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What Does a Word Processor Do?

What They Do

A word processor is responsible for setting up and preparing mailing labels, letters, reports, and other materials using word processing software and a keyboard. They use word processing commands to create documents needed for company operations. They are also expected to perform some clerical duties in and around the office, like answering telephone calls and copying documents.

Word Processor Responsibilities

Here are examples of responsibilities from real word processor resumes representing typical tasks they are likely to perform in their roles.

Resume

Word Processor Job Description

Perhaps the hardest question to answer when deciding on a career as a word processor is "should I become a word processor?" You might find this info to be helpful. When compared to other jobs, word processor careers are projected to have a growth rate described as "decline" at -7% from 2018 through 2028. This is in accordance with the Bureau of Labor Statistics. What's more, is that the projected number of opportunities that are predicted to become available for a word processor by 2028 is -276,700.

Word processors average about $18.97 an hour, which makes the word processor annual salary $39,454. Additionally, word processors are known to earn anywhere from $26,000 to $58,000 a year. This means that the top-earning word processors make $24,000 more than the lowest earning ones.

As is the case with most jobs, it takes work to become a word processor. Sometimes people change their minds about their career after working in the profession. That's why we looked into some other professions that might help you find your next opportunity. These professions include a typist , statistical typist , medical typist , and word processing specialist .

Word Processor Jobs You Might Like

12 word processor resume examples.

Build a professional word processor resume in minutes. Browse through our resume examples to identify the best way to word your resume. Then choose from 12 + resume templates to create your word processor resume.

Word Processor Skills and Personality Traits

We calculated that 15 % of Word Processors are proficient in PowerPoint , Data Entry , and Proofreading . They’re also known for soft skills such as Interpersonal skills , Organizational skills , and Writing skills .

We break down the percentage of Word Processors that have these skills listed on their resume here:

Directed and coordinated diverse administrative projects including document preparation and duplication, editing, and the development of PowerPoint presentations.

Provided preparation of insurance proposals, correspondence, data entry and miscellaneous office support for this family-owned business.

Assisted Managing Editor with all duties including word processing, proofreading and verifying information

Prepared legal correspondence and documents for busy personal injury/litigation law firm.

Audited post-closing documents and prepared of financial statements, management letters, proposals and exhibitions.

Set priorities and with independent judgment produced various reports, correspondence, and specifications using different types of word processing equipment.

Choose From 10+ Customizable Word Processor Resume templates

Word Processor Resume

Some of the skills we found on word processor resumes included "powerpoint," "data entry," and "proofreading." We have detailed the most important word processor responsibilities below.

See the full list of word processor skills.

Before becoming a word processor, 38.2% earned their bachelor's degree. When it comes down to graduating with a master's degree, 5.1% word processors went for the extra education. If you're wanting to pursue this career, it may be possible to be successful with a high school degree. In fact, some word processors have a college degree. But about one out of every four word processors didn't attend college at all.

Those word processors who do attend college, typically earn either a business degree or a secretarial and administrative science degree. Less commonly earned degrees for word processors include a english degree or a legal support services degree.

Once you're ready to become a word processor, you should explore the companies that typically hire word processors. According to word processor resumes that we searched through, word processors are hired the most by PKF O'Connor Davies, NANA, and Kent Daniels & Associates. Currently, PKF O'Connor Davies has 6 word processor job openings, while there are 5 at NANA and 3 at Kent Daniels & Associates.

But if you're interested in companies where you might earn a high salary, word processors tend to earn the biggest salaries at Kent Daniels & Associates, ASRC Federal, and Mclaughlin Research Corporation. Take Kent Daniels & Associates for example. The median word processor salary is $74,686. At ASRC Federal, word processors earn an average of $58,201, while the average at Mclaughlin Research Corporation is $53,575. You should take into consideration how difficult it might be to secure a job with one of these companies.

View more details on word processor salaries across the United States.

If you earned a degree from the top 100 educational institutions in the United States, you might want to take a look at Nordstrom, Nationwide, and Citi. These three companies have hired a significant number of word processors from these institutions.

In general, word processors fulfill roles in the technology and professional industries. While employment numbers are high in those industries, the word processor annual salary is the highest in the professional industry with $61,450 as the average salary. Meanwhile, the government and non profits industries pay $51,031 and $48,403 respectively. This means that word processors who are employed in the professional industry make 51.2% more than word processors who work in the manufacturing Industry.

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What Typists Do

A typist is responsible for typing all of a company's documents and materials, including reports, policies, and correspondence. A typist may also be known as a word processor or copy clerk. They are a professional who may work for companies or individuals. Their job responsibilities may include typing up letters, filling out forms, creating transcriptions of audio recordings, or organizing documents. They may also have to answer phones.

We looked at the average word processor annual salary and compared it with the average of a typist. Generally speaking, typists receive $7,311 lower pay than word processors per year.

Even though word processors and typists have vast differences in their careers, a few of the skills required to do both jobs are similar. For example, both careers require powerpoint, data entry, and financial statements in the day-to-day roles.

These skill sets are where the common ground ends though. A word processor responsibility is more likely to require skills like "proofreading," "law firm," "word processing equipment," and "adobe acrobat." Whereas a typist requires skills like "wpm," "computer database," "escrow," and "word processing." Just by understanding these different skills you can see how different these careers are.

Typists tend to make the most money in the government industry by averaging a salary of $34,510. In contrast, word processors make the biggest average salary of $61,450 in the professional industry.

Typists tend to reach similar levels of education than word processors. In fact, typists are 2.2% less likely to graduate with a Master's Degree and 0.2% less likely to have a Doctoral Degree.

What Are The Duties Of a Statistical Typist?

The next role we're going to look at is the statistical typist profession. Typically, this position earns a higher pay. In fact, they earn a $5,192 higher salary than word processors per year.

While the salary may be different for these job positions, there is one similarity and that's a few of the skills needed to perform certain duties. We used info from lots of resumes to find that both word processors and statistical typists are known to have skills such as "data entry," "financial statements," and "telephone calls. "

In addition to the difference in salary, there are some other key differences that are worth noting. For example, word processor responsibilities are more likely to require skills like "powerpoint," "proofreading," "law firm," and "word processing equipment." Meanwhile, a statistical typist might be skilled in areas such as "income tax returns," "word processing," "scheduling appointments," and "audit reports." These differences highlight just how different the day-to-day in each role looks.

On the topic of education, statistical typists earn similar levels of education than word processors. In general, they're 1.4% less likely to graduate with a Master's Degree and 0.2% less likely to earn a Doctoral Degree.

How a Medical Typist Compares

The medical typist profession generally makes a lower amount of money when compared to the average salary of word processors. The difference in salaries is medical typists making $9,223 lower than word processors.

Some important key differences between the two careers are a few of the skills necessary to fulfill responsibilities. Some examples from word processor resumes include skills like "powerpoint," "data entry," "proofreading," and "law firm," whereas a medical typist might be skilled in "dictation," "medical reports," "transcription," and "data collection. "

When it comes to education, medical typists tend to earn lower education levels than word processors. In fact, they're 5.1% less likely to earn a Master's Degree, and 0.5% less likely to graduate with a Doctoral Degree.

Description Of a Word Processing Specialist

The fourth career we look at typically earns lower pay than word processors. On average, word processing specialists earn a difference of $3,911 lower per year.

According to resumes from both word processors and word processing specialists, some of the skills necessary to complete the responsibilities of each role are similar. These skills include "powerpoint," "law firm," and "financial statements. "

Each job requires different skills like "data entry," "proofreading," "troubleshoot," and "software applications," which might show up on a word processor resume. Whereas word processing specialist might include skills like "transcription," "dictation," "statistical data," and "scheduling appointments."

In general, word processing specialists reach similar levels of education when compared to word processors resumes. Word processing specialists are 1.8% less likely to earn their Master's Degree and 0.0% less likely to graduate with a Doctoral Degree.

What Similar Roles Do

Word Processor Related Careers

Word Processor Related Jobs

Chapter 3: Word Processing

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>उत्तर प्रदेश में भातखण्डे हिन्दुस्तानी संगीत महाविद्यालय किस नगर में स्थित है ?

>लोक चित्रकला ‘मधुबनी’ किस राज्य में लोकप्रिय है ?

>भारत के महान्यायवादी की नियुक्ति कौन करता है ?

>भारत में करेन्सी नोट कौन जारी करता है ?

>किसे पहला खगोलशास्त्री माना जाता है ?

>भारत के किस एक राज्य में कुल भूक्षेत्र का अधिकतम वन क्षेत्र है ?

>आर्य भारत में सबसे पहले आकर कहाँ बसे ?

>भारत का वित्तीय वर्ष कब प्रारम्भ होता है ?

>संस्ड्डत व्याकरण किसने लिखा था ?

>धोने के सोडे का रासायनिक सूत्र क्या है ?

>प्रसिध्द भारतीय महिला एथलीट पी.टी. उषा की आत्मकथा का क्या नाम है ?

>काले वन किस देश में पाए जाते हैं ?

>सन्त कबीर के गुरु का नाम क्या था ?

>‘जिसके पेट पर माँ ने रस्सी बाँधी थी’ उसे क्या कहते ?

>राष्ट्रीय डेयरी विकास बोर्ड ने देश के कितने राज्यों में ‘राष्ट्रीय डेयरी योजना’ आरम्भ करने की घोषणा की ?

>नृत्य के ‘मोहिनीअट्टम’ रूप का विकास कहाँ हुआ था ?

>भारतीय संविधान ने किस देश के संविधान से राज्य के नीर्ति.निर्देशन सिध्दांत ग्रहण किए हैं ?

>किस वर्ष तक भारत में एक पार्टी का प्रभुत्व था ?

>‘गाँधी सागर’, ‘जवाहर सागर’ तथा ‘राणा प्रताप सागर’ बाँध किस नदी पर निर्मित हैं ?

>चंद्रमा तारामंडल से वापस अपनी स्थिति में जाने में कितना समय लेता है ?

>अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय क्रिकेट टूर्नामेन्ट के आयोजन के सम्बन्ध में चर्चित ‘शाहजाह’ किस देश में है ?

>बृहस्पति ग्रह सूर्य के चारों ओर अपनी कक्षा में एक परिक्रमा में कितना समय लेता है ?

>हरे पौधे किसकी उपस्थिति में भोजन बनाते हैं ?

>भारत का राष्ट्रपति बनने से पहले भारत रत्न का अवार्ड किसे मिला था ?

>केईबुल लैम्जवो, विश्व का एकमात्र तैरता राष्ट्रीय उद्यान कहां स्थित है ?

>एल्युमिनियम का प्रमुख अयस्क कौन-सा है ?

>पीछे का दृश्य देखने के लिए कौन-से दर्पण का प्रयोग किया जाता है ?

>ग्रेगर मेण्डल किसके प्रतिपादन के लिए प्रसिध्द है ?

>सूर्य से पृथ्वी की दूरी कितनी है ?

>हड़प्पा की खोज किसने की ?

>विधानसभा एवं विधानपरिषद् के वर्ष में कम.से.कम कितने अधिवेशन होने अनिवार्य हैं ?

>विटामिन.‘सी’ का रासायनिक नाम क्या है ?

>भारतीय रिजर्व बैंक का राष्ट्रीयकरण कब किया गया था ?

>स्वतंत्रता के बाद विकसित किया गया पहला बंदरगाह कौन सा है ?

>‘कॉन्क्वेस्ट ऑफ सेल्फ’ पुस्तक के लेखक कौन है ?

>किस राज्य में ऑयल इण्डिया लिमिटेड (OIL) ने ‘रूपान्तर’ नामक एक परियोजना प्रारम्भ की है ?

>किस बीमारी में रक्त में शर्करा का स्तर बढ़ जाता है ?

>‘गैर नृत्य’ किस त्यौहार पर किया जाता है ?

>भारत सरकार द्वारा बालकों के कल्याण के लिए ‘बाल नीति’ की घोषणा कब की गई थी ?

>नीला थोथा का रासायनिक सूत्र क्या है ?

>संविधान सभा द्वारा अन्तिम रूप से पारित संविधान में कुल कितने अनुच्छेद और अनुसूचियाँ थी ?

>सूर्य.कलंक की खोज करने वाला सबसे पहला वैज्ञानिक कौन था ?

>सरकार के विरुध्द अविश्वास प्रस्ताव संसद के किस सदन में लाया जाता है ?

>मछली कहाँ से श्वास लेती है ?

>भारत में क्षेत्रीय शासन स्थापित करने वाला पहला यूरोपीय राष्ट्र कौन था ?

>किस ब्रिटिश प्रधानमंत्री के समय भारत स्वतन्त्र हुआ ?

>भारत का दक्षिणतम बिन्दु का नाम क्या है ?

>भारतीय राष्ट्रीय कांग्रेस की स्थापना कहाँ हुई ?

>खानवां के युध्द में बाबर द्वारा पराजित किया जाने वाला राजपूत राजा कौन था ?

>उत्तर प्रदेश के प्रथम राज्यपाल कौन थे ?

>युआन कहां की मुद्रा है ?

>UNESCO ने निम्नलिखित में से किस दिन को ‘अंतर्राष्ट्रीय साक्षरता दिवस’ घोषित किया था ?

>भारत में दल.रहित लोकतंत्र का प्रस्ताव किसने रखा था ?

>मुगलकाल में न्यायालयों में किस भाषा का प्रयोग किया जाता था ?

>मथने के पश्चात दूध से क्रीम किस कारण से पृथक् हो जाती है ?

>संसद के दोनों सदनों का संयुक्त सत्र कौन बुला सकता है ?

>‘जर्मन सिल्वर’ किसका मिश्रण है ?

>हल्दीघाटी की लड़ाई में अकबर ने किसको हराया था ?

>संयुक्त राष्ट्र की आर्थिक और सामाजिक परिषद ने कितनी गैर.सरकारी संस्थाओं को विशेष सलाहकार का दर्जा दिया है ?

>भारत के संविधान निर्माण के दौरान संविधान सभा की प्रारूप समिति के अध्यक्ष कौन थे ?

>विश्व पर्यावरण दिवस कब मनाया जाता है ?

>महात्मा बुध्द को ज्ञान की प्राप्ति कहाँ हुई ?

>‘डिस्कवरी ऑफ इण्डिया’ किसने लिखी है ?

>अगस्त माह का नाम किस रोमन शासक के नाम पर पड़ा ?

>कौन-से विटामिन को डेंगू जैसी खतरनाक बीमारी के इलाज के लिए मददगार बताया गया है ?

>भारतीय संविधान के अंतर्गत संप्रभु शक्तियां किसके पास होती हैं ?

>प्रसिध्द हल्दी घाटी का युध्द (1576 ई.) किनके मध्य लड़ा गया था ?

>‘इंकलाब जिंदाबाद’ का नारा किसने दिया था ?

>भारतीय राष्ट्रीय कांग्रेस की स्थापना के समय कौन भारत का वायसराय था ?

>सामान्य वयस्क व्यक्ति में कुल कितना रक्त होता है ?

>एशियाई खेल.2014 में कहाँ होंगें ?

>डी.एन.ए. की द्विगुणित कुण्डली का पता किसने लगाया ?

>मेसोपोटामिया की सभ्यता कहाँ विकसित हुई थी ?

>किस संग्रहालय को विश्व.कला संग्रहों का भण्डार कहा जाता है ?

>प्रसिध्द ‘विट्ठल स्वामी का मन्दिर’ तथा ‘हजारा का मन्दिर’ का निर्माण किसने करवाया था ?

>कूलंब किसकी इकाई है ?

>किसको सह्याद्रि पर्वतमाला भी कहा जाता है ?

>अधिपादप किस विशेष तरह के स्थानों पर पाए जाते है ?

>राष्ट्रपति द्वारा आंतरिक अव्यवस्था के आधार पर आपातकाल की घोषणा पहली बार कब की गई ?

>गुप्तकालीन ‘नवरत्न’ किस शासक के दरबार में थे ?

>पुलिस द्वारा गिरफ्तार किए गए तथा हिरासत में लिए गए व्यक्ति को कितनी समयावधि के भीतर निकटतम मजिस्ट्रेट के पास ले जाया जाना होता है ?

>यूरोपा किसका उपग्रह है ?

>मैक मोहन रेखा किसके बीच सीमांकन करती है ?

>उत्तर प्रदेश में प्रतिवर्ष होलिकोत्सव के अवसर पर लट्ठमार होली का आयोजन कहाँ होता है ?

>ललित कला अकादमी की स्थापना किस वर्ष हुई थी ?

>किस बन्दरगाह को ‘ऑफ स्प्रिंग ऑफ पार्टीशन’ कहा जाता है, क्योंकि इसका विकास विभाजन के पश्चात् कराची बन्दरगाह की एवज में किया गया था ?

>चैथे बौध्द संगीति का आयोजन किसके शासनकाल में हुआ था ?

>राज्य योजना आयोग का अध्यक्ष कौन होता है ?

>महात्मा गाँधी द्वारा सविनय अवज्ञा आंदोलन किस वर्ष शुरू किया गया था ?

>‘कुचिपुड़ी’ कहाँ का शास्त्रीय नृत्य है ?

>संसार में ताजे पानी की सबसे बड़ी झील ‘लेक सुपीरियर’ कहाँ पर स्थित है ?

>एक न्यूट्रॉन, एक इलेक्ट्रॉन, एक प्रोटॉन और एक अल्फा कण समान गतिज ऊर्जा से गतिमान है। इन कणों के वेग सही आरोही क्रम क्या होगा ?

>पहला ड्डत्रिम उपग्रह कौनसा था ?

>किस नदी को ‘दक्षिण गंगा’ कहा जाता है ?

>पादप, हिरण, भेडि़या व शेर से निर्मित खाद्य-श्रंखला में से ऊर्जा किसमें होगी ?

>भारतीय राष्ट्रीय कांग्रेस का प्रथम अधिवेशन बिहार में कहाँ सम्पन्न हुआ ?

>कांच, हीरा और जल में प्रकाश के वेग का सही अवरोही क्रम क्या है ?

>राज्य की कार्यपालिका का प्रमुख कौन होता है ?

>नरसिंहम समिति किससे सम्बन्धित है ?

>महासागर सतह पर सबसे गहरा बिन्दु कौन-सा है ?

>किस सुल्तान ने बाजार नियन्त्रण व्यवस्था लागू की ?

>अंग्रेजी भाषा का एक मिलियन्थ (दस लाखवाँ) शब्द बनने का सम्मान किसको गया ?

>‘डबल फॉल्ट’ शब्द किस खेल से सम्बन्धित है ?

>पुस्तक ‘लास्ट मैन इन दि टावर’ का लेखक कौन है ?

>सबसे लम्बी खाद्य श्रंखला कहाँ मिलती है ?

>सर्वोच्च न्यायालय के न्यायाधीश की सेवानिवृत्ति की आयु कितनी होती है ?

>कौन-सा पुच्छल तारा 76 वर्ष बाद दिखाई देता है ?

>दुनिया में पहली बार किस कम्पनी ने 3 जी मोबाइल दूरसंचार सेवा लाँच की थी ?

>कार.चालक की सुरक्षा के लिए प्रयोग में आने वाले वायु.थैले (एयरबैग) में क्या होता है ?

>पृथ्वी किस गति से सूर्य का चक्कर लगाती है ?

>स्वामीनारायण मन्दिर, अक्षरधाम कहाँ स्थित है ?

>भारत का प्राचीनतम टूर्नामेन्ट कौन सा है ?

>‘हारमोनीज ऑफ द वल्र्ड’ पुस्तक किसने लिखी है ?

>किस नृत्य शैली में कथा/भाव हमेशा महाभारत या रामायण से लिया जाता है ?

>भारत में बीमा क्षेत्र किसके द्वारा नियन्त्रित किया जाता है ?

>भारतीय राष्ट्रीय चिह्न के नीचे देवनागरी लिपि में लिखा वाक्य ‘सत्यमेव जयते’ कहां से लिया गया ?

>दलबदल से सम्बन्धित प्रावधान किस अनुसूची में रखे गए हैं ?

>हिंदू कानून जिनकी देन है वह कौन थे ?

>विश्व की सबसे लम्बी नदी कौन सी है ?

>विश्व का सबसे ऊँचा ज्वालामुखी कौन सा है ?

>संसार का सबसे बड़ा द्वीप ग्रीनलैण्ड है। वह किस देश का अभिन्न अंग है ?

>सोलह महाजनपदों के बारे में किस बौध्द ग्रन्थ से जानकारी मिलती है ?

>‘‘मस्तिष्क कोरी पटिया के समान है, जिस पर अनुभव के द्वारा कुछ भी लिखा जा सकता है.’’ उक्त कथन किसका है ?

>सूर्य में कौनसी गैस सर्वाधिक मात्रा में पाई जाती है ?

>‘भेल’ द्वारा भारत का प्रथम अल्ट्रा हाई वोल्टेज ट्रांसफॉर्मर कहाँ स्थापित किया गया है ?

>आईसी 22 23 क्या है ?

>भारत के संविधान के किस भाग को संविधान की आत्मा के रूप में वर्णित किया गया हैं ?

>जनगणना 2011 के अनुसार भारत में प्रति हजार पुरुषों पर महिलाओं की संख्या कितनी है ?

>महात्मा गाँधी ने ‘करो या मरो’ का मंत्र किस आन्दोलन के समय दिया था?

>सूचना की उस सबसे छोटी इकाई को क्या कहते हैं, जिसे कंप्यूटर समझ व प्रोसैस कर सकता है ?

>उत्तर प्रदेश में पैराट्रूपर्स ट्रेनिंग स्कूल किस नगर में स्थित है ?

>विद्युत बल्ब के निर्माण में किन गैसों के संयोजन का प्रयोग किया जाता है ?

>उत्तर प्रदेश में उच्च न्यायालय की खण्डपीठ कहाँ स्थित है ?

>विश्व का दूसरा सबसे बड़ा महाद्वीप कौनसा है ?

>जैव वैज्ञानिक लेमार्क किस देश से सम्बन्धित था ?

>किस राजा के शासनकाल में ईसाई धर्म प्रचारक ‘सेण्ट थॉमस’ भारत आया ?

>संसार का विशालतम स्तनधारी कौन-सा है ?

>चन्द्रगुप्त द्वितीय और किस नाम से जाना जाता था ?

>‘इंडिया रिमेम्बर्ड’ नामक पुस्तक किसने लिखी है ?

>दिल्ली स्थित ‘राजघाट’ किसका समाधि स्थल है ?

>भारत के स्थलाड्डतिक मानचित्र को कौन-सा संगठन बनाता है ?

>1905 में बंगाल प्रांत को दो भागों में किसने बांटा था ?

>नवजात शिशु में कितनी हड्डियाँ होती हैं ?

>यू.एस.ए. की राजधानी किस नदी के किनारे स्थित है ?

>प्लास्टर ऑफ पेरिस (पेरिस प्लास्टर) किससे बनता है ?

>उबेर कप का सम्बन्ध किस खेल से है ?

>कैला देवी का विश्व प्रसिध्द मन्दिर राजस्थान के किस जिले में स्थित है ?

>सूक्ष्म विद्युत.धारा का पता लगाने एवं मापन के लिए किस उपकरण का प्रयोग किया जाता है ?

>लोकसभा और राज्यसभा की संयुक्त बैठक की अध्यक्षता कौन करता है ?

>सौरमंडल का केंद्र कौन-सा है ?

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Towards Data Science

Patrick Meyer

Oct 19, 2021

Member-only

Natural Language Processing Tasks

Nlp is a group of operations consisting in processing mainly textual data through various activities. with the help of these computer activities, it is possible to transform unstructured information into explicit data or to generate text from the information. in this article, i give you a list of these different tasks., introduction.

We are not born with the ability to hold a conversation, we acquire it from our family, our teachers, our colleagues… We learn at school, and throughout our lives, the vocabulary and grammar that govern writing and speaking. Natural language is opposed to computer language because of its lack of explicit logical structure, its richness, and the rules (often complex and ambiguous) that govern it. Since computers do not yet understand our language natively, a set of activities has been created to bridge the two worlds: the human and the machine.

Information is generally available in 3 representations:

Language analysis is performed at two levels: lexical analysis, which is based on the processing of individual units such as graphemes (letters or groups of letters transcribing a phoneme, e.g. “ewe”, “eau” or “eu”), phonemes (sound segments, e.g. the sound /o/), and morphemes (segments of a word, e.g. the prefix or suffix); and semantic analysis, which focuses on the meaning of words and sentences as a whole.

For a long time based on explicit rules, NLP now takes full advantage of the automatic rule learning features provided by machine learning. This learning is provided by the labeling work carried out by experts in the language or the business domain concerned. Let us now detail the main NLP processes.

Note: this organization of NLP tasks is personal.

Basic linguistic features

This first category includes “basic” processing tasks such as:

Advanced linguistic features

This second category includes semantic processing tasks such as:

Voice processing

Voice processing has a special place in the landscape of language processing because of the even greater difference between written language and the use of sound frequencies to convey voice.

Voice processing covers many activities:

State Of The Art of Speech Synthesis at the End of May 2021

Presentation of the state of the art in speech synthesis research at the end of may 2021 with a focus on deep learning….

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Optical recognition

Optical recognition consists in detecting writing in an image and transforming the information into text. This writing can come from print characters or from handwriting.

Text classification

The objective of these activities is to succeed in detecting the subject, the domain of a sentence, or a document.

Is your chatbot sensitive?

Conversational assistance solutions increasingly include sentiment analysis functionality. what does this mean is it….

Language generation

This category includes a large number of services allowing to produce text from the information made available. These activities have been highlighted recently with the production of statistical models with several billion parameters and trained on corpus sizes close to terabytes.

Other tasks

Many other activities exist but are less widespread, more complex to apply, or even more confidential because they are less present in NLP platforms.

For example:

Perspectives

NLP consists of many automatic language processing tasks that allow to explore and extract information from unstructured content. This field has been boosted in recent years by the contribution of machine learning technologies that have made it possible to reach levels of quality that are sometimes superior to those of humans. It is the assembly of several tasks that will allow us to achieve extraordinary results.

One activity is not mentioned above because it is not, strictly speaking, an NLP task. This activity covers all the activities since it consists in carrying out a verification/comparison activity of the results. It consists in checking the performance of the algorithms through a corpus specialized in the task to be carried out. This verification is fundamental since it will allow us to obtain a score by using a common reference frame for the evaluation of the treatments. This activity is nevertheless contested by the fact that the algorithms are thus optimized to obtain the best possible score on the corpus selected as a reference and have difficulties to generalize.

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Patrick Meyer

I work in the field of artificial intelligence, especially in knowledge processing and NLP. In particular, on virtual assistants since 2016.

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Unit 9. Basic word processing skills

Topic A: Basic word processing

Click play on the following audio player to listen along as you read this section.

Word processing – the use of a program (software application) running on a computer that allows users to create, edit, format, and store documents.

Create a Document

word processing task associated

Edit a Document

Editing a document – making revisions to a document, focusing on correcting errors, improving the accuracy of language, rearranging, making words and sentences clearer and more effective, etc.

Editing in word processing may include the following tasks:

Select Text

Before editing text, you’ll need to select it. This is also sometimes called “highlighting text.”

word processing task associated

word processing task associated

word processing task associated

Delete (or remove) text

word processing task associated

Copy and Paste

Copy vs. cut.

Copy and paste vs. cut and paste

Steps to copy / cut and paste

word processing task associated

word processing task associated

word processing task associated

Review a Document

Check spelling and grammar.

word processing task associated

word processing task associated

Find Synonyms

word processing task associated

word processing task associated

the use of a program (software application) running on a computer to create, edit, format, and store documents.

making revisions to a document, focusing on correcting errors, improving the accuracy of language, rearranging, making words and sentences clearer, more effective, etc.

make a duplicate of the selected items (text, symbol, table, image, etc.) and place it in another location.

removes the selected item from its original position.

Key Concepts of Computer Studies by Meizhong Wang is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

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word processing task associated

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word processing task associated

This module allows you to demonstrate the ability to use a word processing application to accomplish everyday tasks associated with creating, formatting, and finishing small-sized word processing documents, such as letters and other everyday documents.

On completion of this module you will be able to:.

What are the benefits of this module?

Syllabus Overview

The module sets out the specific knowledge and skills that make up this module, developed with input from subject matter experts from a wide range of computer societies and organisations.

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Contact us through email to get a copy of the syllabus or contact us at +971 (0)4 4540420 and [email protected]

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Basic tasks in Word

Word 2016 is designed to help you create professional-quality documents. Word can also help you organize and write documents more efficiently.

When you create a document in Word, you can choose to start from a blank document or let a template do much of the work for you. From then on, the basic steps in creating and sharing documents are the same. And Word's powerful editing and reviewing tools can help you work with others to make your document great.

Tip:  To learn about new features, see What's new in Word 2016 .

Start a document

It’s often easier to create a new document using a template instead of starting with a blank page. Word templates come ready-to-use with pre-set themes and styles. All you need to do is add your content.

Each time you start Word, you can choose a template from the gallery, click a category to see more templates, or search for more templates online.

For a closer look at any template, click it to open a large preview.

If you’d rather not use a template, click Blank document .

word processing task associated

Open a document

Every time you start Word, you’ll see a list of your most recently used documents in the left column. If the document you’re looking for isn’t there, click Open Other Documents .

A list of the most recently used documents is shown.

If you’re already in Word, click File > Open and then browse to the file’s location.

When you open a document that was created in earlier versions of Word, you see Compatibility Mode in the title bar of the document window. You can work in compatibility more or you can upgrade the document to use Word 2016. 

Save a document

To save a document for the first time, do the following:

On the File tab, click Save As .

Browse to the location where you’d like to save your document.

Note:  To save the document on your computer, choose a folder under This PC or click Browse . To save your document online, choose an online location under Save As or click Add a Place . When your files are online, you can share, give feedback and work together on them in real time.

Click Save .

Note:  Word automatically saves files in the .docx file format. To save your document in a format other than .docx, click the Save as type list, and then select the file format that you want.

To save your document as you continue to work on it, click Save in the Quick Access Toolbar.

The Save icon is displayed in the Quick Access Toolbar

Read documents

Open your document in Read Mode to hide most of the buttons and tools so you can get absorbed in your reading without distractions.

Read mode

Open the document you want to read.

Note:  Some documents open in Read Mode automatically, such as protected documents or attachments.

Click View > Read Mode .

To move from page to page in a document, do one of the following:

Click the arrows on the left and right sides of the pages.

Press page down and page up or the spacebar and backspace on the keyboard. You can also use the arrow keys or the scroll wheel on your mouse.

If you’re on a touch device, swipe left or right with your finger.

Tip:  Click View > Edit Document to edit the document again.

Track changes

When you’re working on a document with other people or editing a document yourself, turn on Track Changes to see every change. Word marks all additions, deletions, moves, and formatting changes.

Open the document to be reviewed.

Click Review and then on the Track Changes button, select Track Changes .

When you click the Track Changes button, the available options are highlighted

Read Track changes to learn more.

Print your document

All in one place, you can see how your document will look when printed, set your print options, and print the file.

On the File tab, click Print .

Print in the Backstage view

Do the following:

Under Print , in the Copies box, enter the number of copies you want.

Under Printer , make sure the printer you want is selected.

Under Settings , the default print settings for your printer are selected for you. If you want to change a setting, just click the setting you want to change and then select a new setting.

When you’re satisfied with the settings, click Print .

For details, see Print a document .

Beyond the basics

For more on the fundamentals of using Word, see What's new in Word 2016 .

Top of Page

With Word for the web, you use your web browser to create, view, and edit the personal documents that you store on OneDrive . If your organization or college has a Microsoft 365 plan or SharePoint site, start using Word for the web by creating or storing documents in libraries on your site.Save changes

Word saves your changes automatically. Look on the status bar at the bottom left corner of Word for the web. It will either show Saved or Saving .

word processing task associated

Share documents online

Because your document is online, you can share it by sending a link instead of an email attachment. People can read it in their web browser or mobile device.

Click File > Share > Share with People .

word processing task associated

Comment in the browser

A comment balloon shows where comments have been made in the doc.

word processing task associated

Reply to comments, and check off items you’ve addressed.

Threaded comments in Word Online

Edit in the browser

If you try to type in the document and nothing happens, you’re probably in Reading view. Switch to Editing view: click Edit Document > Edit in Word for the web .

word processing task associated

Type and format text, add pictures, adjust the layout of the page, and more. For more advanced editing, click Open in Word .

Open In Word from Edit view in Word Online

Work together on the same doc

To work together in Word for the web, you edit a document as you normally would. If others are also editing it, Word for the web alerts you to their presence. You can see everyone who is currently working in the document by clicking in the ribbon.

Image of authors in Word Online

Clicking on an author’s name jumps you to where they’re working in the doc. And you’ll see the changes they make as they’re happening. They can be working in Word for the web, Word 2010 or later, or Word for Mac 2011.

Add a header or footer

Go to Insert > Header & Footer to add headers and footers to your document.

Image of Header & Footer button in Word Online

Click Options to choose how you’d like them to appear.

Image of Header and Footer Options menu in Word Online

Add page numbers

Click Insert > Page Numbers and then choose from the gallery where you’d like the page numbers to appear.

word processing task associated

Select Include Page Count to show the current page number along with the total number of pages (page X of Y).

Find and replace text

Quickly search for every occurrence of a specific word or phrase in your document by clicking Home > Find (or type Ctrl+F). Results appear next to your document so you can see the term in context. Clicking on a search result jumps you to that occurrence.

Image of Find pane in Word Online

Click Replace (or type Ctrl+H) to find and replace text.

Print in Word for the web

Go to File > Print . Word for the web creates a PDF preview of your document that keeps all the layout and formatting of your document. Send the PDF to your printer and it will print the way you expect.

word processing task associated

Microsoft Word 2013 is a word-processing program designed to help you create professional-quality documents. Word helps you organize and write your documents more efficiently.

Your first step in creating a document in Word 2013 is to choose whether to start from a blank document or to let a template do much of the work for you. From then on, the basic steps in creating and sharing documents are the same. Powerful editing and reviewing tools help you work with others to make your document perfect.

Tip:  For a training course to help you create your first document, see Create your first Word 2013 document . To learn about the features that are new to Word 2013, see What's new in Word 2013 .

Choose a template

It’s often easier to create a new document using a template instead of starting with a blank page. Word templates are ready to use with themes and styles. All you need to do is add your content.

Each time you start Word 2013, you can choose a template from the gallery, click a category to see the templates it contains, or search for more templates online. (If you’d rather not use a template, just click the Blank document .)

For a closer look at any template, just click it to open a large preview.

Open other documents

When you open a document that was created in earlier versions of Word, you see Compatibility Mode in the title bar of the document window. You can work in compatibility more or you can upgrade the document to use features that are new or enhanced in Word 2013 . 

Click the File tab.

Click Save As .

Note:  To save the document on your computer, choose a folder under Computer or click Browse . To save your document online, choose a location under Places or Add a Location . When your files are online, you can share, give feedback and work together on them in real time.

Save in the Quick Access Toolbar

Open your document in Read M ode to hide most of the buttons and tools so you can get absorbed in your reading without distractions.

Track Changes

Click the File tab and then click Print .

For details, see Print and preview documents .

Go beyond the basics with your documents by creating a table of contents  or  saving a document as a template.

Important:  Office 2010 is no longer supported . Upgrade to Microsoft 365 to work anywhere from any device and continue to receive support. Upgrade now

In this article

What is word, find and apply a template, create a new document, track changes and insert comments.

Microsoft Word 2010 is a word-processing program, designed to help you create professional-quality documents. With the finest document-formatting tools, Word helps you organize and write your documents more efficiently. Word also includes powerful editing and revising tools so that you can collaborate with others easily.

Word 2010 allows you to apply built-in templates, to apply your own custom templates, and to search from a variety of templates available on the web.

To find and apply a template in Word, do the following:

On the File tab, click New .

Under Available Templates , do one of the following:

To use one of the built-in templates, click Sample Templates , click the template that you want, and then click Create .

To reuse a template that you’ve recently used, click Recent Template s, click the template that you want, and then click Create .

To use your own template that you previously created, click My Templates , click the template that you want, and then click OK .

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Stroop Effect Experiment in Psychology

Charlotte Ruhl

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B.A., Psychology, Harvard University

Charlotte Ruhl is a recent Harvard College graduate with more than six years of research experience in clinical and social psychology. 

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BSc (Hons) Psychology, MRes, PhD, University of Manchester

Saul Mcleod, Ph.D., is a qualified psychology teacher with over 18 years experience of working in further and higher education.

Take-home Messages

What is the Stroop Effect?

The Stroop effect refers to a delay in reaction times between congruent and incongruent stimuli (MacLeod, 1991).

Congruency, or agreement, occurs when the meaning of a word and its font color is the same. For example, if the word “green” is printed in the color green.

Incongruent stimuli are just the opposite. That is, the meaning of the word and the color in which it is written do not align. For example, the word “green” might be printed in red ink.

The Stroop task asks individuals to name the color of the word instead of reading the word itself.

stroop effect experiment

The delay in reaction time reveals that it is much harder to name the color of a word when the word itself spells another color (the incongruent stimuli) than it is to name the color of the word when the word itself spells that same color (the congruent stimuli).

The First Stroop Experiment

The Stroop effect was first published back in 1935 by American psychologist John Ridley Stroop, although discoveries of this phenomenon date back to the nineteenth century (Stroop, 1935).

Building off previous research, Stroop had two main aims in his groundbreaking paper:

In order to empirically study these two major aims, Stroop ran three different experiments:

1) Experiment 1 :

Participants (70 college undergraduates) were tasked with reading the word aloud, irrespective of its color. In other words, participants must read aloud the word “green” even if written in a different color.

2) Experiment 2 :

The second experiment was the opposite of the first. Participants (100 college students) were first asked to name the color of individual squares (instead of the color of words) as a training mechanism for the subsequent task. Afterward, participants had to say the color of the word, regardless of its meaning – the opposite of the experiment 1 procedure.

3) Experiment 3 :

The third and final experiment integrated all of the previously mentioned tests with an undergraduate population of 32 participants.

The independent variable (IV) was the congruency of the font name and color.

The dependent variable (DV) was reaction time (ms) in reporting the letter color.

After running the three experiments, Stroop drew two main conclusions:

These tests demonstrate a disparity in the speed of naming colors and reading the names of colors, which may be explained by a difference in training in the two activities.

The word stimulus has been associated with the specific response “to read,” while the color stimulus has been associated with various responses: “to admire,” “to name,” etc.

The observed results might reflect the fact that people have more experience consciously reading words than consciously labeling colors, illustrating a difference in the mechanisms that control these two processes.

How the Stroop Effect Works

Why does the Stroop effect occur? We can tell our brain to do lots of things – store memories, sleep, think, etc. – so why can’t we tell it to do something as easy as naming a color? Isn’t that something we learn to do at a very young age?

Researchers have analyzed this question and come up with multiple different theories that seek to explain the occurrence of the Stroop effect (Sahinoglu & Dogan, 2016).

Speed of processing theory :

The processing speed theory claims that people can read words much faster than they can name colors (i.e., word processing is much faster than color processing).

When we look at the incongruent stimuli (the word “green” printed in red, for example), our brain first reads the word, making it much more difficult to then have to name the color.

As a result, a delay occurs when trying to name the color because doing so is not our brain’s first instinct (McMahon, 2013).

Selective attention theory :

The theory of selective attention holds that recognizing colors, compared to reading words, requires more attention.

Because of this, the brain needs to use more attention when attempting to name a color, making this process take slightly longer (McMahon, 2013).

Automaticity :

This theory argues that recognizing colors is not an automatic process, and thus there is a slight hesitancy when carrying out this action.

Automatic processing is processed in the mind that is relatively fast and requires few cognitive resources.

This type of information processing generally occurs outside of conscious awareness and is common when undertaking familiar and highly practiced tasks.

However, the brain is able to automatically understand the meaning of a word as a result of habitual reading (think back to Stroop’s initial study in 1935 – this theory explains why he wanted to test the effects of practice on the ability to name colors).

Researchers in support of this theory posit that automatic reading does not need controlled attention but still uses enough of the brain’s attentional resources to reduce the amount left for color processing (Monahan, 2001).

In a way, this parallels the brain’s dueling modes of thinking – that of “System 1” and “System 2.” Whereas the former is more automatic and instinctive, the latter is slower and more controlled (Kahneman, 2011).

This is similar to the Stroop effect, in which we see a more automatic process trying to dominate over a more deliberative one. The interference occurs when we try to use System 2 to override System 1, thus producing that delay in reaction time.

Parallel distributed processing :

The fourth and final theory proposes that when the brain completes different tasks, unique pathways are developed. Some of these pathways, such as reading words, are stronger than others, such as naming colors (Cohen et al., 1990).

Thus, interference is not an issue of processing speed, attention, or automaticity but rather a battle between the stronger and weaker neural pathways.

Additional Research

John Ridley Stroop helped lay the groundwork for an abundance of future research in this field.

Numerous studies have tried to identify the specific brain regions responsible for this phenomenon, identifying two key regions: the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLFPC).

Both MRI and fMRI scans show activity in the ACC and DLPFC while completing the Stroop test or related tasks (Milham et al., 2003).

The DLPFC assists with memory and executive functioning, and its role during the task are to activate color perception and inhibit word encoding. The ACC is responsible for selecting the appropriate response and properly allocating attentional resources (Banich et al., 2000).

Countless studies that repeatedly test the Stroop effect reveal a few key recurring findings (van Maanen et al., 2009):
Other experiments have slightly modified the original Stroop test paradigm to provide additional findings.

One study found that participants were slower to name the color of emotion words as opposed to neutral words (Larsen et al., 2006).

Another experiment examined the differences between participants with panic disorder and OCD. Even with using threat words as stimuli, they found that there was no difference among panic disorder, OCD, and neutral participants’ ability to process colors (Kampman et al., 2002).

A third experiment investigated the relationship between duration and numerosity processing instead of word and color processing.

Participants were shown two series of dots in succession and asked either (1) which series contained more dots or (2) which series lasted longer from the appearance of the first to the last dots of the series.

The incongruency occurred when fewer dots were shown on the screen for longer, and a congruent series was marked by a series with more dots that lasted longer.

The researchers found that numerical cues interfered with duration processing. That is, when fewer dots were shown for longer, it was harder for participants to figure out which set of dots appeared on the screen for longer (Dormal et al., 2006).

Thus, there is a difference between the processing of numerosity and duration. Together, these experiments illustrate not only all of the doors of research that Stroop’s initial work opened but also shed light on all of the intricate processing associations that occur in our brains.

Other Uses and Versions

The purpose of the Stroop task is to measure interference that occurs in the brain. The initial paradigm has since been adopted in several different ways to measure other forms of interference (such as duration and numerosity, as mentioned earlier).

Additional variations measure interference between picture and word processing, direction and word processing, digit and numerosity processing, and central vs. peripheral letter identification (MacLeod, 2015).

The below figure provides illustrations for these four variations:

stroop picture word  experiment

the Stroop task is also used as a mechanism for measuring selective attention, processing speed, and cognitive flexibility (Howieson et al., 2004).

Additionally, the Stroop task has been utilized to study populations with brain damage or mental disorders, such as dementia, depression, or ADHD (Lansbergen et al., 2007; Spreen & Strauss, 1998).

For individuals with depression, an emotional Stroop task (where negative words, such as “grief,” “violence,” and “pain,” are used in conjunction with more neutral words, such as “clock,” “door,” and “shoe”) has been developed.

Research reveals that individuals who struggle with depression are more likely to say the color of a negative word slower than that of a neutral word (Frings et al., 2010).

The versatility of the Stroop task paradigm lends itself to be useful in a wide variety of fields within psychology. What was once a test that only examined the relationship between word and color processing has since been expanded to investigate additional processing interferences and to contribute to the fields of psychopathology and brain damage.

The development of the Stroop task not only provides novel insights into the ways in which our brain mechanisms operate but also sheds light on the power of psychology to expand and build on past research methods as we continue to uncover more and more about ourselves.

Banich, M. T., Milham, M. P., Atchley, R., Cohen, N. J., Webb, A., Wszalek, T., … & Magin, R. (2000). fMRI studies of Stroop tasks reveal unique roles of anterior and posterior brain systems in attentional selection . Journal of cognitive neuroscience, 12 (6), 988-1000.

Cohen, J. D., Dunbar, K., & McClelland, J. L. (1990). On the control of automatic processes: a parallel distributed processing account of the Stroop effect . Psychological review, 97 (3), 332.

Dormal, V., Seron, X., & Pesenti, M. (2006). Numerosity-duration interference: A Stroop experiment . Acta psychologica, 121 (2), 109-124.

Frings, C., Englert, J., Wentura, D., & Bermeitinger, C. (2010). Decomposing the emotional Stroop effect . Quarterly journal of experimental psychology, 63 (1), 42-49.

Howieson, D. B., Lezak, M. D., & Loring, D. W. (2004). Orientation and attention. Neuropsychological assessment , 365-367.

Kahneman, D. (2011). Thinking, fast and slow . Macmillan.

Kampman, M., Keijsers, G. P., Verbraak, M. J., Näring, G., & Hoogduin, C. A. (2002). The emotional Stroop: a comparison of panic disorder patients, obsessive–compulsive patients, and normal controls, in two experiments. Journal of anxiety disorders, 16 (4), 425-441.

Lansbergen, M. M., Kenemans, J. L., & Van Engeland, H. (2007). Stroop interference and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a review and meta-analysis . Neuropsychology, 21 (2), 251.

Larsen, R. J., Mercer, K. A., & Balota, D. A. (2006). Lexical characteristics of words used in emotional Stroop experiments . Emotion, 6 (1), 62.

MacLeod, C. M. (1991). Half a century of research on the Stroop effect: an integrative review . Psychological bulletin, 109 (2), 163.

MacLeod, C. M. (2015). The stroop effect. Encyclopedia of Color Science and Technology.

McMahon, M. (2013). What Is the Stroop Effect. Retrieved November, 11 .

Milham, M. P., Banich, M. T., Claus, E. D., & Cohen, N. J. (2003). Practice-related effects demonstrate complementary roles of anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortices in attentional control . Neuroimage, 18 (2), 483-493.

Monahan, J. S. (2001). Coloring single Stroop elements: Reducing automaticity or slowing color processing? . The Journal of general psychology, 128 (1), 98-112.

Sahinoglu B, Dogan G. (2016). Event-Related Potentials and the Stroop Effect. Eurasian J Med , 48(1), 53‐57.

Spreen, O., & Strauss, E. (1998). A compendium of neuropsychological tests: Administration, norms, and commentary . Oxford University Press.

Stroop, J. R. (1935). Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions . Journal of experimental psychology, 18 (6), 643.

van Maanen, L., van Rijn, H., & Borst, J. P. (2009). Stroop and picture—word interference are two sides of the same coin . Psychonomic bulletin & review, 16 (6), 987-999.

Further information

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Picture-word interference is a Stroop effect: A theoretical analysis and new empirical findings

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Open Access

Peer-reviewed

Research Article

Holistic processing of faces and words predicts reading accuracy and speed in dyslexic readers

Roles Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Methodology, Software, Supervision, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

* E-mail: [email protected]

Affiliation Perception Lab, School of Psychology, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin, Ireland

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Roles Investigation, Writing – original draft

Roles Supervision, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation School of Psychology, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland

Roles Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Supervision, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

Affiliations Perception Lab, School of Psychology, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin, Ireland, School of Psychology, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland

PLOS

Table 1

We compared the performance of dyslexic and typical readers on two perceptual tasks, the Vanderbilt Holistic Face Processing Task and the Holistic Word Processing Task. Both yield a metric of holistic processing that captures the extent to which participants automatically attend to information that is spatially nearby but irrelevant to the task at hand. Our results show, for the first time, that holistic processing of faces is comparable in dyslexic and typical readers but that dyslexic readers show greater holistic processing of words. Remarkably, we show that these metrics predict the performance of dyslexic readers on a standardized reading task, with more holistic processing in both tasks associated with higher accuracy and speed. In contrast, a more holistic style on the words task predicts less accurate reading of both words and pseudowords for typical readers. We discuss how these findings may guide our conceptualization of the visual deficit in dyslexia.

Citation: Brady N, Darmody K, Newell FN, Cooney SM (2021) Holistic processing of faces and words predicts reading accuracy and speed in dyslexic readers. PLoS ONE 16(12): e0259986. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0259986

Editor: Randi Starrfelt, Kobenhavns Universitet, DENMARK

Received: April 16, 2021; Accepted: October 30, 2021; Published: December 15, 2021

Copyright: © 2021 Brady et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: The data are available at Figshare: 10.6084/m9.figshare.16943806 .

Funding: The publication of this study was supported by University College Dublin (UCD) in the form of funds to NB. UCD makes funds available to academic staff contingent on their research output. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Introduction

Developmental dyslexia is characterised by difficulties in learning to read that are unexpected in light of a child’s cognitive abilities and educational opportunities [ 1 ]. These difficulties can persist into adulthood, and reading may be slower and new vocabulary challenging to college students with dyslexia [ 2 , 3 ]. While differences in visuo-temporal processing are considered integral to dyslexia by many [ 4 , 5 ], research on dyslexia has focused predominantly on phonological processing, with reported impairments in phonological coding, rapid naming and verbal short-term memory [ 6 ].

The view that visual problems in dyslexia are secondary to a ‘core phonological deficit’ [ 7 ] endures, in part, because it resonates with the dual-route theory of reading [ 8 ]. By this account, learning to read involves the acquisition of distinct phonological and orthographic skills. Phonological coding, crucial in early reading, establishes a mapping between letters and their associated sounds. Orthographic coding refers to the representation of the visual form of words–including groupings of letters that signal spelling regularities–and, in time, enables word recognition without the need to access phonological information at the pre-lexical level [ 9 ]. This lexical route to word sounds is assumed to underlie fluency. It has been proposed that poor phonological processing in dyslexia may hinder the development of spelling-sound mappings, thus preventing children from learning precise orthographic information about words, and ultimately from attaining fluency [ 10 ].

This emphasis on the primacy of phonological deficits in dyslexia has been challenged in recent years. For example, while the account has much appeal for languages with opaque orthographies such as English—where spelling-sound correspondences are particularly obtuse [ 11 ] - dyslexia is also common in languages with more transparent orthographies. Using a cluster analysis of WISC-IV data from over 300 Italian children with dyslexia [ 12 ] report two distinct groups, both with impairment in visual processing, but with only one group having additional impairment in phonological processing. The argument for a more direct role of visual impairment in dyslexia, specifically in visual attention, is also made by Valdois and colleagues [ 13 ]. [ 14 ] show deficits in visual attention span in large samples of English and French dyslexic children, independent of impairment in phonological processing. Such findings argue for a reconceptualization of dyslexia as a multifaceted disorder, one in which anomalous visual processing may occur independently of or in conjunction with poor phonological processing. However, the nature of the visual deficit in dyslexia is still poorly understood. Here we investigate whether ‘holistic processing’, defined as obligatory attention to all parts of a stimulus is different in dyslexia.

Most pertinent to the research we present in this paper are a number of recent studies reporting subtle deficits in visual cognition in dyslexia which suggest that anomalous visual processing is less specific to words than previously considered. These studies were inspired in part by reports of hypoactivation in left fusiform gyrus in both adults and children with dyslexia [ 15 – 17 ]. This region of the brain includes the visual word form area (VWFA) which responds preferentially, but not exclusively, to printed words [ 18 ] and which is adjacent to regions that respond preferentially to faces. Therefore, deficits in both word and face recognition, reflecting a general impairment in ventral stream processing, might occur in dyslexia [ 19 , 20 ].

Sigurdardottir et al. [ 20 ] investigated whether dyslexic and typical readers differ in their face and object recognition abilities. Nineteen self-reported dyslexic and controls were tested on the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT), the Vanderbilt Holistic Face Processing Test (VHFPT), and the Vanderbilt Expertise Test (VET). Dyslexics showed poorer memory for faces in the CFMT, being less accurate whether the task was performed with upright or inverted faces. As face recognition was comparably compromised across groups when the faces were inverted—a manipulation thought to induce a switch from holistic to part-based processing—this suggests that the poorer performance of dyslexics does not reflect a specific impairment to holistic processing of faces. Similarly, in the VHFPT dyslexics were less accurate overall than controls. Finally, as dyslexic readers were less accurate than controls on the VET but not on a control colour recognition task, this also suggests that hypoactivation in left fusiform gyrus may result in subtle impairments in within-category object discrimination.

Employing a number of challenging perceptual tasks, [ 19 ] found that dyslexics were slower than typical readers in matching faces across different viewpoints, but that the groups were similarly hindered when matching between upright target faces and inverted test faces, suggesting that holistic processing of faces is not specifically impaired. Similarly, dyslexics were less accurate in discriminating pairs of morphed images of faces but not in discriminating pairs of morphed images of cars. Finally, [ 21 ] asked participants to match images of 3D modelled faces and novel object. Briefly, in Exp 1 accuracy in the face matching task predicted reading problems in a sample of university students, although not distinguishing within groups of competent readers or within groups of poor readers. In Exp 2, performance in the novel objects matching task did not predict whether participants were dyslexic or typical readers, but performance in the face matching task did. The authors conclude that visual problems in developmental dyslexia are specific to high level tasks involving words and faces with which people have extensive experience or expertise.

In this paper we ask whether ‘holistic processing’, a form of visual processing which is considered a hallmark of perceptual expertise by some [ 22 , 23 ] is anomalous in dyslexia. Specifically, and for the first time, we compare holistic processing of words and of faces in participants with dyslexia and age-matched controls and we show that holistic processing of both faces and words predicts reading performance in the dyslexic but not in the typical reader group.

Holistic or configural processing has been proposed to underlie both face [ 24 ] and word [ 25 ] recognition. In the case of faces, it is generally agreed that an accurate representation of second-order facial configuration—the precise geometric arrangement of features in the face—underlies expertise in recognition [ 26 ]. Although often used synonymously with ‘configural processing’, the term ‘holistic processing’ is often reserved to describe the automatic processing of facial features as a perceptual whole or gestalt which makes individuation of features difficult and it is in this sense that we use the term in this paper. This automatic processing of facial features as a perceptual whole is illustrated by the composite face illusion whereby a single face, made by aligning images of the top and bottom half faces of different individuals, is perceived as a single facial identity [ 27 , 28 ]. Even when directed to ignore one half of the composite, participants typically fail to selectively attend and some form of perceptual integration occurs. As expected, the composite face effect is considerably reduced when the two half faces are misaligned. The composite paradigm has recently been extended to the study of word recognition by [ 25 ] who show that expert readers are unable to ignore one part of a word when asked to attend to the other part of that word in a matching task. This suggests that holistic processing is not specific to face perception, but instead may occur as a result of repeated exposure or visual expertise with objects.

The current study explores whether ‘holistic processing’–as measured for both faces and words using comparable tests of performance—is anomalous in adults with dyslexia. For faces, we use the VHFP Test [ 29 ], a modern variant of the face composite test that dispenses with the alignment condition and focuses exclusively on the primary effect of congruency of the aligned faces. For words we use Wong’s Holistic Word Processing Task [ 25 ] which is based directly on the original face composite test and involves matching words under conditions which vary in congruency and alignment as described below. As in [ 25 ] Study 1, we define the congruency effect as the difference in performance between congruent and incongruent trials in the aligned condition, which matches the metric of [ 29 ]. These two measures of holistic performance are then used as predictors of participants’ scores on a standardized reading test.

Participants

Of 62 participants who took part in the study, data from three were excluded; one’s data were missing a very high proportion of trials (over 30%) and two had very high error rates coupled with very fast RT’s or alternating yes/no responses suggesting that the participants did not engage seriously with the task. Analyses were conducted on the final sample of 59 adults, 30 students with a formal diagnosis of dyslexia (17 female) and 29 students (19 female) who served as controls. Power analysis, using PANGEA [ 30 ] indicated that a sample size of 30 per group (Dyslexic/Typical Readers) would provide 98% power to detect a medium effect size (d = 0.45) for a two-way Group*Congruency ANOVA design. Participants were recruited from both University College Dublin and Trinity College Dublin, the students with dyslexia being registered with disability support services at their university which requires a formal diagnosis of dyslexia to be provided by a clinical or educational psychologist. Of the 30 students with dyslexia, one completed the words task only and one completed the faces task only due to time constraints.

The dyslexic and typical readers participants had a mean age of 25.0 years (SD = 8.1) and 25.86 years (SD = 11.0) and a t-test revealed no significant difference in age between the groups, t (57) = 0.35, p = .73. All participants self-reported normal or corrected to normal vision. While all participants reported ‘normal’ or ‘corrected to normal’ visual acuity for the purpose of the study, there were more reports of corrected vision and of other issues with vision among dyslexic participants as documented in Table 1 . Using a binary classification of ‘normal vision’ and ‘other’, Pearson’s Chi-squared test showed X 2 = 6.13, df = 1, p = 0.01.

thumbnail

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0259986.t001

The study was approved by the UCD and TCD Research Ethics Committee; in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki all participants gave written, informed consent and were advised of their right to withdraw from the study at any time without prejudice.

Materials and procedure

Reading tests..

All participants completed two subscales of the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (3rd Edition), the Word Reading and the Pseudoword Decoding tests. In the Word Reading test, participants were asked to read aloud 74 words from a test sheet and the number of words read at 30 seconds was noted as a measure of reading speed. Words read fluently were awarded 1 point and words pronounced incorrectly were awarded 0 points. The test was discontinued if the participant read 4 consecutive words incorrectly and participants were given a further opportunity to read any incorrectly pronounced words at the end of the session. The same procedure was followed for the Pseudoword Decoding test using a test sheet of 52 pseudo-words. All participants completed the reading tests first, after which the order of the faces and words tests was randomised across participants.

Vanderbilt Holistic Face Processing Task (VHFPT).

We used the VHFPT 2.0 version of the Vanderbilt Holistic Face Processing Test described and tested in [ 29 ]. As reported by the authors, the VHFPT 2.0 shows superior psychometric properties relative to prior holistic face processing measures, with higher internal consistency (0.56) than the composite task and with test–retest reliability of 0.49 (R = 0.94) after a 6 month delay. It produces large average effect size for holistic processing (η2p = 0.75) and is normally distributed in an adult population [ 29 ]. The stimuli, with order counterbalanced so that half the participants completed the words tasks first and the other half completed the faces task first, were presented on a 22-inch colour monitor (1280 x 1024 resolution) using a Dell PC running Presentation® software. Viewing distance was ~50cm.

The test utilizes grayscale images of composite faces, made by combining images from two individuals’ faces from a set of 360 unfamiliar Caucasian faces. The 3-alternative force choice (3AFT) task involves looking at a target region of a study face, while ignoring the rest of the face, and locating the matching identity in the same target region of one of three test faces, where one is the correct test face, and the two others are foils. There were nine target segment conditions: bottom two thirds (BTT); top two thirds (TTT); bottom third (BT); top third (TT); bottom half (BH); top half (TH); eyes; mouth; nose. There were 20 trials (10 congruent, 10 incongruent) per target segment and 60 trials (30 congruent, 30 incongruent) per face size (small, medium and large) as described by for a total of 180 trials. The target segment of the study face and the target segment of the (correct) test face were taken from two different images of the same person on both congruent and incongruent trials. On congruent trials the distractor segment of the correct test face was also matched in identity to the distractor segment of the study face. However, on incongruent trials , the distractor segment of the (correct) test face was not matched in identity to the distractor region of the study face. Specifically, the target region in both the study face and the (correct) test faces are from Person A. On the congruent trial, the non-target region of both the study and (correct) test face are from Person B. However, in the incongruent trial, while the target regions are matched in identity (Person A), the non-target regions of the study face and the (correct) test face are from two different identities (Persons A and C). See S1 Fig for graphical details.

On each trial, a study face which was a composite image of two different face images was presented for 2000ms with the target region of the face delineated by a red box. Participants were instructed to only focus on the target region and to ignore the rest of the face. A blank screen followed for 1000ms. Three test faces were then displayed, positioned horizontally, left, centre and right, until the participant made a response to indicate which one had the matching target region. Each of the three test faces were marked on the target region with a red box. Only one of the test faces contained the correct target segment identity (correct face) the two other test composites were incorrect foils. Participants were required to indicate which of the test faces contained the target segment of the study face by pressing one of three response keys on the keyboard, left image, centre image, right image, using keys F, G, & H. The experiment was preceded by three practise trials using composites created from Muppet faces that were presented in colour.

Word recognition task.

The stimuli were identical to those used by [ 25 ] and were given freely by the first author for use in this study. The stimuli consisted of four-letter words created from ten sets (40 words in total). Each set was made up of four words from which the left and right halves could be alternated, e.g., as shown in S2 Fig left halves ‘br’ and ‘sl’ can be combined with right halves ‘im’ and ‘ow’ to create four distinct words, ‘brim’, ‘brow’, ‘slow’ and ‘slim’. Four test conditions were created. On congruent trials the study and test stimuli were entirely the same or different. On incongruent trials half of the study and test stimuli were the same and half were different. Each word was presented as both test and study stimulus equally in each of the four conditions. Half of the trials were presented in aligned conditions and half were presented misaligned in which the non-cued half of the word was moved approximately 1.7° vertically.

On each trial a fixation was presented for 500ms, followed by a study word for 400ms. This was replaced by a mask for 500ms, after which a cue appeared to the left or to the right of the mask for a further 300ms to indicate the target half of the study word. The test word, also cued on the same side, followed for 1500ms after which the screen went blank until the participant responded. Participants were required to indicate if the cued half of the test stimulus was the same or different as the same half of the study stimulus by pressing either “same” or “different” keys on a Cedrus RB-844 response box. Following [ 25 ] the study contained a total of 640 trials, with 16 blocks of 40 trials. Presentation of alignment conditions was counterbalanced, so that half the participants completed the aligned condition first and the other half completed the misaligned task first. All other conditions were randomized across participants. Participants completed 20 practice trials in advance of the experiment.

Data were analysed in R [ 31 ]. Welsh’s t-test is used by default for between-group comparisons and corrected degrees of freedom reported [ 32 ]. Effect sizes (Cohen’s d) are interpreted as originally suggested with d = 0.2, 0.5, 0.8 as small, medium and large effect sizes. For ANOVA, Greenhouse-Geisser corrections are used when Mauchly’s Test for Sphericity was significant and effect sizes are given by partial eta squared ( η 2 p ). We follow a conservative approach to removal of RT ‘outliers’ using exploratory data analyses (box- and-whisker and qq-normal plots) to note RTs which are obviously too fast (anticipatory errors) or much too slow (so there is a noticeable break in the upper extremes of the data) suggesting that the participant was not attending properly on the trial. Other methods, such as removing any RT above a fixed number of SDs above the mean for each person can be very problematic (despite their regular use as heuristics), as RT data are generally asymmetric with long right-tailed skew [ 33 – 35 ] so that distinguishing outliers from genuine high RTs is problematic.

Reading tests

Fig 1 plots pseudo-word accuracy against word accuracy and pseudo-word reading speed against word reading speed for both dyslexic and control participants.

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The shaded areas show the standard error bounds. Accuracy is reported as the number (out of 74) read accurately, Speed is the number read accurately within 30secs so that lower speed corresponds to poorer performance.

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0259986.g001

Accuracy scores for pseudo-words and words were highly correlated for both dyslexic, r = 0.74, df = 28, p < 0.0001, 95% CI [0.51, 0.87] and control, r = 0.67, df = 27, p < 0.0001, 95% CI [0.40, 0.83], groups, and for the combined groups, r = 0.82, df = 57, p < 0.0001, 95% CI [0.71, 0.89]. Similarly, speed scores for pseudo-words and words were highly correlated, for both dyslexic, r = 0.77, df = 28, p < 0.0001, 95% CI [0.57, 0.88], and control, r = 0.78, df = 27, p < 0.0001, 95% CI [0.58, 0.89], groups and for combined groups, r = 0.70, df = 57, p < 0.0001, 95% CI [0.54, 0.81]. While accuracy clearly discriminates the dyslexic and control groups for both words and pseudowords as shown in the Fig 1 , the groups perform comparably with respect to word speed but not with respect to pseudoword speed where dyslexic students are slower (see also Table 2 ). Paired sample t-tests showed significant differences between groups in both word accuracy, t (34.87) = 5.89, p < 0.0001, d = 1.51, and pseudo-word accuracy, t (44.57) = 5.71, p < 0.0001, d = 1.47. The difference between groups in word reading speed was not significant, t (54.06) = -0.36, p = 0.71, d = -0.09, whereas for pseudo-word reading speed the control group were faster, t (54.96) = 3.05, p = 0.004, d = 0.79. Summary statistics are provided in Table 2 .

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https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0259986.t002

Accuracy & response time.

The overall error rate was comparable for control (36.7%) and dyslexic (37.8%) groups and in keeping with the high rates reported by [ 29 ] who explain that the task is purposively challenging. Exploratory data analyses highlighted a small number of RTs less than 400ms or greater than 20000ms (less than 0.05% of all trials) that were removed as outliers. Fig 2 plots accuracy by group and congruency which suggests an effect of congruency only. In contrast, although this was not an explicit reaction timed task, the plot of RT on correct trials suggests an effect of congruency and group.

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RT (left) and accuracy (right) are plotted by congruency and by group in the faces task. Error bars show 95%CI about the mean. Accuracy is expressed as a proportion (0.0 to 1.0) and chance performance in this task is 0.33.

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0259986.g002

word processing task associated

Response time & sensitivity.

Exploratory data analyses highlighted a small number of RTs less than 200ms or greater than 8000ms (less than 0.04% of all trials) that were removed as outliers. Overall, errors were made on 5.34% of trials, 2.83% for dyslexic and 2.51% for typical readers. Fig 3 plots RT on correct trials by group and by conditions. Dyslexic participants are slower than controls overall, and both groups are slower in the incongruent than in the congruent condition.

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Error bars 95%CI about the mean.

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0259986.g003

word processing task associated

Congruency effect

Faces & words..

The congruency effect in the faces task is defined as the difference in accuracy on incongruent and congruent trials, and serves as a metric of ‘holistic processing’, operationalized in terms of obligatory attention to all parts of the face [ 29 ]. Participants who can attend solely to the highlighted region of the face should perform with comparable accuracy on congruent and incongruent trials and will have a low congruency effect . In contrast, those with a more holistic style of processing will be more easily distracted by information from the irrelevant or ‘to be ignored’ face region and so be less accurate on incongruent than on congruent trials leading to a higher congruency effect . By similar logic, the congruency effect in the words task is defined as the difference in RT between incongruent and congruent trials on aligned trials and serves as an index of how much the irrelevant information interferes with observers’ judgments [ 25 ]. Fig 4 plots the congruency effect in the faces (left) and in the words (right) task for both dyslexic and typical readers, with. In both tasks, both groups show evidence of holistic processing, of comparable magnitude in the faces tasks but with dyslexic participants showing a stronger effect than controls in the words task. One participant from the dyslexic group was removed as their congruency effect on the words task was over four standard deviations from the group mean in the positive direction, i.e., they showed an extremely high congruency effect. They are not represented in Fig 4 nor in the analyses below.

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The congruency effect for faces is defined with respect to accuracy and the congruency effect for words with respect to RT, see text for details. The violin plots include individual subject points and show 95% CI about the mean.

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0259986.g004

word processing task associated

Congruency effect as predictor of reading scores

Fig 5(A) and 5(B) plots the congruency effect by each of the four WIAT reading score metrics in the faces and words tasks respectively, and statistics are reported in Table 3 . Considering first the faces task, for dyslexic participants greater holistic processing in the faces task is associated with better reading scores in both word and pseudoword accuracy and in word and pseudoword speed. This is not the case for the typical readers, where holistic processing in the faces task shows no obvious association with any of the reading metrics. Turning to the words task, greater holistic processing is associated with better reading scores in all four metrics for the dyslexic groups, whereas for the typical reader group greater holistic processing in the words task is associated with poorer performance in word and pseudoword accuracy but unrelated to speed. Respectful of encouragement to move away from the null-hypothesis significance testing framework [ 37 ] we plot estimated regression coefficients (slopes) with their 95% confident intervals using dot-and-whisker plots [ 38 ] in Fig 6 . A clear pattern is evident whereby a higher congruency effect for dyslexic readers is predictive of better reading scores in all four metrics (word accuracy, pseudoword accuracy, word speed and pseudoword speed) and this is the case for both the faces and the words task. In contrast, for the typical readers, the congruency effect in the faces task is not predictive of reading scores while a higher congruency effect in the words task is predictive of lower word and pseudoword reading. Therefore, automatic and obligatory attention to all parts of a stimulus, as measured in the faces and words tasks, clearly relates to reading strategy as discussed below.

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Scatter plots of the congruency effect in the faces task (A) and the words task (B) by each of the four WIAT reading score metrics with separate plots for dyslexic (magenta) and typical (blue) readers. Accuracy is reported as the number (out of 74) read accurately, Speed is the number read accurately within 30secs so that lower speed corresponds to poorer performance.

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0259986.g005

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Dot-and-whisker plots showing the slope coefficients (with 95% CIs) from linear models regressing reading score metrics on the congruency effect for faces (left) and for words (right). Symbols key: Word Accuracy (square), Pseudoword Accuracy (circle), Word Speed (triangle), Pseudoword Speed (asterisk).

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0259986.g006

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https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0259986.t003

Further exploration using multiple regression on the dyslexia data only (performance on the faces task not being predictive of any reading metric for the typical readers) is summarized in Table 4 . In the case of Word and Pseudoword Speed, the two different Congruency Effects (in the words task and in the faces task) acts as independently predictors. However for the Word and Pseudoword Accuracy score, the addition of the Congruency Effect in Words Task adds only marginal extra prediction (p<0.10).

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https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0259986.t004

We compared the performance of college students with dyslexia and age matched typical readers on two perceptual tasks, the Vanderbilt Holistic Face Processing Task (VHFPT) and the Holistic Word Processing Task (HWPT), that each yield a measure of holistic processing known as the ‘congruency effect’. This metric captures the extent to which participants automatically attend to information that is spatially nearby but irrelevant to the task at hand. In both the VHFPT and the HWPT, the extraneous or irrelevant information may benefit performance when it is congruent with the information that participants are asked to attend to, or may disadvantage performance when it is incongruent. The congruency effect is calculated as a difference score for performance on ‘congruent’ and ‘incongruent’ trials and serves as an index of holistic processing. Our results show, for the first time, that holistic processing of faces is comparable in dyslexic and typical readers but that dyslexic readers show greater holistic processing of words, at least for the specific tasks at hand. Furthermore, we show that these measures of holistic processing predict performance on a standardized reading task, the WIAT-3, with a more holistic style in both the faces and words task associated with better reading scores—specifically, more accurate and faster reading of both words and pseudowords—for dyslexic readers. In contrast, a more holistic style on the words task predicts less accurate reading of both words and pseudowords for typical readers.

Below we discuss how these findings compare to recent research on anomalous visual processing in developmental dyslexia and to a rapidly evolving literature on the role of visual attention in dyslexia. Finally, we consider how our finding of enhanced holistic processing in dyslexic readers–where holistic processing is defined in the strict sense of automatic attention to the whole stimuli–may guide our conceptualization of the visual deficit in dyslexia.

Starting with the faces task, many aspects of our findings (specifically, with the control participants) replicate directly those of [ 29 ] while also revealing interesting similarities between the dyslexic and control groups. Firstly, error rates are comparably high (~35%) to previous reports and are equal across dyslexic and typical readers. Second, accuracy is considerably higher on congruent than on incongruent trials as expected from [ 29 ] and this was the case for both dyslexic and typical readers. Although this was not an explicitly timed task, the response time data show that dyslexic participants are slower than typical readers to correctly match the target regions across the study face and the test faces. Yet this group difference was not modulated by congruency, with both dyslexic and typical readers showing comparable advantage on congruent trials.

This finding is consistent with recent reports of a general impairment in ventral stream processing in dyslexia that may lead to subtle differences in face processing but not to specific impairments in holistic processing [ 19 , 20 ]. [ 20 ] found that typical readers showed an advantage over dyslexia readers on the Cambridge Face Memory Test, but that both groups were comparably impaired by stimulus inversion suggesting that there is no specific impairment in holistic processing in dyslexia. These authors also used the VHFPT and report that typical readers performed with higher accuracy (61.3%) than dyslexic readers (59.7%)–a result reported as ‘marginally significant’—but as this advantage was not specific to the congruent condition, they argue that this cannot be attributed to poorer holistic processing in dyslexic readers [ 20 ]. While noting that dyslexic and typical readers performed with comparable accuracy in our study, differently than in [ 20 ], our findings that the congruency effect is comparable between the groups strengthens previous conclusions that holistic processing of faces is not impaired in dyslexia. Research by [ 19 ] has been similarly motivated by the question of whether anomalous visual processing in dyslexia is specific to words or extends to other classes of visual objects. They report slower response times by dyslexic readers compared to typical readers in matching faces but not in matching cars, suggesting that visual impairments in dyslexia extend beyond words. However, as inverting the stimuli led to comparably slower performance in both groups there is no suggestion of a specific impairment in holistic processing.

Turning to the words task we note that aspects of our findings (specifically with the control group) map directly onto those of [ 25 ]. Participants are slower in the incongruent than in the congruent condition and this ‘congruency effect’ is greater for aligned than misaligned trials as reported by in their Study 1 [ 25 ]. With regard to group differences we find that, while dyslexic participants are slower than controls overall there is no difference in sensitivity between the groups. This is consistent with findings from our previous research [ 39 ] which reports that dyslexic participants are slower to respond than typical readers but show comparable sensitivity in a novel non-reading task that encompasses aspects of the ‘word superiority’ and ‘word inversion’ paradigms.

In the current study we find that dyslexic participants show a stronger ‘congruency effect’ than controls on the words task. Specifically, while both dyslexic and control participants were susceptible to interference from the unattended part of the stimuli, and more so when the two halves of words were properly aligned, dyslexics were more susceptible to this interference than controls. While it is difficult to directly compare with the findings of [ 25 ] is notable that in their Study 2—which compared the performance of native English speakers with those for whom English is their second language–the native English speakers showed a more marked ‘congruency effect’. This suggests that readers with more experience use more holistic processing than those with less experience. While all participants in the current study were college students—and reading is an integral part of college life–it would be difficult to argue that dyslexic students are the more expert readers. Interestingly, a recent paper by [ 40 ] shows that adults with dyslexia recognize Chinese characters with stronger holistic processing than controls.

Similarly, it is also difficult to directly compare the findings of the current study to those of [ 39 ] who utilized a very different task to compare the use of holistic processing between dyslexic and typical readers. As in the face perception tasks utilized by [ 20 ] and [ 19 ] stimulus inversion was used by [ 39 ] as a way to explore holistic processing of words. Specifically, participants were asked whether pairs of words (which were identical or varied by one letter, and which were intact or jumbled) were the same or different and word pairs were presented in both upright and inverted orientation. [ 39 ] show a more marked inversion effect for control than for dyslexic participants. Specifically, for short 4-letter words, response times to discriminate inverted stimuli was comparable across the two groups whereas for upright stimuli dyslexics were markedly slower than the typical readers suggesting that they benefit less from holistic cues. Although both groups showed clear evidence of holistic processing in that study, typical readers showed more marked holistic processing than dyslexic readers. In contrast, in the current study the dyslexic participants show a definite congruency effect that is an accepted marker of holistic processing and a more marked effect than their peers in the typical reader group. It may be that typical readers have more flexibility in how they perform word processing tasks and can switch more easily between holistic and analytic processing as required.

A central finding of this research is that the congruency effect, as measured in both the faces task and in the words task, is predictive of dyslexic participants’ reading scores with more holistic processing in both tasks associated with higher accuracy in reading words and pseudowords and in faster reading of words and pseudowords. This is evident in Fig 6 where we plot estimated regression coefficients (slopes) with their 95% confident intervals. Across both tasks, the obligatory attention to extraneous information captured by the congruency effect is predictive of better—faster, more accurate—reading in dyslexic readers. In contrast, holistic processing in the faces tasks is not predictive of reading performance in the control group, and holistic processing in the words task is only predictive of reading accuracy and that association runs counter to the pattern seen for the dyslexic readers. For the typical readers more holistic processing in the words task is associated with less accurate word and pseudoword reading.

Interestingly, a recent study [ 41 ] that a higher congruency effect for words is associated with more efficient performance of typical readers in a lexical decision task. In that study, participants were asked to indicate as quickly as possible whether a presented letter string was a real word or not, the stimuli consisting of 4, 5 and 6-letter words (and associated pseudowords) of both low and high frequency. The negative correlation between the magnitude of the word-frequency effect (where a smaller word frequency effect is associated with more efficient word processing) and the word congruency effect means that the more efficient readers were less able to selectively ignore extraneous information in the word composite task. This finding appears to run counter to the present finding that a higher congruency effect on the word task is associated with less accurate reading of words and pseudowords. Obviously, the two tasks–reading words and pseudowords aloud in the current study and making a speeded lexical decision task in- are quite different, the reading aloud task requiring sub-lexical phonological processes. It would be interesting to see whether the current findings on the relationship between the congruency effect for faces/words and performance on the reading tasks reported for dyslexic readers holds also for lexical decision tasks.

In response to a reviewer’s comments we note that the tasks we used to measure holistic processing of words and faces differ in a number of ways. For example, the VHFPT utilises a 3AFC task in which participants are asked to attend to one specific target region of a study face and to subsequently locate the matching identity in the same target region from 3 test faces. In contrast, the HWPT or word composite task uses a same-different paradigm in which a study word is presented and participants are subsequently cued to which side of the test word they should attend to in deciding whether it is the same or different than the corresponding half of the study word. However, common to both tasks is the requirement that participants selectively attend to one part of a complex stimulus while ignoring a spatially adjacent part of the stimulus, and the congruency effect is a measure of their ability or inability to ignore this extraneous information. We stress that we are not claiming that ‘holistic processing’ (as a perceptual style) is the same for faces and for words, but simply that the congruency effects serve as a measure of the involuntary tendency to integrate information across the stimulus in these different tasks.

Before considering the implications of these findings, we also draw attention to the fact that, while all participants in the current study reported normal or corrected-to-normal vision, it is notable that those with dyslexia (22/30) show a greater incidence of refractive errors and other issues with vision than those without dyslexia (11/29). Myopia or short-sightedness is marked in the dyslexic (17/30) compared to the typical reader (5/29) sample. Reduced visual acuity has been previously reported as being significantly associated with dyslexia [ 42 ] but others report no association between refractive error and dyslexia [ 43 ]. It is also possible that the typical readers in this study had unusually low rates of myopia, as national statistics show prevalence rates of ~19% in children aged 12–13 years which would be expected to be higher in college aged young adults [ 44 ].

By way of general conclusions, our results join others in showing subtle impairments in high level visual processing, including in memory for faces, perceptual matching of faces, within-category discrimination of other objects [ 20 , 21 ] and in recognition and matching of words and faces [ 19 ]. Collectively, these findings suggest that visual deficits underlying dyslexia are more ‘domain general’ than ‘domain specific’ in that they affect the recognition of objects other than words [ 19 ]. Interestingly, similar findings have been reported in cases of alexia, an acquired impairment in reading following brain injury and historically also referred to ‘letter-by-letter reading’, ‘word blindness’, ‘word form dyslexia’ and ‘acquired dyslexia’ [ 45 ]. For example, [ 46 ] describe four patients with pure alexia, arising for unilateral damage to left inferior occipitotemporal lobe, who show poorer performance on a face matching task than controls. Similar to the results now emerging in research on developmental dyslexia, these impairments in face processing in alexic patients are described as ‘mild’. Interestingly, brain imaging research points to a common dysfunction in left occipitotemporal cortex (the visual word form area) in both acquired and developmental dyslexia [ 47 , 48 ].

A second conclusion is that the visual deficit in dyslexia has a strong attentional component, and we base this observation on our findings that holistic processing of both words and faces strongly predicts word and pseudo word accuracy and speed in dyslexic readers. In contrast, holistic processing of faces is unrelated to reading scores in typical readers, and where holistic processing of words is related to reading accuracy, the predictions run counter to those for the dyslexic group. While ‘holistic processing’ is an elusive concept in both definition and measurement [ 49 ], the tasks we use in this study operationalize holistic processing in terms of selective attention. Variously described as measuring obligatory attention to all parts of an object or, analogously, as a failure of selective attention to parts of an object [ 25 , 50 ] this form of perceptual processing is traditionally associated with expertise, see [ 51 , 52 ] for debate.

In a comprehensive review of accounts of dyslexia, [ 13 ] note the heterogeneity of the dyslexic population and present evidence that anomalous attentional processing may be the core deficit in a subset of dyslexic children. Since then, the independence of deficits in phonological processing and in visual attention disorders as contributing factors to dyslexia has been demonstrated in both French and English speaking samples [ 14 ]. These studies, notable for their use of larger sample sizes that are necessary to explore heterogeneity in the disorder, join others emphasising the role of visual factors in dyslexia. For example, using cluster analysis with a sample of 316 Italian children [ 12 ] show distinct groupings, both of whom show impairment in visual tasks but only one of whom shows phonological impairment. The authors conclude that visual impairment is central to dyslexia which cannot be explained with reference to a primary phonological impairment. And specific to adult readers, [ 53 ] report that college students with dyslexia show poorer performance than their peers in tasks involving visual discrimination of novel grid-like patterns and in visuospatial working memory tasks which are known to require attentional control.

How might these findings inform the interpretation of the results from our current study? The use of visuo-spatial tasks with reports of anomalous attentional factors provide a common theme to these diverse studies. In the current research, both the VHFP and the HWPT may be conceptualized as tasks of selective attention with dyslexic participants showing a comparable tendency toward holistic processing in the faces task and a greater tendency toward holistic processing in the words task. Furthermore, while the congruency effect on the faces task and on the words task are both predictive of reading scores for the dyslexic group with a more holistic style associated with improved reading, the association between holistic processing and reading performance for the control group is only seen in the case of the words tasks where a more holistic style is associated with poorer accuracy in word and pseudoword reading. It is important to consider these very different patterns of association for the dyslexic and typical reader groups in light of their very different performance on the WIAT reading tests ( Fig 1 , Table 1 ); these groups differ substantially in their reading performance with typical readers attaining significantly higher levels of accuracy on average.

Reading involves the analysis of visual word forms at different spatial scales, including noting letter combinations at both coarse and fine scales that signal spelling regularities [ 9 ] and this combined use of global and analytic processing is central to attention-focused models of reading [ 13 ]. Particularly in languages with opaque orthographies such as English, we suggest that efficiency or fluency in reading may be associated with the ability to switch strategy as needed, rather than with an exclusively holistic strategy. This consideration is likely relevant to understanding the broader question of what underlies reports of ‘mild’ impairments in non-reading tasks in dyslexia that hint to differences in ventral stream processing underlying ‘perception expertise’, e.g., [ 19 , 20 ]. As noted by [ 51 ] might more usefully be conceptualised in terms of attentional as well as purely perceptual factors.

Conclusions

We replicate recent findings that dyslexic readers show mild impairment in visual, non-reading tasks including in a face perception and a word perception task that both yield a metric of holistic processing. Further we show that this metric, the ‘congruency effect’, predicts reading performance in dyslexic readers with a more holistic style associated with better accuracy and speed scores. In contrast, a more holistic style on the words task is associated with poorer word and pseudoword accuracy scores in typical readers. This suggest that selective attention plays a different role in the reading strategies of dyslexic and typical readers.

Supporting information

S1 fig. the upper panel depicts each of the nine possible target regions in the red segments..

The lower panel contains an example of a congruent (upper row) and an incongruent trial (lower row) using the top half target region which is highlighted in red. On the congruent trial, the target segment in the study image and in the (correct response) test image are two different images of the same person (Person A) and the non-target region (the bottom half of the face) are also images of the same person (Person B). On the incongruent trial, the target segment in the study image and in the (correct response) test image are two different images of the same person (Person A) but the non-target regions are images of different people. Target segments are outlined in colour for illustration purposes only and were not used in the actual experiment.

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0259986.s001

(A) Examples of four-letter study and test words in congruent and incongruent conditions where the first two letters of the study and test are the same or different. (B) The temporal sequence of the stimuli presented. Based on Wong et al. (2011).

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0259986.s002

Acknowledgments

We thank Michael Horgan (supervised by FN) for help with data collection.

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    [Solved] The word processing task associated with changing the appearance of a document is : Common Topics in Competitive and Entrance exams Important Computer MCQs For Competitive Exams part-1 The word processing task associated with... View all MCQs in: Important Computer MCQs For Competitive Exams part-1 Discussion Login to Comment

  6. The word processing task associated with changing the appearance of a

    The word processing task associated with changing the appearance of a document is __________. A Editing B Writing C Formatting D All of above Medium Solution Verified by Toppr Correct option is C) Was this answer helpful? 0 0 Similar questions Medium View solution > Medium View solution >

  7. [Solved] Which one of the following tasks is associated with ...

    Word processing is the ability to create documents using a word processor. It is the production, storage, and manipulation of text on a computer. It allows us to work with text and other features, for example, artistic texts, pictures and tables to create interesting and documents. Functions in Word Processing:

  8. The word processing task associated with changing the appearance of a

    The word processing task associated with changing the appearance of a document is Question Answer MCQ Exam ON : Computer Fundamentals The word processing task associated with changing the appearance of a document is Complaint Here As Incorrect Question / Answer Important MCQ on Related Subject 📌

  9. Natural Language Processing Tasks

    Anaphora resolution is a task to connect an anaphora with the word it is associated with. Common sense involves using "common sense" patterns or knowledge of the world to make inferences. ... NLP consists of many automatic language processing tasks that allow to explore and extract information from unstructured content. This field has been ...

  10. The word processing task associated with changing the ...

    The word processing task associated with changing the appearance of a document is A:editing, B:writing

  11. Topic A: Basic word processing

    Editing in word processing may include the following tasks: Adding text (terms, phrases, paragraphs, etc.) Deleting a part of a text Copying text Moving text Pasting text Checking for grammar and spelling Formatting text Select Text Before editing text, you'll need to select it. This is also sometimes called "highlighting text."

  12. Word Processing

    Word Processing This module allows you to demonstrate the ability to use a word processing application to accomplish everyday tasks associated with creating, formatting, and finishing small-sized word processing documents, such as letters and other everyday documents. Training duration 15-20 hours per module Test duration 45 minutes per module

  13. Basic tasks in Word

    Word marks all additions, deletions, moves, and formatting changes. Open the document to be reviewed. Click Review and then on the Track Changes button, select Track Changes. Read Track changes to learn more. Print your document All in one place, you can see how your document will look when printed, set your print options, and print the file.

  14. 5 NLP Tasks for Word Processing

    Group 4 : Word Processing 19. Stemming. Stemming refers to a crude heuristic process that chops off the ends of words in the hope that words with the same meaning become words with the same syntax ...

  15. Stroop Effect

    In psychology, the Stroop effect is the delay in reaction time between automatic and controlled processing of information, in which the names of words interfere with the ability to name the colour of ink used to print the words. The Stroop test requires individuals to view a list of words that are printed in a different color than the meaning ...

  16. In word processing the task of changing the appearance of a

    In word processing the task of changing the appearance of a document is know as A. formatting B. editing C. proofing D. inserting Solution (By Examveda Team) This question is already available on Examveda.com Click Here Join The Discussion * Related User Ask Questions Which of the following is not a primary function of a Bank? A. Granting Loans

  17. Microsoft Word Quiz With Multiple Choice Questions

    The word processing task associated with changing the appearance of a document is A. Editing B. Writing C. Formatting D. All of the above 15. Which of the followng is not the part of standard office suite? A. WordProcessor B. Database C.

  18. Holistic processing of faces and words predicts reading accuracy and

    Holistic processing of faces and words predicts reading accuracy and speed in dyslexic readers. We compared the performance of dyslexic and typical readers on two perceptual tasks, the Vanderbilt Holistic Face Processing Task and the Holistic Word Processing Task.

  19. Holistic processing of faces and words predicts reading accuracy ...

    Turning to the words task, greater holistic processing is associated with better reading scores in all four metrics for the dyslexic groups, whereas for the typical reader group greater holistic processing in the words task is associated with poorer performance in word and pseudoword accuracy but unrelated to speed.

  20. PDF A phonetic model of non-native spoken word processing

    tion), while spoken word processing tasks usually test the implicit activation of a certain word in the memory (e.g., lexical priming, word translation). In some cases, non-native speakers' behavior is consistent across the tasks: lower performance in spoken word processing tasks is directly associated with difficult phone contrasts. For ...