interpersonal social behavior of gamers and the influence it has to psychological well-being. The main purpose of this research is to determine how online gaming influences the social behavior and psychological well-being of students by measuring their perceived gaming engagement, social behavior and psychological well-being. In order to test the hypothesis, 230 grade 12 ENGTECH and ACCESS students from Baliuag University participated in this study. Descriptive-correlational design was used in this study with the help of SPSS statistics. To test the significance of input and output variables, Pearson r Correlation analysis and Independent Sample T-test were used. Based on the findings, online gaming has a positive relationship with social behavior. Online games can also be an avenue of socially interacting with other people. It was also found that playing online games can help improve one’s psychological well-being if done moderately.

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Online Learning Research Proposal

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Sample Research Paper Chapter 1

Sample Research Paper Chapter 1

1.0 Introduction In daily living transactions are important in every business to earn money and to increase profit on every sales. Businesses are reliable source of income for every business owners and a way to give good products and services to customers. In traditional way businesses uses manual system for their transactions in this case system occur a lot of problems. Like slow transactions, improper storage of data, data loss, unmonitored stocks and billing problems. So the proponents decided to develop a Computerized Inventory and P.O.S System to solve problems in businesses and to replace the manual system.

1.1 Background of the Study Point of sale (also called as POS or checkout) is the place where a retail transaction is completed. It is the point at which a customer makes a payment to the merchant in exchange for goods or services. At the point of sale the retailer would calculate the amount owed by the customer and provide options for the customer to make payment. The merchant will also normally issue a receipt for the transaction. The POS in various retail industries uses customized hardware and software as per their requirements. Retailers may utilize weighting scales, scanners, electronic and manual cash registers. EFTPOS terminals, touch screens and any other wide variety of hardware and software available for use with POS. For example, a grocery or candy store uses a scale at the point of sale, while bars and restaurants uses software to customize the item or service sold when a customer has a special meal or drink request. The modern point of sale is many times called as the Point of Service because it is not just a point of sale but also a point of return or customer order. Additionally it includes advance features to cater to different functionality, such as inventory management, CRM, financials, warehousing, etc., all built into the POS software. Prior to the modern POS, all of these functions were done independently and required the manual re-keying of information, which can lead to entry errors.

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Inventory System A computerized sales and inventory system would not only keep records of the sales that are made, but also keep track of current inventory based on those sales. Even further, the computerized sales and inventory system may also be set up to purchase goods or inventory as directed and based on the parameters set by the programmer or user on an automated basis. Careful consideration would be needed to make sure that the system is ordering the correct quantities based on the trends. Some systems can even evaluate trends and purchase based off of them.


1.2 Statement of the Problem 1.2.1 General Problem

How to create a computerized inventory with P.O.S system for Blaze O’ Grill? How to improve the current business system to make sure that it organizes records, creates data reports, and speeds up and monitors transactions for the company to increase their profit and minimize the possibility of business failure?

1.2.2 Specific Problems How to create a module that can monitor perishable goods and the number of stocks? The perishable goods are not easily monitored, which nearest to perish. The number of stocks of raw materials are not easily determined if it reaches the critical level, because the stockman relies on his records in his record book. Too many number of items in the list in his record book, it’s hard for the stockman to compare them all and determine which one is the nearest time to perish and the order of stock’s perish time. How to create a module that prevents the company from ordering too much number of stocks? The company cannot easily determine what to order, when to order, and the number of quantity to order. Sometimes the company accidentally orders number of stocks from the supplier greater than the number of stocks they need. This scenario may lead to waste of money. How to create a module that validates the items received from the supplier? Sometimes the received items are not the items ordered by the company or the quantity received is less than the quantity ordered. How to create a module that gives good communication to the waiter and the chef in preparing orders? The communication between the waiter and the kitchen crew is vulnerable to misunderstanding. Because while the chef is too busy in preparing food, kitchen crew loses focus in listen to what waiter is saying of list of orders. Sometimes there are instances like the waiter or the chef forgets one or more of the orders, or the kitchen crew didn’t hear or understand some of the orders that the waiter told to the kitchen crew. How to create a module that handles transactions and receipt efficiently? In the customer’s payment, sometimes the waiter makes a mistake in giving the bill, like accidentally switched the customer’s bill with other’s bill. Cashier’s computation is vulnerable to mathematical errors because of mistakes in input data, because the casher uses only calculator and notepad. For instance, the cashier may make mistake in using calculator that may lead to wrong payment or change. Each transaction is manually written to transactions record book and they have no receipt given to the customers. How to create a module that can compute and view the profit? The accountant’s computation is not that accurate, because sometimes the accountant relies only on expenses receipts, and transactions records. The computation is vulnerable to mathematical errors because of mistakes in input data.

1.3 Objectives of the Study 1.3.2 General Objective To create a computerized sales and inventory system for Blaze O’ Grill. To improve the current business system to make sure that it organizes records, creates data reports, and speeds up and monitors transactions for the company to increase their profit and minimize the possibility of business failure.

1.3.3 Specific Objectives To create a module that can monitor perishable goods and the number of stocks. Real – time monitor the perishable stocks’ number of stocks and date of expiration, because the proposed computerized system automatically notifies the user if one or more of the stocks are about to expire or are about to become out of stock. To create a module that prevents the company from ordering too much number of stocks. In creating purchase order using the proposed computerized system, the system prevents and notifies the user from ordering number of stocks that will exceed the maximum number of stocks. To create a module that validates the items received from the supplier. Automatically compares each item’s details received to the order list created. The proposed computerized system will prevent the user from receiving items that is not ordered by the company. Notifies the user if one or more of the items received quantity is less than the quantity ordered, the computerized system has the ability to create a backorder. To create a module that gives good communication to the waiter and the chef in preparing orders. Make the communication between the waiter and the kitchen crew much easier and decrease vulnerability of misunderstanding and forgetting of orders, because the computerized system can create and print a customer’s order list with the table number. So the waiter doesn’t have to talk to the kitchen crew, the waiter just have to give the printed order list to the kitchen crew. To create a module that handles transactions and receipt efficiently. Secure the customer’s payment and prevent from making a mistake in the wrong payment or change to the customer. The proposed computerized system will create an official receipt for the customer. To create a module that can compute and view the profit. In Profit and Loss Analysis using the proposed computerized system, the computerized system will automatically compute the total sales and purchase expenses within specific dates determined by the user. The user just has to enter other operation expenses, and the computerized system will compute the profit and can create, save and print a Profit and Loss Analysis Report.

1.4 Significance of the Study This study can provide large benefits to the company for its daily business transactions and business knowledge to the proponents.

1.4.1 Owner Using the proposed computerized system, the owner will be satisfied in the improvement of the owner’s business.

1.4.2 Company This Computerized Inventory and P.O.S System will make managing inventory and point of sales simpler and faster. This can satisfy the specific company requirements and needs.

1.4.3 Benefits of the Company The Manual System will be replaced with a computerized system developed by the students of software engineering. Transactions will become faster that may cause to increase sales. Saving and retrieving records will become simpler and faster. The inventory is easier to monitor, this will help the company to decrease probability to loss of profit.

1.5 Scope and Limitation Even though the system will be useful in providing a good solution to the problems of the company, there are limitations. For example, it cannot solve user errors, and there will be at time when this system cannot satisfy the needs of the company because of major changes.

1.5.1 Scope User Authentication The administrator can access the Point Of Sale and Inventory module. The salesperson can only access the Point of Sale module and the Stock Manager or Stockman can only access the Inventory Module. Check Inventory Status The proponents made a module that notifies the user if one or more of the items in the inventory are nearly expires, already expired, in critical number of stocks, and out of stock. Inventory Status Reports The proponents made a module that can create a report to determine the status level of the inventory. This Inventory Status Report that will be sending by the Stockman to the Company’s Manager. Purchase Order The proponents created a module that can create a purchase order with auto generated Purchase Order Number that prevents the user to order quantity of items that will lead to exceed the maximum number of stocks. This records the date when ordered and received so these records can be retrieve to view the history of purchases. Receive Inventory The proponents created a module that receives the item/s ordered in the Purchase Order. This module compares the purchase order number of the items received to the purchase order created, if the quantity of items received is either less than or equal the quantity ordered. The System will automatically reject the items and inform the user what is wrong. Update the inventory with the list of items under a certain PO number. Then, update the purchase order records of what and how many items received. Back Order In receiving inventory, if one or more of the items received is less than the quantity ordered. The proposed computerized system will notify and ask the user if the user wants to create a backorder. Point Of Sales The proponents created a module that can handle transactions and receipts efficiently. This module can handle computational work and accept the payment of the customer. Sales Reports The proponents made a module that can create a report to see or determine the sales of the computerized restaurant system within specified dates by the user. Profit and Loss Analysis The proponents made a module that can compute and create Profit and Loss Analysis within specified dates by the user. This module automatically computes total sales and total purchase expenses. The other expenses entered by the user will be used to compute the total profit and create a Profit and Loss Analysis Report. Maintenance The proponents made a module that can add, edit and delete records in different records like user accounts, menu items, menu items categories, and inventory and suppliers’ records.

1.5.2 Limitation Ability to Accept Credit Card Payments The proponents have no module that can accept the credit card payments. Ability to Accept Online Payments The proponents have no module that can accept the online payments. Taxes The proponents have no module that can compute taxes.

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Research Methods

Chapter 1: introduction.

Whether you are studying communication, sociology, literature, history, psychology, music, biology, or any other major, that academic field relies on standardized practices to produce scholarly knowledge.  Scholarship  can be in the form of highly controlled laboratory research, observation of human activities in daily life, surveys, interviews, critical analyses of public documents or visual images, and creative work like music, videography, performance, or playwriting. Each field of scholarship is based on thousands, if not millions, of research studies or creative projects conducted by students and faculty. Sociologists know what they know about societies because of research. Biologists know what they know about the biological function of organisms because of research. Artists know what they know about drawing human forms because of previous artists' work. Communication Studies scholars know what they know about how people construct meaning through interactions because of research and creative projects. The overall purpose of this book is to help you understand  how  knowledge is constructed in Communication Studies. We hope to provide an appreciation of, and critical lens for examining, research and enable you to begin constructing your own contributions to the body of scholarly knowledge.

In this chapter, we first describe how developing a command of research methods can assist you in your careers and personal lives. Second, we provide a brief definition of our topic of study in this book – communication research. Third we identify the predominant research and creative methods used in the field of Communication Studies. Fourth, we explain the academic roots of the diverse methods used in communication studies: the humanities and social sciences. Fifth, we explain the implicit and explicit relationships between theory and research methods. Sixth, we describe how the choice of research methods influences the results of a study. Sixth, we provide a preview of the remainder of the book, and finally, seventh, we describe our approach to writing this book.

How Will Research Methods Help in My Life?

If you want to learn practical skills relevant to your professional, personal and community life, learn research methods. Given that daily life is full of decision-making opportunities and challenges, knowing how to effectively do research is essential. Ideally, any decision you make is based on research, and rigorous methods enable you to conduct better research and make better decisions. People who know how to ethically use research methods quickly become leaders in their workplaces and communities. Research also can inform creative expression. If you understand why things work the way they do, you can make more thoughtful, creative choices.

Consider how you make choices in everyday life such as the following:

Or, how you address more complex questions such as whether dishonesty is ever warranted, or if there is a God?

Brainstorm all the ways in which you think you know something for one or more of the examples listed above.

If you are like previous students in this course, you may have responded: "read," "observe," "intuit," "faith," "advice," "physical senses," "test it out," "compare," "Google it" and more.

What does this activity reveal about how you come to know something?

We hope the activity above reveals you already are a researcher, and use some informal research methods every day of your life. You likely use more than one way to know something. Multiple methods construct knowledge. And being educated includes questioning the results of each method. For example, if you use  Google  or  Wikipedia  to find information, how do you know the source is reliable? What clues should you look for?

Research methods will help you be a better ....

For more specific ideas about how a command of research methods can broaden your life options, see the examples of practical research at  Communication Currents: Knowledge for Communicating Well . It is a reader-friendly magazine where communication scholars discuss research about current social problems ( The National Communication Association - Communication Currents ). Also check out the National Communication Association website  http://www.natcom.org/  for careers in communication.

The Topic of Study: Communication Research

You may have noticed we, the authors, use the singular form of the term communication to refer to the academic field of study on a wide variety of message types, rather than the plural form: communications. The distinction is a quick way to tell who understands communication is one specific field of study and who does not, so you will want to use the proper, singular form when referring to the field of study. Communications – plural is used only when referring to multiple media sources, as in "the communications news media" (Korn, Morreale, & Boileau, 2000).

The forms communication can take are nearly endless. They include, but are not limited to: language, nonverbal communication, one-on-one interpersonal communication, organizational communication, film, oral interpretations of prose or poetry, theatre, public speeches, public events, political campaigns, public relations campaigns, news media, Internet, social media, photography, television, social movements, performance in everyday life, journalistic writing, and more. Yet, the theme that runs through almost all Communication Studies research is that communication is more than a means to transmit information. Although it is used to transmit information and get things done, more importantly, communication is the means through which people make meaning and come to understand each other and the world.

Because of this, communication scholars tend to operate with the assumption that reality is a social construction, constructed through human beings' use of communication, both verbal and visual (Gergen, 1994). Thus, when communication scholars conduct research, they ask questions not only about how to make communication more precise and/or effective, but they also ask questions about how communication is being used in a particular context to shape individuals' and groups' world views.

Research, as a form of communication, contributes to the social construction of knowledge. Knowledge does not come out of a vacuum that is free of cultural values. Instead, research results, or what society calls knowledge, is influenced by the values, beliefs, methods choices, and interpretations of those in a given culture doing the research. Knowledge and one's reality are constructed through an interactive, interpretive process. Although scholars from a more traditional natural science view might argue there are absolute truths and set realities, in the study of human interaction, there are few universal truths about communication and what is seen as knowledge changes across cultures and over time. Unique cultural contexts, social roles, and inequities create a wide spectrum of behaviors ( Kim ,  http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/weber/ ). That is what makes miscommunication common and why research in our field is so much in demand. It is highly practical and relevant work.

 Research  refers to the systematic study of a topic and can include social science and creative work. Research, quite simply, refers to people's intellectual work of gathering, organizing, and analyzing data, which enables them to create meaning they can then present to others. Research is conducted to answer questions or solve problems in a systematic way. Being  systematic  means that the steps of the study are guided by principles and theory, rather than just chaotic wandering; the data used is representative and not just anecdotal or random. Being systematic in a way that can be replicated is usually emphasized more in natural and social science research, such as organizational and interpersonal communication research, than the humanities and fine arts, such as rhetorical studies and performance studies, but, rhetoric scholars and artists also rely on methods and theoretical training to guide their work.

Communication Studies research has several unique characteristics:

Whether one is doing Creative, qualitative, rhetorical or quantitative work, the methods share the above characteristics, as they are inherent in the very communication process being studied.

The term  method  refers to the processes that govern scholarly and creative work. Methods provide a framework for collecting, organizing, analyzing and presenting data. Scholars use a range of methods in Communication Studies: quantitative, qualitative, critical/rhetorical, and creative. This text focuses on the first three, but the authors note connections to creative work when relevant.

Quantitative Studies  reduce data into measurable numerical units (quantities). An example would be a survey administered to determine the number of times first-year college students use social networking sites and for what purposes. Such a survey could provide general statistics on frequency and purpose of use. But, such a study also could be set up to determine if first and fourth year college students use social networks differently, or if students with smart phones spend more time on Facebook than students who rely on computers to check Facebook.

Qualitative Studies  use more natural observations and interviews as data. An example would be a study about a workplace organization's leadership and communication patterns. A researcher could interview all the members of the business, and then also observe the members in action in their place of work. The researcher would then analyze the data to see if themes emerge, and if the interview and observational data results are similar. The researcher might then propose changes to the organization to enhance communication and performance for the organization.

Critical/Rhetorical Studies  focus on texts as sources for data. The term  texts  is used loosely here to refer to any communication artifact --films, speeches, historical monuments, news stories, letters, tattoos, photos, etc. Here, the data collected is the text, and it is used by the researcher to support an argument about how the text participates in the construction of people's understanding of the world. An example would be an analysis of a presidential inaugural address to understand how the speech writers and speaker are attempting to reunite the nation after a hotly contested election and invest the new president with the powers of the office.

Creative Scholarship  in the field of Communication Studies refers most often to work done in performance studies, film making, and computer digital imagery, such as Dreamweaver and Photoshop (e.g. Camp Multimedia Begins Two-Week Run ).  Performance Studies  is a wide umbrella term used to refer to several methods and products of scholarship. It is distinct from theater in that it is the study of performances in everyday life. It involves students in script writing, acting, and directing productions based upon oral history and ethnographic qualitative research, as well as personal experience and creative performance techniques used to tell a story more evocatively.  Film Making  can also include interviews, oral histories, and ethnographies, as well as learning aesthetic methods to effectively present verbal and visual images. Our colleague Karen Mitchell has used qualitative methods of interviewing and ethnography to script performances on topics from the lives of undocumented immigrants in the U.S. to romance novel readers (1996).

Communication Studies Bridges the Humanities and Social Sciences

How is it that Communication Studies as an academic field came to embrace so many different methods, given most other disciplines tend to use only one, or maybe two? The answer lies in the history of the field.

Communication Studies is different from other academic fields because it is rooted in one of the oldest areas of scholarship (rhetoric is one of the original four liberal arts) and in several of the newest areas of scholarship (such as electronic media and intercultural communication). The study of rhetoric dates back to 350 B.C.E, the time of Aristotle and the formation of democratic governance in Greece. The study of intercultural communication dates back to the 1940s and emerged out of the commerce and political needs in the U.S. after World War II (Leeds-Hurwitz, 1990). The study of the Internet took shape in the 1990s as it became a popular medium for communication (Campbell, Martin & Fabos, 2010). Because the discipline of Communication Studies includes research on all forms of communication, the method of study needs to fit as the form of communication. However, just because new forms emerge (like social media), old forms (like public speaking) do not disappear. Thus, as students, future practitioners and scholars, we need to employ a wide range of scholarly approaches. (for more about the history of the field see:  Communication Scholarship and the Humanities ) .

The diverse origins of Communication Studies mean its scholars use a range of methods from the humanities (e.g., rhetorical criticism and performance) and the social sciences (e.g., quantitative and qualitative research). Both focus on the study of society, but the humanities embrace a more holistic approach to knowledge and creativity. The  humanities  are those fields of study that focus on analytic and interpretive studies of human stories, ideas and words (rather than numbers), and include philosophy, English, religion, modern and classical languages, and Communication Studies. When Communication Studies scholars analyze how communicative acts (like speeches or photographs or letters) create social meaning, they do so from a perspective that emphasizes interpretation.

The social sciences use research methods borrowed from previously established and recognized fields of natural science study, such as biology and chemistry.  Scientific methods  of knowledge construction are accomplished through controlled observation and measurement or laboratory experiments, and generally use statistics to form conclusions (Kim, 2007). The  social sciences  apply scientific methods to study human behavior, for example scholars use surveys to find out about people's communication patterns or create laboratory experiments to observe interruption patterns in conversation. In addition to Communication Studies, examples of other social science fields include economics, geography, psychology, sociology, and political science.

Studying human communication from the perspective of the social sciences differs in important ways from studying human communication from the perspective of the humanities. Social scientists typically are interested in studying shared everyday life experiences, such as turn-taking norms in conversation, how people build relationships through self-disclosure, and what behaviors contribute to a successful group, family or organizational culture. Social science researchers attempt to find generalizations about human behaviors based on extensive research that may be used to make predictions about that behavior. Take, for instance, research on communication in heterosexual married couples. Based on over twenty years of research, psychologist John Gottman found in 1994 he could predict with 94% accuracy which marriages will fail based on patterns of only five negative conflict behaviors among couples who ended in divorce(for updates on his work visit his website ( Research FAQs ). (Of course exceptions exist to generalizations, but for a social scientist, the exception to the rule may be ignored as an insignificant outliers, a random error.

Instead of seeking out generalizations about communication, scholars in the humanities tend to focus on the outliers, or what are considered distinctive human creations, such as Abraham Lincoln's "Gettysburg Address," Elizabeth Cady Stanton's "Solitude of Self," Shakespeare's  Romeo and Juliet , Lorraine Hansberry's  Raisin in the Sun , Beethoven's Fifth Symphony, or Ani diFranco's "Dilate." Humanities scholars tend to focus on understanding  how  something happened or how someone attempted to evoke meanings and aesthetic reactions in the receivers of a message, rather than describing what occurred and predicting what will occur.

As an example of how diverse methods have been used to research a topic, consider how researchers who want to try to reduce intimate partner violence have approached the problem drawing on methods from across fields of study.

Quantitative researchers administered the National Survey on Violence Against Women and found 1.5 million women are physically or sexually assaulted by their domestic partners annually in the U.S. (Tjaden & Thoennes, 2000). The survey identified the difficult reality about the enormous extent of the problem. Qualitative researcher, Loren Olson (2010), wrote an autoethnography of her personal experience as a battered woman. By doing so she put a face on the problem and demonstrated a way in which she was able to reconstruct her identity after the abuse.

Performance studies scholar M. Heather Carver and ethnographic folklorist Elaine Lawless (2009) conducted a qualitative study with women who are surviving intimate violence and generated a creative performance script from their observations. The theatrical performance developed with creative methods literally help to give voice to the experiences of the women in the qualitative study, raises awareness about the problem, and may motivate audience members to address the problem in their personal or community lives.

Researchers also have critically analyzed the way domestic violence is communicated in various media. For example, Cathy Ferrand Bullock (2008) studied media framing in domestic violence news stories in Utah newspapers and rhetoric scholar Nathan Stormer (2003) studied the play,  A Jury of Her Peers , to explore how collective memory is formed about acts of domestic violence. These samples of research into the complex social problem of domestic violence demonstrate how both humanities and social science approaches to scholarship are needed and valued. Because the social sciences and humanities provide different contributions to the construction of knowledge, together they create a fuller picture of a social problem or issue of study.

Given its multi-methodological research, Communication Studies is uniquely positioned to contribute to both of the two most prominent approaches to knowledge construction: humanistic and social scientific approaches. This is why, as the authors of this book, we believe Communication Studies provides a well-rounded education to prepare students to respond to the challenges and opportunities of the culturally, technologically, and economically complex 21st century.

The Interdependence of Theory and Research Methods

Whether you approach a topic of study from a humanistic or social science perspective, you will necessarily work with two-components: theory (explanations that guide or evolve from a study) and methods (application of tools to analyze texts or data). Even though the two serve distinct research functions, there is great interdependence between theory and method. Theory informs methods, and methods enable theory construction and revision.

At its essence, a  theory  is simply a person's attempt to explain or understand something. Individuals use theories to help make sense of their world and everyday lives. An academic theory is different from everyday theories only in the degree of rigor and research used to develop it and the depth of explanation it provides. Academic theories are more formal, with detailed explanations of the parts that make up the theory, and are usually tested (West & Turner, 2010). But as with theories for everyday life, they are subject to change and refinement. DeFrancisco and Palczewski (2007) emphasize, "A theory is not an absolute truth, but an argument to see, order, and explain the world in a particular way" (p. 27). For any topic of study, multiple theories could explain it, and research can be used to determine which theory offers the best explanation. Communication theories tend to focus on helping explain how and why people interact as they do in interpersonal relationships, small groups, organizations, cultures, nations, publics, and mediated contexts. Theories can help people understand their own and others' communication.

When you make decisions in daily life, you probably use an informal theory. You might collect some data (or try and recall what information you have), you might discard data that comes from non-credible sources, and then you might assess your options. You will likely make your assessment based on hunches or underlying assumptions you have about what makes sense. Those hunches or assumptions are a lay person's theory. They help you make sense of things and inform your decisions.

Activity Consider the following questions to determine if you use theories in your daily life:

If you have ideas on the above topics, you are a theorist.

Now ask yourself: what do your answers to the specific questions consist of?

Likely your answers are a little of each.

A further question to ask yourself is:

Students have developed more than one way to survive on a college student's budget. For one thing, not all college students are living on a tight budget, many will survive through student loans and jobs, others may get allowances from their parents, have spouses or partners who are supporting them, etc. Some will delay gratification of purchases such as cars, I-Pads, smartphones, spring break trips, and more. Others may argue, "You only live once," and use credit cards to charge for their pleasures or life necessities. The point is people develop multiple theories for any topic of interest, and many are useful.

People develop theories through testing, academic debates, and scholarly/creative work. Natural science and social science researchers, in particular, believe that the best research is directed or driven by academic theory. This means the research methods chosen are not random but are firmly based in a credible theoretical approach that has been tested over time.

Theories often guide research. When studying presidential campaigns for example, scholars often use Thomas Burke's theories on how speakers create identification to explore the ways in which candidates create connections with their audience (Burke, 2002).

Sometimes the research will extend or challenge the legitimacy of the theory. For example, intercultural communication scholar, William Gudykunst extended Berger and Calabrese's (1975) assumed universal Uncertainty Reduction Theory (URT) regarding what people do to reduce uncertainty anxiety when communicating with strangers. During 30 years of research, Gudykunst tested URT in cross cultural interactions and developed a new intercultural theory, Anxiety/Uncertainty Management (AUM) with 47 axioms or specific distinctions that help explain the universal and cultural variances he found (2005). Contrary to the original URT, Gudykunst now proclaims cultures vary in terms of comfort with uncertainty and the methods they use to manage it. These cultural differences contribute to unique cultural identities and help explain communication problems with other groups.

In the field of gender studies in communication there are countless examples of research that has disproven the commonly held theoretical assumption that universal gender differences exist between all women and men (e.g. Tannen, 1990; or in the popular press:  Men are from Mars and Women are from Venice  (Gray, 1992). In fact, communication scholars Kathryn Dindia and Dan Canary (2006) published a series of quantitative  meta-analyses  (a statistical way to control for differences across studies to directly compare the results) on just about every presumed communication difference previous researchers have studied. What did they find? While some differences were present, the variances  among  women's behaviors and among men's behaviors were greater than those  between  the sexes, and furthermore, women and men communicate in many more ways that are similar rather than different. Finally, they found that the assumption of two distinct sets of behavior is far too simplistic. It ignores the fact that people have the ability to adjust their behaviors according to situational needs and that gender identity does not affect one's behavior alone. It is also influenced by one's race, ethnic, age, nationality, sexual orientation and more.

A useful way to think of the relationship between theory and scholarly/creative work is that it is synergistic – each influences the other, almost simultaneously. As the illustration below shows, the theories selected direct the types of  research questions  posed to guide a study, the questions dictate the appropriate research methods needed, which then affect the results produced, which in turn contributes to theory building, thus the cycle repeats.

The General Research Process:  Circular and Interdependent

research paper about online learning chapter 1

The diagram is circular rather than hierarchal because the starting point for different types of research will vary. For example, qualitative work begins with research questions with an end goal of producing theory, whereas quantitative work often begins with theory with an end goal of producing results. Rhetorical research and creative scholarship do not typically use research questions but the research process is still synergistic, and decisions made at each part of the cycle influences the others. The parts are interdependent. The circular model also reminds one that the process of theory construction, conducting research, and producing knowledge are never ending.

Knowledge  generally refers to a command of facts, theory and practical information. There is not one agreed upon approach for constructing knowledge as is illustrated in the above discussion of diverse research methods. Indeed, there is an entire field of philosophy,  epistemology , which focuses on debates about how knowledge is attained. Epistemologists ask "how does one know something?" Is knowledge found or created? These are questions we encourage you to ask as you learn about the various research methods. The methods researchers use to construct knowledge are generally called  methodology . The term simply means an approach being used to form knowledge is assumed to have both a theory and a method. Here again the interdependence between theory and method are evident.

Finally, throughout the research process the ability to think critically is essential. To be critical means to examine material in more depth, to peel back layers of meaning, to look beyond chunks of information to the context in which the information is presented, to look for multiple interpretations, to attempt to identify why a piece of information or perspective is important and/or not important. It requires doing a close reading or investigation of the topic of study in a more nuanced, systematic way. It does not mean to always be negative, but rather to question even common assumptions.

Research Methods Influence Results

The research methods one chooses for a study are critical. The methods will largely determine the results or what is called knowledge. The influence of methods choices is more visible when comparing social science and humanities approaches to the construction of knowledge, as will be discussed in chapter 2. The two are designed to answer different types of research questions. Together, they will offer you a wealth of methods choices.

For example, consider the relatively simple task of measuring the floor area of a room. We assigned small groups of students to measure the square footage in a room. Each group was provided different measurement tools. One group used a tape measure 12 feet long, another used a tape measure 40 feet long, another group used their own feet, and another used a metric tape measure. As you can imagine, the groups' results differed every time. Some used feet rather than inches to calculate square feet, some did not measure the same exact places in the room, metric measurements produced different results than the U.S. measuring system, and human feet produced varying results. The point here is not that one method was superior to another or that the groups made errors. The point is that even a slight change in methods can produce significant changes in results (Turman, personal communication, January 27, 2010). (If you would like to see more on metrics versus U.S. units conversion, see for example,  Metric to U.S. units conversion .

If diverse results can be produced when measuring the floor area of a room, imagine how different research methods may influence the study of processes as complex as human communication. Leslie Baxter has studied interpersonal relationship development and maintenance for nearly 20 years. Most of her early research was based on quantitative surveys of romantic partners in an attempt to identify the specific tensions or stresses in their relationship. By using standardized surveys she was able to identify three dominant tensions most couples struggled with: connection/independence, openness/closedness, and predictability/spontaneity. From this she developed what is now a well known theory in the field, Dialectic Tensions Theory. However, more recently she revised her theory based on qualitative studies of relational partners' conversations. Baxter now argues that by examining tensions in actual discourse rather than surveys, she is not only able to identify common tensions, but move beyond identification to see why some relationships successfully negotiate the tensions and why others do not (2011). We offer this example not to argue qualitative methods are superior to quantitative ones, but simply to make the point that the two serve different functions.

As you will learn in the coming chapters, each method used to collect data carries with it a different implied theory about how knowledge should be, or is formed. When researchers use surveys they value the ability to solicit a larger number of people and make generalizations from the responses. When researchers analyze conversations or use interviews, they value the ability to probe individual perspectives in more depth and are less concerned with generalizations. As teachers, scholars and practitioners, the authors of this book believe a command of research methods is central to developing one's unique expertise.

Preview of Chapters

In this book, three general research approaches are included: quantitative social science research methods, qualitative social science research methods, and critical rhetorical research methods. This does not mean these three are the only approaches to knowledge construction used in the field of Communication Studies or that they are necessarily independent or opposite of each other. Communication Studies is a wonderfully diverse field of study. In addition to rhetorical methods, other humanities scholarship include performance studies and film making. Because of the extreme interdisciplinary nature of film-making and performance studies, no one research method or chapter is dedicated to them. Instead we integrate examples throughout the collection, and readers should keep in mind how such work pushes the boundaries of traditional academic fields. Below are summaries/previews of the remaining chapters in this book.

Chapter One Summary : In the present chapter, we overviewed the interdisciplinary nature of the field of Communication Studies and demonstrated how this provides a broader choice of research methods for students and faculty members in the field. We introduced basic concepts necessary to have a foundation for the study of research methods. Even though scholars use diverse research methods in the field, they are built on common premises. One is that knowledge is constructed. The way it is constructed is influenced by the theoretical approaches used and the related research methods chosen. Understanding these fundamental relationships will help students be more informed critical consumers and contributors to the field of Communication Studies, their chosen professions, and society.

Chapter Two: General Comparisons . In chapter two, we offer basic points of comparison for the research methods taught in this book. This comparison should help provide a structure to understand how the diverse methods are distinct from each other before you are introduced to the specifics of conducting research in each method in subsequent chapters. The comparison is based on the two general orientations to knowledge construction introduced in chapter one: humanistic and social scientific.

Chapter Three: Ethical Research, Writing, and Creative Work . In this chapter, we discuss the importance of researcher ethics. This chapter is placed at the front of the book to stress this importance. Regardless of the method chosen, researchers have ethical choices to make in writing honestly, citing other sources, and treating human subjects fairly. Good research is, at its core, based on ethical principles.

Chapter Four: Quantitative Methods . The first research approach presented is quantitative research methods from the social sciences. The rules involved in doing quantitative methods are very clear, with a linear research process. Reading this chapter will teach you how to plan and conduct a quantitative study, and make sense of your findings once you have collected your data.

Chapter Five: Qualitative Methods . Qualitative research methods can be placed in the middle of a continuum of research methods from the scientific to the humanistic. Qualitative methods are usually considered to be a social science approach, but in more recent years researchers have been pushing these boundaries to embrace multiple ways of knowing.

Chapter Six: Critical/Rhetorical Methods . The core assumption of rhetorical criticism is that symbolic action (the use of words, images, stories, and argument) are more than a means to transmit information, but actually construct social reality, or people's understanding of the world. Learning methods of rhetorical criticism enable you to critique the use of symbolic action and understand how it constructs a particular understanding of the world by framing a concept in one way rather than another. The more adept you become at analyzing others' messages, the more skilled you become at constructing your own.

Chapter Seven: Presenting Your Results . This chapter teaches you how to present the results of your study, regardless of the choice made among the three methods. Writing in academics has a basic form and style that you will want to learn not only to report your own research, but also to enhance your skills at reading original research published in academic journals. Beyond the basic academic style of report writing, there are specific, often unwritten assumptions about how quantitative, qualitative, and rhetorical studies should be organized and the information they should contain. In this chapter students will learn about the functions of each part of a report (e.g. introduction, methods and data description, and critical conclusion) and find useful criteria to help guide the writing of each part in a research report.

Approach to Writing this Resource Book

When the faculty in the UNI Department of Communication Studies decided to make research methods a required course for all students majoring in the department (starting Fall, 2010), we searched for a textbook that equitably covered methods used in the humanities  and  social sciences. We could not find one, so we decided to write our own. This resource book is the product of a collaborative effort by faculty in the department. Although five of us wrote and organized the chapters, everyone in the department was invited to contribute ideas and examples.

The result is not a traditional textbook. For one thing, rather than one voice, the authors hope you will hear their distinct voices in each chapter influenced, in part, by the methods chosen and the values these methods reflect. The differing styles should help prepare you for the differing writing styles you will find when you read original research in journals that feature quantitative, qualitative, or critical/rhetorical studies. Consequently, the citation systems we use to document sources differ across chapters. In chapters on social science research (quantitative and qualitative research methods) we use the American Psychological Association (APA) (2010) style, because it is the format of choice for most journals publishing social science research. In the chapters on ethics and rhetorical methods we use the format prescribed by the Modern Language Association (MLA) (2009) because rhetoric is rooted in the Humanities, and rhetorical research often is published in journals that also include scholarship from performance studies, English literature and the fine arts. As one reads the coming chapters, it can be insightful to attempt to identify how the methods and values are reflected in the writing styles.

Another distinction is that because the text is digital, rather than paper, we are able to make the book more interactive, including additional websites and other resources to hopefully help make the methods come alive. Perhaps most importantly for you as a student, using a digital delivery system means far less expense. The digital delivery system also means we have the ability to update material continuously.

Through this book, we hope you will become excited by the possibilities of participating in the construction of knowledge in Communication Studies. We also hope to help demystify the research process and reveal underlying assumptions of each process. Contrary to what some public figures, educators and media sources would have the public believe, most knowledge is not absolute. We invite your critical voice to this learning process.

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DeFrancisco, V. P., & Palczewski, C. H. (2007).  Communicating gender diversity: A critical approach . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

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CHAPTER 1 : Blended Learning

This chapter is an introduction to blended learning: how it is defined, how it emerged, how it is being used and what it has to offer, as well as challenges you may encounter when implementing a blended learning approach in your teaching practice.

The Growth of Blended Learning

This guidebook presents new ways of thinking about teaching and learning to help you better prepare your students to learn and develop into 21st-century global citizens.

According to the U.S. Department of Education (Means, Toyama, Murphy, Bakia, & Jones, 2009), a blend of classroom and web-based teaching and learning offers access to the widest range of learning modes and methods for developing student skills and expertise as learners (Cleveland-Innes, 2017). Many findings on blended learning show an increase in learners’ ability to learn collaboratively, think creatively, study independently and tailor their own learning experiences to meet their individual needs.

This guidebook also provides information about some of the technology tools you can use to support in-person delivery in a seamless, truly blended way. Through careful, thoughtful blending and with consideration for technological skill levels and Internet access, learning for anyone can now take place with greater flexibility and convenience.

Innovative educators have for many years been creating new delivery methods in education by combining elements of in-person teaching with technology-enabled learning to bring people together virtually. Since the late 1990s, when simple learning management systems began to emerge, blended learning has grown very quickly. There are now many possible combinations and permutations, but it took time for this to occur.

While computers became part of everyday life for most in the early 2000s, education was slower to integrate computer technology. When it did, technology use was often limited to supplementing the usual teach-by-telling approach. As computers and the Internet demonstrated opportunities  for connecting people in multiple locations as well as for more interaction, more visuals and greater access to information, innovation increased but in fragmented, uneven ways.

Soon, Internet connectivity and browser development allowed broader and more user-friendly resources for anyone wanting to learn. Web-based learning replaced CD-ROM materials. “Rather than having to distribute CD-ROMs to learners, organizations could simply upload material, e Learning assessments, and assignments via the web, and learners could access them with a click of a mouse button” (Pappas, 2015b).

Today, computers, tablets and smartphones are available to the majority of the world’s population, and technology-enabled learning has become more varied and accessible. More and more institutions and teachers are adding web-based learning to their delivery methods, and learners have access to many applications to support their learning. The mantra “anytime, anywhere” has been taken up to describe the new wave of education. However, this notion is being challenged by education practitioners and researchers, who know that learning competence is not universal, student skills are very different from skills needed to participate in social media, and access to broadband Internet is not evenly distributed.

Teachers are still a key part of blended learning — teachers who have subject-matter expertise and basic technology skills, along with the new pedagogies that go with technology, such as constructivism and collaboration. Blended learning expertise provides  both.

What is Blended Learning?

The simplest definition of the term blended learning is the use of traditional classroom teaching methods together with the use of online learning for the same students studying the same content in the same course. It is a “thoughtful fusion of face-to-face and online learning experiences” (Garrison & Vaughan, 2008). There are also blended programmes , in which students study some courses in face-to-face classrooms and other courses are delivered fully online.

In other words, blended learning is a term applied to the practice of providing instruction and learning experiences through some combination of both face-to-face and technology-mediated learning. During the technology-mediated components of these learning experiences, students are not required to be physically together in one place but may be connected digitally through online communities. For example, one blended learning course could involve students attending a class taught by a teacher in a traditional classroom setting while also completing online components of the course independently, outside of the classroom, on an online learning platform.

Classroom instruction time may be replaced or augmented by online learning experiences, and online learning can include varying degrees of interaction or just time alone in independent study and learning activities. However, in a quality blended learning experience, the content and activities of both in-person and online learning are integrated with one another and work toward the same learning outcomes with the same content. The various learning experiences are synthesised, complement each other, and are planned or orchestrated to run in parallel.

Blended learning is sometimes called hybrid or mixed-mode learning . These systems of instructional design use many types of teaching and learning experiences and vary in design and implementation across teachers, programmes and schools. The potential variations of mixed-mode learning are virtually endless; a good way to get a sense of the range of possibilities is to consider some examples:

Blended learning can be divided into three main models.

The first model, blended presentation and interaction, has classroom engagement as its primary component, with support from out-of-class, online exercises. The flipped classroom or flipped curriculum approach is a common example of this model, with students viewing podcasts or other online resources independently, followed by classroom-based tutorials or seminars for group learning based upon these resources.

The second is the blended block model (sometimes called a programme flow model), in which a sequence of activities, or “blocks,” is structured to incorporate both face-to-face learning and online study, usually with consideration for both pedagogical goals and practical constraints. For example, a course for geographically distributed learners or working professionals may have limited opportunities for classroom-based learning and therefore begin with a block of intensive face-to-face sessions, followed by blocks of online study and collaboration through online tutorials, possibly followed by a further block of face-to-face learning or group presentations.

The third model is fully online but may still be considered blended if it incorporates both synchronous learning (for example, online tutorials) and asynchronous activities (for example, discussion forums). Thus, blended learning covers one or more of the following three situations:

Table 1.1 Three models of blended learning.

Source: Hannon & Macken (2014)

Blended Learning Uses

As we saw above regarding the blended block model, there are often practical considerations leading us to choose blended learning. In addition, many policy makers and post secondary leaders believe that replacing some components of a learning programme with online or distance education is a cost-effective way to deliver post secondary education.

Our focus in this guidebook is on professional development and the effective introduction of blended learning to improve instructional practice and learner outcomes, not solely to introduce a blended learning resource. While some efficiencies might be created through online delivery, there is increasing evidence about its effectiveness in delivering instruction.

Two recent studies provide different views of whether online education will increase student learning and success. Nevertheless, over the past several years, perceptions of online learning have been shifting in its favor as more learners and educators see it as a viable alternative to some forms of face-to-face learning. Drawing from best practices in both online and face-to-face methods, blended learning is on the rise at colleges and universities as the number of digital learning platforms and ways to leverage them for educational purposes continues to grow.

The opportunities for learning or the affordances blended learning offers are now well understood, and both educators and students find its flexibility, ease Opportunity for collaboration at a distance: Individual students work together virtually in an intellectual endeavor as a learning practice of access, and integration of sophisticated multimedia and technologies highly appealing. The current focus of this trend has shifted to understanding how applications of digital modes of teaching are impacting students. Findings are showing increases in learner creativity, independence and self-direction.

Benefits of Blended Learning

The advantages of blended learning for students include increased learning skills, greater access to information, improved satisfaction and learning outcomes, and opportunities both to learn with others and to teach others. Recent research identifies the following key benefits of blended learning:

Making Blended Learning Work

Technology integration in itself is not necessarily blended learning. If online learning is only a minor component of a classroom-based course, without offering students the independence, convenience and interaction opportunities of being online, it may not really be a blended learning system but simply a case of technology integration.

Creating an effective blended learning environment means making appropriate choices and overcoming the challenges that come with the use of technology. The following challenges and recommendations were identified in recent research on teacher perspectives, conducted by Athabasca University and the Commonwealth of Learning (Cleveland-Innes, Ostashewski, Mishra, Gauvreau, & Richardson, 2017):

Later chapters will provide further guidance on using technology to create your blended learning environment.

This first chapter has introduced blended learning as an important and rapidly developing form of education, with an emphasis on the benefits it offers to both educators and students, including greater flexibility and convenience, as well as potential increases in learner creativity and independence.

Blended learning can be defined as the combination of face-to-face classroom instruction with online learning within a course or programme — a definition broad enough to include a wide range of variations appropriate to the individual needs and contexts of a school or course.

One key concept is that blended learning is not merely the addition of some technological element to an existing course but rather is an integrated plan utilizing the best of what both face-to-face and online learning have to offer. The blended presentation and interaction model, the blended block model and the fully online model provide initial frameworks for the deliberate structuring of blended learning to improve learning outcomes.

The next chapter will expand on this idea by considering additional models and frameworks for developing effective blended learning, including the Community of Inquiry framework and a systems-based  approach.

A Blended Learning Programme for Teachers

A blended learning programme including the following components was designed to provide teachers in a rural area with the knowledge required to implement technology-enabled learning, as shown by the following blended block model.

Pre-workshop preparation: A questionnaire was sent to participants before the online phase, asking them to describe their role in the educational system and their particular skills. The questionnaire helped facilitators adjust activities to the participants’ backgrounds.

Online workshop (core component): The workshop included individual study with online lessons and activities supported by facilitators. Both synchronous and asynchronous communication were used for online discussions and group work. The main outcome of the online component was an individual activity plan to help participants reflect on their teaching situation and to serve as a resource for the later face-to-face activities.

Bridge period: During this period between the two core components of the course, online support was provided to participants as they prepared for the face-to-face component.

Face-to-face workshop (core component): The face-to-face workshop consisted of classroom activities where participants presented and discussed their activity plans, practiced teaching principles and techniques, and further developed their activity plans.

Online resources: After completion of the course, additional online resources were available to help teachers transfer their new knowledge to their individual teaching settings.

(Adapted from Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [2011],p.19.)


Resources for Further Reading

The following examples are in-practice blends of technology-enabled learning with in person teaching:

Bowman, J.D. (2017). Facilitating a class Twitter chat. Edutopia . Retrieved from https://www.edutopia.org/article/facilitating-class-twitter-chat

    All steps you need to prepare for and use Twitter as a way to engage students in learning activity discussions.

Wolpert-Gawron, H. (2017). Extending classroom management online. Edutopia . Retrieved from  https://www.edutopia.org/article/extending-classroom-management-online

    A case example of management strategies when you are using a blended classroom.

Guide to Blended Learning by Commonwealth of Learning is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

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Published: 03/08/2023


Chapter 1: Introduction

Education is one of the most appreciated element in life and most often than not, people struggle to put in their best to ensure that they achieve the best from education. Parents strive to take their children to school so that they get a quality education and even input a lot of resources such as finances and time so that their children can have the best education can offer. Teachers are also trained in different institutions that enhance their qualification so that they produce skilled individuals who can teach students professionally and help build their future through the subjects they teach them. This research will examine the importance of going to school and how it relates to learners’ academic performance. 1.1 Problem of the statement The school is believed to be a factory that manufactures men out of boys and women out of girls. It acts as sharpening sword that creates a new product out of an existing one. The school is a learning institution that brings people from different backgrounds and merges them to form a unit of learners who are ready to accommodate each other, share ideas and knowledge throughout the learning period. This is what school is made up of. It is one fundamental institution in life that makes education be considered nowadays as a rite of passage; people have grown to embrace and value education for what it brings (National Centre for Education Statistics, 2009). In the contemporary world, there are schools in different levels; there are pre-school, middle and tertiary levels public or privately owned. According to Chang and others, (2012) school helps learners discover themselves regarding their capabilities, skills and talents; they get to build their confidence from school such that they learn to face life challenges head on without fear. Career ambitions are developed as learners get to discover what their aspirations in life are and how to channel their efforts towards achieving their career goals. Additionally, the school trains learners to value each other and inculcates the spirit of teamwork in them through different team building activities that they engage in. Gottfried (2011) acknowledges that attending school on a regular basis for learners sometimes comes out of serious commitment and sacrifice. For one to value attending his or her classes without failure, there must be a force pushing for that. The popular belief is usually that bookworms are the ones known to be regular class attendees since their academic performance is much greater to them than anything. However, contrary to popular beliefs, even poor performers find it necessary and encouraging attending classes regularly so as to better their grades. Romero & Lee (2007) argue that most students who don't attend classes most often are forced by circumstances. According to the National Centre for Education Statistics (2009) the distance between school and the place of learning may be a hindrance to attending class, health reasons, suspension or even discontinuation from school may deter learners from attending classes. Nonetheless, some absentees view school as a punishment and would look for any probable reason that would buy their not going to school, some do it intentionally and would pay a dime so as to escape school. Gottfried (2011) further agrees that this greatly affects their performance as they miss a lot while they are away from school. Nobody would consider them when exam time comes and evaluation is done on a free and fairground irrespective of your class attendance status. A lot of research has been conducted to examine the relationship between class attendance and academic performance and this research will dig deep in these key areas and unravel the gaps between these two variables.

Chapter 2: Literature review

Studies have been conducted in the past about the relationship between school attendance and academic achievement, most having been done for tertiary institutions. It has been noted according to work cited by various researchers that in psychology colleges, classes with a weaker attendance policy tends to register below average performances. Gamble (2004) revealed that students with a higher tendency of attending classes regularly are a full letter higher than their counterparts who are sporadic. Policies should be implemented to control the rates of absenteeism in schools. In another quantitative research conducted in a school environment, the results achieved were mixed. Attendance significantly and positively affected performance in Louisiana in elementary and secondary schools. In this research, attendance was quantified as a percentage of students who went to school regularly. His work was therefore beached on the average school attendance and average performance per student. Other studies on these two variables have established that attendance has a significant effect on academic performance. For instance, Gottfried (2009) concluded that individual performance cannot be gauged from class attendance but the average class attendance. Another research work conducted in Ohio indicated that there was statistically weighty connection between school attendance and academic achievement in 4th to 12th grade. Sheldon (2007), used the same data tested in Ohio and discovered that classes with high rates of daily attendance were positively correlated with students' performance in maths and reading tests. All these studies focused on attendance at a combined level rather than concentrating on students individually. This research will address the gaps existing within the empirical studies. It is to note that studies that have been conducted on education under the K-12 courses have only majored on analysis of attendance and academic performance at an aggregated level. Even though they have given an insight on how class attendance and achievement are related in evaluating the overall academic performance of a learner, the aggregated information used provides limited chances for variability than individual-level data. It is therefore not easy to use amassed data to make conclusions on student's performance (National Centre for Education Statistics, 2009). The data is subject to environmental fallacy upon which inferential statistics were drawn based on a wide metrics of a school. This study will take a different approach in handling the two variables and make inferences from individual and multi-dimensional levels thus providing more detailed information.

Chapter 3: Methodology

This chapter gives details on methodology, data collection methods that will aid the completion of this study, and the data analysis and interpretation part. The research will employ a case study design. The main advantage of case study designs is that it allows the researcher to particularly test theoretical models by relating them to real world situations (Strang, 2015). A case study design allows for an in-depth study of a given situation rather than conducting a sweeping statistical survey. Theories and concepts related to how school attendance affects performance of students are what are going to be tested. It should be noted that the responses of a case study are more realistic than a mere statistical survey. Furthermore, given the nature of study, any other research design is likely to jeopardize the students’ performance. Case studies offer the researcher a great deal of flexibility (Strang, 2015). For instance, in the course of the study, the research can take a different direction given on the findings, response to questions and the development of new ideas not captured in the initial hypotheses. Therefore, the independent variable is going to be a school while the dependent variable is academic performance. 3.1. Target population, sampling procedure My target population will comprise learners and teachers. Seeking information from these two groups will help in understanding the scope of the study as all of them are either directly or indirectly affected by the study topic. Getting a sample from these categories of personalities will ensure adequate gathering of varied information thus giving a better platform for data analysis. 3.2 Sample size The sample size is the number of participants in the research. To attain the desired sample size, the researcher will use Glenn’s formula. The researcher will also include a systematic sampling procedure for determining individual respondents. The process will include selecting the Kth number of students and teachers from each selected stratum from the learning institutions. The criterion will ensure that respondents are chosen from all levels of education right from elementary to college level. This technique will cover all elements in the study hence providing a good ground for comparison. The sample size was calculated as indicated below: p= P/(1+P(e)2)

Where P is the total number of participants 1000

e= the fringe for fault (0.1) The sample size was, therefore,= 1000/(1+1000(0.1)2) ≅97thus having a total of 100 respondents for the research when space is provided for extra respondents 3.3 Research instruments When using a case study design, the data collection process is one of the most significant steps in the entire study. It requires precision, meticulousness and being systematic. In other words, the data collected should be evidence enough to test the hypotheses, theories and concepts about the topic of study. Therefore, the survey method will be employed as the data collection method. In this case, the questionnaire will involve both qualitative and quantitative approaches which include the use of close-ended and open-ended questions. Questionnaires usually help in the collection of valid and correct information. They enable respondents to give detailed information about a given topic of concern. According to Zang (2014), a quantitative research method has questionnaires and structured surveys for customers that are useful in the provision of raw data and statistics that aid in the research. The collection of data through the use of questionnaires involves three procedures that include: designing a questionnaire, issuing the questionnaires, and collecting them from the respondents. This research will utilise the use of questionnaires as they aid in the provision of correct answers that are by their feelings. It is also ideal because of confidentiality reasons. The questionnaires will be distributed to learners who have been chosen to participate in the different learning institutions however the parents and teachers will be interviewed to maximise on the time limit and even be able to get relevant information from them. This research will ensure strictness, the values and ethics of research are taken into consideration. Obscurity and aspects of discretion will be implemented to bring into awareness the respondents of their safety during the contribution to the research. The protection of the respondents will be taken care of and an additional assurance of protection from maltreatments through avoiding disclosing information about them (Thomas, Nelson, & Silverman, 2015). It will also be important to seek their consent before their participation in the research, as this will ensure that they participate willingly and wholeheartedly. No respondent will be subjected to forced participation. 3.4: Data Analysis and Interpretation The objective of the study will be used to analyse and explain the data collected so as to define the relationship between the research variables. The targeted group for this study will involve students or learners from different institutions including their parents and teachers. Before analysis, interpretation of the data, the questionnaires will be tested first for mistakes and oversights to minimise the occurrence of errors. Both inferential and descriptive statistics will be used to analyse the data. Furthermore, the data analysis phase of a case study designed research majorly involves the opinion of the researcher. Descriptive statistics are used to bring the data into a presentable, understandable and manageable form. Specifically, the Microsoft Excel Spreadsheet and SPSS software will be used to compute the data statistically. Once the data has been presented in a manageable and understandable form, the researcher will build a narrative around it to aid the interpretation. At this stage, the researcher uses numerical information and examples to keep the data accurate and concise. Notably, case studies are aimed at provoking reasoned debate rather that particularly dealing with facts the way scientific studies do. It is because, in a case study design, always, there are no wrong or right answers (Thomas, Nelson, & Silverman, 2015).

Chapter 4: Results and Discussions

4.1 Research limitations Obtaining findings from a qualitative research is often difficult since it involves coming across different people with different characters and attitudes. That said, the research may present various challenges that include consolidation of the data from the primary subjects, providing a practical demonstration of findings that are easily understood by the reader and provision of information that is partiality free. The set objectives will guide the research to help in the minimization of bias occurrence and data misinterpretation. Through this strategy, the researcher is sure of collecting only information about the research objectives and this ensures there is no deviation from the study’s aim hence no room for errors.

Chapter 5: Conclusion and recommendations

The art of loving school if inculcated in students by teachers, will help realise a society that is development-oriented besides having learning institutions producing substantial individuals in the society. When students and pupils are guided and taught the importance of going to school attending all classes, they will grow to value education and not consider it as a punishment or an obligation they are performing to please their parents, guardians or teachers. They will learn to uphold education with respect and be self-driven. Such qualities will improve their academic performance in areas where they are weak. It is going to a school where learners get to know their weak areas and can look for assistance from their teachers or fellow colleagues at school who are good in those areas. It is, therefore, necessary to continue implementing policies of minimising absenteeism. While this process should involve all educational stakeholders including parents, the government, NGOs and the society as a whole, the scope of research on the topic as well as the process should be widened to discover new initiatives to ascertain school attendance. 6.0 References Chang, H., et al. (2012). Student Achievement Starts with Attendance. California School Board Association Annual Education Conference, November 29, 2012. Print. Gamble, Z. P. (2004). The effect of student mobility on achievement and gain-score test results (Unpublished doctoral dissertation), University of Tennessee, Memphis, TN. Gottfried, A. M. (2011). The Detrimental Effects of Missing School: Evidence from Urban Siblings. American Journal of Education, Vol. 117(2): 147-182 Gottfried, A. M., (2009). Evaluating the Relationship between Student Attendance and Achievement in Urban Elementary and Middle Schools. American Educational Research Journal, Vol. 47(2): 434-465. Print. National Centre for Education Statistics, (2009). Every School Day Counts: The Forum Guide to Collecting and Using Attendance Data. Retrieved on 25 April, 2016 from www.nces.ed.gov/pubs2009/attendancedata/chpater1a.asp Romero, M. & Lee, Y., (2007). A National Portraits of Chronic Absenteeism in the Early Grades. New York, NY: The National Centre for Children in Poverty. Sheldon, S. (2007). Improving Student Attendance With School, Family, and Community Partnerships. The Journal Of Educational Research, 100(5), 267-275. http://dx.doi.org/10.3200/joer.100.5.267-275 Strang, K. D. (2015). The Palgrave Handbook of Research Design in Business and Management. Palgrave: Macmillan. Thomas, J., Nelson, J. & Silverman, S. (2015). Research Methods in Physical Activity (7th ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Zang, W. (2014).Research of Information Security Quantitative Evaluation Method.AMM, 513-517, 369-372. http://dx.doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/amm.513-517.369

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