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Calculator in Windows 10

The Calculator app for Windows 10 is a touch-friendly version of the desktop calculator in previous versions of Windows.

You can open multiple calculators at the same time in resizable windows on the desktop and switch between Standard, Scientific, Programmer, Date calculation, and Converter modes.

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The calculator can help you  calculate dates , convert currency , and if you're using the Standard mode, you can  keep the calculator window on top of other windows .

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Percentage Increase Calculator

How to calculate percent increase, percent increase formula, calculating percent decrease, closely related topics.

The percentage increase calculator is a useful tool if you need to calculate the increase from one value to another in terms of a percentage of the original amount. Before using this calculator, it may be beneficial for you to understand how to calculate percent increase by using the percent increase formula. The upcoming sections will explain these concepts in further detail.

The concept of percent increase is basically the amount of increase from the original number to the final number in terms of 100 parts of the original. An increase of 5 percent would indicate that, if you split the original value into 100 parts, that value has increased by an additional 5 parts. So if the original value increased by 14 percent, the value would increase by 14 for every 100 units, 28 by every 200 units and so on. To make this even more clear, we will get into an example using the percent increase formula in the next section.

🙋 While the percentage increase calculator is important in mathematics, it is also useful in science, such as calculating the percent increase in mass of a chemical element in a compound.

The percent increase formula is as follows:

Percent increase = [(new value - original value)/original value] × 100

An example using the formula is as follows. Suppose a $1,250 investment increased in value to $1,445 dollars in one year. What is the percent increase of the investment? To answer this, us the following steps:

Working out the problem by hand we get:

The percentage growth calculator is a great tool to check simple problems. It can even be used to solve more complex problems that involve percent increase. You may also find the percentage calculator is also useful in this type of problem.

If you want to know how to calculate percent decrease , we follow a very similar process as percent increase. Notice the slight modification of the formula:

Percent decrease = [(original value - new value)/original value] × 100

Suppose we have the same investment value after one year of $1,445. A year later the value decreased to $1,300. The percent decrease would be calculated as follows:

Although we have just covered how to calculate percent increase and percent decrease, sometimes we just are interested in the change in percent, regardless if it is an increase or a decrease. If that is the case, you can use the percent change calculator or the percentage difference calculator . A situation in which this may be useful would be an opinion poll to see if the percentage of people who favor a particular political candidate differs from 50 percent.

If you want to learn how to express the relative error between the observed and true values in any measurement, check our percent error calculator .

Where is percentage increase useful?

Percentage increase is useful when you want to analyse how a value has changed with time . Although percentage increase is very similar to absolute increase, the former is more useful when comparing multiple data sets. For example, a change from 1 to 51 and from 50 to 100 both have an absolute change of 50, but the percentage increase for the first is 5000%, while for the second it is 100%, so the first change grew a lot more. This is why percentage increase is the most common way of measuring growth .

How do I calculate percentage increase over time?

How do I add a percentage increase to a number?

If you want to increase a number by a certain percentage , follow these steps:

How do I add 5% to a number?

How do I add two percentages?

To add two percentages together follow these steps:

How do I calculate a 10% increase?

How do I make a percentage?

What is a 50% increase?

A 50% increase is where you increase your current value by an additional half . You can find this value by finding half of your current value and adding this onto the value. For example, if you wanted to find what a 50% increase to 80 was, you’d divide by 2 to get 40, and add the two values together to get 120. A 50% increase is different to a 100% increase , which is double the original value.

How do I calculate percentage increase in Excel?

While it's easier to use the Omni Percentage Increase Calculator, here are the steps to calculate discount rate in Excel:

How do I add 20% to a number?

Percentage increase formula.

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How to Calculate Percent Change

Last Updated: January 31, 2023

This article was co-authored by Grace Imson, MA and by wikiHow staff writer, Sophia Latorre . Grace Imson is a math teacher with over 40 years of teaching experience. Grace is currently a math instructor at the City College of San Francisco and was previously in the Math Department at Saint Louis University. She has taught math at the elementary, middle, high school, and college levels. She has an MA in Education, specializing in Administration and Supervision from Saint Louis University. This article has been viewed 658,655 times.

In mathematics, the concept of percent change is used to describe the relationship between an old value and new value. Specifically, the percent change expresses the difference between the old and new values as a percentage of the old value. Use the equation (( V 2 - V 1 ) / V 1 ) × 100 , in which V 1 represents an old or initial value and V 2 represents the new or current value. If the number is positive, it indicates a percent increase and if it’s negative, it indicates a percent decrease. You can also use a modified formula to determine percent decrease rather than working with negative numbers.

Sample Percent Change Calculator

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Using the Standard Equation

Image titled Calculate Percent Change Step 1

Tip: When dealing with variables with more than one change in value, find the percent change only for the two values you wish to compare.

Image titled Calculate Percent Change Step 2

Image titled Calculate Percent Change Step 3

Calculating Percent Decrease in an Alternative Way

Image titled Calculate Percent Change Step 4

Image titled Calculate Percent Change Step 5

Image titled Calculate Percent Change Step 6

Tip: If you use this equation and end up with a negative number, it represents a percent increase.

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About This Article

Grace Imson, MA

To calculate percent change, start by determining both the old and new values for the amount that has changed. Next, subtract the old value from the new value. Then, divide the answer by the old value. Finally, multiply that number by 100 to get the percent change. For example, if the original value of something was 30 and then went up to 50, you would subtract 30 from 50 to get 20. Then, you would divide 20 by 30 and get 0.033. Finally, multiply that by 100 to get a final answer of 33 percent. For tips on how to find the percent change when there are more than two values, read on. Did this summary help you? Yes No

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How to change calculator on Windows 10

Hello! I have a problem to change old calculator to new calculator. I have both of them, but when I press FN+F12 it opens old calculator. How can I change it to new?

Windows 10 A Microsoft operating system that runs on personal computers and tablets. 7,434 questions Sign in to follow

What is the point of keeping both? You may uninstall the old one.

Percent Change Calculator

Percent change calculator uses this formula: ((y2 - y1) / y1)*100 = your percent change. y1 is the original value, and y2 is the value it changed to..

This calculator is intended solely for general information and educational purposes. You should not take any action on the basis of the information provided through this calculator.

How can I calculate a percentage change ?

To calculate a percentage change, you can use this formula: (((y2- y1))/ y1) * 100. So, let's break this down with an example:

Suppose George owns stock in Vandelay Industries. His stock price went from $45 per share, to $47 per share. By what percentage has George's stock inceased ?

So George's stock has increased by 4.44 percent.

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Windows 10 Keyboard Shortcut to Calculator?

On all my Windows PCs I do a 'Shortcut key' for calculator to open with Ctrl + Shift + C :

Windows 10 Calculator Properties, Shortcut tab

I can't figure out how to do it on Windows 10. There are no right-click properties.

Windows 10 Calculator right-click

6 Answers 6

enter image description here

If I placed the shortcut in %WinDir%\System or Documents it seemingly wouldn't work!? It was flakey even moving back to Desktop, but after I set the shortcut to something else, hit Apply, then back to Ctrl+Shift+C it'd work :P

To set up a Win+1 keyboard shortcut:

Andrew Currie's user avatar

Using AutoHotkey script allows to use "Win" key for shortcut, e.g for Win+C:

user1414213562's user avatar

I didn't want to do any programming or pollute my desktop. What I did was find where my personal app links were stored when I installed them. I'll use Firefox as an example.

Maybe a couple extra steps, but it ( Ctrl - Alt - K ) works!

Worthwelle's user avatar

With Windows 10 you can just simply pull the calculator icon from the Windows menu to your desktop, right click it and then select properties. The window that opens should allow you to add a hotkey.

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How to Use the Windows 10 Calculator

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Brady Gavin has been immersed in technology for 15 years and has written over 150 detailed tutorials and explainers. He's covered everything from Windows 10 registry hacks to Chrome browser tips. Brady has a diploma in Computer Science from Camosun College in Victoria, BC.   Read more...

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The built-in Windows calculator has come a long way since first being introduced with Windows 1.0 in 1985. It includes different modes, date calculations, and some handy everyday conversions functions. Here’s how you can get the most out of the often overlooked calculator app.

Switching Between Calculator Modes

As you’ll see below, the Calculator does a lot more than add, subtract, multiply, and divide. You can choose from four modes, depending on your needs.

To switch between modes, click the menu button at the top left and then select a mode from the options below.

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Here’s what those different modes do.

Standard Mode

The Standard mode is useful for basic math operations like adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing, as well as for finding square roots, calculating percentages, and working with fractions. This is probably the mode that most people will feel comfortable with most of the time.

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Scientific Mode

Scientific mode expands on the Standard mode, giving you the additional functions you’d find on a typical scientific calculator. In addition to the Standard mode operators, it contains functions like log, modulo, exponent, trigonometric degrees, and SIN, COS, and TAN.

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Programmer Mode

This mode is designed for programmers. It adds the ability to switch between different number systems—binary, decimal, hexadecimal, and octal. It also adds new operations for working with logic gates—Or, And, Xor, and Not —and bit shifting—Lsh, Rsh, RoR, and RoL.

to change calculator

Also, Programmer mode lets you switch between Byte (8 bits), Word (16 bits), DWord (32 bits), and QWord (64 bits) and has an option for binary bit toggling.

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Date Calculation Mode

The Date Calculation mode is a handy little tool that lets you calculate the difference between two specific dates. This is perfect for figuring out things like how many days old you are or how many days it is until your next vacation.

All you have to do is select the start and end date, and the calculator will determine the months, weeks, and days between the two.

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RELATED: How to Perform Date Calculations in Windows Calculator

Converting Measurements

Ever come across a recipe and it calls for milliliters when you want fluid ounces or been shopping online, and all the prices are in Euros? Well, the calculator has you covered for those and quite a few more everyday conversions you might encounter. Some other conversions include temperature, speed (mph to km/h, knots, or Mach), weight and mass, and data storage, to name just a few.

Click the menu button and select a type of conversion from the list in the “Converter” section.

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Click the first measurement—this will be the input—and select a unit from the list provided.

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Click the second measurement—this will be the output—and select a unit there as well.

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Now, enter your measurement, and the calculator will convert it for you. It also shows a few other related conversions along the bottom.

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Storing Numbers in Memory

If you use certain numbers a lot and don’t want to plug them into your calculator every single time, storing them into the calculator’s memory helps a lot. It’s a super useful function that’s available on the Standard, Scientific, and Programmer modes. You’ll control the memory functions using the MS, MR, M+, M-, and MC buttons.

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Here’s how they work:

Using the MR, M+, and M- buttons work much the same way they do on a physical calculator, working with the last number you stored to memory. However, you also have access to any other numbers you’ve stored to memory during your current session. To see them, click the M button with the down arrow to the far right. You can then click any number in your memory to insert it.

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If you’d rather have your memory queue always open, resize your window horizontally and it should pop open when it has enough space to show it all.

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Calculator History

If you need to take a look at all the calculations you’ve made in your current session, they’re stored conveniently inside the calculator’s history. Calculator keeps the history stored even when you switch modes, but it is erased when you close the Calculator app.

Accessing the History

There are two ways you can access the history inside the app. The first is to click the history button located in the top right corner. This shows you the list of recent calculations. Clicking on anything in the history will load it back into the calculator’s input box.

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If you want to keep the history open, resize the Calculator window horizontally and it should pop up when the window is big enough.

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Deleting the History

You can delete individual entries from your history or delete the entire history at once.

To delete an individual entry, right-click it and then click the “Delete” command. To delete the entire history, click the little trashcan icon at the bottom right of the pane.

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Keyboard Shortcuts

The Calculator app has keyboard shortcuts integrated into it to make things a bit easier for those of us that like to use hotkeys to get around the desktop. To start with, if you have a number pad on your keyboard, make sure NumLock is turned on and then you can use the pad to perform calculations.

Also, there are some other shortcuts you can use. You can find a full list of these shortcuts on the Microsoft Support Windows Keyboard Shortcuts page, but here are a few of the more generally useful ones:

And that’s about it—probably more than you ever wanted to know about the Windows Calculator. Still, it’s an underappreciated tool that packs in a lot of useful features.

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iPhone User Guide

Use the timer or stopwatch

Use Calculator on iPhone

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Siri: Say something like: “What’s 74 times 9?” or “What’s 18 percent of 225?” Learn how to use Siri .

The standard calculator with basic arithmetic functions.

Use the scientific calculator

Rotate iPhone to landscape orientation.

iPhone in landscape orientation showing the scientific calculator with exponential, logarithmic, and trigonometric functions.

Copy, delete, or clear numbers

Copy a calculation result: Touch and hold the calculation result in the display, tap Copy, then paste the result somewhere else, such as a note or message.

Delete the last digit: If you make a mistake when you enter a number, swipe left or right on the display at the top.

Clear the display: Tap the Clear (C) key to delete the last entry, or tap the All Clear (AC) key to delete all entries.

Use the compass

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Tax Withholding Estimator

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Use this tool to estimate the federal income tax you want your employer to withhold from your paycheck. This is tax withholding .

See how your withholding affects your refund, take-home pay or tax due.  

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Use your estimate to change your tax withholding amount on Form W-4. Or keep the same amount.

To change your tax withholding amount:

To keep your same tax withholding amount:

When to Check Your Withholding

Check your tax withholding every year, especially:

When you have a major life change

If you changed your tax withholding mid-year

If you have more questions about your withholding, ask your employer or tax advisor.

Why Check Your Withholding

There are several reasons to check your withholding:

The Tax Withholding Estimator doesn't ask for personal information such as your name, social security number, address or bank account numbers.

We don't save or record the information you enter in the estimator.

For details on how to protect yourself from scams, see Tax Scams/Consumer Alerts .  

Refinance Calculator

Use Zillow's refinance calculator to determine if refinancing may be worth it. Enter the details of your existing and future loans to estimate your potential refinance savings. This free refinance calculator can help you evaluate the benefits of refinancing to help you meet your financial goals such as lowering monthly payments, changing the length of your loan, cancelling your mortgage insurance, updating your loan program or reducing your interest rate.

Refinancing could save you

Explore more mortgage calculators.

How much house can you afford? Use our affordability calculator to estimate what you can comfortably spend on your new home.

What will your new home cost? Estimate your monthly mortgage payment with our easy-to-use mortgage calculator.

Your debt-to-income ratio helps determine if you would qualify for a mortgage. Use our DTI calculator to see if you're in the right range.

Curious how much you will pay to interest and principal each month? Use our amortization calculator to estimate your monthly principal and interest payments made over the life of a loan.

Participating lenders may pay Zillow Group Marketplace, Inc. ("ZGMI") a fee to receive consumer contact information, like yours. ZGMI does not recommend or endorse any lender. We display lenders based on their location, customer reviews, and other data supplied by users. For more information on our advertising practices, see our Terms of Use & Privacy . ZGMI is a licensed mortgage broker, NMLS #1303160 . A list of state licenses and disclosures is available here .

What is mortgage refinancing?

Refinancing a mortgage is the process of replacing your existing loan by acquiring a new home loan in its place that suits your financial circumstances. The funds from your new mortgage pay off your existing mortgage.

Just like acquiring your purchase mortgage, you’ll need to gather your supporting documentation such as your recent pay stubs, W-2s, and bank statements. But you’ll also need details about your existing mortgage, including the remaining loan amount, the number of years left to pay and the interest rate. This information helps you and your lender calculate the best refinance loan option for your financial situation.

How much does it cost to refinance?

Average refinance closing costs range between 2%-6% of the loan amount. Closing fees vary depending on your location, loan type, loan size and mortgage lender.

Most lenders allow you to roll the closing costs of the refinance into the balance of your new loan, increasing the total amount borrowed. Apply with at least three lenders and obtain official Loan Estimates to compare loan costs and savings. Work with lenders to complete a cost-benefit analysis and determine whether refinancing makes sense for you.

Common refinance fees

Here is a list of common refinance fees you might see associated with your refinance loan:

How to calculate refinance savings

To calculate the value of refinancing your home, compare the monthly payment of your current loan to the proposed payment on the new loan. Then use an amortization schedule to compare the principal balance on your proposed loan after making the same number of payments you’ve currently made on your existing loan. Both the monthly payment and principal balance of the new loan should be lower. Enter your specific details into the refinance calculator above for a detailed savings breakdown.

Is refinancing worth it?

Typically, it is worthwhile to refinance if the reduction in total interest expected to be paid over the life of the loan is greater than the cost of acquiring the loan.

Monitor refinance rates regularly and use Zillow’s free refinance calculator to make sure a refinance is worth it for your financial circumstances.

Calculate the breakeven point

Use a mortgage refinance calculator to determine the breakeven point, which is the number of months it takes for the savings to outweigh the cost of refinancing. Divide the breakeven timeframe (months) by 12 to calculate the number of years you need to make payments on the loan before realizing any savings from the refinance. If you plan to sell before the breakeven point, it is probably not financially worth it to refinance.

Calculate refinance amortization

Mortgage payments are amortized, meaning your mortgage total remains the same each month, but the amount of principal and interest varies with each payment. Amortization ensures you pay more interest than principal during the first half of your loan term. Refinancing restarts your mortgage amortization schedule with the new loan, reducing the amount of principal you’re paying each month. If you plan to sell your home soon or if you’ve been paying your mortgage for more than half of the term, be sure to use a loan refinance calculator.

Reasons to refinance a mortgage

Refinancing can help you meet your financial goals. Explore the most common reasons you might consider refinancing your mortgage.

Lower interest rate

Reducing the interest rate is by far the most popular reason to refinance a mortgage. If you can qualify for a lower rate than your existing mortgage interest rate, refinancing can reduce your monthly mortgage payments or potentially save thousands in interest over the life of your loan.

Switch rate type: adjustable vs fixed

When you refinance, you can select a different loan type. For example, if you have an adjustable-rate mortgage (ARM) and the rate is about to increase, you can change to a more stable fixed-rate mortgage.

Cancel mortgage insurance

When you purchase a home with less than 20% of the home price as your down payment, you'll likely pay private mortgage insurance (PMI) or a mortgage insurance premium (MIP), common with conventional and FHA loans, respectively. If you've gained equity of at least 20%, whether by appreciation or by simply paying your mortgage, you may be able to refinance to cancel mortgage insurance and save money with each monthly payment.

Pay off the loan faster

In most cases, shortening your loan term allows you to pay off your principal faster . A shorter term often means you'll have a higher monthly payment but fewer overall payments, reducing interest over the life of your loan. Additionally, shorter-term loans (i.e. 15-year fixed) typically have lower interest rates than those with longer terms (i.e. 30-year fixed).

You can also speed up your loan repayment to a bi-weekly cadence, which many lenders allow. Bi-weekly payments equate to one extra payment each year and 51 fewer months on a 30-year loan. This ultimately reduces the amount of interest you pay. Before signing, confirm a bi-weekly payment option with your lender.

Reduce monthly payments

Refinancing typically resets the length of your mortgage to 15 or 30 years. Your current principal balance stretches across the additional payments, reducing your monthly cost. If you have a lump sum to apply to your existing mortgage amount, try a cash-in refinance which reduces monthly payments further. The cash decreases the balance which is then spread across additional payments.

Withdraw cash

If you have enough equity in your home, you may be able to do a cash-out refinance . With cash-out refinancing, you refinance your current home loan for more than the amount you currently owe and keep the extra money to spend on things like home projects or paying off other high-interest debt. Cash-out refinances typically have higher interest rates. In the "advanced settings" on the refinance calculator you can convert the tool to a cash-out refinance calculator.

Frequently asked questions about refinance calculations

How often can you refinance your home.

You can refinance your home countless times, though some lenders have their own limits. Be sure to use a refinance calculator every time to understand the long-term cost or savings of the home loan.

What credit score is needed to refinance?

Borrowers with credit scores of 620 or greater may be eligible to refinance their home, but credit scores of 740 or higher receive the most favorable refinance interest rates. The higher your credit score the lower your refinance interest rate, so it's beneficial to have a healthy credit score. Calculate your estimated savings at varying interest rates to see if it's worthwhile to wait and improve your credit score before refinancing.

How much equity do you need to refinance?

Expect a minimum requirement of home equity if you hope to cancel mortgage insurance , usually 20%. Otherwise, refinance equity requirements vary by loan program and property type. Typically rate-and-term refinances have fewer restrictions on equity requirements compared to cash-out refinances.

What is a no closing cost refinance?

No closing cost refinances are simply mortgage refinances with closing costs rolled into the loan . While you won't pay your closing costs out-of-pocket at the time of closing, doing so will typically increase your total amount borrowed and monthly payments.

How does refinancing work?

The process of refinancing will follow these typical steps:

Select a type of mortgage refinance: You have many refinancing options, including refreshing your rate and term (rate-and-term refinance), applying more cash toward your equity (cash-in refinance), pulling money out of your home equity (cash-out refinance), or opting for a streamline refinance to lower your monthly payments.

Shop refinance rates: Compare different interest rates using the custom rates tool or refinance calculator above to determine if refinancing at a current rate would accomplish your refinancing goals. Contact the lender, or find a lender to work with in your area.

Apply for a refinance: Once you apply, your lender will provide you with initial disclosures that outline the terms of the loan. Read and sign.

Lock your refinance rate: Work with your lender to lock your interest rate when you believe it's the lowest.

Complete a home appraisal: Most lenders require a home appraisal.

Close your loan: Review the closing documents and disclosures, pay any applicable closing costs, and sign.

Related Articles

Learn how to find the best refinance rate and discover the questions you should ask before you refinance.

If you want to refinance your mortgage but have bad or poor credit, this guide can help you explore your options.

Want to tap into your home equity? Find out if a HELOC, home equity loan or cash-out refinance is best for you.

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Latest Market News

Credit rating agency warns it may downgrade US debt rating, driving up costs

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A deadlocked Washington that has taken America to the brink of default could jeopardize the United States’ perfect credit rating, Fitch said in a stern warning Wednesday.

The credit ratings agency placed top-ranked US credit on rating watch negative, reflecting the uncertainty surrounding the current debt ceiling debate and the possibility of a first-ever default.

The move comes as as Republican and Democratic politicians negotiate to raise the US debt limit, though no deal has yet been reached. With Treasury Secretary Janet Yellen saying the US may be unable to pay its bills as soon as June 1 , the country faces the possibility of an unprecedented default, which could have disastrous effects both in the United States and all over the world.

Fitch, one of the top three credit rating agencies along with Moody’s and S&P, placed the US “AAA” on “rating watch negative,” signaling that it could downgrade US debt if lawmakers do not agree on a bill that raises US Treasury’s debt limit.

“The Rating Watch Negative reflects increased political partisanship that is hindering reaching a resolution to raise or suspend the debt limit despite the fast-approaching x date (when the U.S. Treasury exhausts its cash position and capacity for extraordinary measures without incurring new debt),” the company said in a statement.

However, Fitch added that it still believed lawmakers would pass a resolution before the “X-date.”

The White House on Wednesday pointed to Fitch Ratings’ move as cause for urgency on raising the debt ceiling.

“This is one more piece of evidence that default is not an option and all responsible lawmakers understand that. It reinforces the need for Congress to quickly pass a reasonable, bipartisan agreement to prevent default,” a White House spokesperson said in a statement.

The Treasury Department on Wednesday night also emphasized that, and said a potential downgrade shows why Congress must immediately address the debt ceiling.

“As Secretary Yellen has warned for months, brinkmanship over the debt limit does serious harm to businesses and American families, raises short-term borrowing costs for taxpayers, and threatens the credit rating of the United States,” Treasury spokesperson Lily Adams said in a statement.

“Tonight’s warning underscores the need for swift bipartisan action by Congress to raise or suspend the debt limit and avoid a manufactured crisis for our economy,” Adams said

In 2011, S&P gave its first-ever credit downgrade to the US, cutting its rating to AA+. More than a decade later, that agency has still not restored its rating.

A US default could send shockwaves throughout the global economy and potentially cause a recession, according to experts. That could mean higher borrowing costs for the government and Americans themselves and a massive drag to economic growth.

Dow futures fell more than 85 points on Wednesday night amid Fitch’s warning, but the S&P 500 and Nasdaq traded in positive territory.

- CNN’s Matt Egan and Jeremy Diamond contributed to this report

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You’ve Never Heard of Him, but He’s Remaking the Pollution Fight

Richard Revesz is changing the way the government calculates the cost and benefits of regulation, with far-reaching implications for climate change.

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A man with white hair wearing a blue suit sits in an office in front of a fireplace.

By Coral Davenport

Coral Davenport has been reporting from Washington on environmental regulations since the George W. Bush administration.

This spring the Biden administration proposed or implemented eight major environmental regulations, including the nation’s toughest climate rule , rolling out what experts say are the most ambitious limits on polluting industries by the government in a single season.

Piloting all of that is a man most Americans have never heard of, running an agency that is even less well known.

But Richard Revesz has begun to change the fundamental math that underpins federal regulations designed to protect human health and the environment. And those calculations could affect American life and the economy for years to come.

Mr. Revesz, 65, heads the obscure but powerful White House Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, which is effectively the gatekeeper and final word on all new federal regulations. It has been known as the place where new rules proposed by government agencies, particularly environmental standards, go to die — or at least to be weakened or delayed.

But Mr. Revesz, a climate law expert and former dean of the New York University School of Law, joined the Biden administration in January to flip the script. Each time a major regulatory proposal has landed on his desk, Mr. Revesz has used his authority to strengthen its legal analysis and make it more stringent.

What’s more, he has proposed a new method of calculating the cost of potential regulation that would bolster the legal and economic justifications for those rules to protect them against an expected onslaught of court fights.

With his halo of snowy curls and Spanish lilt — a vestige of his childhood in Argentina — Mr. Revesz is known as “Ricky” to everyone from his law students to his legal opponents. Supreme Court Justice Elena Kagan has called him “a legend.” John Podesta, a senior climate adviser to Mr. Biden who also served in top roles in the Obama and Clinton administrations, considers Mr. Revesz his hero.

Conservatives see Mr. Revesz differently.

“He is the professor of gobbledygook!” said Elizabeth Murrill , the solicitor general of Louisiana, who plans to join Republican attorneys general from other states to challenge Mr. Biden’s climate regulations. “He is creating these numbers to try to justify destroying the fossil fuel industry and the petrochemical industry, to justify bankrupting people and destroying their lives. And they say it’s all justified because of the future, because they say they’re saving the planet.”

The climate regulations proposed by the Biden administration, together with $370 billion in clean energy funds from the 2022 Inflation Reduction Act, would catapult the United States to the forefront of the fight to constrain global warming.

While federal agencies write regulations, it’s the role of the White House regulatory chief to ensure that they are legally and economically sound.

But the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (known for short as OIRA, which rhymes with Elvira) has often concluded that proposed environmental, health and safety regulations would be too costly to business.

“In the past, OIRA has been the brake on regulations,” said Richard Lazarus, a professor of environmental law at Harvard. “They’ve slowed things down and especially watered down environmental rules.”

That pattern had been largely true regardless of the party in charge. Cass Sunstein , a Harvard economist who led the regulatory office during the Obama administration, examined a proposal from the E.P.A. to reduce pollution linked to asthma and decided the costs to industry were too high, despite the projected health benefits. The rule was shelved , infuriating environmentalists.

But in April, Mr. Revesz proposed to change the way federal agencies tally and weigh the costs and benefits of proposed regulations relating to everything from climate change to consumer protections in ways to make them much more likely to see the light of day.

Until now, such analyses have been chiefly based on the current cost of a regulation to industry, compared against the benefits to society. Mr. Revesz’s alteration would emphasize how a regulation would benefit future generations.

That would have particular meaning when it comes to climate regulations, because scientists say the impact of greenhouse gases that are emitted now will be felt far into the future, in the form of rising seas, more devastating storms, extreme drought, wildfires and displacement.

“This is essentially saying that the federal government doesn’t just give weight to the costs on the economy this year or next year, while ignoring the benefits to our children, our grandchildren, their grandchildren,” said Robert Stavins, a professor of energy and economic development at Harvard’s Kennedy School of Government.

The change would affect the metric that the federal government uses to calculate the harm caused by one ton of planet-warming carbon dioxide pollution. In the Obama administration, White House economists calculated that number at roughly $50 a ton. In the Trump administration, they lowered it to less than $5 a ton. Applying Mr. Revesz’s formula shoots up the cost to nearly $200 a ton.

Plug that number into, say, the E.P.A.’s proposal to tighten tailpipe emissions — a regulation designed to ramp up sales of electric vehicles while ending the use of gasoline-powered cars — and the economic benefit could increase to more than $1 trillion, much greater than the estimated cost to industry.

“It’s a very powerful change,” Mr. Revesz said.

He also believes that the government ought to consider the impact of a proposed regulation on different segments of the population. Current methods weigh the impact of a proposed regulation on the population as a whole. But poor and minority communities face greater exposure to pollution, so they would reap greater benefits from limits on that pollution.

Mr. Stavins and some other economists say the approach taken by Mr. Revesz is the most accurate way to analyze the impact of climate rules. “That’s the right way to think about it and the right way to do it,” Mr. Stavins said.

Critics say the changes would result in greater government interference in American life and harm businesses by increasing costs in an economy that has been edging toward recession.

“If they make decisions based on this change, that will have huge impacts on all kinds of federal programs,” said Jeffrey Holmstead, a lawyer with Bracewell LLP, who represents fossil fuel companies and electric utilities. “It will certainly justify much more aggressive regulation, especially of greenhouse gas emissions, and that would almost certainly increase the cost of energy, which flows through to the cost of goods and services.”

Susan Dudley, who headed the regulatory office in the George W. Bush administration and now directs the Regulatory Studies Center at George Washington University, said Mr. Revesz appears to be trying to achieve a progressive agenda.

“To me there is a danger there — the previous guidelines from Reagan, Clinton and Bush were all seen as neutral, objective and focused on efficiency,” she said. “I think it won’t survive a Republican administration.”

Mr. Revesz says he is simply modernizing a method of calculations that was last updated during the George W. Bush administration. In 2003, government economists estimated the impact of regulation on future generations by considering the average interest rate on government bonds over the prior 30 years. Mr. Revesz took the same steps to come up with his metric.

“If you do exactly the same arithmetic with exactly the same formula with the most recent 30 years,” the result places a higher dollar value on future lives, Mr. Revesz said at a recent discussion at George Washington University.

A future administration could change the calculations again. But if that happens, “it will be obvious that they acted politically and that they acted contrary to science, and economics,” he said.

Mr. Revesz’s proposed method of calculating costs and benefits is expected to be finalized by the fall and used to justify Mr. Biden’s climate regulations when they are implemented early next year.

Mr. Revesz first began to think of costs and benefits as a child growing up in Buenos Aires. His parents had fled to Argentina from Hungary and Romania during World War II; his grandparents and four of his six aunts were murdered at Auschwitz.

Argentina offered a short respite from mayhem; during the 1960s, a military dictatorship destabilized the country.

“I had to get up for school at 6:30, but we didn’t get any heat in our building until 8, and it was actually pretty cold in the winter,” he recalled in an interview. “So when my alarm went off, instead of getting up right away, I would turn on the radio, because if there was either a coup or an attempted coup or a general strike, there’ll be no school. And the probability of this happening was sufficiently high that it made sense to find out before I actually got out of bed into the cold.”

He came to the United States in 1975 at age 17, two weeks before starting at Princeton on a full scholarship. After graduating, Mr. Revesz earned a master’s degree in environmental engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He became an American citizen during his second year at Yale Law School, where he was editor of the Yale Law Review. A clerkship for Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall followed and in 1985, he began teaching at the New York University School of Law, where he served as dean from 2002 to 2013. From 2014 to 2022, he directed the American Law Institute, a century-old organization led by judges, law professors and legal experts.

He co-founded an N.Y.U.-affiliated think tank, the Institute for Policy Integrity , which devised the approach to analyzing the costs and benefits of environmental regulations that Mr. Revesz has brought to the White House.

During the Trump administration, he put that theory into practice: as the White House rolled back regulation after regulation, the nation’s Democratic attorneys general sued to fight the rollbacks. Mr. Revesz helped shape several of their winning arguments.

“He was a great resource for us,” said Brian Frosh, the former attorney general of Maryland.

After President Biden was elected, Mr. Revesz joined his transition team and immediately impressed the incoming White House political staff.

“There’s a million academics that swarm around transitions,” said Collin O’Mara, president of the National Wildlife Federation, who worked on the Biden transition team. “But Ricky stood out right away. He was incredibly specific about how to make the agency work better, how to make things stand up in court. There was a ton of conversations about how to avoid the fate of the Obama rules, and he was incredibly clarion.”

Mr. Revesz was on Mr. Biden’s short list to head the E.P.A. — but the president’s advisers wanted to bring him straight into the White House.

When he was nominated, Jonathan Adler, a conservative law professor at Case Western University, wrote on Twitter: “He was such an obvious choice for this position, one wonders what took so long.”

In an interview, Mr. Adler said, “If you want to go to court and file lawsuits against the Biden administration’s regulations, you don’t want Ricky Revesz mounting their defense.”

Jim Tankersley contributed reporting.

Coral Davenport covers energy and environmental policy for the climate desk from Washington. She was part of a Times team that was a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize for distinguished public service journalism in 2020, and part of a Times team that received Columbia University’s John B. Oakes award for distinguished environmental journalism in 2018. @ CoralMDavenport • Facebook

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Sustainable Business

Carbon accounting changes could lift corporate greenhouse-gas emissions.

Some multinationals might be underestimating their emissions by close to 50% under current rules

Changes being considered would mean credits from wind or solar projects in one grid region wouldn’t be able to offset fossil-fuel electricity use in another.

Changes to emissions accounting rules are being considered that could significantly increase carbon footprints for companies claiming to use 100% renewable power in their efforts to decarbonize. How companies tally greenhouse-gas emissions from their electricity purchases—so-called Scope 2 emissions—was the most popular issue in a recent consultation on updating widely used GHG Protocol carbon accounting rules. Officials are analyzing whether to recommend more granular reporting of Scope 2 emissions , which would improve accuracy but also could lift reported emissions by as much as nearly 50%, according to recent research. The GHG Protocol is used by more than 10,000 companies to calculate their emissions and is expected to underpin international and U.S. climate reporting regulations. 

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Under current standards, businesses can claim to be using 100% renewable energy as long as they offset their use of fossil fuel-generated electricity with credits from wind or solar projects in the same general power market, such as the whole of the U.S. or the European Union. For example, a company with a factory in Ohio could buy renewable-energy certificates for power from a Texas wind farm and use the certificates to offset its fossil-fuel electricity consumption in Ohio. 

One change being discussed would restrict emissions accounting to electricity from the same grid region, which would mean these kinds of claims wouldn’t be possible since Texas and Ohio are in separate grid regions. The American power market has three major grid regions, which are divided into 26 subregions, according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 

Rules limiting renewable-energy claims to within the smaller subregions would improve the accuracy of emissions accounting because companies would be more likely to actually use the renewable electricity paid for with their certificates. 

Another change being discussed would only allow companies to claim they are using renewable energy if the electricity was generated at the same hour of the day that the company was using power from the grid. A 2023 Princeton University study analyzed the emissions effect of location and hourly matching requirements. Lead author, Wilson Ricks, said the restrictions would force companies to do the hard work of sourcing carbon-free electricity to supply their needs when and where these occur. “The result would be that claims of 100% carbon-free electricity become much harder to make, but also much more believable,” Ricks said. 

According to a 2022 study, companies that don’t account for hourly and location data could be under- or overestimating their emissions by 35%. A recent review by carbon management firm FlexiDAO of 22 multinationals that bought renewable electricity across 27 countries found that they could be underestimating their electricity emissions by close to 50% under the current system.

“It gives the false impression of achievement and it’s too easy for companies to say, ‘I’m done. I’m 100% renewable, I’ve bought enough stuff, I’m good to go, I’m zero emissions,’” FlexiDAO Chief Executive Simone Accornero said. “That’s clearly not the case.”

However, respondents to a GHG Protocol survey from November 2022 to March 2023 were split between moving to more granular data or maintaining the current rule’s flexibility, said Kyla Aiuto, research associate at the World Resources Institute, the nonprofit co-managing the GHG Protocol with the World Business Council for Sustainable Development. 

Google’s published comments to the survey supported the change: “Purchasing clean energy on the same grid where consumption occurs is the best way to create an inventory that accurately reflects the physical realities of the grid and directly addresses the emissions associated with a company’s operations.” 

The tech company is aiming to use so-called 24/7 carbon-free energy by 2030, which essentially means using power from clean energy sources like nuclear or renewables in its operations around the clock. Google reached 66% on an hourly basis in 2021. Microsoft has a similar goal and also supports restricting accounting to tighter locations.

However, Emissions First partnership—a group including Facebook -parent Meta, General Motors , Heineken and Amazon —is pushing instead for a new method to be added to the GHG Protocol that allows companies to account for avoided emissions from a renewable-energy investment regardless of where it is in the world.

The broader approach would help deliver a fast, cost-effective and scalable way to decarbonize power grids, said Jake Oster, Amazon Web Services’ director for energy and environment policy in the EMEA region and spokesman for Emissions First.

The GHG Protocol secretariat is reviewing the more than 1,400 survey responses, around 400 of which mentioned Scope 2. Other areas of focus were emissions in the value chain, or so-called Scope 3 emissions, market-based accounting approaches, and corporate accounting and reporting standards.

The group plans to conduct more surveys, convene technical experts and seek feedback on proposals before changes are made. An update could come as early as 2025.

Write to Dieter Holger at [email protected]

Copyright ©2022 Dow Jones & Company, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 87990cbe856818d5eddac44c7b1cdeb8

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How COSO Can Help With Sustainability Reporting

Companies can leverage their existing governance and control activities to establish controls over sustainability reporting. COSO’s generally accepted framework can help. 

Investing in Carbon ‘Insets’ to Help Abate Scope 3 Emissions

As companies tackle Scope 3 emissions, they can leverage alternative strategies to carbon offsets. Insetting involves investing or co-investing to help decarbonize the organization's value chain.

Food Traceability: Leveraging Compliance to Unlock Value

Regulatory changes often give forward-thinking companies an opportunity to develop business strategies that create value while they work to comply with new mandates.

The Wall Street Journal news department was not involved in the creation of this content.


Investments in solar power eclipse oil for first time, gucci-owner kering, drugmaker gsk and others are developing global targets on nature loss, vodafone and nestlé created panels to avoid ‘greenwashing’ allegations, pro take: can nickel, cobalt and other battery metals be sourced sustainably, a review of the de facto rules of carbon accounting is considering a change that could lift companies’ greenhouse-gas emissions because of more stringent time and location requirements..

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NOAA index tracks how greenhouse gas pollution amplified global warming in 2022

NOAA index tracks how greenhouse gas pollution amplified global warming in 2022

Greenhouse gas pollution from human activity trapped 49 percent more heat in the atmosphere during 2022 than those same gases did in 1990, according to an annual NOAA report.


NOAA’s Annual Greenhouse Gas Index, known as the AGGI , tracks increases in the warming influence of heat-trapping gases generated by human activity, including carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorocarbons, and 15 other gases. The AGGI converts the complex scientific computations of how much extra heat these gases capture, also known as radiative forcing, into a single number that can easily be compared to previous years.

“The AGGI is derived from highly accurate measurements of greenhouse gases in air samples collected around the world,” said Vanda Grubišić, Ph.D, director of NOAA’s Global Monitoring Laboratory (GML). “It continues to rise despite international efforts to curb emission of greenhouse gases from fossil fuels that seem to be falling short of their targets.” 

Grubišić reported results of the 2022 AGGI during the opening session of the 51st Global Monitoring Annual Conference . 

In 2006, NOAA scientists with GML developed the AGGI as a way to help policymakers, educators and the public appreciate the cumulative direct impact of rising greenhouse gas levels on Earth’s climate since the onset of the industrial era. 


The index is benchmarked to a value of 1.0 for the year 1990, the baseline year for Kyoto Protocol emission reductions. In 2022, the AGGI rose to a value of 1.49, an increase consistent with previous years. That means that the  contribution to warming from long-lived greenhouse gases in the atmosphere in 2022 was 49% higher than in 1990.

Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) remains by far the largest contributor to total radiative forcing from these gases, with methane the second largest contributor. While the global mean abundance of CO 2 in 2022 was 417 parts per million (ppm), the cumulative warming influence of all the gases included in the AGGI was equivalent to 523 ppm of CO 2 . 

Calculation updated to reflect improved understanding of radiative forcing 

In its Sixth Assessment Report in 2021, the IPCC updated the method it uses to calculate the amount of heat trapped by the observed levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. NOAA has always used IPCC recommendations in the calculation of its AGGI. 

The 2021 revisions from IPCC primarily address improvements in radiative forcing calculations due to updated spectroscopic measurements. As a result, GML recalculated AGGI values for all preceding years so there are no artificial step changes in the long-term record. The recalculated 2021 AGGI value is 1.47 instead of the 1.49 calculated with the previous method. The revised 2020 AGGI value is 1.45 instead of 1.47. 


“The change in method does not change any of the conclusions,” said Stephen Montzka, GML’s senior scientist. “The AGGI continues to provide an easily understandable way to track the increasing amount of heat being trapped in the atmosphere by greenhouse gas pollution.” 

The biggest culprit 

Roughly 36 billion metric tons of CO 2 are emitted each year by transportation, electrical generation, cement manufacturing, deforestation, agriculture, and many other practices. A substantial fraction of CO2 emitted today will persist in the atmosphere for more than 1,000 years. The global average of atmospheric CO2 has risen by 63 ppm since 1990, accounting for 77% of the increased heat tracked by the AGGI since that year. 

Cause of methane’s rapid rise emerging? 

Levels of atmospheric methane, or CH 4 , averaged 1,911.8 parts per billion (ppb) during 2022, or around two and half times greater than pre-industrial levels. The 14.1 ppb increase recorded during 2022 was the third-fastest observed since the early 1980s. Causes for the dramatic post-2007 increase are not fully understood, but research by NOAA and CIRES scientists point to a dominant increase in emissions from microbial sources such as wetlands, agriculture and landfills, and a smaller increase in methane emissions from the fossil fuel sector.

Nitrous oxide rise also near record levels 

Levels of the third-most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide or N 2 O, rose to 335.7 ppb, a 24% increase over its pre-industrial level. The 1.25 ppb increase last year is the third-largest jump since 2000. Increases in atmospheric nitrous oxide during recent decades are mainly from use of nitrogen fertilizer and manure from the expansion and intensification of agriculture.

“Alternative energy sources to replace fossil fuels exist,” said Montzka, the GML scientist who leads the AGGI report each year, “but cutting emissions associated with producing food is perhaps an even more difficult task." 

For more information, contact Theo Stein, NOAA Communications, at [email protected] .

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Summary of Inflation Reduction Act provisions related to renewable energy

This page summarizes information in the Inflation Reduction Act related to renewable energy project tax provisions. While EPA does have some Inflation Reduction Act funding opportunities , the Green Power Partnership does not and is only presenting this material for informational purposes.  This page will be updated as Treasury and other federal agencies develop guidance and responses related to the Inflation Reduction Act.

The Inflation Reduction Act of 2022 is the most significant climate legislation in U.S. history, offering funding, programs, and incentives to accelerate the transition to a clean energy economy and will likely drive significant deployment of new clean electricity resources. Most provisions of the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022 became effective 1/1/2023.

The Inflation Reduction Act incentives reduce renewable energy costs for organizations like Green Power Partners – businesses, nonprofits, educational institutions, and state, local, and tribal organizations. Taking advantage of Inflation Reduction Act incentives, such as tax credits, is key to lowering GHG emission footprints and accelerating the clean energy transition.’

Investment Tax Credit and Production Tax Credit

  • Environmental Justice ITC Adder
  • Clean Energy ITC / Clean Energy PTC

Tax Credit Monetization

Additional resources.

The Investment Tax Credit (ITC) and Production Tax Credit (PTC) allow taxpayers to deduct a percentage of the cost of renewable energy systems from their federal taxes. These credits are available to taxable businesses entities and certain tax-exempt entities eligible for direct payment of tax credits (see Tax Credit Monetization below).

Certain projects are eligible for either the ITC or PTC, but not both.

Through at least 2025, the Inflation Reduction Act extends the Investment Tax Credit (ITC) of 30% and Production Tax Credit (PTC) of $0.0275/kWh (2023 value), as long as projects meet prevailing wage & apprenticeship requirements for projects over 1 MW AC.

For systems placed in service on or after January 1, 2025, the Clean Electricity Production Tax Credit and the Clean Electricity Investment Tax Credit will replace the traditional PTC / ITC.

Projects can qualify for additional credit amounts, described below:

*The ITC amount is a percentage of the total qualifying project cost basis. All values assume labor requirements are met.

Environmental Justice Wind and Solar Capacity Limitations under Section 48(e)

The Inflation Reduction Act Section 48(e) offers new access to clean energy tax credits with an emphasis on reaching disadvantaged populations and communities with environmental justice concerns. Certain ITC projects may be eligible for bonus credits if they meet certain environmental justice criteria. Only solar and wind technologies are eligible in 2023 and 2024. Energy storage is eligible if "connected to" the solar or wind project

The requirements are:

  • Projects must be less than 5MW AC
  • Requires allocation by Treasury -Capped at 1.8 GW DC  per year
  • Projects can't be placed in service before applying for allocation

In 2025, becomes part of tech-neutral ITC (through 2032)

*See IRC Sec. 45D(e) and IRS Notice 2013-17 . This provision is pending full guidance.

Here’s how Inflation Reduction Act's new direct pay and transfer options allow more organizations to utilize clean energy tax credits for equipment placed in service on or after January 1, 2023 and through December 31, 2032:

  • The  direct pay option allows certain non-taxable entities to directly monetize certain tax credits for entities such as  state, local, and tribal governments, rural electric cooperatives, the Tennessee Valley Authority, and others to  directly monetize specific tax credits  including many renewable energy credits such as the ITC ) and the PTC. Applicable entities may elect to treat these tax credits as refundable payments of tax. Such entities are eligible to receive a direct payment from the IRS for any amount paid in excess of their tax liability for credits.
  • The Inflation Reduction Act also allows eligible taxpayers that are not tax-exempt entities to  transfer  all or a portion of certain tax credits, including the ITC and PTC, to an unrelated party.

See the Treasury Department’s notice to collect input from stakeholders, experts, and the public on  Inflation Reduction Act's credit monetization provisions .

EPA anticipates that there will be more opportunities (through tax credits) to directly participate in projects. For more information on individual opportunities, see The Database of State Incentives for Renewables & Efficiency (DSIRE)'s  database of all U.S. renewable energy incentives and programs , and DSIRE's  database of federal incentives .

Clean Energy Production Tax Credit and Clean Energy Investment Tax Credit

Starting January 1, 2025, the Inflation Reduction Act replaces the traditional PTC with the Clean Energy Production Tax Credit ( § 1 3701) and the traditional ITC with the Clean Electricity Investment Tax Credit ( § 13702).  

These tax credits are functionally similar to the ITC/PTC but is not technology-specific. It applies to all generation facilities (and energy storage systems under ITC) that have an anticipated greenhouse gas emissions rate of zero. The credit amount is generally calculated in the same manner as described above but will be phased out as the U.S. meets greenhouse gas emission reduction targets.

  • EPA's  Inflation Reduction Act Web Area
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  • The IRS's Inflation Reduction Act Web Area
  • Department of Treasury –  Inflation Reduction Act Guidance  
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A drought triggered by climate change has led to famine in the Horn of Africa


Scott Simon

NPR's Scott Simon speaks to aid worker Daud Jiran about a drought, linked to climate change, that has led to famine in the Horn of Africa.


Devastating drought, decades of conflict and a food crisis now leave millions of people suffering in the Horn of Africa. Somalia alone is going through its fifth failed rainy season. Nearly half its population - that's almost 8 million people - face famine. And according to the U.N. humanitarian branch known as OCHA, the Horn of Africa is the center of one of the world's climate emergencies.

Daud Jiran is the Somalia country director for the aid organization Mercy Corps. We've reached him in Nairobi. Thanks so much for being with us.

DAUD JIRAN: Thank you for hosting me today.

SIMON: You have recently been in the area. What did you see?

JIRAN: When we go around the field, we see families that have lost everything, mothers who are coming to major towns with children who are in a very severe malnourished state, men who have lost their jobs and their livelihoods. And a lot of these people end up in internally displaced camps. So there's a lot of devastation and a lot of people who are weak and really who are facing a very dire situation.

SIMON: Many people have died?

JIRAN: Definitely. I mean, the drought has been continuing for five consecutive seasons. And it's estimated that, only in 2022, around 43,000 people have died. So yes, definitely there was the catastrophic effect of death as a result of the famine and the drought.

SIMON: What kind of difficult choices have some people had to make to try to stay alive?

JIRAN: Honestly, some of the stories when you talk to these people are heartbreaking. I mean, families who are split - you will find mothers who have to leave some of their children with their fathers to stay back in what they know as home and then leave with the younger ones. In some cases, people were reporting that some of their, you know, family members died on the way, especially children, and they had to just bury them hurriedly and leave. So these are the kind of heartbreaking stories you hear when you talk to these people. And some of the decisions they make are really very difficult decisions.

SIMON: Is climate change an important factor?

JIRAN: Definitely. We can say climate change is the biggest contributor to the situation the Somali people are currently facing. Somalia doesn't have many industries and honestly is not a contributor to some of the actions associated with - leading to the climate change, but the Somali people are suffering the brunt of the climate change. I mean, seasons are becoming shorter, rains are almost becoming very short or failing. And over the last 2 to 3 years, it has been very severe. And also, we have seen, too, because of the heavy rains that happen in the parts of the Ethiopian highlands, some of the rivers in Somalia getting those overflows, leading to also devastations of flood just after a very long, severe drought. So definitely - climate change is really one of the major underlying issues that's affecting these people now.

SIMON: And though Ukraine may be a long way away, has the war there affected delivery of food supplies?

JIRAN: Definitely. Definitely. I mean, as a result of the Ukraine crisis, we have seen the global food prices, especially of cereals and wheat flour kind of based foodstuffs, going up. And Somalis, as a population, are very much reliant on this. Also, oil prices have gone up, especially the cooking oils. So food prices - hikes have really contributed to people not being able to buy the essentials. So definitely - the Ukraine crisis has also contributed to the situation.

SIMON: The U.N. pledged to raise $7 billion for efforts in Somalia, Ethiopia and Kenya. And I gather they've, so far, been able to raise just 2.4 billion. Why has this been difficult?

JIRAN: Some of the reasons may be the change in the world situations. I mean, the problem in the Horn and, in particular, places like Somalia are forgotten because of the recent ongoing crises in areas like Ukraine and Syria and maybe the earthquakes in Turkey. But yes, definitely, those are also crises that need support. However, I think the situation in Somalia and partly the Horn - Ethiopia and Kenya - I think not need to be forgotten. Some of these things that were done recently, including the donor conference - or humanitarian donor conference for the Horn, is a welcome gesture. It's something to be applauded and appreciated that some government like the U.S. government was on the forefront to respond. But the reality is more need to be done. The people need more support in terms of building their recovery and building their resilience to be able to cope with the ongoing climatic conditions.

SIMON: Daud Jiran is the Somalia country director for the aid organization Mercy Corps. Thank you so much for being with us.

JIRAN: You're welcome.

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Hurricanes and climate change: What's the connection?

By David Schechter, Haley Rush, Chance Horner

May 27, 2023 / 7:00 AM / CBS News

Year to year, it's hard to predict how bad a hurricane season will be. But scientists say climate change is making hurricanes worse, specifically when it comes to how destructive they are when hitting land. 

Dr. Kristen Corbosiero is Assistant Professor of Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences at the University at Albany. She studies the structure and intensity change of tropical cyclones. 

"We can definitely see changes in hurricane impacts, and we think those will continue to get worse," said Corbosiero.  

When Corbosiero talks about Impacts, she means the path of destruction a hurricane leaves when it hits a community, like homes, businesses and people. Corbosiero said sea level rise is one of the clearest ways climate change is affecting the destruction hurricanes cause. 

"When hurricanes come ashore, they bring water with them," said Corbosiero. "Think about the flooding in Katrina, and that was, you know, over 15 years ago now."  

"More water is going to come ashore," continued Corbosiero. "And we know that this kind of bringing water ashore is really the number one killer of people in hurricanes."  

It's not just sea level rise she's worried about. A recent study in the journal Science Advances, published in April, shows how climate change may push more hurricanes to make landfall in parts of the United States. 

"I liked this study because they weren't trying to say there would be more storms or they would be more intense, but the storms that do form have a greater likelihood to make landfall, which impacts people," said Corbosiero.  

The study specifically said landfalls could happen more in the Southeast U.S., especially Florida, and potentially fewer landfalls in the Northeast.  

"And that was due to storms being moved in the atmosphere in different ways in a warming climate ," said Corbosiero. "That's what this study projects, in 40-plus years from now, that our change of the climate will impact these storms and whether they hit the U.S. or not."  

Corbosiero said scientists are less certain about other connections between hurricanes and climate change, like if there will be more in the future.  

"In terms of being able to attribute climate change and hurricane intensity or number increases, it's difficult to really be able to attribute things to certain causes," she said.  

Corbosiero said one reason is that they base their predictions for the future by looking at patterns from the past, and they just don't have enough historical data to do that yet. 

"And I know that's not a really satisfying answer," she said. "It's not a satisfying answer to me as a scientist, but I think we need to be honest about what we know and what we're most certain about and then what we're less certain about."  

There is a broader impact of hurricanes than just to those living along the coast. Hurricanes continue to cause the most destruction out of all recorded weather disasters in U.S. history, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.  

When it comes to the toll of U.S. hurricanes, government estimates say, in the last 40 years, they've caused more than $1.1 trillion in damage and are responsible for nearly 6,700 deaths. 

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Snowpack predicted to retreat in California’s mountains due to climate change

A line of telephone poles are silhouetted against a snowy mountain in the Sierra Nevada

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This winter’s major storms laid down one of the largest snowpacks recorded in California’s Sierra Nevada, along with an unusual amount of snow at low mountain elevations.

But such prolific snowfall at lower elevations is set to become increasingly rare in coming years as climate change drives temperatures higher, according to new research.

In a study published this week, scientists found that mountain snowlines in California have already crept higher, and could rise significantly more if nothing is done to slow the pace of global warming. Researchers projected that from the 2050s to 2100, rising temperatures could push average snowlines 1,300 feet to 1,600 feet higher across the Sierra Nevada and the southern Cascades mountain ranges compared to a century earlier.

As more precipitation falls as rain instead of snow at lower elevations, the shifting patterns of runoff will pose substantial challenges for water management in California, and for the operation of dams that were designed to capture and store snowmelt.

“Snowlines are rising,” said Alexander Gershunov, a research meteorologist who co-authored the study with other scientists at UC San Diego’s Scripps Institution of Oceanography.

“If we look towards the end of the century, the snow will be confined to much higher elevations in most years,” Gershunov said. “Low elevation mountains will be more and more likely to be snow-free.”

Marty Ralph, (center) director of the Center for Western Weather and Water Extremes at Scripps Institution of Oceanography, looks at meteorologist Rich Henning's computer as they track data being collected on an atmospheric river over the Pacific. Meteorologist Sofia de Solo (right) was checking the data transmitted by dropsondes as they drifted down through the storm.

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How do you track an atmospheric river? Climb aboard this highflying reconnaissance jet

From the sky, scientists are dropping devices with parachutes to peer into powerful atmospheric river storms, giving California advance warning.

After examining more than 70 years of snow data, researchers concluded that with unmitigated global warming, California’s mountains could lose more than half of their seasonal snowcover.

They said the average amount of snow from November through March in the northern Sierra could decrease by more than 70% by the second half of the century, while decreases of about 40% are likely in the higher mountains of the central Sierra and southern Sierra.

The research suggests similarly that large increases in the amount of precipitation falling as rain will bring heavier runoff during winter.

That will mean larger flows streaming from the mountains instead of melting off gradually, a trend that is already apparent and will complicate the work of dam managers, Gershunov said.

“It becomes more challenging to balance the need for flood control that reservoirs provide as well as water retention,” Gershunov said. “We have to learn how to generate water resources from floodwater.”

For one thing, he said, the trends show why it’s important for California to scale up efforts to capture and use floodwaters to replenish groundwater — which state water officials have said is a priority for adapting to more intense swings between drought conditions and bouts of wet weather.

The study’s authors said even as average snowlines retreat, California will still get big snow years at times.

The scientists found that as the planet warms with rising levels of greenhouse gases, more of the snow that falls in the mountains will come in atmospheric rivers, which are warmer and generally have higher snowlines than other winter storms. And according to other research, such storms will grow more potent as temperatures rise, transporting more water vapor.

“At the very high elevations, ironically, we’re getting more likely to have unprecedented snow accumulations, because specifically atmospheric river storms are getting wetter,” Gershunov said.

The scientists also looked at how retreating snow lines could affect the skiing industry after 2050 under a scenario of unmitigated warming. They estimated that lower elevation ski areas, such as Northstar California Resort, in Truckee, and Palisades-Tahoe, in Olympic Valley, could lose more than 60% of their average snow accumulation.

Higher ski runs, such as those at Mammoth Mountain, in Mammoth Lakes, are projected to have smaller average snow losses.

DUNNIGAN, YOLO COUNTY, CALIFORNIA-Jan. 21, 2023-In Yolo County, near the town of Dunnigan, officials from the state Department of Water Resources are working with farmers on a project to recharge the underground aquifers. The water is allowed to percolate into the ground to replenish the aquifers, while also providing habitat for threatened shore birds and other birds. Sunrise over the flooded fields that are part of the program on Jan. 21, 2023. (Carolyn Cole / Los Angeles Times)

Amid soaking storms, California turns to farmland to funnel water into depleted aquifers

In parts of California’s Central Valley, farmlands are being used to soak up storm water and replenish depleted groundwater.

The research , which was published in the journal Climate Dynamics, was funded by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation and the California Department of Water Resources.

The research brings new insights about the shift to more rain and less snow, including watershed-level projections that could help show where vulnerabilities in water management may lie, said Michael Anderson, state climatologist for the Department of Water Resources. He said this study and other research “help guide some of the choices that we’re making in terms of setting those adaptation strategies to climate change.”

The findings add to other research showing that average snowpacks have been decreasing in most areas of the continental United States, and that large decreases in snow are likely by the end of this century.

The latest research adds a focus on snowlines, said Philip Mote, a climate scientist and dean of the graduate school at Oregon State University, who wasn’t involved in the study.

“It’s no surprise that, this year notwithstanding, a warming climate will generally lead to less snowpack. The questions are how much and how to deal with it,” Mote said.

He said the heavy snowpack of 2023 is “within normal variability, but big snow years will continue to be rarer.”

“I expect that in 20 years we’ll still be reminiscing about 2023,” Mote said.

Mote pointed out that the study used a high-emissions scenario of global warming, but it looks unlikely for emissions to reach that trajectory, so he expects “things won’t be as bad as this paper describes.”

Gershunov said the authors didn’t account for efforts to mitigate climate change.

“There is still an opportunity to reduce some of the impacts that we have identified,” he said. “I would like to see both more aggressive climate mitigation globally and better informed climate adaptation locally and regionally, which this type of study should inform.”

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Ian James is a reporter who focuses on water in California and the West. Before joining the Los Angeles Times in 2021, he was an environment reporter at the Arizona Republic and the Desert Sun. He previously worked for the Associated Press as a correspondent in the Caribbean and as bureau chief in Venezuela. He is originally from California.

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ISLETON, CA - NOVEMBER 29: The San Joaquin River along Brannan Island Road on Tuesday, Nov. 29, 2022 in Isleton, CA. Scenes along the Sacramento Delta. (Gary Coronado / Los Angeles Times)

Supreme Court scales back clean water protections. What does it mean for California?

FILE - Large parts of the forests are missing in the Taunus region near Frankfurt, Germany, Friday, April 7, 2023. The European Union has been at the forefront of the fight against climate change and the protection of nature for years. But it now finds itself under pressure from within to pause new environmental efforts amid fears they will hurt the economy. (AP Photo/Michael Probst, File)

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Cracks emerging in Europe’s united front to battle climate change

Folsom, CA - April 16: Water cascades down the face of Folsom Dam on Thursday, April 13, 2023. A series of heavy rainstorms this winter has replenished Folsom Lake, a reservoir behind the dam that stores water from the American River. The lake is currently more than 50 feet above its levels from 2022, and is about 60 percent full. (Luis Sinco / Los Angeles Times)

Audit finds California water agency not adequately considering climate change in forecasts

People living near the Martinez Refining Company in Martinez are under a health advisory from the Contra Costa Health Services to not eat food grown in their gardens until they have tested or replaced their soil due to a refinery accidentally release of dust containing heavy metals in November. (Anda Chu/Bay Area News Group)

FBI investigating hazardous fallout from Bay Area refinery

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Feature | May 22, 2023

A global biodiversity crisis: how nasa satellites help track changes to life on earth.

A view of Earth from space that shows the Atlantic Ocean with sea ice on the Arctic Ocean, Greenland covered in white land ice, different shades of blue for the ocean where it is dark blue in the middle and turquoise closer to land, green and browns on the continents of North America, northern South America, Western Europe, and northern Africa, and white swirls of clouds in the cover different parts of the land and ocean.

Earth from space, based on multiple layers of data provided by different satellites. These data include land surface, polar sea ice, and light reflected by microscopic marine plants. Credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center/Reto Stöckli

By Angela Colbert, Ph.D., NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory

Climate change plays an increasing role in the global decline of biodiversity—the variety of life on Earth. Scientists use NASA data to track ecosystem changes and to develop tools for conserving life on land, in our ocean, and in freshwater ecosystems.

Many of us associate the sound of a singing bird with the beauty of nature. In recent years, though, fewer chirps, tweets, and birdsong have been heard. It isn’t because birds have stopped singing, but because there are fewer of them. A 2019 study from Cornell’s Lab of Ornithology estimated that we’ve lost about 3 billion wild birds in North America, leaving 29% fewer than in 1970. Human actions are the principal reason.

It's not just the birds. A report from the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services estimates that about one million plant and animal species are threatened with extinction. Woody Turner, program scientist for NASA's Biological Diversity Research Program, stated: “We are really at a global biodiversity crisis, losing not only entire species but also seeing decreases in the number of plants and animals that are important for natural ecosystems.”

A biodiverse planet means life has many different ways to survive and thrive. But human actions are affecting the natural balance of life on Earth. This includes habitat loss from deforestation , land use changes, and climate change. Rising global temperatures, a more acidic ocean, and extreme weather events — from heat waves and droughts to floods and wildfires — are rapidly changing global ecosystems. Larger organisms often take thousands to millions of years to evolve and adapt to new climates. Earth’s climate is now changing faster than many species can handle.

NASA is working with partners worldwide to monitor biodiversity changes in near real-time, linking satellite data to on-the-ground measurements. Through these measurements, scientists are working swiftly to learn what is happening and its impact on the planet.

Satellites Have Tracked Changes to Life on Earth for Decades

How do we know what is happening to life on Earth? NASA satellites play a vital role in gathering biodiversity data from a distance, often from orbit; this is what we call remote sensing . According to Turner, when satellite imagery is combined with airborne and in-situ or field data, it helps to show where plants and animals are living and thriving at a given time, allowing for long-term tracking of changes.

Dr. Laura Lorenzoni, program manager for NASA’s Ocean Biology and Biogeochemistry Program , echoed the importance of sustained and detailed satellite measurements for predicting future changes. Lorenzoni and her colleagues are using remote-sensing and field data, together with models, to answer questions about how climate change is altering marine ecosystems.

NASA has also made a priority of researching impacts to biodiversity on land. For decades, scientists funded by NASA’s Biological Diversity Research Program and Ecological Forecasting Applications Program have been using satellites to track biodiversity and ecosystem changes and to help develop tools to aid in conservation. For instance, NASA-funded researchers are developing forecasting tools for managing wildlife migrations along the Yukon-to-Yellowstone corridor, and others are mapping changes in North American temperate forests due to disease and climate change.

Better Data for Hard-to-Reach Places

A cube that has a picture of green and brown land on top. Two sides of the cube show lines of various colors that travel from one end to the other. The bottom is primarily blacks and purples, then the top has more red, yellow, green, and blue shades.

New remote-sensing technologies can help expand our view of the environment and how it’s changing. This includes the advancement of satellites to collect hyperspectral data , which identify an object’s or organism’s composition based on how it interacts with light. This means an oak tree leaf will look different from a pine tree leaf.

“Hyperspectral data will move us leaps and bounds in our understanding of biodiversity. It lets you see not just where vegetation is, but what it is, too,” said Dr. Allison Leidner, a conservation biologist and program scientist in NASA’s Earth Science Directorate. For example, instead of seeing just a green forest, scientists can identify that it is a forest of oak trees.

With the data, scientists can help identify how environmental changes impact different types of plants within ecosystems. This new insight can fill in missing information about how ecosystems are changing due to human actions — particularly in remote, hard-to-reach places — providing a more complete global picture.

NASA’s upcoming Earth System Observatory program will provide high-resolution open data to scientists for developing solutions that address both climate change and biodiversity losses. For example, the Plankton, Aerosol, Cloud, ocean Ecosystem (PACE) mission aims to uncover how climate change is impacting phytoplankton , the organisms at the center of the marine food web. With its Ocean Color Instrument, the PACE satellite will provide new high-resolution views of this microscopic ocean life. With these data, scientists will be able to track the changing state of phytoplankton in different ocean basins and regions, which is important to understanding ocean biodiversity.

Although scientists do not have all the solutions yet, NASA’s current and upcoming missions provide or will provide critical insights into the effort to slow biodiversity loss. Through continued research and new technology, scientists worldwide are working to find solutions so we can enjoy birdsongs for generations to come.

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'Things have got to change' - Dyche calls for refocus as Everton stay up

Premier League - Everton v AFC Bournemouth

[1/3] Soccer Football - Premier League - Everton v AFC Bournemouth - Goodison Park, Liverpool, Britain - May 28, 2023 Everton manager Sean Dyche reacts Action Images via Reuters/Jason Cairnduff

LIVERPOOL, England, May 28 (Reuters) - After overseeing Everton's win against Bournemouth that prolonged the club's 69-year English top-flight stay, manager Sean Dyche said the final day of the season was horrible and the Merseyside club must refocus to oversee lasting change.

The nine-time top division champions needed Abdoulaye Doucoure's second-half goal on Sunday to earn a 1-0 victory that kept Everton in the Premier League by two points.

It is the second season in a row that Everton have preserved their top-flight status by the skin of their teeth, and Dyche predicted a long hard path for the club if they are to ensure they do not end up in the same predicament next term.

"Horrible day for all concerned apart from getting the job done," said Dyche. "This was the main job. We had to get it sorted out and over the line. That was the key focus. Now we must refocus on the rest of it.

"The underlying bigger news since me being here has been negative so it's been difficult to do that but the overriding feeling is we shouldn't be here. Enjoy it but things have got to change. This was a big step to make sure we secure it.

"Work on next season started the day I got here. Don't think this is an easy fix. There is massive work to be done.

"It's a big club but it's not currently at the top end of the market .... we're not performing like a big club. It's been like this for two seasons now. This is a bigger project."

Dyche also highlighted how light his squad is in terms of depth, but is not anticipating having lots of money to spend to rectify that problem this close season.

"I know the industry," he added. "I've been in football all my life so I know what I'm doing. This is going to be a work in progress, and I think Everton fans understand that.

"We've got to recruit wisely and recruit players who understand this club. I've learned that. We need that mixture of a heartbeat and talent.

"There has to be a reality as we're not going to get that (a summer war chest) as we're building a beautiful new stadium. "The heartbeat of the football club is needed. It's beating a little bit stronger."

Our Standards: The Thomson Reuters Trust Principles.

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