- Frontiers in Psychology
Quantitative Psychology and Measurement
Submit your research
Start your submission and get more impact for your research by publishing with us.
Ready to publish? Check out our author guidelines for everything you need to know about submission, from choosing a journal and section to preparing your manuscript.
Reviewing a manuscript? See our editorial guidelines for everything you need to know about Frontiers’ peer review process.
Our efficient and rigorous peer review means you’ll get a decision on your manuscript in just 77 days.
Article processing charges (APCs) apply to articles that are accepted for publication by our external editors, following rigorous peer review.
Department of Psychology, University of Turin
Turin , Italy
Specialty Chief Editor
Sultan Zainal Abidin University
Kuala Terengganu , Malaysia
gene michael alarcon
Air Force Research Laboratory
Dayton , United States
Universitat Politècnica de València
Valencia , Spain
Published on 03 Mar 2023
Development of a computerized 2D rating scale for continuous and simultaneous evaluation of two dimensions of a sensory stimulus
in Quantitative Psychology and Measurement
- Marie-Eve Hoeppli
- Taylor S. Thurston
- Mathieu Roy
- Alan R. Light
- Markus Amann
- Richard H. Gracely
- Petra Schweinhardt
Published on 02 Mar 2023
Students’ perceptions of the rules and restrictions of gender at school: A psychometric evaluation of the Gender Climate Scale (GCS)
- Jacqueline Ullman
- Natasha R. Magson
- Hua Flora Zhong
The cross-cultural adaptation, validity, and reliability of the Spanish version of the Fremantle Back Awareness Questionnaire
- Nuria García-Dopico
- Alejandro De La Torre-Luque
- Benedict Martin Wand
- Olga Velasco-Roldán
- Carolina Sitges
Travel intentions of travelers in the COVID-19 context: The moderation of fear of COVID-19
- Sung Kyu Park
On the “Human” in Human-Artificial Intelligence Interaction - Volume II
- Stefano Triberti
- Davide La Torre
- Ilaria Durosini
New Ideas in Quantitative Psychology and Measurement
- Georgios Sideridis
- Ioannis Tsaousis
- Nikolaos Tsigilis
- Iasonas Lamprianou
Cognitive Load Research, Theories, Models and Applications: Volume II
- Peter Hancock
Data-Driven Behavioral Decision-Making Innovation and Application
- Yuan-Wei Du
- Yu-Wang Chen
- 1,139 views
Free APA Journals ™ Articles
Recently published articles from subdisciplines of psychology covered by more than 90 APA Journals™ publications.
For additional free resources (such as article summaries, podcasts, and more), please visit the Highlights in Psychological Research page.
- Basic / Experimental Psychology
- Clinical Psychology
- Core of Psychology
- Developmental Psychology
- Educational Psychology, School Psychology, and Training
- Forensic Psychology
- Health Psychology & Medicine
- Industrial / Organizational Psychology & Management
- Neuroscience & Cognition
- Social Psychology & Social Processes
- Moving While Black: Intergroup Attitudes Influence Judgments of Speed (PDF, 71KB) Journal of Experimental Psychology: General February 2016 by Andreana C. Kenrick, Stacey Sinclair, Jennifer Richeson, Sara C. Verosky, and Janetta Lun
- Recognition Without Awareness: Encoding and Retrieval Factors (PDF, 116KB) Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition September 2015 by Fergus I. M. Craik, Nathan S. Rose, and Nigel Gopie
- The Tip-of-the-Tongue Heuristic: How Tip-of-the-Tongue States Confer Perceptibility on Inaccessible Words (PDF, 91KB) Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition September 2015 by Anne M. Cleary and Alexander B. Claxton
- Cognitive Processes in the Breakfast Task: Planning and Monitoring (PDF, 146KB) Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology / Revue canadienne de psychologie expérimentale September 2015 by Nathan S. Rose, Lin Luo, Ellen Bialystok, Alexandra Hering, Karen Lau, and Fergus I. M. Craik
- Searching for Explanations: How the Internet Inflates Estimates of Internal Knowledge (PDF, 138KB) Journal of Experimental Psychology: General June 2015 by Matthew Fisher, Mariel K. Goddu, and Frank C. Keil
- Client Perceptions of Corrective Experiences in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Motivational Interviewing for Generalized Anxiety Disorder: An Exploratory Pilot Study (PDF, 62KB) Journal of Psychotherapy Integration March 2017 by Jasmine Khattra, Lynne Angus, Henny Westra, Christianne Macaulay, Kathrin Moertl, and Michael Constantino
- Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Developmental Trajectories Related to Parental Expressed Emotion (PDF, 160KB) Journal of Abnormal Psychology February 2016 by Erica D. Musser, Sarah L. Karalunas, Nathan Dieckmann, Tara S. Peris, and Joel T. Nigg
- The Integrated Scientist-Practitioner: A New Model for Combining Research and Clinical Practice in Fee-For-Service Settings (PDF, 58KB) Professional Psychology: Research and Practice December 2015 by Jenna T. LeJeune and Jason B. Luoma
- Psychotherapists as Gatekeepers: An Evidence-Based Case Study Highlighting the Role and Process of Letter Writing for Transgender Clients (PDF, 76KB) Psychotherapy September 2015 by Stephanie L. Budge
- Perspectives of Family and Veterans on Family Programs to Support Reintegration of Returning Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PDF, 70KB) Psychological Services August 2015 by Ellen P. Fischer, Michelle D. Sherman, Jean C. McSweeney, Jeffrey M. Pyne, Richard R. Owen, and Lisa B. Dixon
- "So What Are You?": Inappropriate Interview Questions for Psychology Doctoral and Internship Applicants (PDF, 79KB) Training and Education in Professional Psychology May 2015 by Mike C. Parent, Dana A. Weiser, and Andrea McCourt
- Cultural Competence as a Core Emphasis of Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy (PDF, 81KB) Psychoanalytic Psychology April 2015 by Pratyusha Tummala-Narra
- The Role of Gratitude in Spiritual Well-Being in Asymptomatic Heart Failure Patients (PDF, 123KB) Spirituality in Clinical Practice March 2015 by Paul J. Mills, Laura Redwine, Kathleen Wilson, Meredith A. Pung, Kelly Chinh, Barry H. Greenberg, Ottar Lunde, Alan Maisel, Ajit Raisinghani, Alex Wood, and Deepak Chopra
- Nepali Bhutanese Refugees Reap Support Through Community Gardening (PDF, 104KB) International Perspectives in Psychology: Research, Practice, Consultation January 2017 by Monica M. Gerber, Jennifer L. Callahan, Danielle N. Moyer, Melissa L. Connally, Pamela M. Holtz, and Beth M. Janis
- Does Monitoring Goal Progress Promote Goal Attainment? A Meta-Analysis of the Experimental Evidence (PDF, 384KB) Psychological Bulletin February 2016 by Benjamin Harkin, Thomas L. Webb, Betty P. I. Chang, Andrew Prestwich, Mark Conner, Ian Kellar, Yael Benn, and Paschal Sheeran
- Youth Violence: What We Know and What We Need to Know (PDF, 388KB) American Psychologist January 2016 by Brad J. Bushman, Katherine Newman, Sandra L. Calvert, Geraldine Downey, Mark Dredze, Michael Gottfredson, Nina G. Jablonski, Ann S. Masten, Calvin Morrill, Daniel B. Neill, Daniel Romer, and Daniel W. Webster
- Supervenience and Psychiatry: Are Mental Disorders Brain Disorders? (PDF, 113KB) Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology November 2015 by Charles M. Olbert and Gary J. Gala
- Constructing Psychological Objects: The Rhetoric of Constructs (PDF, 108KB) Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology November 2015 by Kathleen L. Slaney and Donald A. Garcia
- Expanding Opportunities for Diversity in Positive Psychology: An Examination of Gender, Race, and Ethnicity (PDF, 119KB) Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne August 2015 by Meghana A. Rao and Stewart I. Donaldson
- Racial Microaggression Experiences and Coping Strategies of Black Women in Corporate Leadership (PDF, 132KB) Qualitative Psychology August 2015 by Aisha M. B. Holder, Margo A. Jackson, and Joseph G. Ponterotto
- An Appraisal Theory of Empathy and Other Vicarious Emotional Experiences (PDF, 151KB) Psychological Review July 2015 by Joshua D. Wondra and Phoebe C. Ellsworth
- An Attachment Theoretical Framework for Personality Disorders (PDF, 100KB) Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne May 2015 by Kenneth N. Levy, Benjamin N. Johnson, Tracy L. Clouthier, J. Wesley Scala, and Christina M. Temes
- Emerging Approaches to the Conceptualization and Treatment of Personality Disorder (PDF, 111KB) Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne May 2015 by John F. Clarkin, Kevin B. Meehan, and Mark F. Lenzenweger
- A Complementary Processes Account of the Development of Childhood Amnesia and a Personal Past (PDF, 585KB) Psychological Review April 2015 by Patricia J. Bauer
- Terminal Decline in Well-Being: The Role of Social Orientation (PDF, 238KB) Psychology and Aging March 2016 by Denis Gerstorf, Christiane A. Hoppmann, Corinna E. Löckenhoff, Frank J. Infurna, Jürgen Schupp, Gert G. Wagner, and Nilam Ram
- Student Threat Assessment as a Standard School Safety Practice: Results From a Statewide Implementation Study (PDF, 97KB) School Psychology Quarterly June 2018 by Dewey Cornell, Jennifer L. Maeng, Anna Grace Burnette, Yuane Jia, Francis Huang, Timothy Konold, Pooja Datta, Marisa Malone, and Patrick Meyer
- Can a Learner-Centered Syllabus Change Students’ Perceptions of Student–Professor Rapport and Master Teacher Behaviors? (PDF, 90KB) Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Psychology September 2016 by Aaron S. Richmond, Jeanne M. Slattery, Nathanael Mitchell, Robin K. Morgan, and Jared Becknell
- Adolescents' Homework Performance in Mathematics and Science: Personal Factors and Teaching Practices (PDF, 170KB) Journal of Educational Psychology November 2015 by Rubén Fernández-Alonso, Javier Suárez-Álvarez, and José Muñiz
- Teacher-Ready Research Review: Clickers (PDF, 55KB) Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Psychology September 2015 by R. Eric Landrum
- Enhancing Attention and Memory During Video-Recorded Lectures (PDF, 83KB) Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Psychology March 2015 by Daniel L. Schacter and Karl K. Szpunar
- The Alleged "Ferguson Effect" and Police Willingness to Engage in Community Partnership (PDF, 70KB) Law and Human Behavior February 2016 by Scott E. Wolfe and Justin Nix
- Randomized Controlled Trial of an Internet Cognitive Behavioral Skills-Based Program for Auditory Hallucinations in Persons With Psychosis (PDF, 92KB) Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal September 2017 by Jennifer D. Gottlieb, Vasudha Gidugu, Mihoko Maru, Miriam C. Tepper, Matthew J. Davis, Jennifer Greenwold, Ruth A. Barron, Brian P. Chiko, and Kim T. Mueser
- Preventing Unemployment and Disability Benefit Receipt Among People With Mental Illness: Evidence Review and Policy Significance (PDF, 134KB) Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal June 2017 by Bonnie O'Day, Rebecca Kleinman, Benjamin Fischer, Eric Morris, and Crystal Blyler
- Sending Your Grandparents to University Increases Cognitive Reserve: The Tasmanian Healthy Brain Project (PDF, 88KB) Neuropsychology July 2016 by Megan E. Lenehan, Mathew J. Summers, Nichole L. Saunders, Jeffery J. Summers, David D. Ward, Karen Ritchie, and James C. Vickers
- The Foundational Principles as Psychological Lodestars: Theoretical Inspiration and Empirical Direction in Rehabilitation Psychology (PDF, 68KB) Rehabilitation Psychology February 2016 by Dana S. Dunn, Dawn M. Ehde, and Stephen T. Wegener
- Feeling Older and Risk of Hospitalization: Evidence From Three Longitudinal Cohorts (PDF, 55KB) Health Psychology Online First Publication — February 11, 2016 by Yannick Stephan, Angelina R. Sutin, and Antonio Terracciano
- Anger Intensification With Combat-Related PTSD and Depression Comorbidity (PDF, 81KB) Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy January 2016 by Oscar I. Gonzalez, Raymond W. Novaco, Mark A. Reger, and Gregory A. Gahm
- Special Issue on eHealth and mHealth: Challenges and Future Directions for Assessment, Treatment, and Dissemination (PDF, 32KB) Health Psychology December 2015 by Belinda Borrelli and Lee M. Ritterband
- Posttraumatic Growth Among Combat Veterans: A Proposed Developmental Pathway (PDF, 110KB) Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy July 2015 by Sylvia Marotta-Walters, Jaehwa Choi, and Megan Doughty Shaine
- Racial and Sexual Minority Women's Receipt of Medical Assistance to Become Pregnant (PDF, 111KB) Health Psychology June 2015 by Bernadette V. Blanchfield and Charlotte J. Patterson
- An Examination of Generational Stereotypes as a Path Towards Reverse Ageism (PDF, 205KB) The Psychologist-Manager Journal August 2017 By Michelle Raymer, Marissa Reed, Melissa Spiegel, and Radostina K. Purvanova
- Sexual Harassment: Have We Made Any Progress? (PDF, 121KB) Journal of Occupational Health Psychology July 2017 By James Campbell Quick and M. Ann McFadyen
- Multidimensional Suicide Inventory-28 (MSI-28) Within a Sample of Military Basic Trainees: An Examination of Psychometric Properties (PDF, 79KB) Military Psychology November 2015 By Serena Bezdjian, Danielle Burchett, Kristin G. Schneider, Monty T. Baker, and Howard N. Garb
- Cross-Cultural Competence: The Role of Emotion Regulation Ability and Optimism (PDF, 100KB) Military Psychology September 2015 By Bianca C. Trejo, Erin M. Richard, Marinus van Driel, and Daniel P. McDonald
- The Corporate Family Model of Leadership Development (PDF, 71KB) The Psychologist-Manager Journal May 2015 by Stephen D. Wilke, Jared R. D. Wilke, and Donald J.Viglione
- The Effects of Stress on Prospective Memory: A Systematic Review (PDF, 149KB) Psychology & Neuroscience September 2017 by Martina Piefke and Katharina Glienke
- Modeling the Interplay Between Affect and Deliberation (PDF, 184KB) Decision April 2015 by George Loewenstein, Ted O'Donoghue, and Sudeep Bhatia
- Don't Aim Too High for Your Kids: Parental Overaspiration Undermines Students' Learning in Mathematics (PDF, 164KB) Journal of Personality and Social Psychology November 2016 by Kou Murayama, Reinhard Pekrun, Masayuki Suzuki, Herbert W. Marsh, and Stephanie Lichtenfeld
- Sex Differences in Sports Interest and Motivation: An Evolutionary Perspective (PDF, 155KB) Evolutionary Behavioral Sciences April 2016 by Robert O. Deaner, Shea M. Balish, and Michael P. Lombardo
- Asian Indian International Students' Trajectories of Depression, Acculturation, and Enculturation (PDF, 210KB) Asian American Journal of Psychology March 2016 By Dhara T. Meghani and Elizabeth A. Harvey
- Cynical Beliefs About Human Nature and Income: Longitudinal and Cross-Cultural Analyses (PDF, 163KB) January 2016 Journal of Personality and Social Psychology by Olga Stavrova and Daniel Ehlebracht
- Annual Review of Asian American Psychology, 2014 (PDF, 384KB) Asian American Journal of Psychology December 2015 By Su Yeong Kim, Yishan Shen, Yang Hou, Kelsey E. Tilton, Linda Juang, and Yijie Wang
- Philosophical-Anthropological Considerations for an Existential-Humanistic Ecopsychology (PDF, 105KB) The Humanistic Psychologist October–December 2015 by Eugene M. DeRobertis
- Resilience in the Study of Minority Stress and Health of Sexual and Gender Minorities (PDF, 40KB) Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity September 2015 by Ilan H. Meyer
- Self-Reported Psychopathy and Its Association With Criminal Cognition and Antisocial Behavior in a Sample of University Undergraduates (PDF, 91KB) Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science / Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement July 2015 by Samantha J. Riopka, Richard B. A. Coupland, and Mark E. Olver
Journals Publishing Resource Center
Find resources for writing, reviewing, and editing articles for publishing with APA Journals™.
Visit the resource center
- Frequently Asked Questions
- Journal statistics and operations data
- Special Issues
- Email alerts
- Copyright and permissions
Contact APA Publications
This page contains sample papers formatted in seventh edition APA Style. The sample papers show the format that authors should use to submit a manuscript for publication in a professional journal and that students should use to submit a paper to an instructor for a course assignment. You can download the Word files to use as templates and edit them as needed for the purposes of your own papers.
Most guidelines in the Publication Manual apply to both professional manuscripts and student papers. However, there are specific guidelines for professional papers versus student papers, including professional and student title page formats. All authors should check with the person or entity to whom they are submitting their paper (e.g., publisher or instructor) for guidelines that are different from or in addition to those specified by APA Style.
Sample papers from the Publication Manual
The following two sample papers were published in annotated form in the Publication Manual and are reproduced here as PDFs for your ease of use. The annotations draw attention to content and formatting and provide the relevant sections of the Publication Manual (7th ed.) to consult for more information.
- Student sample paper with annotations (PDF, 4.95MB)
- Professional sample paper with annotations (PDF, 3MB)
We also offer these sample papers in Microsoft Word (.docx) format with the annotations as comments to the text.
- Student sample paper with annotations as comments (DOCX, 42KB)
- Professional sample paper with annotations as comments (DOCX, 103KB)
Finally, we offer these sample papers in Microsoft Word (.docx) format without the annotations.
- Student sample paper without annotations (DOCX, 36KB)
- Professional sample paper without annotations (DOCX, 96KB)
Sample professional paper templates by paper type
These sample papers demonstrate APA Style formatting standards for different professional paper types. Professional papers can contain many different elements depending on the nature of the work. Authors seeking publication should refer to the journal’s instructions for authors or manuscript submission guidelines for specific requirements and/or sections to include.
- Literature review professional paper template (DOCX, 47KB)
- Mixed methods professional paper template (DOCX, 68KB)
- Qualitative professional paper template (DOCX, 72KB)
- Quantitative professional paper template (DOCX, 77KB)
- Review professional paper template (DOCX, 112KB)
This guidance is new to the 7th edition.
- Heading Levels Template: Student Paper (PDF, 257KB)
- Heading Levels Template: Professional Paper (PDF, 213KB)
Other instructional aids
- Journal Article Reporting Standards
- APA Style Tutorials and Webinars
- Handouts and Guides
- Paper Format
Sample student paper templates by paper type
These sample papers demonstrate APA Style formatting standards for different student paper types. Students may write the same types of papers as professional authors (e.g., quantitative studies, literature reviews) or other types of papers for course assignments (e.g., reaction or response papers, discussion posts), dissertations, and theses.
APA does not set formal requirements for the nature or contents of an APA Style student paper. Students should follow the guidelines and requirements of their instructor, department, and/or institution when writing papers. For instance, an abstract and keywords are not required for APA Style student papers, although an instructor may request them in student papers that are longer or more complex. Specific questions about a paper being written for a course assignment should be directed to the instructor or institution assigning the paper.
- Discussion post student paper template (DOCX, 31KB)
- Literature review student paper template (DOCX, 37KB)
- Quantitative study student paper template (DOCX, 53KB)
Sample papers in real life
Although published articles differ in format from manuscripts submitted for publication or student papers (e.g., different line spacing, font, margins, and column format), articles published in APA journals provide excellent demonstrations of APA Style in action.
APA journals began publishing papers in seventh edition APA Style in 2020. Professional authors should check the author submission guidelines for the journal to which they want to submit their paper for any journal-specific style requirements.
Credits for sample professional paper templates
Quantitative professional paper template: Adapted from “Fake News, Fast and Slow: Deliberation Reduces Belief in False (but Not True) News Headlines,” by B. Bago, D. G. Rand, and G. Pennycook, 2020, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General , 149 (8), pp. 1608–1613 ( https://doi.org/10.1037/xge0000729 ). Copyright 2020 by the American Psychological Association.
Qualitative professional paper template: Adapted from “‘My Smartphone Is an Extension of Myself’: A Holistic Qualitative Exploration of the Impact of Using a Smartphone,” by L. J. Harkin and D. Kuss, 2020, Psychology of Popular Media , 10 (1), pp. 28–38 ( https://doi.org/10.1037/ppm0000278 ). Copyright 2020 by the American Psychological Association.
Mixed methods professional paper template: Adapted from “‘I Am a Change Agent’: A Mixed Methods Analysis of Students’ Social Justice Value Orientation in an Undergraduate Community Psychology Course,” by D. X. Henderson, A. T. Majors, and M. Wright, 2019, Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Psychology , 7 (1), 68–80. ( https://doi.org/10.1037/stl0000171 ). Copyright 2019 by the American Psychological Association.
Literature review professional paper template: Adapted from “Rethinking Emotions in the Context of Infants’ Prosocial Behavior: The Role of Interest and Positive Emotions,” by S. I. Hammond and J. K. Drummond, 2019, Developmental Psychology , 55 (9), pp. 1882–1888 ( https://doi.org/10.1037/dev0000685 ). Copyright 2019 by the American Psychological Association.
Review professional paper template: Adapted from “Joining the Conversation: Teaching Students to Think and Communicate Like Scholars,” by E. L. Parks, 2022, Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Psychology , 8 (1), pp. 70–78 ( https://doi.org/10.1037/stl0000193 ). Copyright 2020 by the American Psychological Association.
Credits for sample student paper templates
These papers came from real students who gave their permission to have them edited and posted by APA.
From the APA Style blog
Who needs an author note? You … maybe
Professional papers intended for submission to a journal must always include an author note. Student papers do not typically include an author note.
Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities. ®
- Digital Commons Network ™
- / Social and Behavioral Sciences
- / Psychology
Quantitative Psychology Commons ™
Based on downloads in February 2023
The Effects Of Sleep Deprivation On Online University Students' Performance , Maureen Cort-Blackson Walden University
The Effects Of Sleep Deprivation On Online University Students' Performance , Maureen Cort-Blackson
Walden dissertations and doctoral studies.
Sleep deprivation affects the academic performance of online university students, and students who have family responsibilities and a full-time job have a higher prevalence of sleep deprivation. This phenomenological study examined the lived experiences of online university students regarding sleep patterns, sleep deprivation, and the impact on their academic performance. The theoretical foundation for this study was based on the opponent processing model that explains the 2 fundamental processes necessary for individuals to function at their optimum ability: the sleep-wake homeostatic process and the circadian rhythm processes. The research question explored the beliefs and perceptions of 10 online university students, …
Go to article
An Introduction To The Analysis Of Ranked Response Data , Holmes Finch Ball State University
An Introduction To The Analysis Of Ranked Response Data , Holmes Finch
Practical assessment, research, and evaluation.
Researchers in many disciplines work with ranking data. This data type is unique in that it is often deterministic in nature (the ranks of items k -1 determine the rank of item k ), and the difference in a pair of rank scores separated by k units is equivalent regardless of the actual values of the two ranks in the pair. Given its unique qualities, there are specific statistical analyses and models designed for use with ranking data. The purpose of this manuscript is to demonstrate a strategy for analyzing ranking data from sample description through the modeling of relative …
Happiness Index Methodology , Laura Musikanski, Scott Cloutier, Erica Bejarano, Davi Briggs, Julia Colbert, Gracie Strasser, Steven Russell Happiness Alliance
Happiness Index Methodology , Laura Musikanski, Scott Cloutier, Erica Bejarano, Davi Briggs, Julia Colbert, Gracie Strasser, Steven Russell
Journal of sustainable social change.
The Happiness Index is a comprehensive survey instrument that assesses happiness, well-being, and aspects of sustainability and resilience. The Happiness Alliance developed the Happiness Index to provide a survey instrument to community organizers, researchers, and others seeking to use a subjective well-being index and data. It is the only instrument of its kind freely available worldwide and translated into over ten languages. This instrument can be used to measure satisfaction with life and the conditions of life. It can also be used to define income inequality, trust in government, sense of community and other aspects of well-being within specific demographics …
Understanding Of Self-Confidence In High School Students , George Ballane Walden University
Understanding Of Self-Confidence In High School Students , George Ballane
Students at a private high school in New Jersey exhibited low academic self-confidence as compared to other indicators on the ACT Engage exam. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to gain an understanding of academic self-confidence, academic performance, and learning within a sample of students. This research explored students' and teachers' perceptions of self-confidence and their impact on academic performance. The research was guided by Weiner's attribution and Bandura's self-efficacy theories. The research questions focused on 3 areas: students' and teachers' perceptions of academic self-confidence as factors impacting students' academic performance; and the perceived relationship between academic self-confidence, …
Apr Financial Stress Scale: Development And Validation Of A Multidimensional Measurement , Wookjae Heo, Soo Hyun Cho, Philseok Lee South Dakota State University
Apr Financial Stress Scale: Development And Validation Of A Multidimensional Measurement , Wookjae Heo, Soo Hyun Cho, Philseok Lee
Journal of financial therapy.
People usually experience financial stress in managing their financial resources. Despite financial stress’s importance in life outcomes and the need for a comprehensive and theory-based measurement of the construct, few studies have addressed the conceptual issues of financial stress and its measurement. Hence, by borrowing from theories of general stress, this study attempts to fill this gap. Using an expert panel and two separate online survey samples, we developed and validated a novel financial stress scale. A total of 688 responses were used in an exploratory factor analysis and 1,115 responses were used in a confirmatory factor analysis. This multidimensional …
Women Of Intimate Partner Abuse: Traumatic Bonding Phenomenon , Meghan Koch Walden University
Women Of Intimate Partner Abuse: Traumatic Bonding Phenomenon , Meghan Koch
Researchers indicate women succumb to relational abuse as seen with maladaptive attachment, identity enmeshment, and implicit maltreatment. Implicit violence and nonviolence, bonding victims to victimizers remains unstudied, although the domestic abuse phenomenon continues. Intimate partner abuse was examined through qualitative inquiry. There is much to learn about female victim perspectives describing attachment bonds, identity conflicts, and implicit maltreatment experiences. Traumatic bonding theory served as the lens through which female participant responses were examined in this study. Research questions were developed to focus on female attachment bond perceptions, views concerning self-esteem, self-identity, or self-reference, and implicit aggression, coercive control, or manipulation …
Work-Life Balance, Work-Study Interface, Gender, Stress, And Satisfaction Of Online Students , Viya Kumari Ayadurai Walden University
Work-Life Balance, Work-Study Interface, Gender, Stress, And Satisfaction Of Online Students , Viya Kumari Ayadurai
There is a likelihood of stress in working students' struggles to manage work, family, studies, and personal life, yet little is known about differences in stress levels between male and female online students. Previous studies suggested that more men than women balanced work and family owing to women's asymmetrical family responsibilities. The purpose of this study was to examine the moderating effects of gender on the relationships of work-life balance and work-study interface of working online students and their perceived stress and satisfaction with life. In this quantitative study, the theoretical framework included social role theory and spillover theory. A …
Rasch Measurement V. Item Response Theory: Knowing When To Cross The Line , Steven E. Stemler, Adam Naples Wesleyan University
Rasch Measurement V. Item Response Theory: Knowing When To Cross The Line , Steven E. Stemler, Adam Naples
When students receive the same score on a test, does that mean they know the same amount about the topic? The answer to this question is more complex than it may first appear. This paper compares classical and modern test theories in terms of how they estimate student ability. Crucial distinctions between the aims of Rasch Measurement and IRT are highlighted. By modeling a second parameter (item discrimination) and allowing item characteristic curves to cross, as IRT models do, more information is incorporated into the estimate of person ability, but the measurement scale is no longer guaranteed to have the …
Psychological Characteristics Of Sex Offenders , Patrick McMunn Walden University
Psychological Characteristics Of Sex Offenders , Patrick Mcmunn
Current therapeutic treatment methods are ineffective in identifying at-risk sex offenders and reducing recidivism of known offenders, likely due to inadequate identification of specific traits of sex offenders. Previous research and prominent theories in the area of sex offender treatment, in terms of the biological foundation of substance abuse, behaviors of sex offenders, and the presence of aggression, helped to guide this research. Data about sex offenders were collected, as reported by mental health professionals who treat them and focused on three characteristics: maladaptive interpersonal behaviors, impulsivity, and antisocial behaviors, on which the research questions were formed to detect commonality. …
Virginity And Guilt Differences Between Men And Women , Caitlin M. Lipman, Alexis J. Moore Hanover College
Virginity And Guilt Differences Between Men And Women , Caitlin M. Lipman, Alexis J. Moore
Butler journal of undergraduate research.
In this research, the authors measured the levels of sexual guilt between two groups of people on multiple levels, virgins and nonvirgins, by gender. The differences between men and women when it comes to virginity will also be studied. Based on the sample size of college students, N = 364. College students (N=364) completed a 34-item online survey of questions that measure guilt levels. Ten out of the twenty questions are demographic questions, such as: age, ethnicity, religion, year, etc. The other questions were a combination of Likert scaled questions and open ended responses. We predicted that females will produce …
All Articles in Quantitative Psychology
781 full-text articles. Page 1 of 34 .
Using Bayesian Generalized Structural Equation Modeling To Analyze Latent Agreement , Sydne T. McCluskey 2023 The Graduate Center, City University of New York
Using Bayesian Generalized Structural Equation Modeling To Analyze Latent Agreement , Sydne T. Mccluskey
Dissertations, theses, and capstone projects.
Rater comparison analysis is commonly necessary in the social sciences. Conventional approaches to the problem generally focus on calculation of agreement statistics, which provide useful but incomplete information about rater agreement. Importantly, one-number agreement statistics give no indication regarding the nature of disagreements, nor do they distinguish between agreement on presence versus absence of a state or trait. Latent variable models can address both problems, as well as overcoming other well-documented limitations of agreement statistics (e.g., sample dependence, inappropriate population assumptions). Whether raters exactly agree is usually not the question of interest – researchers almost never care whether the difference …
Inspirational Bullshit: The Good, The Bad, And The Vacuous , Esther Abel 2023 Wilfrid Laurier University
Inspirational Bullshit: The Good, The Bad, And The Vacuous , Esther Abel
Theses and dissertations (comprehensive).
There are myriad methods offered in the “self-help industry” and on social media promising to improve happiness. Some messages are evidence-based, often drawn from positive psychology research, and suggest actions requiring time and effort, while other messages may offer feel-good platitudes that are devoid of meaningful guidance; we label this latter type of content “inspirational bullshit.” Across two manuscripts, we investigate the predictors of liking different kinds of positive self-help content, from meaningless randomly-generated phrases to vacuous positivity to evidence-based advice. In the first manuscript, across three studies, bullshit receptivity (a tendency to judge pseudo-profound statements as profound) and people’s …
Occupational Depression In Italy: Associations With Health, Economic, And Work-Life Characteristics , Renzo Bianchi, Caterina Fiorilli, Giacomo Angelini, Nicoletta Dozio, Carlo Palazzi, Gloria Palazzi, Benedetto Vitiello, Irvin Sam Schonfeld 2022 Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Occupational Depression In Italy: Associations With Health, Economic, And Work-Life Characteristics , Renzo Bianchi, Caterina Fiorilli, Giacomo Angelini, Nicoletta Dozio, Carlo Palazzi, Gloria Palazzi, Benedetto Vitiello, Irvin Sam Schonfeld
Publications and research.
Background : The Occupational Depression Inventory (ODI) reflects a new approach to job-related distress centered on work-attributed depressive symptoms. The instrument was developed with reference to the characterization of major depression found in the DSM-5 . The ODI has been validated in English, French, and Spanish. This study (a) investigated the psychometric and structural properties of the ODI’s Italian version and (b) inquired into the nomological network of occupational depression. Methods : A convenience sample of 963 employed individuals was recruited in Italy (69.9% female; mean age = 40.433). We notably relied on exploratory structural equation modeling bifactor analysis, common-practice …
An Investigation Of Lab-Based Research Procedural Fidelity: The Relationship Between Experimenter Infant-Directed Speech, Temperament And Language Proficiency , Tess A. Simpson 2022 East Tennessee State University
An Investigation Of Lab-Based Research Procedural Fidelity: The Relationship Between Experimenter Infant-Directed Speech, Temperament And Language Proficiency , Tess A. Simpson
Electronic theses and dissertations.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether developmental researchers were influenced in the laboratory by the characteristics of children who participate in their research. I hypothesized that experimenters, as social partners, would adapt their speaking and other behaviors to the child’s perceived temperamental profile and language proficiency. I specifically focused on whether experimenters would adhere to the experimental laboratory procedure of two elicited imitation tasks, Feed Bear and Make a Rattle, in an archival dataset. Participants included 61 primarily white 15-month-olds. Coders transcribed infant directed speech (IDS) and analyzed transcriptions for total words, words per sentence, and …
Thematic Consistency Between Criminal History And Crime Scene Behaviors: Comparing Sexual Homicide Offenders With And Without Criminal Histories Of Sexual Offenses , Shannon E. Ettinger 2022 CUNY John Jay College
Thematic Consistency Between Criminal History And Crime Scene Behaviors: Comparing Sexual Homicide Offenders With And Without Criminal Histories Of Sexual Offenses , Shannon E. Ettinger
Offender profiling research suggests that offenders may display behavioral consistency, meaning they may behave in some consistent manner between their crime scene actions and other aspects of their lives. Through behavioral themes, researchers can identify consistency in groups of individual behaviors that are thematically similar. Previous literature successfully applied the Expressive/Instrumental themes to homicide crime scene behaviors and criminal history. The current study aims to apply the Expressive/Instrumental thematic approach to analyzing the relationship between sexual homicide offender’s criminal history and their crime scene behaviors. The present study focuses on the distinction between sexual homicide offenders with a history of …
Sentiment Analysis In Application To Behavior Prediction , Anna Singley 2022 University of Portland
Sentiment Analysis In Application To Behavior Prediction , Anna Singley
Annual symposium on biomathematics and ecology education and research.
No abstract provided.
Towards More Task-Generalized And Explainable Ai Through Psychometrics , Alec Braynen 2022 University of South Florida
Towards More Task-Generalized And Explainable Ai Through Psychometrics , Alec Braynen
Usf tampa graduate theses and dissertations.
In this work, we propose that adopting the methods, principles, and guidelines of the field of psychometrics can help the Artificial Intelligence (AI) community to build more task-generalizable and explainable AI. Three arguments are presented and explored. These arguments are that psychometrics can help by providing 1) a framework for formulating better datasets, 2) psychometric AI data that can lead to models of generalization in AI, and 3) explainable AI through more informative evaluations.
A review of psychometrics and psychological generalization is performed, along with an overview of evaluation, generalization, and explainability in AI. Various ideas are presented throughout for …
Public Acceptance Of Medical Screening Recommendations, Safety Risks, And Implied Liabilities Requirements For Space Flight Participation , Cory J. Trunkhill 2022 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University
Public Acceptance Of Medical Screening Recommendations, Safety Risks, And Implied Liabilities Requirements For Space Flight Participation , Cory J. Trunkhill
Doctoral dissertations and master's theses.
The space tourism industry is preparing to send space flight participants on orbital and suborbital flights. Space flight participants are not professional astronauts and are not subject to the rules and guidelines covering space flight crewmembers. This research addresses public acceptance of current Federal Aviation Administration guidance and regulations as designated for civil participation in human space flight.
The research utilized an ordinal linear regression analysis of survey data to explore the public acceptance of the current medical screening recommended guidance and the regulations for safety risk and implied liability for space flight participation. Independent variables constituted participant demographic representations …
Researcher And Academic Library Roles And User Beliefs In The Pandemic: Designing The Open-Access And Library Usage Scale (Oalu) , Elizabeth DeZouche, Angelique Blackburn 2022 Texas A&M International University
Researcher And Academic Library Roles And User Beliefs In The Pandemic: Designing The Open-Access And Library Usage Scale (Oalu) , Elizabeth Dezouche, Angelique Blackburn
Killam library faculty publications.
We investigated whether individuals believe they have a right to information during a crisis, and whether attitudes about crisis-related information sharing differ by age and one’s role in providing or consuming information. We measured attitudes about aspects of data sharing related to COVID-19: researchers’ obligation to share data, publishers’ obligation to share information, and libraries’ responsibility to provide them. We predicted younger individuals, especially students as consumers of information, would report stronger preference for open access to pandemic-related information. A principal components analysis was performed, and two predicted factors emerged: information-sharing obligations and libraries’ responsibility to provide resources. Age was …
Do Educators Value The Promotion Of Students’ Wellbeing? Quantifying Educators’ Attitudes Toward Wellbeing Promotion , David Byrne PhD, Colm McGuinness PhD, Aiden Carthy PhD 2022 Technological University Dublin
Do Educators Value The Promotion Of Students’ Wellbeing? Quantifying Educators’ Attitudes Toward Wellbeing Promotion , David Byrne Phd, Colm Mcguinness Phd, Aiden Carthy Phd
Educators’ attitudes toward Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) and health and wellbeing promotion can significantly influence the success (or otherwise) of such policies and practices . While numerous studies exist , from which a broad understanding of such attitudes can be garnered , there is currently no attendant measurement which quantifies educators attitudes regarding the promotion of student wellbeing . The aim of this study was to address this gap in knowledge by quantifying the degree to which educators are positively or negatively disposed to the promotion of student wellbeing . The Attitudes Toward Wellbeing Promotion (ATWP) scale was administered …
A Latent Class Analysis Of Personality Traits With Educational Attainment , Tyler Minter 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln
A Latent Class Analysis Of Personality Traits With Educational Attainment , Tyler Minter
Public access theses, dissertations, and student research from the college of education and human sciences.
The five-factor model of personality (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness to experience) is an empirically based personality model that has been utilized in multiple psychological assessments. Recent works have found Block & Block’s (1980) three personality profiles (resilient, overcontrolled, undercontrolled) within the context of the five-factor model. This study performed a latent class analysis using a short FFM assessment from the SAPA project, a free online personality test. The intention of this study was to replicate the three personality profiles within the five-factor model. Four latent classes were included in the final solution. Two of the three personality profiles emerged …
Posttraumatic Growth And Primal World Beliefs Among People Who Have Caused Accidental Death Or Serious Injury , Mark L. O'Brien 2022 University of Pennsylvania
Posttraumatic Growth And Primal World Beliefs Among People Who Have Caused Accidental Death Or Serious Injury , Mark L. O'Brien
Master of applied positive psychology (mapp) capstone projects.
Background. Posttraumatic growth (PTG)—positive changes that people may experience in the aftermath of highly distressing experiences—has been observed in survivors of a variety of events but has not been previously studied among people who have caused accidental death or injury (PCADIs). In addition, questions remain about the role, in PTG, of changes in the assumptive world and the relationships between PTG and distress, personality, and social support. Methods. Participants ( N = 528), included PCADIs ( n = 44) and a non-trauma comparison group ( n = 484), who completed the Primals Inventory and measures of personality, anxiety, and depression. …
Individual Characteristics Of Postsecondary Underachievement , Natasha Godkin 2022 East Tennessee State University
Individual Characteristics Of Postsecondary Underachievement , Natasha Godkin
Underachievement in postsecondary education has been a growing concern for educators and researchers. Higher education institutions have implemented early alert systems to identify students performing below standards. This early warning system has major limitations that confine it to an identification only approach. The current study aimed to investigate the psychometric properties of the Student Attitude Assessment Survey-R (SAAS-R) in a postsecondary sample. First, a confirmatory factor analysis validated the SAAS-R in a postsecondary sample. Predictive validity was then investigated by identifying students as underachieving or achieving based on responses to the SAAS-R and via a regression-based discrepancy model (ability vs. …
Evaluating Outcome Factors Of Childhood Emotional Neglect: An Exploratory Factor Analysis , Taylor Levitt 2022 National Louis University
Evaluating Outcome Factors Of Childhood Emotional Neglect: An Exploratory Factor Analysis , Taylor Levitt
Experiencing childhood maltreatment has been shown to have major implications on adult outcomes. Less is known about the outcomes of childhood emotional neglect (CEN). The purpose of this study was to identify factors related to psychological outcomes of CEN within the domains of depression, anxiety, and alexithymia as a precursor to the development of an inventory. One hundred and fifty participant responses on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), and Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 (TAS-20) were collected. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted where nine factors yielded significant results and were titled, “Depressive Symptoms,” “Difficulty Identifying Feelings,” “Usefulness of …
Prevalence And Predictors Of Careless Responding In Experience Sampling Research , Alexander J. Denison 2022 University of South Florida
Prevalence And Predictors Of Careless Responding In Experience Sampling Research , Alexander J. Denison
In the current study we examine the prevalence and several predictors of careless responding to an experience sampling (ESM) study. While careless responding has been noted as a potential problem in ESM research, few studies have examined the prevalence of this behavior (Beal, 2015; Berkel et al., 2017; Eisele et al., 2020; Gabriel et al., 2019; Jaso et al., 2021). Using statistical methods of careless response classification, we derive cut scores from data simulation and graphical examination of item correlations, and flag 44.98% of response episodes as careless. A majority of these flagged episodes were the product of overly consistent …
Lgbtq+ Congregants Navigating Identity In The Context Of "Welcoming But Not Affirming" Evangelical, Pentecostal, And Non-Denominational Religious Institutions: A Queer Narrative Analysis , Sarah E. Rasmussen 2022 Portland State University
Lgbtq+ Congregants Navigating Identity In The Context Of "Welcoming But Not Affirming" Evangelical, Pentecostal, And Non-Denominational Religious Institutions: A Queer Narrative Analysis , Sarah E. Rasmussen
University honors theses.
Welcoming but not affirming Evangelical, Pentecostal, and non-denominational churches invite LGBTQ+ people to attend their church, but do not affirm their identity as a gender and/or sexual minority. Because of this, they restrict LGBTQ+ attendees from participating in leadership, paid staff positions, and ministry work. LGBTQ+ attendees are often not aware of these restrictive policies initially. The current study aims to examine how LGBTQ+ people navigate their faith and identity within welcoming but not affirming church spaces through narrative analysis. Fifteen participants engaged in an interview, where they were asked about their experience within welcoming but not affirming church spaces. …
The Interplay Between Perceived Usability And Quality In Visual Design For Tablet Game Interfaces , Uttam Kokil, Tracy Harwood 2022 Kennesaw State University
The Interplay Between Perceived Usability And Quality In Visual Design For Tablet Game Interfaces , Uttam Kokil, Tracy Harwood
Research in human-computer interaction (HCI) has shown inconsistencies in the relationship between users’ perception of usability and the quality of visual design in digital products. Research is lacking in the gaming domain for visual design in user interfaces on tablet screens. Despite extensive research on visual aesthetics and perceived usability, best practices offer limited guidance for game interfaces from a user-centered design perspective.
The objectives of this study are twofold: to employ a design-oriented methodology to create a real iOS tablet game app from start to finish using ideation, focus groups, iterative prototyping, usability testing, and empirically evaluating game participants’ …
Constraining Computational Models Of Brightness Perception: What’S The Right Psychophysical Data? , Guillermo Aguilar, Joris Vincent, Marianne Maertens 2022 Technische Universitat Berlin
Constraining Computational Models Of Brightness Perception: What’S The Right Psychophysical Data? , Guillermo Aguilar, Joris Vincent, Marianne Maertens
Writing While Black: African American Vernacular English (Aave) And Perceived Writing Performance , Jaylin N. Nesbitt 2022 James Madison University
Writing While Black: African American Vernacular English (Aave) And Perceived Writing Performance , Jaylin N. Nesbitt
Masters theses, 2020-current.
In the education system, there have historically been inequities that have severely disadvantaged Black students academically. One area in which these inequities surface is on writing assessments in the form of lower scores. I argue that because the U.S. education system is centered around Standard American English (SAE), it disadvantages those from different linguistic backgrounds, specifically Black students, as they are most likely to be speakers of African American Vernacular English (AAVE). Although there are theoretical justifications for this, past literature has not empirically tied inequities on writing assessments to Black students’ use of AAVE. The current study used Natural …
Professional Manual For The Parent Reaction To Autism Diagnosis Scales (Prads-2) With Guidance For Tailoring Parent Supports , Kathleen A. Brewer M.A., Mary B. Gruber Ph.D. BCBA-D 2022 Cal Poly Humboldt
Professional Manual For The Parent Reaction To Autism Diagnosis Scales (Prads-2) With Guidance For Tailoring Parent Supports , Kathleen A. Brewer M.A., Mary B. Gruber Ph.D. Bcba-D
Textbooks and manuals series.
The Parent Reaction to Autism Diagnosis Scales (PRADS-2 ) is a 60-item survey, which provides 15 scale scores to measure a parent’s specific areas of strengths and difficulties in raising their child with autism. The measure allows researchers to obtain objective data on parent responses, and it allows service providers to tailor specific supports for parents. This peer-reviewed professional manual describes our research, statistical development, and validation of the scales, and then describes the steps for applications in service work, specifying how our measure may be used accurately, ethically, and compassionately, for the benefit of parents and families. The manual …
- Applied Behavior Analysis
- Biological Psychology
- Child Psychology
- Clinical Psychology
- Cognition and Perception
- Cognitive Psychology
- Community Psychology
- Comparative Psychology
- Counseling Psychology
- Developmental Psychology
- Experimental Analysis of Behavior
- Health Psychology
- Human Factors Psychology
- Industrial and Organizational Psychology
- Multicultural Psychology
- Other Psychology
- Pain Management
- Personality and Social Contexts
- School Psychology
- Social Psychology
- Somatic Psychology
- Theory and Philosophy
- Transpersonal Psychology
- Bipolar Disorder
- Race and Identity
- Stress Management
- Brain Health
- Online Therapy
- History and Biographies
- Student Resources
- Sleep and Dreaming
- Mental Strength
- Family & Relationships
- Anxiety & Depression
- Mental Health
- Verywell Mind Insights
- The Winter Issue
- Editorial Process
- Meet Our Review Board
- Crisis Support
Psychology Research Paper Topics: 50+ Great Ideas
Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author and educational consultant focused on helping students learn about psychology.
Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital.
Are you searching for a great topic for your psychology paper ? Sometimes it seems like coming up with a good idea for a paper is more challenging than the actual research and writing. Fortunately, there are plenty of great places to find inspiration and the following list contains just a few ideas to help get you started.
Finding a solid topic is one of the most important steps when writing any type of paper. It can be particularly important when you are writing a psychology research paper or essay. Psychology is such a broad topic, so you want to find a topic that allows you to adequately cover the subject without becoming overwhelmed with information.
In some cases, such as in a general psychology class, you might have had the option to select any topic from within psychology's broad reaches. Other instances, such as in an abnormal psychology course, might require you to write your paper on a specific subject such as a psychological disorder.
As you begin your search for a topic for your psychology paper, it is first important to consider the guidelines established by your instructor.
Focus on a Topic Within a Particular Branch of Psychology
The key to selecting a good topic for your psychology paper is to select something that is narrow enough to allow you to really focus on the subject, but not so narrow that it is difficult to find sources or information to write about.
One approach is to narrow your focus down to a subject within a specific branch of psychology. For example, you might start by deciding that you want to write a paper on some sort of social psychology topic. Next, you might narrow your focus down to how persuasion can be used to influence behavior.
Other social psychology topics you might consider include:
- Prejudice and discrimination (i.e., homophobia, sexism, racism)
- Social cognition
- Person perception
- Social control and cults
- Persuasion , propaganda, and marketing
- Attraction, romance, and love
- Nonverbal communication
- Prosocial behavior
Write About a Disorder or Type of Therapy
Exploring a psychological disorder or a specific treatment modality can also be a good topic for a psychology paper. Some potential abnormal psychology topics include specific psychological disorders or particular treatment modalities, including:
- Eating disorders
- Borderline personality disorder
- Seasonal affective disorder
- Antisocial personality disorder
- Profile a type of therapy (i.e., cognitive behavioral therapy, group therapy, psychoanalytic therapy)
Choose a Topic Related to Human Cognition
Some of the possible topics you might explore in this area include thinking, language, intelligence, and decision-making. Other ideas might include:
- False memories
- Speech disorders
Consider a Topic Related to Human Development
In this area, you might opt to focus on issues pertinent to early childhood such as language development, social learning, or childhood attachment or you might instead opt to concentrate on issues that affect older adults such as dementia or Alzheimer's disease.
Some other topics you might consider include:
- Language acquisition
- Media violence and children
- Learning disabilities
- Gender roles
- Child abuse
- Prenatal development
- Parenting styles
- Aspects of the aging process
Critique a Book or Academic Journal Article
One option is to consider writing a psychology critique paper of a published psychology book or academic journal article. For example, you might write a critical analysis of Sigmund Freud's Interpretation of Dreams or you might evaluate a more recent book such as Philip Zimbardo's The Lucifer Effect: Understanding How Good People Turn Evil .
Professional and academic journals are also a great place to find materials for a critique paper. Browse through the collection at your university library to find titles devoted to the subject that you are most interested in, then look through recent articles until you find what that grabs your attention.
Analyze a Famous Experiment
There have been many fascinating and groundbreaking experiments throughout the history of psychology, providing ample material for students looking for an interesting term paper topic. In your paper, you might choose to summarize the experiment, analyze the ethics of the research, or evaluate the implications of the study. Possible experiments that you might consider include:
- The Milgram Obedience Experiment
- The Stanford Prison Experiment
- The Little Albert Experiment
- Pavlov's Conditioning Experiments
- The Asch Conformity Experiment
- Harlow's Rhesus Monkey Experiments
Write a Paper About a Historical Figure
One of the simplest ways to find a great topic is to choose an interesting person in the history of psychology and write a paper about them. Your paper might focus on many different elements of the individual's life, such as their biography, professional history, theories, or influence on psychology.
While this type of paper may be historical in nature, there is no need for this assignment to be dry or boring. Psychology is full of fascinating figures rife with intriguing stories and anecdotes. Consider such famous individuals as Sigmund Freud, B.F. Skinner, Harry Harlow, or one of the many other eminent psychologists .
Write About a Specific Psychology Career
Another possible topic, depending on the course in which you are enrolled, is to write about specific career paths within the field of psychology . This type of paper is especially appropriate if you are exploring different subtopics or considering which area interests you the most.
In your paper, you might opt to explore the typical duties of a psychologist, how much people working in these fields typically earn, and different employment options that are available.
Create a Case Study of an Individual or Group of People
One potentially interesting idea is to write a psychology case study of a particular individual or group of people. In this type of paper, you will provide an in depth analysis of your subject, including a thorough biography.
Generally, you will also assess the person, often using a major psychological theory such as Piaget's stages of cognitive development or Erikson's eight-stage theory of human development . It is also important to note that your paper doesn't necessarily have to be about someone you know personally.
In fact, many professors encourage students to write case studies on historical figures or fictional characters from books, television programs, or films.
Conduct a Literature Review
Another possibility that would work well for a number of psychology courses is to do a literature review of a specific topic within psychology. A literature review involves finding a variety of sources on a particular subject, then summarizing and reporting on what these sources have to say about the topic.
Literature reviews are generally found in the introduction of journal articles and other psychology papers , but this type of analysis also works well for a full-scale psychology term paper.
Design a Study or Perform an Experiment
Many psychology courses require students to design an actual psychological study or perform some type of experiment. In some cases, students simply devise the study and then imagine the possible results that might occur. In other situations, you may actually have the opportunity to collect data, analyze your findings, and write up your results.
Finding a topic for your study can be difficult, but there are plenty of great ways to come up with intriguing ideas. Start by considering your own interests as well subjects you have studied in the past.
Online sources, newspaper articles, books , journal articles, and even your own class textbook are all great places to start searching for topics for your experiments and psychology term papers. Before you begin, learn more about how to conduct a psychology experiment .
A Word From Verywell
After looking at this brief list of possible topics for psychology papers, it is easy to see that psychology is a very broad and diverse subject. While this variety makes it possible to find a topic that really catches your interest, it can sometimes make it very difficult for some students to select a good topic.
If you are still stumped by your assignment, ask your instructor for suggestions and consider a few from this list for inspiration.
- Hockenbury, SE & Nolan, SA. Psychology. New York: Worth Publishers; 2014.
- Santrock, JW. A Topical Approach to Lifespan Development. New York: McGraw-Hill Education; 2016.
By Kendra Cherry Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author and educational consultant focused on helping students learn about psychology.
By clicking “Accept All Cookies”, you agree to the storing of cookies on your device to enhance site navigation, analyze site usage, and assist in our marketing efforts.
Qualitative vs Quantitative Research: Differences, Examples & Methods
Saul Mcleod, PhD
BSc (Hons) Psychology, MRes, PhD, University of Manchester
Saul Mcleod, Ph.D., is a qualified psychology teacher with over 18 years experience of working in further and higher education.
Learn about our Editorial Process
Associate Editor for Simply Psychology
BSc (Hons), Psychology, MSc, Psychology of Education
Olivia Guy-Evans is a writer and associate editor for Simply Psychology. She has previously worked in healthcare and educational sectors.
Quantitative data is information about quantities, and therefore numbers, and qualitative data is descriptive, and regards phenomenon which can be observed but not measured, such as language.
What Is Qualitative Research?
Qualitative research is the process of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting non-numerical data, such as language. Qualitative research can be used to understand how an individual subjectively perceives and gives meaning to their social reality.
Qualitative data is defined as non-numerical data, such as text, video, photographs, or audio recordings. This type of data can be collected using diary accounts or in-depth interviews and analyzed using grounded theory or thematic analysis.
Qualitative research is multimethod in focus, involving an interpretive, naturalistic approach to its subject matter. This means that qualitative researchers study things in their natural settings, attempting to make sense of, or interpret, phenomena in terms of the meanings people bring to them. Denzin and Lincoln (1994, p. 2)
Interest in qualitative data came about as the result of the dissatisfaction of some psychologists (e.g., Carl Rogers) with the scientific study of psychologists such as behaviorists (e.g., Skinner ).
Since psychologists study people, the traditional approach to science is not seen as an appropriate way of carrying out research since it fails to capture the totality of human experience and the essence of being human. Exploring participants’ experiences is known as a phenomenological approach (re: Humanism ).
The aim of qualitative research is to understand the social reality of individuals, groups, and cultures as nearly as possible as its participants feel it or live it. Thus, people and groups are studied in their natural setting.
Research following a qualitative approach is exploratory and seeks to explain ‘how’ and ‘why’ a particular phenomenon, or behavior, operates as it does in a particular context. It can be used to generate hypotheses and theories from the data.
There are different types of qualitative research methods, including diary accounts, in-depth interviews , documents, focus groups , case study research , and ethnography.
The results of qualitative methods provide a deep understanding of how people perceive their social realities and in consequence, how they act within the social world.
The researcher has several methods for collecting empirical materials, ranging from the interview to direct observation, to the analysis of artifacts, documents, and cultural records, to the use of visual materials or personal experience. Denzin and Lincoln (1994, p. 14)
A good example of a qualitative research method would be unstructured interviews which generate qualitative data through the use of open questions. This allows the respondent to talk in some depth, choosing their own words. This helps the researcher develop a real sense of a person’s understanding of a situation.
Notice that qualitative data could be much more than just words or text. Photographs, videos, sound recordings, and so on, can be considered qualitative data.
Qualitative Data Analysis
Qualitative research is endlessly creative and interpretive. The researcher does not just leave the field with mountains of empirical data and then easily write up his or her findings.
Qualitative interpretations are constructed, and various techniques can be used to make sense of the data, such as content analysis, grounded theory (Glaser & Strauss, 1967), thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2006), or discourse analysis.
For example, thematic analysis is a qualitative approach that involves identifying implicit or explicit ideas within the data. Themes will often emerge once the data has been coded.
- Events can be understood adequately only if they are seen in context. Therefore, a qualitative researcher immerses her/himself in the field, in natural surroundings. The contexts of inquiry are not contrived; they are natural. Nothing is predefined or taken for granted.
- Qualitative researchers want those who are studied to speak for themselves, to provide their perspectives in words and other actions. Therefore, qualitative research is an interactive process in which the persons studied teach the researcher about their lives.
- The qualitative researcher is an integral part of the data; without the active participation of the researcher, no data exists.
- The study’s design evolves during the research and can be adjusted or changed as it progresses. For the qualitative researcher, there is no single reality. It is subjective and exists only in reference to the observer.
- The theory is data-driven and emerges as part of the research process, evolving from the data as they are collected.
Limitations of Qualitative Research
- Because of the time and costs involved, qualitative designs do not generally draw samples from large-scale data sets.
- The problem of adequate validity or reliability is a major criticism. Because of the subjective nature of qualitative data and its origin in single contexts, it is difficult to apply conventional standards of reliability and validity. For example, because of the central role played by the researcher in the generation of data, it is not possible to replicate qualitative studies.
- Also, contexts, situations, events, conditions, and interactions cannot be replicated to any extent, nor can generalizations be made to a wider context than the one studied with any confidence
- The time required for data collection, analysis, and interpretation is lengthy. Analysis of qualitative data is difficult, and expert knowledge of an area is necessary to try to interpret qualitative data. Great care must be taken when doing so, for example, looking for mental illness symptoms.
Advantages of Qualitative research
- Because of close researcher involvement, the researcher gains an insider’s view of the field. This allows the researcher to find issues that are often missed (such as subtleties and complexities) by the scientific, more positivistic inquiries.
- Qualitative descriptions can be important in suggesting possible relationships, causes, effects, and dynamic processes.
- Qualitative analysis allows for ambiguities/contradictions in the data, which reflect social reality (Denscombe, 2010).
- Qualitative research uses a descriptive, narrative style; this research might be of particular benefit to the practitioner as she or he could turn to qualitative reports in order to examine forms of knowledge that might otherwise be unavailable, thereby gaining new insight.
What Is Quantitative Research?
Quantitative research involves the process of objectively collecting and analyzing numerical data to describe, predict, or control variables of interest.
The goals of quantitative research are to test causal relationships between variables , make predictions, and generalize results to wider populations.
Quantitative researchers aim to establish general laws of behavior and phenomenon across different settings/contexts. Research is used to test a theory and ultimately support or reject it.
Experiments typically yield quantitative data, as they are concerned with measuring things. However, other research methods, such as controlled observations and questionnaires , can produce both quantitative information.
For example, a rating scale or closed questions on a questionnaire would generate quantitative data as these produce either numerical data or data that can be put into categories (e.g., “yes,” “no” answers).
Experimental methods limit how a research participant can react to and express appropriate social behavior.
Findings are, therefore, likely to be context-bound and simply a reflection of the assumptions that the researcher brings to the investigation.
Quantitative Data Analysis
Statistics help us turn quantitative data into useful information to help with decision-making. We can use statistics to summarize our data, describing patterns, relationships, and connections. Statistics can be descriptive or inferential.
Descriptive statistics help us to summarize our data. In contrast, inferential statistics are used to identify statistically significant differences between groups of data (such as intervention and control groups in a randomized control study).
- Quantitative researchers try to control extraneous variables by conducting their studies in the lab.
- The research aims for objectivity (i.e., without bias) and is separated from the data.
- The design of the study is determined before it begins.
- For the quantitative researcher, the reality is objective, exists separately from the researcher, and can be seen by anyone.
- Research is used to test a theory and ultimately support or reject it.
Limitations of Quantitative Research
- Context: Quantitative experiments do not take place in natural settings. In addition, they do not allow participants to explain their choices or the meaning of the questions they may have for those participants (Carr, 1994).
- Researcher expertise: Poor knowledge of the application of the statistical analysis may negatively affect analysis and subsequent interpretation (Black, 1999).
- Variability of data quantity: Large sample sizes are needed for more accurate analysis. Small-scale quantitative studies may be less reliable because of the low quantity of data (Denscombe, 2010). This also affects the ability to generalize study findings to wider populations.
- Confirmation bias: The researcher might miss observing phenomena because of focus on theory or hypothesis testing rather than on the theory of hypothesis generation.
Advantages of Quantitative Research
- Scientific objectivity: Quantitative data can be interpreted with statistical analysis, and since statistics are based on the principles of mathematics, the quantitative approach is viewed as scientifically objective and rational (Carr, 1994; Denscombe, 2010).
- Useful for testing and validating already constructed theories.
- Rapid analysis: Sophisticated software removes much of the need for prolonged data analysis, especially with large volumes of data involved (Antonius, 2003).
- Replication: Quantitative data is based on measured values and can be checked by others because numerical data is less open to ambiguities of interpretation.
- Hypotheses can also be tested because of the use of statistical analysis (Antonius, 2003).
Antonius, R. (2003). Interpreting quantitative data with SPSS . Sage.
Black, T. R. (1999). Doing quantitative research in the social sciences: An integrated approach to research design, measurement and statistics . Sage.
Braun, V. & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology . Qualitative Research in Psychology , 3, 77–101.
Carr, L. T. (1994). The strengths and weaknesses of quantitative and qualitative research : what method for nursing? Journal of advanced nursing, 20(4) , 716-721.
Denscombe, M. (2010). The Good Research Guide: for small-scale social research. McGraw Hill.
Denzin, N., & Lincoln. Y. (1994). Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, CA, US: Sage Publications Inc.
Glaser, B. G., Strauss, A. L., & Strutzel, E. (1968). The discovery of grounded theory; strategies for qualitative research. Nursing research, 17(4) , 364.
Minichiello, V. (1990). In-Depth Interviewing: Researching People. Longman Cheshire.
Punch, K. (1998). Introduction to Social Research: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches. London: Sage
- Research Data
- Designing qualitative research
- Methods of data collection and analysis
- Introduction to quantitative and qualitative research
- Checklists for improving rigour in qualitative research: a case of the tail wagging the dog?
- Qualitative research in health care: Analysing qualitative data
- Qualitative data analysis: the framework approach
- Using the framework method for the analysis of
- qualitative data in multi-disciplinary health research
- Content Analysis Grounded Theory
- Thematic Analysis
- Pinterest 192
Critics of psychological measurement have accused quantitative psychologists of ignoring the empirical hypothesis that psychological phenomena are quantitative (Michell), or have claimed that...
Quantitative Psychology and Measurement Submit your research Start your submission and get more impact for your research by publishing with us. Author guidelines Ready to publish? Check out our author guidelines for everything you need to know about submission, from choosing a journal and section to preparing your manuscript. Editor guidelines
This open-access article in American Psychologist lays out new journal article reporting standards for quantitative research in APA journals (Appelbaum, M., et al., Vol. 73, No. 1). The new standards are voluntary guidelines for authors and reviewers, developed by a task force of APA’s Publications and Communications Board.
Journal of Abnormal Psychology February 2016 by Erica D. Musser, Sarah L. Karalunas, Nathan Dieckmann, Tara S. Peris, and Joel T. Nigg; The Integrated Scientist-Practitioner: A New Model for Combining Research and Clinical Practice in Fee-For-Service Settings (PDF, 58KB) Professional Psychology: Research and Practice December 2015
These sample papers demonstrate APA Style formatting standards for different student paper types. Students may write the same types of papers as professional authors (e.g., quantitative studies, literature reviews) or other types of papers for course assignments (e.g., reaction or response papers, discussion posts), dissertations, and theses.
Quantitative Psychology Commons™ 781 Full-Text Articles 1,041 Authors 693,777 Downloads 112 Institutions Popular Articles Follow Based on downloads in February 2023 The Effects Of Sleep Deprivation On Online University Students' Performance , Maureen Cort-Blackson Walden University
Quantitative Psychology Journal of Quantitative Psychological Research Authors: Aoife De Brún University College Dublin Kevin Thomas Kenneth McKenzie Trinity College Dublin Content uploaded...
In your paper, you might choose to summarize the experiment, analyze the ethics of the research, or evaluate the implications of the study. Possible experiments that you might consider include: The Milgram Obedience Experiment The Stanford Prison Experiment The Little Albert Experiment Pavlov's Conditioning Experiments
Qualitative research is the process of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting non-numerical data, such as language. Qualitative research can be used to understand how an individual subjectively perceives and gives meaning to their social reality. Qualitative data is defined as non-numerical data, such as text, video, photographs or audio ...