deliverables are assignable units of work


How the United Nations Works

Flags of U.N. member states at headquarters in New York. See pictures of the United States flag.

You hear about the United Nations (U.N.) constantly in the news, although you might not always realize it. For example:

The U.N. has this remarkable influence because nearly every nation on the planet is a member.

In this article, you will learn the basics of the United Nations so you can grasp the scope and reach of its operations. The next time you hear about the U.N. on the news, you will have a much better understanding of this international organization.

What is the U.N.?

Organization, the security council, other organs.

Raising 16 new member flags at U.N. Headquarters in 1960

The United Nations was born on October 24, 1945, shortly after World War II (which officially ended on August 15, 1945). Its primary goals focus on world peace and the international desire to prevent another world war.

The U.N. has 192 member nations -- nearly every nation on the planet (see List of Member States for a complete list). All of them have signed on to the U.N. Charter, which was originally written in 1945 by the representatives of 50 different countries.

U.N. Charter with U.S.S.R., U.K. and U.S. signatures

The U.N. Charter sets up an organization that includes six "organs." Two of these -- the General Assembly and the Security Council -- are in the news quite a bit. The others are less visible.

The General Assembly

In the General Assembly, every member nation gets one vote.

Any "important question" for the general assembly requires a two-thirds majority for approval. According to the U.S. State Department , important questions include:

All other matters are decided with a simple majority.

Many of the proceedings of the General Assembly are embodied in resolutions .

(Click here for the U.N. Charter's description of the General Assembly.)

In the next section we'll learn about the U.N. Security Council.

The United Nations Security Council adopting resolution 1244 in 1999, authorizing the establishment of an international civil and security presence in Kosovo

The goal of the Security Council, according to the U.N. Charter, is to focus on peace and security:

The Security council has five permanent members (Britain, China, France, Russia, and the United States) and 10 members elected by the general assembly that serve two-year terms (currently Angola, Bulgaria, Cameroon, Chile, Germany, Guinea, Mexico, Pakistan, Spain and Syria). Historically, this organization was developed to encourage all of the allies from WWII to participate in the new United Nations when it was forming.

On important matters, it is necessary to get nine members of the Security Council to agree. However:

Unlike the General Assembly, the Security Council is able to actively enforce its decisions. It can use economic sanctions or deploy forces as described in the U.N. Charter:

The forces used are all contributed by the member nations and form coalitions that serve the commanders chosen by the Security Council. The Charter spells this out as well:

You can see that, when all members of the Security Council decide that force is needed, the United Nations can bring together an impressive arsenal to solve international problems. That is what happened in the 1991 Gulf War.

In the next section, we'll discuss the other U.N. organs.

Former Secretary-General Kofi Annan addressing the Security Council

The Secretariat , headed by the Secretary-General, is a bureaucracy that keeps the U.N. running on a day-to-day basis.

The Secretary-General has a great deal of power in the U.N.. He can, for example, personally mediate disputes. He can bring matters before the Security Council. He is elected to a five-year term by the General Assembly, but his election can be vetoed by any of the permanent members of the Security Council.

The Economic and Social Council has 54 elected members chosen by the General Assembly. It makes recommendations in, as the name indicates, economic and social matters.

The Trusteeship Council, New York, 1992

The International Court of Justice (a.k.a. the World Court) has 15 judges elected by the General Assembly (with Security Council approval). In this court, nations bring cases against other nations.

The sixth organ specified by the U.N. Charter is the Trusteeship Council , but it ceased operations in 1994.

Its job was to oversee territories such as those taken from conquered nations in WWII. The last territory either became a nation or merged with a nation in 1994.

U.N. headquarters in New York

Funding for the U.N. comes from the member nations. The General Assembly is in charge of ratifying a budget and deciding how much money each nation will pay into the system. Money gets divided into three areas:

According to the U.S. State Department :

For more information on the United Nations and related topics, check out the links on the next page.

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Google looks to unite work and pleasure with Divide buy

Divide consolidates work and personal apps on people's own mobile devices.

Zach Miners

U.S. Correspondent, IDG News Service |

Google could gain a stronger position in businesses by acquiring Divide, an enterprise software company focused on the bring-your-own-device to work model.

Divide said Monday that it was being acquired by Google, and that its members would be joining Google's Android team.

Terms were not disclosed. Google declined to provide further comment.

Divide, formerly known as Enterproid, has attracted Google's interest for some time. Last October the company announced $12 million in series B funding led by Google Ventures .

Divide's app on iOS and Android is built around the company's BYOD (bring your own device) mobile platform. The company's service is designed to let workers consolidate professional apps and personal apps onto the device they already have, providing encryption along the way for the business apps and data.

"Employees enjoy privacy on their personal device as well as a suite of professional-grade business apps to get work done on the go," the company's website says.

Divide provides a free basic version and a $60-per-year service with administrative controls. The company said in its announcement that it would continue to develop software for users, and that its service will not change for existing customers.

Google's Apps for Business already provides customizable versions of popular Google services like Gmail, Drive and Hangouts, with custom domain names. With Divide, Google could be eyeing integration with other business apps.

Google faces rising competition in the area of consolidation. Dropbox last year rolled out a new version of its business product, to provide those users with separate boxes for personal and work files within the same platform.

Zach Miners covers social networking, search and general technology news for IDG News Service. Follow Zach on Twitter at @zachminers . Zach's e-mail address is [email protected]

Copyright © 2014 IDG Communications, Inc.

deliverables are assignable units of work

Management 4060 Make-Up Midterm

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Terms in this set (44)

Other sets by this creator, management 4080 chapter 17, management 4080 chapter 9, management 4080 chapter 7, management 4080 chapter 6, verified questions.

Prepare the journal entry to record Typist Company’s issuance of 250,000 shares of its common stock assuming the shares have a:

a. $1 par value and sell for$10 cash per share. b. $1 stated value and sell for$10 cash per share.

Find the value of the variable that is not given.

A = P + P R T ; A = 1368 , P = 1200 , T = 2                ‾ A = P + PRT; A = 1368, P = 1200, T = 2 ~~~~ \underline{~~~~~~~~~} A = P + PRT ; A = 1368 , P = 1200 , T = 2                           ​

In a father-son-grandson business combination, which of the following is correct?

a. The father company always must have its total accrual-based income computed first. b. The computation of a company’s accrual-based net income has no effect on the accrual-based net income of other companies within a business combination. c. A father-son-grandson configuration does not require consolidation unless one company owns shares in all of the other companies. d. All companies solely in subsidiary positions must have their accrual-based net income computed first within the consolidation process.

A consulting firm had predicted that 35 % 35 \% 35% of the employees at a large firm would take advantage of a new company Credit Union, but management is skeptical. They suspect the rate is that high. A survey of 300 employees shows that 138 of them are currently taking advantage of the Credit Union. From the sample proportion

a) What is the standard deviation of the sample proportion based on the null hypothesis?

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Other quizlet sets, macro exam 1.

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Communications Test Two

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SAT Quiz 14

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40 Work Breakdown Structures

The WBS is a hierarchical outline of all the deliverables involved in completing a project. The WBS is part of a project scope statement. The creation of a WBS is one of the first steps in organizing and scheduling the work for a project.

The WBS is a breakdown of a project into sub-deliverables and eventually work-packages. Each level of the WBS, represents more detailed information about a project. Figure 5-1 shows how the project is broken down into major deliverables and then into sub-deliverables and work packages.

Work Breakdown Structures

Deliverables vs. Work Packages

Deliverables and sub-deliverables are things such as physical objects, software code, or events. In a WBS, deliverables and sub-deliverables are represented by nouns (see Figure 5-2). Work packages are assignable units of work that will be performed to create the related deliverable. A work package can be assigned to one particular project team member, one outside contractor, or another team. The work packages maybe further broken down into activities or tasks by the project team or the experts who will perform that work (see WBS dictionary later in this section).

Work packages are action oriented and will be represented by phrases containing verbs (see Figure 5-2). The cost of a deliverable is the sum of all of its related sub-deliverables.

In Figure 5-2, the cost of the Walls deliverable is the sum of the Stud Walls and the Electrical sub-deliverables ($17,740 + $3,680 = $21,420). Likewise, the cost of a sub-deliverable is a summary of all of the work packages that must be completed to complete the sub-deliverable.

In Figure 5-2, the cost and duration of the Stud Walls deliverable is a sum of all the related work packages ($3,840 + $1,340 + $2,000 +$10,560 = $17,740; 24hrs + 8hrs + 24hrs + 32hrs = 88hrs).

Since the WBS provides a natural way to summarize (or “rollup”) the costs and labor involved for various sub deliverables, it also provides the project team with the information need to determine whether some deliverables would be better performed by an outside specialist who could deliver the item or service more cost-effectively.

Work Breakdown Structure example

In the example in Figure 5-2, if the project manager can find a roofing contractor that complete the roof in less than 15 days (120 hours) and for less than $18,440, then it would be better to outsource that part of the project.

Note that work packages are independent of each other in a WBS, and do not summarize or include the work from other work packages. Work packages are the lowest level of the WBS.

WBS Numbering

Project managers use the WBS during project execution to track the status of deliverables and work packages. The items in a WBS are numbered so it is easy to understand the deliverable, or sub-deliverable, to which any particular work package is related. Notice that in Figure 5-2 the Install Metal Roof item is numbered 3.2.2, so it is easy to see that this work package is related to the third major deliverable (Roof: 3.) and the second sub-deliverable (Roof Cover: 3.2.) and that it is also the second work package for creation of the roof covering (3.2.2).

This numbering system allows for easy reference and filtering. For example, an electrician working on the Warehouse project only needs to receive details and updates that are related to work packages that start with 2.2 (the Electrical sub-deliverable).


Decomposition is the process used to break the project scope of work into the deliverables, sub-deliverables, and work packages involved in completing the project.

The process of decomposition begins with identifying the highest-level deliverables. These deliverables are then broken into sub-deliverables. Many layers of sub-deliverables may be needed for a project. A general rule of thumb is that if the WBS has more than 5 layers of sub-deliverables, the project team should reassess and try to simplify the WBS structure (often by changing the way higher level deliverables are grouped and broken down).

Once the lowest level of deliverable has been reached, the next step is to break the sub-deliverables into work packages. The work packages describe the work that needs to be done to create the sub-deliverable. Remember that work packages typically contain verbs, and can be assigned to a person, team or contractor.

Once the project team has drafted the WBS, they should ask themselves: ” If all the work packages were completed, and all the deliverables in this WBS were delivered, would the project be complete?” If the answer is no, then pieces of the WBS are still missing. If the answer is yes, then the project team can move on to creating the WBS dictionary, getting bottom-up estimates on time and resource requirements, and planning how to schedule the work.

The WBS Dictionary

The WBS dictionary provides detailed documentation about each work package including;

When the WBS is created, not all of the information about the work packages is known (for example, the estimates for labor and material costs). Remember from Chapter One that the planning process continues throughout the execution of the project. As a result, the WBS dictionary is a “living document” that will be augmented, edited and updated as the project moves forward. Figure 5-3 is an example of a WBS Dictionary entry; note that several items will be added later in the planning process.

An example of a WSB Dictionary entry

Text Attributions

This chapter of  Project Management  is a derivative the following texts:

Essentials of Project Management  by Adam Farag is licensed under a  Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

Work Breakdown Structures by Sharon Blanchard is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

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What is Work Breakdown Structure?

A Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) is a deliverable-oriented hierarchical decomposition of the work to be executed by the project team to accomplish the project objectives and create the required deliverables. A WBS is the cornerstone of effective project planning, execution, controlling, monitoring, and reporting. All the work contained within the WBS is to be identified, estimated, scheduled, and budgeted.

Work Breakdown Structure Diagram

The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) is developed to establish a common understanding of project scope. It is a hierarchical description of the work that must be done to complete the deliverables of a project. Each descending level in the WBS represents an increasingly detailed description of the project deliverables.

The first two levels of the WBS (the root node and Level 2) define a set of planned outcomes that collectively and exclusively represent 100% of the project scope. At each subsequent level, the children of a parent node collectively and exclusively represent 100% of the scope of their parent node. Here is a Work Breakdown Structure example:

Work Breakdown Structure Example

Quality of a Work Breakdown Structures

A well-designed WBS describes planned outcomes instead of planned actions. Outcomes are the desired ends of the project, such as a product, result, or service, and can be predicted accurately. Actions, on the other hand, may be difficult to predict accurately. A well-designed WBS makes it easy to assign elements of the WBS to any project activity. A good WBS should exhibit the following characteristics:

Guidelines for Developing Work Breakdown Structure

The development of Work Breakdown Structure involves subdividing the major project activities or sub-activities into smaller, more manageable activities until the activities are defined in sufficient detail to support the management and development of project works. The items at the lowest level of a branch are known as work packages. Here are some tips in developing a Work Breakdown Structure that can express works effectively:

Different Forms of Work Breakdown Structure

Generally speaking, there are three typical ways in structuring works with a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). They includes phase-based structures, deliverable-based structures and responsibility-based structures.

Phase-based structures

Define and structure project activities based on the project phases.

Phase-Based Work Breakdown Structure

Deliverable-based structures

Define and structure project activities based on the deliverables agreed to deliver.

Deliverable-Based Work Breakdown Structure

Responsibility-based structure

Define and structure project activities based on the organization units that will work on the project.

Responsibility-Based Work Breakdown Structure

Other Use Cases of Breakdown Structure

Typical use of breakdown structure as a project management tool includes Work Breakdown Structure (WBS), Resource Breakdown Structure, Risk Breakdown Structure and Organization Breakdown Structure (OBS), or sometimes known as Organization Chart.

Resource Breakdown Structure

Resource Breakdown Structure (RBS) is a project management tool that provides a hierarchical decomposition of resources, either structured by resource category, types or by IT/business function that has resource needs.

Here is a Resource Breakdown Structure example:

Resource Breakdown Structure

Risk Breakdown Structure

Risks are everything in any IT project. The existence of risk causes negative impact on project schedule, costs and quality. In project management, Project Manager is responsible for managing risks and to ensure that the project will be delivered on time, within project and up to the standard user expected. One of the popular risk management tool is the Risk Breakdown Structure.

Risk breakdown Structure is the hierarchical decomposition of risks, starting from the root node element that represents the project, and going down to the various risk categories, and then finer level risks.

Besides presenting project risks in a Risk Breakdown Structure, it is possible to combine the use of Color Legend in representing the impact of risk. Take a look at the Risk Breakdown Structure example below, a legend of Impact with five items has been setup, representing the five levels of impacts that risks may have on the project with five distinct color code.

Here is a Risk Breakdown Structure example:

Risk Breakdown Structure

Organizational Breakdown Structure

Organizational Breakdown Structure, or sometimes known as Organization Chart, is a widely used project management tool for representing project organization. It typically begins with the project sponsor, and with all key stakeholders included. In presenting the organization structure, consider the organization or group that is requesting the project and the level of their sponsorship and authority.

Here is an Organizational Breakdown Structure example:

Organizational Breakdown Structure

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6 essential roles in project management.

6 Essential Roles In Project Management

Essential Roles In Project Management To Ensure Success

My answer is slightly longer.

The last decade or so has seen dramatic changes in the business environment. Projects have gained strategic importance and are not viewed as just delivery mechanisms anymore. Projects are also usually under enormous pressure to be completed, on time, and under budget. Projects can, thus, make or break organizations if not adequately managed through a proper framework of Project Management processes. As a result, the need for Project Management has seen a massive surge in demand and importance in today’s times. Project Management is much more than keeping the Project Management triangle in check. It has been developed to hold all the people working on the project together towards a vision for success while navigating through the ups and downs, the risks and uncertainties of the project. Having emphasized enough on the importance of Project Management, keeping the right set of people on board is crucial to be able to realize the project objectives and vision.

Here are the 6 critical roles for ensuring a project’s success. These roles could be assigned to one or more individuals, and conversely, individuals may play more than one role depending upon the organization structure and type, as well as the scope of the project and its strategic alignment.

1. Project Manager

Project Managers are primarily responsible for the completion of the project as planned. Depending on the type of project organization , they usually play a lead role in the overall planning, executing, monitoring, controlling, and closing of projects. This includes managing, reviewing, and prioritizing the day-to-day project activities with an objective to stay on time and under budget, as well as managing the project resources. Their responsibilities also include status and executive reporting, risk management, conflict mediation , project communication management, and stakeholder management. Project Managers, typically use Project Management software, such as Microsoft Project, to plan and schedule tasks and provide a framework for Project Management activities. The primary purpose of these Project Management tools is to help Project Managers prepare, execute, and control all aspects of a project or a group of projects with optimal time management.

2. Project Team

The project team comprises of full-time or part-time employees who are assigned to work on different activities and deliverables of the project. They are responsible for contributing to the overall objectives of the project and the specific team deliverables. Having an interdisciplinary team with the right mix of skills and expertise is vital to the smooth and successful execution of any project. Project teams, often identified and constructed by the Project Managers, may comprise of in-house staff from multiple departments, skill sets, and even different geographies. Sometimes, project teams can also include outside suppliers, contractors, or external consultants, who have explicitly been pooled for the project. Their role is to successfully perform the project tasks and activities that have been assigned to them, keeping the Project Managers apprised of the progress, as well as any roadblocks that may arise during the project execution. The project team members use a Project Management software to see what’s on their plate, understand work priorities, report progress and time spent on different activities, and also collaborate with other team members and Project Managers.

3. Steering Committee

The steering committee comprises of management representatives and other high-level stakeholders (people or groups who have a stake, or an interest in the outcome of the project) and oversees the entire project lifecycle, providing guidance on the overall strategic direction. They serve as the 'leadership' support for the project, resolve issues escalated by the Project Manager, and decide on all requests to change key project elements, such as deliverables, schedule, and budget (through the Change Control Board .)

4. Project Client

Clients are the people (or organization/business unit/department, etc.) for whom the project is being undertaken. Whether it is an internal-company project or an external project, every project has a client or a customer, who has a business need that will be satisfied by the successful completion of the project. While the term client generically refers to one or more people from the client’s organization, specific large projects also have a dedicated client Project Manager as a comparable Project Manager to work on the client side. During the course of a project, the client’s role is crucial to the overall success. They play an active role in approving project plans, requesting changes, raising issues and risks, approving milestones, releasing payments, and accepting (or declining) the final deliverables of the project.

5. Project Management Office (PMO)

The Project Management Office aka PMO is a group of people who help build and maintain a set of standards and best practices for internal Project Management, and oversee their adherence across all projects. According to the PMBOK® Guide, a Project Management Office is an organizational structure that standardizes the project-related governance processes and facilitates the sharing of resources, methodologies, tools, and techniques. As more and more projects gain strategic importance , PMOs help to manage and execute them in a more predictable and controlled way, ensuring standardization of Project Management practices to achieve economies of scale and thus improving the overall project success rates.

6. Resource Manager

Albeit smaller in number, many organizations have this role of a dedicated Resource Manager, whose primary responsibility is to manage resource pools assignable to projects. The Resource Manager works for a hand in glove with the Project Manager to coordinate the resource capabilities and workload, and is responsible for assigning the right people to the right projects at the right time. They play an essential role in capacity planning to ensure resource fulfillment to project demands. They are also primarily responsible for skills management, continually assessing the training needs and career development of the employees working on different projects. Interim resource swaps or resource adjustments are also handled by the Resource Managers. A Resource Manager’s role when done well can have a tremendous impact on the organization’s success.

There you have it, the 6 essential roles in Project Management. What are the most common project roles in your organization? Please, share them in the comments!

PMI Definitions Based on a Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK ®  Guide)

Accept.  The act of formally receiving or acknowledging something and regarding it as being true, sound, suitable, or complete.

Acceptance.  See  accept .

Acceptance Criteria.  Those  criteria , including performance  requirements  and essential conditions, which must be met before project  deliverables  are accepted.

Acquire Project Team  [Process]. The process of obtaining the human resources needed to complete the  project .

Activity.  A  component  of  work  performed during the course of a  project . See also  schedule activity .  Activity Attributes  [Output/Input]. Multiple attributes associated with each  schedule activity  that can be included within the  activity list . Activity attributes include  activity codes ,  predecessor activities ,  successor activities ,  logical relationships ,  leads  and  lags ,  resource requirements, imposed dates, constraints,  and  assumptions .

Activity Code.  One or more numerical or text values that identify characteristics of the  work  or in some way categorize the  schedule activity  that allows filtering and ordering of activities within reports.

Activity Definition  [Process]. The  process  of identifying the specific  schedule activities  that need to be performed to produce the various project  deliverables .

Activity Description (AD).  A short phrase or label for each  schedule activity  used in conjunction with an  activity identifier  to differentiate that project schedule activity from other schedule activities. The activity description normally describes the  scope  of work of the schedule activity.

Activity Duration.  The time in  calendar  units between the start and finish of a  schedule activity . See also  actual duration ,  original duration , and  remaining duration .

Activity Duration Estimating  [Process]. The  process  of estimating the number of work periods that will be needed to complete individual  schedule activities .

Activity Identifier.  A short unique numeric or text identification assigned to each  schedule activity  to differentiate that  project activity * from other activities. Typically unique within any one  project schedule network diagram .

Activity List  [Output/Input]. A documented tabulation of  schedule activities  that shows the  activity description ,  activity identifier , and a sufficiently detailed scope of work description so  project team members  understand what  work  is to be performed.

Activity-on-Arrow (AOA).  See  arrow diagramming method .

Activity-on-Node (AON).  See  precedence diagramming method .

Activity Resource Estimating  [Process]. The  process  of estimating the types and quantities of  resources  required to perform each  schedule activity .

Activity Sequencing  [Process]. The  process  of identifying and documenting  dependencies among  schedule activities .

Actual Cost (AC).  Total costs actually incurred and recorded in accomplishing work performed during a given time period for a  schedule activity  or  work breakdown structure component . Actual cost can sometimes be direct labor hours alone, direct costs alone, or all costs including indirect costs. Also referred to as the actual cost of work performed (ACWP). See also  earned value management  and  earned value technique .

Actual Cost of Work Performed (ACWP).  See  actual cost (AC) .

Actual Duration.  The time in  calendar units  between the  actual start date  of the  schedule activity  and either the  data date  of the  project schedule  if the schedule activity is in progress or the  actual finish date  if the schedule activity is complete.

Actual Finish Date (AF).  The point in time that  work  actually ended on a  schedule activity . (Note: In some application areas, the schedule activity is considered “finished” when work is “substantially complete.”)

Actual Start Date (AS).  The point in time that  work  actually started on a  schedule activity .

Analogous Estimating  [Technique]. An estimating  technique  that uses the values of parameters, such as  scope ,  cost ,  budget , and  duration  or measures of scale such as size, weight, and complexity from a previous, similar  activity  as the basis for estimating the same parameter or measure for a future activity. It is frequently used to estimate a parameter when there is a limited amount of detailed information about the project (e.g., in the early phases ). Analogous estimating is a form of  expert judgment . Analogous estimating is most reliable when the previous activities are similar in fact and not just in appearance, and the  project team members preparing the  estimates  have the needed expertise.

Application Area.  A category of  projects  that have common  components  significant in such projects, but are not needed or present in all projects. Application areas are usually defined  in terms of either the product  (i.e., by similar technologies or production methods) or the type of  customer  (i.e., internal versus external, government versus commercial) or industry sector (i.e., utilities, automotive, aerospace, information technologies). Application areas can overlap.

Apportioned Effort (AE).  Effort  applied to project  work  that is not readily divisible into discrete efforts for that work, but which is related in direct proportion to measurable discrete work efforts. Contrast with  discrete effort .

Approval.  See  approve .

Approve.  The act of formally confirming, sanctioning, ratifying, or agreeing to something.

Approved Change Request  [Output/Input]. A  change request  that has been processed through the  integrated change control  process and  approved . Contrast with  requested change.

Arrow.  The graphic presentation of a  schedule activity  in the  arrow diagramming method  or a  logical relationship  between schedule activities in the  precedence diagramming method .

Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM)  [Technique]. A schedule network diagramming  technique  in which  schedule activities  are represented by  arrows . The tail of the arrow represents the start, and the head represents the finish of the schedule activity. (The length of the arrow does  not  represent the expected duration of the schedule activity.) Schedule activities are connected at points called nodes (usually drawn as small circles) to illustrate the sequence in which the schedule activities are expected to be performed. See also  precedence diagramming method .

As-of Date.  See  data dat e.

Assumptions  [Output/Input]. Assumptions are factors that, for planning purposes, are considered to be true, real, or certain without proof or demonstration. Assumptions affect all aspects of  project  planning, and are part of the  progressive elaboration  of the project.  Project teams  frequently identify, document, and validate assumptions as part of their planning  process . Assumptions generally involve a degree of  risk .

Assumptions Analysis  [Technique]. A  technique  that explores the accuracy of  assumptions and identifies  risks  to the project from inaccuracy, inconsistency, or incompleteness of assumptions.

Authority.  The right to apply  project resources* , expend  funds , make decisions, or give  approvals .

Backward Pass.  The calculation of  late finish dates  and  late start dates  for the uncompleted portions of all  schedule activities . Determined by working backwards through the schedule  network logic  from the project’s end date. The end date may be calculated in a  forward pass or set by the  customer  or  sponsor . See also  schedule network analysis .

Bar Chart  [Tool]. A graphic display of schedule-related information. In the typical bar chart,  schedule activities  or  work breakdown structure components  are listed down the left side of the chart,  dates  are shown across the top, and  activity durations  are shown as date-placed horizontal bars. Also called a Gantt chart.

Baseline.  The approved time phased plan (for a  project , a  work breakdown structure component , a  work package , or a  schedule activity ), plus or minus approved  project scope ,  cost , schedule, and technical changes. Generally refers to the current baseline, but may refer to the original or some other baseline. Usually used with a modifier (e.g., cost baseline, schedule baseline, performance measurement baseline, technical baseline). See also  performance measurement baseline .

Baseline Finish Date.  The finish date of a  schedule activity  in the approved  schedule baseline . See also  scheduled finish date .

Baseline Start Date.  The start date of a  schedule activity  in the approved  schedule baseline . See also  scheduled start date .

Bill of Materials (BOM).  A documented formal hierarchical tabulation of the physical assemblies, subassemblies, and  components  needed to fabricate a  product .

Bottom-up Estimating  [Technique]. A method of estimating a  component  of  work . Th work is  decomposed  into more detail. An  estimate  is prepared of what is needed to meet the  requirements  of each of the lower, more detailed pieces of work, and these estimates are then aggregated into a total quantity for the component of work. The accuracy of bottom-up estimating is driven by the size and complexity of the work identified at the lower levels. Generally smaller work scopes increase the accuracy of the estimates.

Brainstorming  [Technique]. A general data gathering and creativity  technique  that can be used to identify  risks , ideas, or solutions to  issues  by using a group of  team members  or subject-matter experts. Typically, a brainstorming session is structured so that each participant’s ideas are recorded for later analysis.

Budget.  The approved  estimate  for the  project  or any  work breakdown structure  component or any  schedule activity . See also  estimate .

Budget at Completion (BAC).  The sum of all the  budget  values established for the  work  to be performed on a  project  or a  work breakdown structure component  or a  schedule activity.  The total  planned value  for the project.

Budgeted Cost of Work Performed (BCWP).  See  earned value (EV) .

Budgeted Cost of Work Scheduled (BCWS).  See  planned value (PV) .

Buffer.  See  reserve .

Buyer.  The acquirer of  products ,  services , or  results  for an organization.

Calendar Unit.  The smallest unit of time used in scheduling the  project . Calendar units are generally in hours, days, or weeks, but can also be in quarter years, months, shifts, or even in minutes.  Change Control.  Identifying, documenting, approving or rejecting, and controlling changes to the  project baselines* .

Change Control Board (CCB).  A formally constituted group of  stakeholders  responsible for reviewing, evaluating, approving, delaying, or rejecting changes to the  project , with all decisions and recommendations being recorded.

Change Control System  [Tool]. A collection of formal documented  procedures  that define how project  deliverables  and documentation will be controlled, changed, and approved. In most  application areas  the change control system is a subset of the  configuration management system .

Change Request.  Requests to expand or reduce the  project scope , modify policies,  processes , plans, or  procedures , modify  costs  or  budgets , or revise  schedules . Requests for a change can be direct or indirect, externally or internally initiated, and legally or contractually mandated or optional. Only formally documented requested changes are processed and only approved change requests are implemented.

Chart of Accounts  [Tool]. Any numbering  system  used to monitor  project costs*  by category (e.g., labor, supplies, materials, and equipment). The project chart of accounts is usually based upon the corporate chart of accounts of the primary  performing organization . Contrast with  code of accounts .

Charter.  See  project charter .

Checklist  [Output/Input]. Items listed together for convenience of comparison, or to ensure the actions associated with them are managed appropriately and not forgotten. An example is a list of items to be inspected that is created during  quality  planning and applied during quality  control .

Claim.  A request, demand, or assertion of rights by a  seller  against a  buyer , or vice versa, for consideration, compensation, or payment under the terms of a legally binding  contract such as for a disputed change.

Close Project  [Process]. The  process  of finalizing all  activities  across all of the project  process groups  to formally close the  project  or  phase .

Closing Processes  [Process Group]. Those  processes  performed to formally terminate all  activities  of a  project  or  phase , and transfer the completed  product  to others or close a cancelled  project .

Code of Accounts  [Tool]. Any numbering  system  used to uniquely identify each  component of the  work breakdown structure . Contrast with  chart of accounts .

Co-location  [Technique]. An organizational placement strategy where the  project team members  are physically located close to one another in order to improve  communication , working relationships, and productivity.

Common Cause.  A source of variation that is inherent in the  system  and predictable. On a  control chart , it appears as part of the random process variation (i.e., variation from a  process  that would be considered normal or not unusual), and is indicated by a random pattern of points within the  control limits . Also referred to as random cause. Contrast with  special cause .

Communication.  A  process  through which information is exchanged among persons using a common system of symbols, signs, or behaviors.

Communication Management Plan  [Output/Input]. The  document  that describes: the  communications  needs and expectations for the  project ; how and in what format information will be communicated; when and where each communication will be made; and who is responsible for providing each type of communication. A communication management plan can be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed, based on the requirements of the project  stakeholders . The communication management plan is contained in, or is a subsidiary plan of, the  project management plan .

Communications Planning  [Process]. The  process  of determining the information and  communications  needs of the project  stakeholders : who they are, what is their level of interest and influence on the  project , who needs what information, when will they need it, and how it will be given to them.

Compensation.  Something given or received, a payment or recompense, usually something monetary or in kind for  products ,  services , or  results  provided or received.  Component.  A constituent part, element, or piece of a complex whole.

Configuration Management System  [Tool]. A subsystem of the overall  project management system . It is a collection of formal documented  procedures  used to apply technical and administrative direction and surveillance to: identify and document the functional and physical characteristics of a  product, result, service,  or  component ; control any changes to such characteristics; record and report each change and its implementation status; and support the audit of the products, results, or components to verify conformance to  requirements . It includes the documentation, tracking  systems , and defined approval levels necessary for authorizing and controlling changes. In most  application areas , the configuration management system includes the  change control system .

Constraint  [Input]. The state, quality, or sense of being restricted to a given course of action or inaction. An applicable restriction or limitation, either internal or external to the project, that will affect the performance of the  project  or a  process . For example, a schedule constraint is any limitation or restraint placed on the  project schedule  that affects when a s chedule activity  can be scheduled and is usually in the form of fixed  imposed dates . A cost constraint is any limitation or restraint placed on the  project budget  such as  funds  available over time. A project  resource  constraint is any limitation or restraint placed on resource usage, such as what resource  skills  or  disciplines  are available and the amount of a given resource available during a specified time frame.

Contingency.  See  reserve .

Contingency Allowance.  See  reserve .

Contingency Reserve  [Output/Input]. The amount of  funds ,  budget , or time needed above the  estimate  to reduce the  risk  of overruns of project  objectives  to a level acceptable to the  organization .

Contract  [Output/Input]. A contract is a mutually binding agreement that obligates the  seller  to provide the specified  product  or  service  or  result  and obligates the  buyer  to pay for it.

Contract Administration  [Process]. The process of managing the  contract  and the relationship between the  buyer  and  seller , reviewing and documenting how a seller is performing or has performed to establish required  corrective actions  and provide a basis for future relationships with the seller, managing contract related changes and, when appropriate, managing the contractual relationship with the outside buyer of the  project .

Contract Closure  [Process]. The process of completing and settling the  contract , including resolution of any open items and closing each contract.

Contract Management Plan  [Output/Input]. The  document  that describes how a specific  contract  will be administered and can include items such as required documentation delivery and performance requirements. A contract management plan can be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed, based on the requirements in the contract. Each contract management plan is a subsidiary plan of the  project management plan .

Contract Statement of Work (SOW)  [Output/Input]. A narrative description of  products, services, or results  to be supplied under contract.

Contract Work Breakdown Structure (CWBS)  [Output/Input]. A portion of the  work breakdown structure  for the  project  developed and maintained by a  seller  contracting to provide a  subproject  or project  component .

Control  [Technique]. Comparing actual performance with planned performance, analyzing  variances , assessing trends to effect  process  improvements, evaluating possible alternatives, and recommending appropriate  corrective action  as needed.

Control Account (CA)  [Tool]. A management control point where the integration of  scope, budget, actual cost,  and  schedule  takes place, and where the measurement of performance will occur. Control accounts are placed at selected management points (specific  components at selected levels) of the  work breakdown structure . Each control account may include one or more  work packages , but each work package may be associated with only one control account. Each control account is associated with a specific single organizational  component  in the  organizational breakdown structure  (OBS). Previously called a Cost Account. See also  work package .

Control Account Plan (CAP)  [Tool]. A plan for all the  work  and  effort  to be performed in a control account. Each CAP has a definitive  statement of work ,  schedule , and time-phased  budget . Previously called a Cost Account Plan.

Control Chart  [Tool]. A graphic display of process data over time and against established  control limits , and that has a centerline that assists in detecting a trend of plotted values toward either  control limit .

Control Limits.  The area composed of three standard deviations on either side of the centerline, or mean, of a normal distribution of data plotted on a  control chart  that reflects the expected variation in the data. See also  specification limits .

Controlling.  See  control .

Corrective Action.  Documented direction for  executing  the  project work  to bring expected future performance of the project  work  in line with the  project management plan .

Cost.  The monetary value or price of a  project activity*  or  component  that includes the monetary worth of the  resources  required to perform and complete the activity or component, or to produce the component. A specific cost can be composed of a combination of cost components including direct labor hours, other direct costs, indirect labor hours, other indirect costs, and purchased price. (However, in the  earned value management  methodology, in some instances, the term cost can represent only labor hours without conversion to monetary worth.) See also  actual cost  and  estimate .

Cost Baseline.  See  baseline .

Cost Budgeting  [Process]. The  process  of aggregating the estimated costs of individual activities or  work packages  to establish a cost  baseline .

Cost Control  [Process]. The  process  of influencing the factors that create variances, and controlling changes to the project budget.

Cost Estimating  [Process]. The  process  of developing an approximation of the cost of the  resources  needed to complete  project activities* .

Cost Management Plan  [Output/Input]. The document that sets out the format and establishes the  activities  and  criteria  for planning, structuring, and controlling the  project costs . A cost management plan can be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed, based on the requirements of the project stakeholders. The cost management plan is contained in, or is a subsidiary plan, of the  project management plan .

Cost of Quality (COQ)  [Technique]. Determining the costs incurred to ensure  quality . Prevention and appraisal costs (cost of conformance) include costs for quality planning, quality control (QC), and quality assurance to ensure compliance to requirements (i.e., training, QC  systems , etc.). Failure costs (cost of non-conformance) include costs to rework  products ,  components , or  processes  that are non-compliant, costs of warranty work and waste, and loss of reputation.

Cost Performance Index (CPI).  A measure of cost efficiency on a  project . It is the ratio of  earned valu e (EV) to  actual costs  (AC). CPI = EV divided by AC. A value equal to or greater than one indicates a favorable condition and a value less than one indicates an unfavorable condition.

Cost-Plus-Fee (CPF).  A type of  cost reimbursable contract  where the  buyer  reimburses the  seller  for seller’s allowable costs for performing the contract work and seller also receives a fee calculated as an agreed upon percentage of the costs. The fee varies with the actual cost.

Cost-Plus-Fixed-Fee (CPFF) Contract.  A type of  cost-reimbursable contract  where the  buyer reimburses the  seller  for the seller’s allowable costs (allowable costs are define by the contract) plus a fixed amount of profit (fee).

Cost-Plus-Incentive-Fee (CPIF) Contract.  A type of  cost-reimbursable contract  where the  buyer  reimburses the  seller  for the seller’s allowable costs (allowable costs are defined by the contract), and the seller earns its profit if it meets defined performance criteria.

Cost-Plus-Percentage of Cost (CPPC).  See  cost-plus-fee .

Cost-Reimbursable Contract.  A type of  contract  involving payment (reimbursement) by the  buyer  to the  seller  for the seller’s actual costs, plus a fee typically representing seller’s profit. Costs are usually classified as direct costs or indirect costs. Direct costs are costs incurred for the exclusive benefit of the project, such as salaries of full-time project staff. Indirect costs, also called overhead and general and administrative cost, are costs allocated to the project by the performing organization as a cost of doing business, such as salaries of management indirectly involved in the project, and cost of electric utilities for the office. Indirect costs are usually calculated as a percentage of direct costs. Cost-reimbursable contracts often include incentive clauses where, if the seller meets or exceeds selected project objectives, such as schedule targets or total cost, then the seller receives from the buyer an incentive or bonus payment.

Cost Variance (CV).  A measure of cost performance on a  project . It is the algebraic difference between  earned value  (EV) and  actual cost  (AC). CV = EV minus AC. A positive value indicates a favorable condition and a negative value indicates an unfavorable condition.

Crashing  [Technique]. A specific type of project  schedule compression technique  performed by taking action to decrease the total project schedule duration * after analyzing a number of alternatives to determine how to get the maximum schedule duration compression for the least additional cost. Typical approaches for crashing a schedule include reducing  schedule activity durations  and increasing the assignment of  resources on schedule activities. See  schedule compression  and see also  fast tracking .

Create WBS (Work Breakdown Structure)  [Process]. The  process  of subdividing the major project  deliverables  and project  work  into smaller, more manageable  components .  Criteria.  Standards , rules, or tests on which a judgment or decision can be based, or by which a  product ,  service ,  result , or  process  can be evaluated.

Critical Activity.  Any  schedule activity  on a  critical path  in a  project schedule . Most commonly determined by using the  critical path method . Although some activities are “critical,” in the dictionary sense, without being on the critical path, this meaning is seldom used in the project context.

Critical Chain Method  [Technique]. A  schedule network analysis technique * that modifies the project schedule to account for limited resources. The critical chain method mixes deterministic and probabilistic approaches to  schedule network analysis .

Critical Path  [Output/Input]. Generally, but not always, the sequence of  schedule activities that determines the duration of the  project . Generally, it is the longest path through the project. However, a critical path can end, as an example, on a  schedule milestone  that is in the middle of the project schedule and that has a finish-no-later-than  imposed date  schedule  constraint . See also  critical path method .

Critical Path Method (CPM)  [Technique]. A  schedule network analysis technique * used to determine the amount of scheduling flexibility (the amount of  float ) on various logical  network paths  in the  project schedule  network, and to determine the minimum total project  duration .  Early start and finish dates*  are calculated by means of a  forward pass , using a specified  start date .  Late start and finish dates*  are calculated by means of a  backward pass , starting from a specified completion date, which sometimes is the project  early finish date  determined during the forward pass calculation.

Current Finish Date.  The current  estimate  of the point in time when a  schedule activity  will be completed, where the estimate reflects any reported work progress. See also  scheduled finish date  and  baseline finish date .

Current Start Date.  The current  estimate  of the point in time when a  schedule activity  will begin, where the estimate reflects any reported work progress. See also  scheduled start date and  baseline start date .

Customer.  The person or  organization  that will use the project’s  product  or  service  or  result . (See also  user ).

Data Date (DD).  The  date  up to or through which the project’s reporting  system  has provided actual status and accomplishments. In some reporting  systems , the status information for the data date is included in the past and in some systems the status information is in the future. Also called  as-of date  and  time-now date .

Date.  A term representing the day, month, and year of a calendar, and, in some instances, the time of day.

Decision Tree Analysis  [Technique]. The decision tree is a diagram that describes a decision under consideration and the implications of choosing one or another of the available alternatives. It is used when some future scenarios or outcomes of actions are uncertain. It incorporates probabilities and the costs or rewards of each logical path of  events  and future decisions, and uses  expected monetary value analysis  to help the  organization  identify the relative values of alternate actions. See also  expected monetary value analysis .

Decompose.  See  decomposition .

Decomposition  [Technique]. A planning technique that subdivides the  project scope  and project  deliverables  into smaller, more manageable  components , until the project  work  associated with accomplishing the project scope and providing the deliverables is defined in sufficient detail to support  executing ,  monitoring , and  controlling  the  work .

Defect.  An imperfection or deficiency in a project  component  where that component does not meet its  requirements  or  specifications  and needs to be either repaired or replaced.

Defect Repair.  Formally documented identification of a  defect  in a project  component  with a recommendation to either repair the defect or completely replace the component.

Deliverable  [Output/Input]. Any unique and verifiable  product ,  result , or capability to perform a  service  that must be produced to complete a process, phase, or project. Often used more narrowly in reference to an external  deliverable , which is a deliverable that is subject to approval by the project sponsor or customer. See also product, service, and result.

Delphi Technique  [Technique]. An information gathering technique used as a way to reach a consensus of experts on a subject. Experts on the subject participate in this technique anonymously. A facilitator uses a questionnaire to solicit ideas about the important project points related to the subject. The responses are summarized and are then recirculated to the experts for further comment. Consensus may be reached in a few rounds of this  process . The Delphi technique helps reduce bias in the data and keeps any one person from having undue influence on the outcome.

Dependency.  See  logical relationship .

Design Review  [Technique]. A management  technique  used for evaluating a proposed design to ensure that the design of the  system  or  produc t meets the  customer requirements , or to assure that the design will perform successfully, can be produced, and can be maintained.

Develop Project Charter  [Process]. The  process  of developing the  project charter  that formally authorizes a  project .

Develop Project Management Plan  [Process]. The  process  of documenting the actions necessary to define, prepare, integrate, and coordinate all subsidiary plans into a  project management plan .

Develop Project Scope Statement (Preliminary)  [Process]. The  process  of developing the preliminary  project scope statement  that provides a high level  scope  narrative.

Develop Project Team  [Process]. The  process  of improving the competencies and interaction of team members to enhance  project  performance.

Direct and Manage Project Execution  [Process]. The  process  of executing the  work  defined in the  project management plan  to achieve the project’s  requirements  defined in the  project scope statement .

Discipline.  A field of work requiring specific knowledge and that has a set of rules governing work conduct (e.g., mechanical engineering, computer programming, cost estimating, etc.).

Discrete Effort.  Work effort  that is directly identifiable to the completion of specific  work breakdown structure  components and  deliverables , and that can be directly planned and measured. Contrast with  apportioned effort .

Document.  A medium and the information recorded thereon, that generally has permanence and can be read by a person or a machine. Examples include  project management plans ,  specifications ,  procedures , studies, and manuals

Documented Procedure.  A formalized written description of how to carry out an  activity ,  process ,  technique , or  methodology .

Dummy Activity.  A  schedule activity  of zero  duration  used to show a  logical relationship  in the  arrow diagramming method . Dummy activities are used when logical relationships cannot be completely or correctly described with schedule activity  arrows . Dummy activities are generally shown graphically as a dashed line headed by an arrow.

Duration (DU or DUR).  The total number of  work  periods (not including holidays or other nonworking periods) required to complete a  schedule activity  or  work breakdown structure component . Usually expressed as workdays or workweeks. Sometimes incorrectly equated with elapsed time. Contrast with  effort . See also  original duration ,  remaining duration , and  actual duration .

Early Finish Date (EF).  In the  critical path method , the earliest possible point in time on which the uncompleted portions of a  schedule activity  (or the  project ) can finish, based on the schedule  network logic , the  data date , and any schedule  constraints . Early finish dates can change as the project progresses and as changes are made to the  project management plan .

Early Start Date (ES).  In the  critical path method , the earliest possible point in time on which the uncompleted portions of a  schedule activity  (or the  project ) can start, based on the schedule  network logic , the  data date , and any schedule  constraints . Early start dates can change as the project progresses and as changes are made to the  project management plan .

Earned Value (EV).  The value of completed work expressed in terms of the approved  budget assigned to that work for a  schedule activity  or  work breakdown structure component . Also referred to as the budgeted cost of work performed (BCWP).

Earned Value Management (EVM).  A management methodology for integrating  scope, schedule , and  resources , and for objectively measuring project performance and progress. Performance is measured by determining the budgeted cost of work performed (i.e.,  earned value ) and comparing it to the actual cost of work performed (i.e.,  actual cost ). Progress is measured by comparing the  earned value  to the  planned value .

Earned Value Technique (EVT)  [Technique]. A specific technique for measuring the performance of work for a  work breakdown structure component ,  control account , or  project . Also referred to as the earning rules and crediting method.

Effort.  The number of labor units required to complete a  schedule activity  or  work breakdown structure component . Usually expressed as staff hours, staff days, or staff weeks. Contrast with  duration .

Enterprise.  A company, business, firm, partnership, corporation, or governmental agency.

Enterprise Environmental Factors  [Output/Input]. Any or all external environmental factors and internal organizational environmental factors that surround or influence the project’s success. These factors are from any or all of the enterprises involved in the project, and include organizational culture and structure, infrastructure, existing resources, commercial databases, market conditions, and  project management software .

Estimate  [Output/Input]. A quantitative assessment of the likely amount or outcome. Usually applied to project  costs, resources, effort , and  durations  and is usually preceded by a modifier (i.e., preliminary, conceptual, feasibility, order-of-magnitude, definitive). It should always include some indication of accuracy (e.g., ±x percent).

Estimate at Completion (EAC)  [Output/Input]. The expected total cost of a  schedule activity , a  work breakdown structure component , or the  project  when the defined  scope  of  work  will be completed. EAC is equal to the  actual cost  (AC) plus the  estimate to complete (ETC) for all of the remaining work. EAC = AC plus ETC. The EAC may be calculated based on performance to date or estimated by the  project team  based on other factors, in which case it is often referred to as the latest revised estimate. See also  earned value technique and  estimate to complete .

Estimate to Complete (ETC)  [Output/Input]. The expected cost needed to complete all the remaining work for a schedule  activity ,  work breakdown structure  component, or the  project . See also  earned value technique  and  estimate at completion .

Event.  Something that happens, an occurrence, an outcome.

Exception Report.  Document  that includes only major variations from the plan (rather than all variations).

Execute.  Directing, managing, performing, and accomplishing the  project work,  providing the  deliverables,  and providing  work performance information .

Executing.  See  execute .

Executing Processes  [Process Group]. Those  processes  performed to complete the  work defined in the  project management plan  to accomplish the project’s  objectives  defined in the  project scope statement .

Execution.  See  execute .

Expected Monetary Value (EMV) Analysis.  A statistical  technique  that calculates the average outcome when the future includes scenarios that may or may not happen. A common use of this technique is within  decision tree analysis . Modeling and simulation are recommended for  cost  and schedule  risk  analysis because it is more powerful and less subject to misapplication than expected monetary value analysis.

Expert Judgment  [Technique]. Judgment provided based upon expertise in an  application area ,  knowledge area ,  discipline , industry, etc. as appropriate for the activity being performed. Such expertise may be provided by any group or person with specialized education,  knowledge ,  skill , experience, or training, and is available from many sources, including: other units within the performing organization; consultants;  stakeholder s, including  customers ; professional and technical associations; and industry groups.

Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA)  [Technique]. An analytical  procedur e in which each potential failure mode in every  component  of a  product  is analyzed to determine its effect on the reliability of that component and, by itself or in combination with other possible failure modes, on the reliability of the product or system and on the required function of the component; or the examination of a  product  (at the  system  and/or lower levels) for all ways that a failure may occur. For each potential failure, an estimate is made of its effect on the total  system  and of its impact. In addition, a review is undertaken of the action planned to minimize the probability of failure and to minimize its effects.

Fast Tracking  [Technique]. A specific project  schedule compression technique  that changes  network logic  to overlap  phases  that would normally be done in sequence, such as the design phase and construction phase, or to perform  schedule activities  in parallel. See  schedule compression  and see also  crashing .

Finish Date.  A point in time associated with a  schedule activity’s  completion. Usually qualified by one of the following: actual, planned, estimated, scheduled, early, late, baseline, target, or current.

Finish-to-Finish (FF).  The  logical relationship  where completion of  work  of the  successor activity  cannot finish until the completion of work of the  predecessor  activity. See also  logical relationship .

Finish-to-Start (FS).  The  logical relationship  where initiation of  work  of the  successor activity  depends upon the completion of work of the  predecessor activity . See also  logical relationship .

Firm-Fixed-Price (FFP) Contract .  A type of  fixed price contract  where the  buyer  pays the  seller  a set amount (as defined by the  contract ), regardless of the seller’s costs.

Fixed-Price-Incentive-Fee (FPIF) Contract.  A type of  contract  where the  buyer  pays the  seller  a set amount (as defined by the contract), and the seller can earn an additional amount if the seller meets defined performance  criteria .

Fixed-Price or Lump-Sum Contract.  A type of  contract  involving a fixed total price for a well-defined  product . Fixed-price contracts may also include incentives for meeting or exceeding selected  project objectives , such as schedule targets. The simplest form of a fixed price contract is a purchase order.

Float.  Also called slack. See  total float  and see also  free float .

Flowcharting  [Technique]. The depiction in a diagram format of the  inputs ,  process  actions, and  outputs  of one or more processes within a  system .

Forecasts.  Estimates  or predictions of conditions and  events  in the  project’s  future based on information and knowledge available at the time of the forecast. Forecasts are updated and reissued based on  work performance information  provided as the project is  executed . The information is based on the project’s past performance and expected future performance, and includes information that could impact the project in the future, such as  estimate at completion  and  estimate to complete .

Forward Pass.  The calculation of the  early start  and  early finish dates  for the uncompleted portions of all network activities. See also  schedule network analysis  and  backward pass .

Free Float (FF).  The amount of time that a  schedule activity  can be delayed without delaying the early start of any immediately following schedule activities. See also  total float .

Functional Manager.  Someone with management  authority  over an organizational unit within a  functional organization . The manager of any group that actually makes a  product  or performs a  service . Sometimes called a line manager.

Functional Organization.  A hierarchical  organization  where each employee has one clear superior, staff are grouped by areas of specialization, and managed by a person with expertise in that area.

Funds.  A supply of money or pecuniary resources immediately available.

Gantt Chart.  See  bar chart .

Goods.  Commodities, wares, merchandise.

Grade.  A category or rank used to distinguish items that have the same functional use (e.g., “hammer”), but do not share the same requirements for quality (e.g., different hammers may need to withstand different amounts of force).  Ground Rules  [Tool]. A list of acceptable and unacceptable behaviors adopted by a  project team  to improve working relationships, effectiveness, and  communication .

Hammock Activity.  See  summary activity .

Historical Information.  Documents and data on prior projects including project files,records, correspondence, closed contracts, and closed projects.

Human Resource Planning  [Process]. The  process  of identifying and documenting  project roles , responsibilities and reporting relationships, as well as creating the  staffing management plan .

Imposed Date.  A fixed date imposed on a  schedule activity  or  schedule milestone , usually in the form of a “start no earlier than” and “finish no later than” date.

Influence Diagram  [Tool]. Graphical representation of situations showing causal influences, time ordering of  events , and other relationships among variables and outcomes.

Influencer.  Persons or groups that are not directly related to the acquisition or use of the project’s  product , but, due to their position in the  customer organization* , can influence, positively or negatively, the course of the  project .

Information Distribution  [Process]. The  process  of making needed information available to  project stakeholders  in a timely manner.

Initiating Processes  [Process Group]. Those  processes  performed to authorize and define the  scope  of a new  phase  or  project  or that can result in the continuation of halted project  work . A large number of the initiating processes are typically done outside the project’s scope of control by the  organization ,  program , or  portfolio  processes and those processes provide input to the project’s initiating processes group.

Initiator.  A person or  organization  that has both the ability and  authority  to start a  project .

Input  [Process Input]. Any item, whether internal or external to the project that is required by a  process  before that process proceeds. May be an  output  from a predecessor process.

Inspection  [Technique]. Examining or measuring to verify whether an  activity ,  component product ,  result  or  service  conforms to specified  requirements .

Integral.  Essential to completeness; requisite; constituent with; formed as a unit with another

Integrated.  Interrelated, interconnected, interlocked, or meshed components blended and unified into a functioning or unified whole.

Integrated Change Control  [Process]. The  process  of reviewing all  change requests , approving changes and controlling changes to  deliverables  and  organizational process assets .

Invitation for Bid (IFB).  Generally, this term is equivalent to  request for proposal . However, in some  application areas , it may have a narrower or more specific meaning.

Issue.  A point or matter in question or in dispute, or a point or matter that is not settled and is under discussion or over which there are opposing views or disagreements.

Knowledge.  Knowing something with the familiarity gained through experience, education, observation, or investigation, it is understanding a  process ,  practice , or  technique , or how to use a  tool .

Knowledge Area Process.  An identifiable project management  process  within a  knowledge area .

Knowledge Area, Project Management.  See  Project Management Knowledge Area .

Lag  [Technique]. A modification of a  logical relationship  that directs a delay in the  successo r  activity . For example, in a  finish-to-start  dependency with a ten-day lag, the successor activity cannot start until ten days after the  predecessor  activity has finished. See also  lead .

Late Finish Date (LF).  In the  critical path method , the latest possible point in time that a  schedule activity  may be completed based upon the schedule  network logic , the project completion date, and any  constraints  assigned to the schedule activities without violating a schedule constraint or delaying the project completion date. The late finish dates are determined during the  backward pass  calculation of the project schedule network.

Late Start Date (LS).  In the critical path method, the latest possible point in time that a  schedule activity  may begin based upon the schedule  network logic , the project completion date, and any  constraints  assigned to the schedule activities without violating a schedule constraint or delaying the project completion date. The late start dates are determined during the  backward pass  calculation of the project schedule network.

Latest Revised Estimate.  See  estimate at completion .

Lead  [Technique]. A modification of a  logical relationship  that allows an acceleration of the  successor activity . For example, in a  finish-to-start  dependency with a ten-day lead, the  successor activity  can start ten days before the  predecessor activity  has finished. See also  lag . A negative lead is equivalent to a positive lag.

Lessons Learned  [Output/Input]. The learning gained from the process of performing the project. Lessons learned may be identified at any point. Also considered a project record, to be included in the  lessons learned knowledge base .

Lessons Learned Knowledge Base.  A store of historical information and  lessons learned about both the outcomes of previous  project  selection decisions and previous project performance.

Level of Effort (LOE).  Support-type  activity  (e.g.,  seller  or  customer  liaison, project cost accounting, project management, etc.) that does not readily lend itself to measurement of discrete accomplishment. It is generally characterized by a uniform rate of  work  performance over a period of time determined by the activities supported.

Leveling.  See  resource leveling .

Life Cycle.  See  project life cycle .

Log.  A document used to record and describe or denote selected items identified during execution of a process or activity. Usually used with a modifier, such as issue, quality control, action, or defect.

Logic.  See  network logic .

Logic Diagram.  See  project schedule network diagram .

Logical Relationship.  A  dependenc y between two  project schedule activities , or between a project schedule activity and a  schedule milestone . See also  precedence relationship . The four possible types of logical relationships are:  Finish-to-Start ;  Finish-to-Finish ;  Startto- Start ; and  Start-to-Finish .

Manage Project Team  [Process]. The  process  of tracking team member performance,  providing feedback, resolving issues, and coordinating changes to enhance project performance.

Manage Stakeholders  [Process]. The  process  of managing  communications  to satisfy the  requirements  of, and resolve  issues  with, project  stakeholders .

Master Schedule  [Tool]. A summary-level  project schedule  that identifies the major  deliverables  and  work breakdown structure components  and key  schedule milestones . See also  milestone schedule .

Materiel.  The aggregate of things used by an  organization  in any undertaking, such as equipment, apparatus, tools, machinery, gear, material, and supplies.

Matrix Organization.  Any organizational structure in which the  project manager  shares responsibility with the  functional managers  for assigning priorities and for directing the  work of persons assigned to the  project .

Methodology.  A  system  of  practices ,  techniques ,  procedures , and rules used by those who work in a  discipline .

Milestone.  A significant point or  event  in the  project . See also  schedule milestone .

Milestone Schedule  [Tool]. A summary-level  schedule  that identifies the major  schedule milestones . See also  master schedule .

Monitor.  Collect  project  performance data with respect to a plan, produce performance measures, and report and disseminate performance information.

Monitor and Control Project Work  [Process]. The process of  monitoring  and  controlling  the processes required to initiate, plan, execute, and close a  project  to meet the performance  objectives  defined in the  project management plan  and  project scope statement .

Monitoring.  See  monitor .

Monitoring and Controlling Processes  [Process Group]. Those  processes  performed to measure and  monitor project execution * so that corrective action can be taken when necessary to  control  the execution of the  phase  or project.

Monte Carlo Analysis.  A  technique  that computes, or iterates, the  project  cost or  project schedule  many times using input values selected at random from probability distributions of possible  costs  or  durations , to calculate a distribution of possible total project cost or completion dates.

Near-Critical Activity.  A  schedule activity  that has low  total float . The concept of near critical is equally applicable to a schedule activity  or schedule  network path . The limit below which  total float  is considered near critical is subject to  expert judgment  and varies from  project  to project.

Network.  See  project schedule network diagram .

Network Analysis.  See  schedule network analysis .

Network Logic.  The collection of  schedule activity  dependencies that makes up a  project schedule network diagram .

Network Loop.  A schedule  network path  that passes the same  node  twice. Network loops cannot be analyzed using traditional  schedule network analysis  techniques such as  critical path method .

Network Open End .  A  schedule activity  without any  predecessor activities  or  successor activities  creating an unintended break in a schedule  network path . Network open ends are usually caused by missing  logical relationships .

Network Path.  Any continuous series of  schedule activities  connected with  logical relationships  in a  project schedule network diagram .

Networking  [Technique]. Developing relationships with persons who may be able to assist in the achievement of  objectives  and responsibilities.

Node.  One of the defining points of a schedule network; a junction point joined to some or all of the other  dependency  lines. See also  arrow diagramming method  and  precedence diagramming method .

Objective.  Something toward which  work  is to be directed, a strategic position to be attained, or a purpose to be achieved, a  result  to be obtained, a  product  to be produced, or a  service  to be performed.

Operations.  An organizational function performing the ongoing execution of  activities  that produce the same  product  or provide a repetitive  service . Examples are: production operations, manufacturing operations, and accounting operations.

Opportunity.  A condition or situation favorable to the  project , a positive set of circumstances, a positive set of  events , a  risk  that will have a positive impact on project  objectives , or a possibility for positive changes. Contrast with  threat .

Organization.  A group of persons organized for some purpose or to perform some type of  work  within an  enterprise .

Organization Chart  [Tool]. A method for depicting interrelationships among a group of persons working together toward a common  objective .

Organizational Breakdown Structure (OBS)  [Tool]. A hierarchically organized depiction of the  project organization  arranged so as to relate the  work packages  to the  performing organizational  units. (Sometimes OBS is written as Organization Breakdown Structure with the same definition.)

Organizational Process Assets  [Output/Input]. Any or all  process  related assets, from any or all of the organizations involved in the  project  that are or can be used to influence the project’s success. These process assets include formal and informal plans, policies,  procedures , and guidelines. The process assets also include the organizations’ knowledge bases such as  lessons learned  and  historical information .

Original Duration (OD).  The  activity duration  originally assigned to a schedule activity and not updated as progress is reported on the activity. Typically used for comparison with  actual duration  and  remaining duration  when reporting schedule progress.

Output  [Process Output]. A  product ,  result , or  service  generated by a  process . May be an input to a successor process.

Parametric Estimating  [Technique]. An estimating  technique  that uses a statistical relationship between historical data and other variables (e.g., square footage in construction, lines of code in software development) to calculate an  estimate  for activity parameters, such as  scope, cost, budget , and  duration . This technique can produce higher levels of accuracy depending upon the sophistication and the underlying data built into the model. An example for the cost parameter is multiplying the planned quantity of work to be performed by the historical cost per unit to obtain the estimated cost.

Pareto Chart  [Tool]. A histogram, ordered by frequency of occurrence, that shows how many  results  were generated by each identified cause.

Path Convergence.  The merging or joining of parallel schedule  network paths  into the same  node  in a  project schedule network diagram . Path convergence is characterized by a  schedule activity  with more than one  predecessor activity .

Path Divergence.  Extending or generating parallel schedule  network paths  from the same  node  in a  project schedule network diagram . Path divergence is characterized by a schedule activity  with more than one  successor activity .

Percent Complete (PC or PCT).  An  estimate , expressed as a percent, of the amount of  work that has been completed on an  activity  or a  work breakdown structure component .

Perform Quality Assurance (QA)  [Process]. The  process  of applying the planned, systematic quality  activities  (such as audits or peer reviews) to ensure that the  project  employs all processes needed to meet requirements.

Perform Quality Control (QC)  [Process]. The  process  of  monitoring  specific  project results * to determine whether they comply with relevant quality standards and identifying ways to eliminate causes of unsatisfactory performance.

Performance Measurement Baseline.  An approved plan for the  project work  against which project execution is compared and deviations are measured for management  control . The performance measurement baseline typically integrates  scope, schedule,  and  cost  parameters of a project, but may also include technical and  quality  parameters.

Performance Reporting  [Process]. The  process  of collecting and distributing performance information. This includes status reporting, progress measurement, and  forecasting .

Performance Reports  [Output/Input].  Documents  and presentations that provide organized and summarized  work performance information, earned value management  parameters and calculations, and analyses of  project work  progress and status. Common formats for performance reports include  bar charts ,  S-curves ,  histograms , tables, and  project schedule network diagram  showing current schedule status.

Performing Organization.  The  enterprise  whose personnel are most directly involved in doing the  work  of the  projec t.

Phase.  See  project phase .

Plan Contracting  [Process]. The  process  of documenting the  products ,  services,  and  results requirements and identifying potential  sellers .

Plan Purchases and Acquisitions  [Process]. The  process  of determining what to purchase or acquire, and determining when and how to do so.

Planned Finish Date (PF).  See  scheduled finish date .

Planned Start Date (PS).  See  scheduled start date .

Planned Value (PV).  The authorized  budget  assigned to the scheduled work to be accomplished for a  schedule activity  or  work breakdown structure component . Also referred to as the budgeted cost of work scheduled (BCWS).

Planning Package.  A WBS  component  below the  control account  with known  work  content but without detailed  schedule activities . See also  control account .

Planning Processes  [Process Group]. Those  processes  performed to define and mature the  project scope , develop the  project management plan , and identify and schedule the  project activities*  that occur within the  project .

Portfolio.  A collection of  projects  or  programs  and other work that are grouped together to facilitate effective management of that  work  to meet strategic business  objectives . The projects or programs of the portfolio may not necessarily be interdependent or directly related.

Portfolio Management  [Technique]. The centralized management of one or more  portfolios , which includes identifying, prioritizing, authorizing, managing, and controlling  projects ,  programs , and other related work, to achieve specific strategic business  objectives .

Position Description  [Tool]. An explanation of a  project team  member’s  roles  and responsibilities.

Practice.  A specific type of professional or management  activity  that contributes to the execution of a  process  and that may employ one or more  techniques  and  tools .

Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM)  [Technique]. A schedule network diagramming  technique  in which  schedule activities  are represented by boxes (or  nodes ). Schedule activities are graphically linked by one or more  logical relationships  to show the sequence in which the activities are to be performed.

Precedence Relationship.  The term used in the  precedence diagramming method  for a  logical relationship . In current usage, however, precedence relationship,  logical relationship , and  dependency  are widely used interchangeably, regardless of the diagramming method used.

Predecessor Activity.  The  schedule activity  that determines when the logical  successor activity  can begin or end.

Preventive Action.  Documented direction to perform an  activity  that can reduce the probability of negative consequences associated with  project risks *.

Probability and Impact Matrix  [Tool]. A common way to determine whether a  risk  is considered low, moderate, or high by combining the two dimensions of a risk: its probability of occurrence, and its impact on objectives if it occurs.

Procedure.  A series of steps followed in a regular definitive order to accomplish something.

Process.  A set of interrelated actions and  activities  performed to achieve a specified set of  products ,  results, or services .

Process Group.  See  Project Management Process Groups .

Procurement Documents  [Output/Input]. Those  documents  utilized in bid and proposal activities, which include  buyer’s  Invitation for Bid, Invitation for Negotiations, Request for Information, Request for Quotation, Request for Proposal and  seller’s  responses.

Procurement Management Plan  [Output/Input]. The  document  that describes how procurement  processes  from developing procurement documentation through  contract closure will be managed.

Product.  An artifact that is produced, is quantifiable, and can be either an end item in itself or a component item. Additional words for products are  materiel  and  goods . Contrast with  result  and  service.  See also  deliverable .

Product Life Cycle.  A collection of generally sequential, non-overlapping  product phases * whose name and number are determined by the manufacturing and control needs of the  organization . The last product life cycle phase for a product is generally the product’s product life cycles.

Product Scope.  The features and functions that characterize a  product ,  service  or  result .

Product Scope Description.  The documented narrative description of the  product scope .

Program.  A group of related  projects  managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits and control not available from managing them individually. Programs may include elements of related  work  outside of the  scope  of the discrete projects in the program.

Program Management.  The centralized coordinated management of a  program  to achieve the program’s strategic  objectives  and benefits.

Program Management Office (PMO).  The centralized management of a particular  program or programs such that corporate benefit is realized by the sharing of  resources ,  methodologies ,  tools, and techniques , and related high-level project management focus. See also  project management office .

Progressive Elaboration  [Technique]. Continuously improving and detailing a plan as more detailed and specific information and more accurate estimates become available as the project progresses, and thereby producing more accurate and complete plans that result from the successive iterations of the planning  process .

Project.  A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique  product ,  service , or  result .

Project Calendar.  A calendar of working days or shifts that establishes those  dates  on which  schedule activities  are worked and nonworking days that determine those dates on which schedule activities are idle. Typically defines holidays, weekends and shift hours. See also  resource calendar .

Project Charter  [Output/Input]. A  document  issued by the project  initiator  or  sponsor  that formally authorizes the existence of a  project , and provides the  project manager  with the authority to apply organizational  resources  to project  activities .

Project Communications Management  [Knowledge Area]. See Appendix F.

Project Cost Management  [Knowledge Area]. See Appendix F.

Project Human Resource Management  [Knowledge Area]. See Appendix F.

Project Initiation.  Launching a  process  that can result in the authorization and  scope  definition of a new  project .

Project Integration Management  [Knowledge Area]. See Appendix F.

Project Life Cycle.  A collection of generally sequential  project phases  whose name and number are determined by the  control  needs of the  organization  or organizations involved in the  project . A life cycle can be documented with a  methodology .

Project Management (PM).  The application of  knowledge ,  skills ,  tools , and  techniques  to  project activities*  to meet the project  requirements .

Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK ® ).  An inclusive term that describes the sum of  knowledge  within the profession of  project management . As with other professions such as law, medicine, and accounting, the body of knowledge rests with the practitioners and academics that apply and advance it. The complete project management body of knowledge includes proven traditional  practices  that are widely applied and innovative practices that are emerging in the profession. The body of knowledge includes both published and unpublished material. The PMBOK is constantly evolving.

Project Management Information System (PMIS)  [Tool]. An information  system  consisting of the  tools  and  techniques  used to gather, integrate, and disseminate the outputs of project management  processes . It is used to support all aspects of the project from initiating through closing, and can include both manual and automated  systems .

Project Management Knowledge Area.  An identified area of  project management  defined by its  knowledge requirements  and described in terms of its  component processes ,  practices ,  inputs ,  outputs ,  tools , and  techniques .

Project Management Office (PMO).  An organizational body or entity assigned various responsibilities related to the centralized and coordinated management of those  projects  under its domain. The responsibilities of a PMO can range from providing project management support functions to actually being responsible for the direct management of a project. See also  program management office .

Project Management Plan  [Output/Input]. A formal, approved  document  that defines how the projected is executed, monitored and controlled. It may be summary or detailed and may be composed of one or more subsidiary management plans and other planning  documents.

Project Management Process.  One of the 44  processes , unique to  project management  and described in the  PMBOK ®  Guide .

Project Management Process Group.  A logical grouping of the  project management processes  described in the  PMBOK ®  Guide . The project management process groups include  initiating processes ,  planning processes ,  executing processes ,  monitoring and controlling processes , and  closing processes . Collectively, these five groups are required for any  project , have clear internal  dependencies , and must be performed in the same sequence on each project, independent of the  application area  or the specifics of the applied  project life cycle . Project management process groups are not  project phases .

Project Management Professional (PMP ® ).  A person certified as a PMP® by the Project Management Institute (PMI®).

Project Management Software  [Tool]. A class of computer software applications specifically designed to aid the  project management team  with planning, monitoring, and controlling the project, including:  cost estimating , scheduling,  communications , collaboration, configuration management, document control, records management, and  risk  analysis.

Project Management System  [Tool]. The aggregation of the  processes ,  tools ,  techniques ,  methodologies ,  resources , and  procedures  to manage a project. The  system  is documented in the  project management plan  and its content will vary depending upon the  application area , organizational influence, complexity of the project, and the availability of existing  systems . A project management system, which can be formal or informal, aids a  project manager  in effectively guiding a  project  to completion. A project management system is a set of  processes and the related monitoring and control functions that are consolidated and combined into a functioning, unified whole.

Project Management Team.  The members of the  project team  who are directly involved in  project management activities . On some smaller  projects , the project management team may include virtually all of the  project team members .

Project Manager (PM).  The person assigned by the  performing organization  to achieve the  project objectives *.

Project Organization Chart  [Output/Input]. A  document  that graphically depicts the  project team  members and their interrelationships for a specific  project .

Project Phase.  A collection of logically related  project activities *, usually culminating in the completion of a major  deliverable . Project phases (also called phases) are mainly completed sequentially, but can overlap in some project situations. Phases can be subdivided into  subphases  and then  components ; this hierarchy, if the project or portions of the project are divided into phases, is contained in the  work breakdown structure . A project phase is a component of a  project life cycle . A project phase is not a  project management process group *.

Project Process Groups.  The five  process groups  required for any project that have clear dependencies and that are required to be performed in the same sequence on each project, independent of the  application area  or the specifics of the applied  project life cycle . The process groups are initiating, planning, executing, monitoring and controlling, and closing.

Project Procurement Management  [Knowledge Area]. See Appendix F.

Project Quality Management  [Knowledge Area]. See Appendix F.

Project Risk Management  [Knowledge Area]. See Appendix F.

Project Schedule  [Output/Input]. The planned  dates  for performing  schedule activities  and the planned dates for meeting  schedule milestones .

Project Schedule Network Diagram  [Output/Input]. Any schematic display of the  logical relationships  among the project  schedule activities . Always drawn from left to right to reflect project  work  chronology.

Project Scope.  The  work  that must be performed to deliver a  product, service, or result  with the specified features and functions.

Project Scope Management  [Knowledge Area]. See Appendix F.

Project Scope Management Plan  [Output/Input]. The  document  that describes how the  project scope  will be defined, developed, and verified and how the  work breakdown structure will be created and defined, and that provides guidance on how the  project scope  will be managed and controlled by the  project management team . It is contained in or is a subsidiary plan of the  project management plan . The project scope management plan can be informal and broadly framed, or formal and highly detailed, based on the needs of the  project .

Project Scope Statement  [Output/Input]. The narrative description of the  project scope , including major  deliverables , project  objectives , project  assumptions , project  constraints , and a  statement of work , that provides a documented basis for making future project decisions and for confirming or developing a common understanding of  project scope  among the  stakeholders . The definition of the  project scope  – what needs to be accomplished.

Project Sponsor.  See  sponsor .

Project Stakeholder.  See  stakeholder .

Project Summary Work Breakdown Structure (PSWBS)  [Tool]. A  work breakdown structure for the project that is only developed down to the  subproject  level of detail within some legs of the WBS, and where the detail of those subprojects are provided by use of  contract work breakdown structures .

Project Team.  All the  project team members , including the  project management team , the  project manager  and, for some projects, the  project sponsor .

Project Team Directory.  A documented list of  project team  members, their project  roles  and  communication  information.

Project Team Members.  The persons who report either directly or indirectly to the  project manager , and who are responsible for performing  project work  as a regular part of their assigned duties.

Project Time Management  [Knowledge Area]. See Appendix F.

Project Work.  See  work .

Projectized Organization.  Any organizational structure in which the  project manager  has full authority to assign priorities, apply  resources , and direct the  work  of persons assigned to the  project .

Qualitative Risk Analysis  [Process]. The  process  of prioritizing  risks  for subsequent further analysis or action by assessing and combining their probability of occurrence and impact.

Quality.  The degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfills  requirements .

Quality Management Plan  [Output/Input]. The quality management plan describes how the  project management team  will implement the  performing organization’s  quality policy. The quality management plan is a component or a subsidiary plan of the  project management plan . The quality management plan may be formal or informal, highly detailed, or broadly framed, based on the  requirements  of the  project .

Quality Planning  [Process]. The  process  of identifying which quality standards are relevant to the  project  and determining how to satisfy them.

Quantitative Risk Analysis  [Process]. The  process  of numerically analyzing the effect on overall project  objectives  of identified  risks .

Regulation.  Requirements imposed by a governmental body. These  requirements  can establish  product ,  process  or  service  characteristics—including applicable administrative provisions—that have government-mandated compliance.

Reliability.  The probability of a  product  performing its intended function under specific conditions for a given period of time.

Remaining Duration (RD).  The time in  calendar units , between the  data date  of the  project schedule  and the  finish date  of a  schedule activity  that has an  actual start date . This represents the time needed to complete a  schedule activity  where the  work  is in progress .

Request for Information.  A type of  procurement document  whereby the  buyer  requests a potential  seller  to provide various pieces of information related to a  product  or  service  or  seller  capability.

Request for Proposal (RFP).  A type of  procurement document  used to request proposals from prospective  sellers  of  products  or  services . In some  application areas , it may have a narrower or more specific meaning.

Request for Quotation (RFQ).  A type of  procurement document  used to request price quotations from prospective  sellers  of common or standard  products  or  services . Sometimes used in place of  request for proposal  and in some  application areas , it may have a narrower or more specific meaning.

Request Seller Responses  [Process]. The  process  of obtaining information, quotations, bids, offers, or proposals, as appropriate.

Requested Change  [Output/Input]. A formally documented  change request  that is submitted for  approval  to the  integrated change control  process. Contrast with  approved change request

Requirement.  A condition or capability that must be met or possessed by a  system ,  product ,  service ,  result , or  component  to satisfy a  contract ,  standard ,  specification , or other formally imposed  documents . Requirements include the quantified and documented needs, wants, and expectations of the  sponsor ,  customer , and other  stakeholders .

Reserve.  A provision in the  project management plan  to mitigate  cost  and/or schedule  risk . Often used with a modifier (e.g., management reserve, contingency reserve) to provide further detail on what types of risk are meant to be mitigated. The specific meaning of the modified term varies by  application area .

Reserve Analysis  [Technique]. An analytical  technique  to determine the essential features and relationships of components in the  project management plan  to establish a  reserve  for the  schedule duration ,  budget , estimated  cost , or  funds  for a  project .

Residual Risk.  A  risk  that remains after risk responses have been implemented.

Resource.  Skilled human resources (specific disciplines either individually or in crews or teams), equipment,  services , supplies,  commodities ,  materiel ,  budgets , or funds.

Resource Breakdown Structure (RBS).  A hierarchical structure of  resources  by resource category and resource type used in  resource leveling  schedules and to develop resource limited schedules, and which may be used to identify and analyze project human resource assignments.

Resource Calendar.  A calendar of working days and nonworking days that determines those  dates  on which each specific  resource  is idle or can be active. Typically defines resource specific holidays and resource availability periods. See also  project calendar .

Resource-Constrained Schedule.  See  resource-limited schedule .

Resource Histogram.  A  bar chart  showing the amount of time that a  resource  is scheduled to work over a series of time periods. Resource availability may be depicted as a line for comparison purposes. Contrasting bars may show actual amounts of resource used as the project progresses.

Resource Leveling  [Technique]. Any form of  schedule network analysis  in which scheduling decisions (start and finish dates) are driven by resource constraints (e.g., limited resource availability or difficult-to-manage changes in resource availability levels).

Resource-Limited Schedule.  A  project schedule  whose  schedule activity ,  scheduled start dates  and  scheduled finish dates  reflect expected resource availability. A resourcelimited schedule does not have any early or late start or finish dates. The resource-limited schedule  total float  is determined by calculating the difference between the  critical path method late finish date*  and the resource-limited scheduled finish date. Sometimes called resource-constrained schedule. See also  resource leveling .

Resource Planning.  See  activity resource estimating .

Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM)  [Tool]. A structure that relates the project  organizational breakdown structure  to the  work breakdown structure  to help ensure that each component of the project’s  scope  of  work  is assigned to a responsible person.

Result.  An output from performing project management  processes  and  activities . Results include outcomes (e.g., integrated  systems , revised  process , restructured  organization , tests, trained personnel, etc.) and  documents  (e.g., policies, plans, studies,  procedures ,  specifications , reports, etc.). Contrast with  product  and  service . See also  deliverable .

Retainage.  A portion of a  contract  payment that is withheld until contract completion to ensure full performance of the contract terms.

Rework.  Action taken to bring a defective or nonconforming  component  into compliance

with  requirements  or  specifications .

Risk.  An uncertain  event  or condition that, if it occurs, has a positive or negative effect on a  project’s objectives . See also  risk category  and  risk breakdown structure .

Risk Acceptance  [Technique]. A  risk response planning technique * that indicates that the  project team  has decided not to change the  project management plan  to deal with a  risk , or is unable to identify any other suitable response strategy.

Risk Avoidance  [Technique]. A  risk response planning technique * for a  threat  that creates changes to the  project management plan  that are meant to either eliminate the  risk  or to protect the  project objectives  from its impact. Generally, risk avoidance involves relaxing the time, cost, scope, or quality  objectives .

Risk Breakdown Structure (RBS)  [Tool]. A hierarchically organized depiction of the identified  project risks * arranged by  risk category  and subcategory that identifies the various areas and causes of potential risks. The risk breakdown structure is often tailored to specific project types.

Risk Category.  A group of potential causes of  risk . Risk causes may be grouped into categories such as technical, external, organizational, environmental, or  project management . A category may include subcategories such as technical maturity, weather, or aggressive estimating. See also  risk breakdown structure .

Risk Database.  A repository that provides for collection, maintenance, and analysis of data gathered and used in the risk management  processes .

Risk Identification  [Process]. The  process  of determining which  risks  might affect the  project  and documenting their characteristics.

Risk Management Plan  [Output/Input]. The  document  describing how  project risk management  will be structured and performed on the  project . It is contained in or is a subsidiary plan of the  project management plan . The risk management plan can be informal and broadly framed, or formal and highly detailed, based on the needs of the project. Information in the risk management plan varies by  application area  and project size. The risk management plan is different from the  risk register  that contains the list of project  risks , the  results  of risk analysis, and the risk responses.

Risk Management Planning  [Process]. The  process  of deciding how to approach, plan, and execute  risk  management  activities  for a  project .

Risk Mitigation  [Technique]. A  risk response planning technique * associated with  threats that seeks to reduce the probability of occurrence or impact of a  risk  to below an acceptable threshold.

Risk Monitoring and Control  [Process]. The  process  of tracking identified  risks , monitoring  residual risks , identifying new risks, executing risk response plans, and evaluating their effectiveness throughout the  project life cycle .

Risk Register  [Output/Input]. The  document  containing the  results  of the  qualitative risk analysis ,  quantitative risk analysis , and  risk response planning . The risk register details all identified  risks , including description, category, cause, probability of occurring, impact(s) on objectives, proposed responses, owners, and current status. The risk register is a component of the  project management plan.

Risk Response Planning  [Process]. The  process  of developing options and actions to enhance opportunities and to reduce threats to  project objectives .

Risk Transference  [Technique]. A  risk response planning technique * that shifts the impact of a  threat  to a third party, together with ownership of the response.

Role.  A defined function to be performed by a  project team member , such as testing, filing, inspecting, coding.

Rolling Wave Planning  [Technique]. A form of  progressive elaboration  planning where the  work  to be accomplished in the near term is planned in detail at a low level of the  work breakdown structure,  while the work far in the future is planned at a relatively high level of the work breakdown structure, but the detailed planning of the work to be performed within another one or two periods in the near future is done as work is being completed during the current period.

Root Cause Analysis  [Technique]. An analytical technique used to determine the basic underlying reason that causes a  variance  or a  defect  or a  risk . A root cause may underlie more than one variance or defect or risk.

Schedule.  See  project schedule  and see also  schedule model .

Schedule Activity.  A discrete scheduled  component  of  work  performed during the course of a  project . A schedule activity normally has an estimated  duration , an estimated  cost , and estimated resource requirements. Schedule activities are connected to other schedule activities or schedule milestones with  logical relationships , and are decomposed from  work packages .

Schedule Analysis.  See  schedule network analysis .

Schedule Compression  [Technique]. Shortening the  project schedule duration  without reducing the  project scope . See also  crashing  and  fast tracking .

Schedule Control  [Process]. The  process  of controlling changes to the  project schedule .

Schedule Development  [Process]. The  process  of analyzing  schedule activity  sequences, schedule activity  durations ,  resource requirements , and schedule  constraints  to create the  project schedule .

Schedule Management Plan  [Output/Input]. The  document  that establishes  criteria  and the  activities  for developing and controlling the  project schedule . It is contained in, or is a subsidiary plan of, the  project management plan . The schedule management plan may be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed, based on the needs of the  project .

Schedule Milestone.  A significant  event  in the  project schedule , such as an event restraining future work or marking the completion of a major  deliverable . A schedule milestone has zero  duration . Sometimes called a milestone  activity . See also  milestone .

Schedule Model  [Tool]. A model used in conjunction with manual methods or  project management software  to perform  schedule network analysis  to generate the  project schedule  for use in managing the execution of a  project . See also  project schedule .

Schedule Network Analysis  [Technique]. The  technique  of identifying  early and late start dates* , as well as  early and late finish dates* , for the uncompleted portions of project  schedule activities . See also  critical path method, critical chain method, what-if analysis, and resource leveling .

Schedule Performance Index (SPI).  A measure of schedule efficiency on a project. It is the ratio of  earned value  (EV) to  planned value  (PV). The SPI = EV divided by PV. An SPI equal to or greater than one indicates a favorable condition and a value of less than one indicates an unfavorable condition. See also  earned value management .

Schedule Variance (SV).  A measure of schedule performance on a project. It is the algebraic difference between the  earned value  (EV) and the  planned value  (PV). SV = EV minus PV. See also  earned value management .

Scheduled Finish Date (SF).  The point in time that  work  was scheduled to finish on a  schedule activity . The scheduled finish date is normally within the range of  dates  delimited by the  early finish date  and the  late finish date . It may reflect  resource leveling  of scarce  resources . Sometimes called planned finish date.

Scheduled Start Date (SS).  The point in time that  work  was scheduled to start on a  schedule activity . The scheduled start date is normally within the range of  dates  delimited by the  early start date  and the  late start date . It may reflect  resource leveling  of scarce  resources . Sometimes called planned start date.

Scope.  The sum of the  products ,  services , and  results  to be provided as a  project . See also  project scope  and  product scope .

Scope Baseline.  See  baseline.

Scope Change.  Any change to the  project scope . A  scope  change almost always requires anadjustment to the project  cost  or  schedule .

Scope Control  [Process]. The  process  of  controlling  changes to the  project scope .

Scope Creep.  Adding features and functionality ( project scope ) without addressing the effects on time,  costs , and  resources,  or without  customer  approval.

Scope Definition  [Process]. The  process  of developing a detailed  project scope statement  as the basis for future project decisions.

Scope Planning  [Process]. The  process  of creating a  project scope management plan .

Scope Verification  [Process]. The  process  of formalizing  acceptance  of the completed  project deliverables .

S-Curve.  Graphic display of cumulative  costs , labor hours, percentage of  work , or other quantities, plotted against time. The name derives from the S-like shape of the curve (flatter at the beginning and end, steeper in the middle) produced on a  project  that starts slowly, accelerates, and then tails off. Also a term for the cumulative likelihood distribution that is a  result  of a  simulation , a  tool  of  quantitative risk analysis .

Secondary Risk.  A  risk  that arises as a direct  result  of implementing a risk response.

Select Sellers  [Process]. The  process  of reviewing offers, choosing from among potential sellers, and negotiating a written  contract  with a  seller .

Seller.  A provider or supplier of  products ,  services , or  results  to an organization.

Sensitivity Analysis.  A  quantitative risk analysis  and modeling  technique  used to help determine which  risks  have the most potential impact on the  project . It examines the extent to which the uncertainty of each project element affects the  objective  being examined when all other uncertain elements are held at their  baseline  values. The typical display of  results  is in the form of a tornado diagram.

Service.  Useful  work  performed that does not produce a tangible  product  or  result,  such as performing any of the business functions supporting production or distribution. Contrast with product and result. See also  deliverable .

Should-Cost Estimate.  An  estimate  of the  cost  of a  product  or  service  used to provide an assessment of the reasonableness of a prospective  seller’s  proposed cost.

Simulation.  A simulation uses a  project  model that translates the uncertainties specified at a detailed level into their potential impact on  objectives  that are expressed at the level of the total  project . Project simulations use computer models and  estimates  of  risk , usually expressed as a probability distribution of possible  costs  or  durations  at a detailed work level, and are typically performed using  Monte Carlo analysis .

Skill.  Ability to use  knowledge , a developed aptitude, and/or a capability to effectively and readily execute or perform an  activity .

Slack.  See  total float  and  free float .

Special Cause.  A source of variation that is not inherent in the  system , is not predictable, and is intermittent. It can be assigned to a defect in the  system . On a  control chart , points beyond the  control limits , or non-random patterns within the control limits, indicate it. Also referred to as assignable cause. Contrast with  common cause .

Specification.  A  document  that specifies, in a complete, precise, verifiable manner, the  requirements , design, behavior, or other characteristics of a  system ,  component ,  product ,  result , or  service  and, often, the  procedures  for determining whether these provisions have been satisfied. Examples are: requirement  specification , design specification, product specification, and test specification.

Specification Limits.  The area, on either side of the centerline, or mean, of data plotted on a  control chart  that meets the  customer’s  requirements for a  product  or  service . This area may be greater than or less than the area defined by the control limits. See also  control

Sponsor.  The person or group that provides the financial resources, in cash or in kind, for the  project .

Staffing Management Plan  [Process]. The  document  that describes when and how human  resource requirements  will be met. It is contained in, or is a subsidiary plan of, the  project management plan . The staffing management plan can be informal and broadly framed, or formal and highly detailed, based on the needs of the  project . Information in the staffing management plan varies by  application area  and project size.

Stakeholder.  Persons and  organizations  such as  customers ,  sponsors ,  performing organization  and the public, that are actively involved in the  project , or whose interests may be positively or negatively affected by execution or completion of the project. They may also exert influence over the project and its  deliverables .

Standard.  A  document  established by consensus and approved by a recognized body that provides, for common and repeated use, rules, guidelines or characteristics for  activities  or their  results , aimed at the achievement of the optimum degree of order in a given context.

Start Date.  A point in time associated with a  schedule activity’s  start, usually qualified by one of the following: actual, planned, estimated, scheduled, early, late, target,  baseline , or current.

Start-to-Finish (SF).  The  logical relationship  where completion of the  successor schedule activity  is dependent upon the initiation of the  predecessor schedule activity . See also  logical relationship .

Start-to-Start (SS).  The  logical relationship  where initiation of the work of the  successor schedule activity  depends upon the initiation of the work of the  predecessor schedule activity . See also  logical relationship .

Statement of Work (SOW).  A narrative description of  products, services, or results  to be supplied.

Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) Analysis.  This information gathering technique examines the project from the perspective of each project’s strengths, weaknesses,  opportunities , and  threats  to increase the breadth of the  risks  considered by risk management.

Subnetwork.  A subdivision (fragment) of a  project schedule network diagram , usually representing a  subproject  or a  work package . Often used to illustrate or study some potential or proposed schedule condition, such as changes in preferential schedule  logic  or  project scope .

Subphase.  A subdivision of a  phase .

Subproject.  A smaller portion of the overall  project  created when a project is subdivided into more manageable  components  or pieces. Subprojects are usually represented in the  work breakdown structure . A subproject can be referred to as a project, managed as a project, and acquired from a seller. May be referred to as a  subnetwork  in a  project schedule network diagram.

Successor.  See  successor activity .

Successor Activity.  The schedule activity that follows a  predecessor activity,  as determined by their  logical relationship .

Summary Activity.  A group of related  schedule activities  aggregated at some summary level, and displayed/reported as a single activity at that summary level. See also  subproject  and  subnetwork .

System.  An  integrated  set of regularly interacting or interdependent  components  created to accomplish a defined  objective , with defined and maintained relationships among its components, and the whole producing or operating better than the simple sum of its components. Systems may be either physically  process  based or management process based, or more commonly a combination of both. Systems for  project management  are composed of  project management processes ,  techniques ,  methodologies , and  tools  operated by the  project management team .

Target Completion Date (TC).  An  imposed date  that constrains or otherwise modifies the  schedule network analysis .

Target Finish Date (TF).  The  date  that  work  is planned (targeted) to finish on a  schedule activity .

Target Schedule.  A  schedule  adopted for comparison purposes during  schedule network analysis , which can be different from the baseline schedule. See also  baseline .

Target Start Date (TS).  The  date  that  work  is planned (targeted) to start on a  schedule activity .

Task.  A term for  work  whose meaning and placement within a structured plan for project work varies by the  application area , industry, and brand of  project management software .

Team Members.  See  project team members .

Technical Performance Measurement  [Technique]. A performance measurement  technique that compares technical accomplishments during  project  execution to the  project management plan’s schedule  of planned technical achievements. It may use key technical parameters of the  product  produced by the project as a  quality  metric. The achieved metric values are part of the  work performance information .

Technique.  A defined systematic  procedure  employed by a human  resource  to perform an  activity  to produce a  product  or  result  or deliver a  service , and that may employ one or more  tools .

Template.  A partially complete  document  in a predefined format that provides a defined structure for collecting, organizing and presenting information and data. Templates are often based upon documents created during prior  projects . Templates can reduce the  effort needed to perform  work  and increase the consistency of  results .

Threat.  A condition or situation unfavorable to the  project , a negative set of circumstances, a negative set of events, a  risk  that will have a negative impact on a project objective if it occurs, or a possibility for negative changes. Contrast with  opportunity .

Three-Point Estimate  [Technique]. An analytical  technique  that uses three  cost  or  duration estimates  to represent the optimistic, most likely, and pessimistic scenarios. This technique is applied to improve the accuracy of the  estimates  of cost or duration when the underlying  activity  or cost  component  is uncertain.

Threshold.  A  cost , time,  quality , technical, or  resource  value used as a parameter, and which may be included in  product specifications . Crossing the threshold should trigger some action, such as generating an exception report.

Time and Material (T&M) Contract.  A type of  contract  that is a hybrid contractual arrangement containing aspects of both  cost-reimbursable  and  fixed-price contracts . Time and material contracts resemble cost-reimbursable type arrangements in that they have no definitive end, because the full value of the arrangement is not defined at the time of the award. Thus, time and material contracts can grow in contract value as if they were cost-reimbursable-type arrangements. Conversely, time and material arrangements can also resemble fixed-price arrangements. For example, the unit rates are preset by the  buyer  and  seller , when both parties agree on the rates for the category of senior engineers.

Time-Now Date.  See  data date .

Time-Scaled Schedule Network Diagram  [Tool]. Any  project schedule network diagram drawn in such a way that the positioning and length of the  schedule activity  represents its duration. Essentially, it is a  bar chart  that includes schedule  network logic .

Tool.  Something tangible, such as a template or software program, used in performing an  activity  to produce a  product  or  result .

Total Float (TF).  The total amount of time that a  schedule activity  may be delayed from its  early start date  without delaying the project  finish date , or violating a schedule  constraint . Calculated using the  critical path method  technique and determining the difference between the  early finish dates  and  late finish dates . See also  free float .

Total Quality Management (TQM)  [Technique]. A common approach to implementing a  quality  improvement program within an  organization .

Trend Analysis  [Technique]. An analytical technique that uses mathematical models to forecast future outcomes based on historical  results . It is a method of determining the  variance  from a  baseline  of a  budget ,  cost ,  schedule , or  scope  parameter by using prior progress reporting periods’ data and projecting how much that parameter’s variance from baseline might be at some future point in the project if no changes are made in  executing  the  project .

Triggers.  Indications that a risk has occurred or is about to occur. Triggers may be discovered in the  risk identification  process and watched in the  risk monitoring and control process. Triggers are sometimes called  risk  symptoms or warning signs.

Triple Constraint.  A framework for evaluating competing demands. The triple constraint is often depicted as a triangle where one of the sides or one of the corners represent one of the parameters being managed by the project team.

User.  The person or  organization  that will use the project’s  product  or  service . See also  customer .

Validation  [Technique]. The  technique  of evaluating a  component  or  product  during or at the end of a  phase  or  project  to ensure it complies with the specified  requirements . Contrast with  verification .

Value Engineering (VE).  A creative approach used to optimize  project life cycle  costs, save time, increase profits, improve  quality , expand market share, solve problems, and/or use  resources  more effectively.

Variance.  A quantifiable deviation, departure, or divergence away from a known  baseline  or expected value.

Variance Analysis  [Technique]. A method for resolving the total  variance  in the set of  scope ,  cost , and  schedule  variables into specific component variances that are associated with defined factors affecting the scope, cost, and schedule variables.

Verification  [Technique]. The technique of evaluating a  component  or  product  at the end of a  phase  or  project  to assure or confirm it satisfies the conditions imposed. Contrast with  validation .

Virtual Team.  A group of persons with a shared  objective  who fulfill their  roles  with little or no time spent meeting face to face. Various forms of technology are often used to facilitate  communication  among team members. Virtual teams can be comprised of persons separated by great distances.

Voice of the Customer.  A planning  technique  used to provide  products ,  services , and  results that truly reflect  customer requirements  by translating those customer requirements into the appropriate technical requirements for each  phase  of project product development.

War Room.  A room used for  project  conferences and planning, often displaying charts of  cost ,  schedule  status, and other key project data.

Work.  Sustained physical or mental effort, exertion, or exercise of  skill  to overcome obstacles and achieve an  objective .

Work Authorization  [Technique]. A permission and direction, typically written, to begin work on a specific  schedule activity  or  work package  or  control account . It is a method for sanctioning  project work  to ensure that the work is done by the identified  organization , at the right time, and in the proper sequence.

Work Authorization System  [Tool]. A subsystem of the overall  project management system . It is a collection of formal documented  procedures  that defines how  project work  will be authorized (committed) to ensure that the work is done by the identified  organization , at the right time, and in the proper sequence. It includes the steps,  documents , tracking  system , and defined approval levels needed to issue work authorizations.

Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)  [Output/Input]. A  deliverable -oriented hierarchical  decomposition  of the  work  to be  executed  by the  project team  to accomplish the project  objectives  and create the required deliverables. It organizes and defines the total  scope  of the  project . Each descending level represents an increasingly detailed definition of the  project work . The WBS is decomposed into  work packages . The deliverable orientation of the hierarchy includes both internal and external deliverables. See also  work package ,  control account ,  contract work breakdown structure, and project summary work

breakdown structure .

Work Breakdown Structure Component.  An entry in the  work breakdown structure  that can be at any level.

Work Breakdown Structure Dictionary  [Output/Input]. A  document  that describes each  component  in the  work breakdown structure  (WBS). For each WBS component, the WBS dictionary includes a brief definition of the  scope  or  statement of work , defined  deliverable(s) , a list of associated  activities , and a list of  milestones . Other information may include: responsible  organization , start and end dates,  resources  required, an  estimate  of  cost , charge number,  contract  information,  quality requirements , and technical references to facilitate performance of the  work .

Work Item.  Term no longer in common usage. See  activity  and  schedule activity .

Work Package.  A  deliverable  or  project work component  at the lowest level of each branch of the  work breakdown structure . The work package includes the  schedule activities  and  schedule milestones  required to complete the work package deliverable or project work component. See also  control account .

Work Performance Information  [Output/Input]. Information and data, on the status of the  project schedule activities  being performed to accomplish the  project work , collected as part of the  direct and manage project execution processes *. Information includes: status of  deliverables ; implementation status for  change requests ,  corrective actions ,  preventive actions , and  defect repairs ; forecasted  estimates to complete ; reported percent of  work  physically completed; achieved value of  technical performance measures ; start and finish dates of  schedule activities .

Workaround  [Technique]. A response to a negative  risk  that has occurred. Distinguished from  contingency  plan in that a workaround is not planned in advance of the occurrence of the risk event.

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Project Mngt Chapter 5



Resource summary

Question 10

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