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Theoretical nuclear physics

Theoretical nuclear physics is the development of models for describing the nucleus and the processes that occur within it. This includes understanding the shape of the nucleus, or why nuclei with certain numbers (so-called magic numbers) of protons or neutrons are more stable than others.

Latest Research and Reviews

Research 18 December 2022 | Open Access

Representation of nuclear magnetic moments via a Clifford algebra formulation of Bohm’s hidden variables

Research 10 December 2022 | Open Access

Superradiance in alpha clustered mirror nuclei

No physical system is truly isolated, and the influence of the external world on structure and dynamics of quantum many-body systems is not well explored. Alpha decays in mirror nuclei studied in this work demonstrate significant restructuring of quantum states due to decay.

Research | 05 December 2022

Direct detection of ultralight dark matter bound to the Sun with space quantum sensors

Quantum sensors, such as atomic clocks, placed deep into the inner Solar system, may be sufficiently sensitive to directly detect ultralight dark matter bound by the mass of the Sun.

Research 23 November 2022 | Open Access

Breakup of the proton halo nucleus 8 B near barrier energies

Halo-structured nuclei are examples of many-body open quantum system. Here the authors use a complete kinematics measurement and find an elastic breakup of proton halo nucleus 8 B.

Research 14 November 2022 | Open Access

Observation of the proton emitter \({}_{\,57}^{116}\) La 59

Neutron-proton pairing is a topic of continuous interest in nuclear physics and open questions remain. The authors experimentally observe direct proton decay from the ground state of odd-odd 116La, providing support for the presence of strong neutron-proton pair correlations in this exotic, neutron deficient system.

Research | 19 October 2022

Measured proton electromagnetic structure deviates from theoretical predictions

Measurements of the proton’s electromagnetic structure show enhancement of its electric generalized polarizability compared with theoretical expectations, confirming the presence of a new dynamical mechanism not accounted for by current theories.


News and Comment

News & Views | 17 October 2022

Testing the theory of the strong force by measuring proton spin polarizabilities

Measurements of a transversely polarized target were used to probe the spin structure of the proton in the low-energy region where the interactions between the quarks cannot be ignored. These results provide a benchmark for testing our understanding of the strong force.

News & Views | 06 October 2022

A historic match for nuclei and neutron stars

Bayesian history matching is a statistical tool used to calibrate complex numerical models. Now, it has been applied to first-principles simulations of several nuclei, including 208 Pb, whose properties are linked to the interior of neutron stars.

News & Views | 25 November 2021

No need to decide

To test the validity of theoretical models, the predictions they make must be compared with experimental data. Instead of choosing one model out of many to describe mass measurements of zirconium, Bayesian statistics allows the averaging of a variety of models.

News & Views | 23 September 2021

Close to the edge

The tin isotope 100 Sn is key to understanding nuclear stability, but little is known about its properties. Precision measurements of closely related indium isotopes have now pinned down its mass.

News & Views | 31 May 2021

Nucleon spins surprise

Recent measurements of observables related to proton and neutron spin properties at low energies are in disagreement with the available theoretical predictions, and continue to challenge nuclear experimentalists and theorists alike.

News & Views | 02 April 2021

Knock-out interpretability

A detailed analysis of a nucleon-knockout experiment has put forward a methodological roadmap for overcoming ambiguities in the interpretation of the data — promising access to the nuclear wave functions in unstable nuclei.

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research papers on nuclear physics

Nuclear Physics

What is nuclear physics.

Learn more about the Nuclear Physics Group

More than 99% of the mass of visible matter in the universe is nuclear matter. Protons and neutrons are the building blocks of atomic nuclei. Exotic forms of nuclear matter were present in the early universe and continue to exist today in neutron stars. Nuclear fusion processes at the core of our Sun are the source of the vast energy flow that sustains life on Earth. Nuclear fusion in stars and nuclear processes at the end of stellar life have formed the rich spectrum of elements we observe in nature.

Nuclear physics is the study of the structure of nuclei—their formation, stability, and decay. It aims to understand the fundamental nuclear forces in nature, their symmetries, and the resulting complex interactions between protons and neutrons in nuclei and among quarks inside hadrons, including the proton.

Experimental nuclear physics drives innovation in scientific instrumentation and has a far-reaching impact on research in other fields of science and engineering. From medicine—x-ray and magnetic resonance imaging, radiation therapies for cancer treatment—to materials science—x-ray lithography and neutron scattering—to propulsion and energy production—nuclear physicists have changed our world. Today's research in nuclear physics is not only unraveling fundamental questions about matter and energy but also enabling a host of new technologies in materials science, biology, chemistry, medicine, and national security.

Theoretical nuclear physics draws from a wide variety of fields such as statistical mechanics, fluid dynamics, statistics, particle physics, astrophysics, and gravity to understand fundamental properties of the universe on the smallest scales. Theorists use these tools to study the interior of neutron stars, simulate tiny versions of the Big Bang created in the laboratory, study fluid dynamic properties in relativistic systems, and calculate the microscopic interactions of quarks and gluons.

We have both experimental and theoretical groups covering a broad range of nuclear physics and related fields.  We have joint speakers, seminars, journal clubs and other more informal interactions which provide unique learning opportunities for everyone in these groups. 

What are we doing in Experimental Nuclear Physics at Illinois?

The Nuclear Physics Laboratory (NPL) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign carries out research in two broad areas. We are making precision measurements of neutron decay and searching for the neutron electric dipole moment and the axion.  We also study both hot and cold QCD in relativistic heavy-ion experiments and in spin-dependent nucleon structure measurements .

We have significant state-of-the-art infrastructure to design and build scientific instrumentation in our laboratory. We focus on the development of instruments for novel experimental approaches to solving open questions in nuclear physics. Past and current examples include the large volume superconducting spectrometer magnet for the G0 experiment at Jefferson Laboratory, the cryogenic 4He target for the neutron EDM experiment at Oakridge National Laboratory, the W -trigger and the MPC, a forward EMC for the PHENIX experiment at Brookhaven National Laboratory, a large planar drift chamber for the COMPASS experiment at CERN, 6000 detector towers for the electromagnetic calorimeter for sPHENIX at Brookhaven National Lab and novel ultra-radiation-hard forward detectors for Pb-Pb and p-Pb physics in ATLAS at CERN. 

We participate in several large-scale experiments at accelerator and reactor facilities in the United States and abroad. A careful balance between experiments in different stages—R&D, construction, data taking, data analysis—results in a broad spectrum of research opportunities. Our large group—nearly 50 graduate students, postdocs, and undergraduate student researchers—focuses on discovery in fundamental nuclear physics, modern data analysis techniques, and advanced instrumentation.

Experiments, status, and major goals

ARIADNE (Axion Resonant InterAction DetectioN Experiment) is an NMR-type experiment which searches for induced magnetization in a small sample of cryogenic, polarized helium-3 atoms as a dense, non-magnetic source mass is modulated in close proximity.  This would be a signal of an exotic, spin-dependent interaction which could be mediated by the axion, a hypothesized, light, weakly-interacting particle that has emerged as a leading candidate for dark matter.

ATLAS Study of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) produced in the collisions of large nuclei using the modification of jets from their vacuum fragmentation configurations as they propagate through the QGP. The Illinois group also is contributing to the two stage upgrade of the ATLAS Zero-Degree Calorimeter for the high luminosity LHC runs 3 (2022-2025) and 4 (2029-2032) and leads the development of a novel Reaction Plane Detector using AI reconstruction algorithms.

BL3     The Beam Lifetime (BL) experiment at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) measures the neutron lifetime using a different technique by observing neutron decay in flight. The neutron lifetime is determined by comparing the rate of beta-decay protons captured in a Penning trap to the rate of beam neutrons passing through the trap. The neutron lifetime measured using the beam method differs from that measured using the bottle method (UCNtau) by ~10 seconds. The continued disagreement hints at new physics, including neutron oscillations and low-energy physics in the dark sectors. 

COMPASS (COmmon Muon Proton Apparatus for Structure and Spectroscopy) is a fixed-target experiment at CERN. It has been using the muon or hadron beams of the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) to scatter off a target of unpolarized or spin-polarized protons or deuterons, and unpolarized heavier nuclear targets. The SPS is also used to inject beams into the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).

neutron EDM The possible existence of a non-zero electric dipole moment of the neutron is of great fundamental interest and directly impacts our understanding of the nature of electro-weak and strong interactions. The experimental search for this moment has the potential to reveal new sources of T and CP violation.  Such new sources would help us to understand the matter-antimatter asymmetry in the universe and challenge proposed extensions to the Standard Model.

Project 8 The energy of the beta emitted from tritium atoms near its endpoint energy, through simple kinematics, reveals the absolute mass of the electron neutrinos. The Project 8 experiment aims to measure the mass of neutrinos using a novel technique of Cyclotron Radiation Emission Spectroscopy (CRES) to reach an unparalleled sensitivity of 40 meV. This mass sensitivity covers the range of inverted neutrino mass hierarchy and reaches into the prediction for the normal hierarchy. To achieve this goal, we need to trap atomic tritiums. A magneto-gravitational trap using a Halbach array of permanent magnets, similar to the UCN trapping in the UCNτ experiment, could be readily applied to trap cold tritium atoms. 

SeaQuest The Fermilab E-906/SeaQuest experiment is part of a series of fixed target Drell-Yan experiments designed to measure the antiquark structure of the nucleon and the modifications to that structure when the nucleon is embedded in a nucleus. Its principal goal is to extend the landmark measurement of the sea flavor asymmetry d(x)i u(x) in the proton made by its predecessor, E866, to the high-x regime.

sPHENIX The main physics motivation for the sPHENIX detector is the study of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) produced in the collisions of large nuclei using the modification of jets from their vacuum fragmentation configurations as the propagate through the QGP. Together with the ATLAS program, the detectors at RHIC (sPHENIX) and the LHC (ATLAS) will allow us to constrain the temperature dependence of the properties of the QGP. The sPHENIX experiment also allows for the measurement of proton transverse-spin and transverse-momentum dependent effects. 

UCNtau The UCNtau experiment measures the neutron lifetime using magnetically trapped ultracold neutrons (UCN) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. In the UCNtau apparatus, UCN are magnetically levitated by an array of permanent magnets and confined by earth gravitational fields. The large volume of UCNtau, its asymmetrical construction, and the use of active neutron counting in-situ make it possible to reach a precise lifetime determination on the level of 1e-4, which is needed to test the unitarity of the CKM matrix and probe physics beyond the standard model. 

Theory, collaborations, and major goals

MUSES is an interdisciplinary team of physics experts in lattice QCD, nuclear physics, gravitational wave astrophysics, relativistic hydrodynamics, and computer science experts in programming and front-end development. The goal of the collaboration is to help find answers to questions that bridge nuclear physics, heavy-ion physics, and gravitational phenomena such as: what exists within the core of a neutron star? What temperatures are reached when two neutron stars collide? What can nuclear experiments with heavy-ion collisions teach us about the strongest force in nature and neutron stars?

ICASU is an interdisciplinary arena for research, education, and outreach. Members of the center seek answers to problems in fundamental physics at the intersections of cosmology, gravity, high energy, and nuclear physics. ICASU researchers ask questions such as: What is the universe made of at the most fundamental level? What are the principles, symmetries, and forces that govern the interactions of the fundamental particles and fields? and How does the universe work at all scales of energy, curvature, and size? These questions are explored in nuclear physics through the study of all forms of nuclear matter; in high energy physics through study of particle interactions at all energy scales; in cosmology through the study of the evolution of the universe; and in gravitational physics through the study of black holes, neutron stars and gravitational waves. ICASU focuses on the many connections among these fields and enables interdisciplinary research that deepens our understanding of the universe.  

More information about other projects can be found on the Nuclear Theory Research Page !

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The Nobel Prize in Physics: The papers

Physics Today takes the spotlight off the laureates and instead focuses on the papers that prompted Nobel glory.

Greg Stasiewicz

Andrew Grant

Each September, a few weeks before the announcement of the Nobel Prizes, the science analytics company Web of Science Group releases a list of Citation Laureates —researchers who are considered strong candidates for Nobel recognition because of “exceptionally high citation records.” The idea behind the annual exercise originated with science-citation analysts Eugene Garfield and Alfred Welljams-Dorof, who in 1992 identified researchers whose work was cited so frequently that they could be distinguished as “ of Nobel class .” Since then numerous scholars have pored over citation data to investigate the research output of Nobel laureates.

Much less bibliometric analysis, however, has been done on the specific research that has earned laureates Nobel recognition. We set out to identify and examine the key papers that resulted in the Nobel Prize in Physics. Fortunately, Jichao Li, Yian Yin, Santo Fortunato, and Dashun Wang did a lot of the groundwork for us. Earlier this year, in the journal Scientific Data, they published a freely available database of Nobel Prize–winning papers. For some prizes they listed one pioneering paper; for some they listed multiple works, including five authored by 1965 laureate Richard Feynman.

We collected all the winning papers listed for the physics prize, added entries for the two most recent awards (Li and colleagues’ compilation went through 2016), and made several changes to the choices of paper. Then, in light of the rapid rise in scientific publishing that occurred following World War II, we decided to analyze only the papers of laureates who won the prize from 1946 onward (though note that numerous postwar prize recipients published their pivotal work well before the war). Finally, using the abstracting and indexing database Dimensions , we compiled year-by-year citation data for the remaining papers that have digital object identifiers.

Where the papers are published

A majority of the papers recognized by the Nobel physics committee have appeared in either Physical Review , the American Physical Society’s flagship journal before it was divided into multiple publications beginning in 1970, or APS’s Physical Review Letters , which was spun off in 1958. Nature is the only other journal that has published more than 10 Nobel-winning physics papers. But not all papers required high-impact journals to make an impact. Nobel-winning physics research has appeared in dozens of publications, including the Quarterly Progress Report of MIT’s Research Laboratory of Electronics, in which 2017 laureate Rainer Weiss described how to design a gravitational-wave interferometer .

As one might expect for a small sample of papers—we looked at 176—that includes both theoretical and experimental breakthroughs in diverse fields like astrophysics, particle physics, and condensed matter, there’s no single prototype of a Nobel-winning physics paper. Some papers racked up hundreds of citations within a few years. Others took longer to gain attention, and some continue to languish in relative citation obscurity. Still, Nobel-winning works generally attain far longer shelf lives than even the most-cited physics literature as a whole.

The changing citation landscape

Citations are a useful, if imperfect, way of tracking the impact of scientific papers. As Garfield and Welljams-Dorof demonstrated, counting citations can distinguish top researchers and their most influential work. So there’s certainly a place for using citations to help identify “the most important discovery or invention within the field of physics,” as instructed by the will of Alfred Nobel, and to recognize research that has had positive impacts on science and society.

But citations can also mislead, particularly when one considers only the raw numbers. Literature related to fields with an outsize number of researchers can easily rack up far more citations than arguably more impactful papers in smaller fields of study. Papers introducing a method or technique, such as density functional theory, can outpace those describing the most famous discoveries (see the article by Sid Redner, Physics Today , June 2005, page 49 ). And most important for this analysis, citation numbers are skewed by the past century’s rapidly evolving publishing landscape. To illustrate the explosion in science literature in the postwar period, consider the 1986 physics prize, which was awarded to Gerd Binnig, Heinrich Rohrer, and Ernst Ruska for advances in microscopy made a half century apart. The 1982 paper by Binnig and Rohrer, the inventors of the scanning tunneling microscope, has racked up 3300 citations; Ruska’s 1932 paper on the electron microscope has 11.

Average citations, first five years.

Publishing and citing practices have also changed more recently, particularly with the rise of the internet and publish-or-perish policies. “There’s been an increase not only in the number of papers but also in the size of reference lists,” says Fortunato, an Indiana University network scientist who has published multiple bibliometric analyses of Nobel laureates. “The value of citations is going down.” As shown in figure 1, Nobel-winning papers published in the 2000s have, on average, garnered more citations within the first five years after publication than those published in the 1990s, which have more than those in previous decades.

The big picture

Despite the multiple caveats, Nobel-winning papers do stand out from even well-cited physics literature as a whole. The inset graph in figure 2, taken from the 2015 study “Attention decay in science” by Fortunato and colleagues, illustrates a representative trajectory of a popular physics paper. Examining literature in the Web of Science database, the researchers normalized each paper’s citation life cycle by dividing the paper’s total number of citations by its peak annual number of citations. The trajectories shown depict the average life cycles of physics papers that rank in the all-time top 10% in terms of total citations; the colors represent different years of publication. The researchers found that the average paper attracts its peak number of citations a few years after publication, but then the citation rate rapidly falls. Over time the rate of post-peak decline has slightly increased, a change Fortunato attributes to literature getting lost in the shuffle due to publication proliferation.

Normalized citations per year.

Papers that result in a Nobel Prize in Physics often follow a different citation trajectory, as the main graph in figure 2 shows. Like other popular physics papers, they tend to reach a peak within a few years and then begin to steadily decline. But after bottoming out 20 years or so after publication, they experience a resurgence. Some of that bounce may be due to the spotlight the papers receive following the awarding of the Nobel Prize. Though there is some evidence of such a bounce—the 1985 paper on chirped pulse amplification by 2018 laureates Donna Strickland and Gérard Mourou, for example, is on pace this year to double the number of citations it received last year—quantifying the effect is difficult with such a small data set. Perhaps the simplest conclusion is that papers that result in a Nobel gain prestige over time because of the outsize influence they have on future research, with some of those impacts not obvious at the time the paper is published.

Citation peak year v Publication year.

The comparison of Nobel-garnering papers’ year of publication with the year in which they attained their maximum number of citations, shown in figure 3, further illustrates the dual peaks in popularity. The dots situated just above the shaded region are the many papers that follow the trend described by Fortunato’s group: They peaked in citations within a few years after publication. But many others, including some a century old, reached their maximum only within the past decade. The cluster atop the graph may be the result of contemporary physicists’ increasing propensity to cite past pioneering research. With today’s flood of new research drowning out most papers within several years, the data suggest that researchers and referees may be placing increased emphasis on acknowledging classic papers that paved the way. A dozen or so outlier papers peaked decades after publication but prior to 2010.

Citation standouts

Examine the papers individually and their differences really come into view. Most notably, there’s a huge range of citation counts among the papers. Konstantin Novoselov and Andre Geim’s 2004 Science paper describing the discovery of graphene has more than 32 000 citations, with no signs of slowing down—it has garnered over 3000 citations annually since 2012. On the other hand, the two 1953 Physical Review papers on nuclear structure by 1975 laureates Aage Bohr and Ben Mottelson have just several dozen citations each. The median number of citations among the Nobel-winning papers is 664.

The list of most-cited Nobel papers is dominated by relatively recent experimental discoveries that took the physics community by storm. Georg Bednorz and Alex Müller’s discovery of cuprate superconductors in 1986 generated a surge of interest, as evidenced by the marathon Woodstock of Physics session at the American Physical Society’s 1987 March meeting in New York City. The discovery of dark energy by two teams that included Adam Riess, Brian Schmidt, and Saul Perlmutter in 1998 and of giant magnetoresistance by Albert Fert and Peter Grünberg in 1988 also produced flurries of excitement and thus citations. The lone theory paper in either top-five list is John Bardeen, Leon Cooper, and Robert Schrieffer’s now-eponymous BCS theory of superconductivity.

Nobel Prize delay.

The Nobel Prize delay

The 2018 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded in part to Arthur Ashkin, whose paper on optical tweezers had appeared 48 years earlier in Physical Review Letters . Such a substantial time lag between discovery and recognition is not unusual. In a 2014 Physics Today article , Pietro Parolo and colleagues showed that the lag has been increasing over time for all three Nobel science prizes, with the highest rate of change in physics. Further, the researchers showed that the average age of Nobel laureates has been rapidly increasing—and that was before the prize went to Ashkin, who received his Nobel at age 96.

The discoveries of graphene and the cuprates are important developments but probably not the most important since the first Nobel Prize in 1901. So those who study networks and bibliometrics have proposed alternative ways to measure the impact of individual papers and researchers. One recently proposed metric is citation wake. In a 2014 PLoS ONE paper , David Klosik and Stefan Bornholdt count up not only direct citations but also the citations of second-generation papers, third-generation papers, and so on. The goal is to quantify the spread of ideas that results from a given study.

In their paper, Klosik and Bornholdt apply their metric to all the papers in the  Physical Review  family of journals through 2009. The list of top-10 papers by citation wake includes four Nobel-winning works. Atop the list is the BCS paper. In third place is Eugene Wigner’s 1934 “ On the interaction of electrons in metals ,” which has received a not-quite-standout 2150 citations yet is foundational for modern condensed-matter physics (see the article by Erich Vogt, Physics Today , December 1995, page 40 ). The other two Nobel-winning papers are authored by Feynman. Although no single Feynman paper attained an extraordinary number of citations, the famous physicist certainly spurred new ideas and areas of research.

Paper profiles

After compiling the citation data, one of the first things we did was plot each paper’s citations over time on a single graph. The resulting cacophony of scribbles made it clear that Nobel-winning papers don’t follow a representative citation trajectory. Even so, some of the curves stuck out. Here we explore three papers with very different post-publication histories.


J/ψ : Samuel Ting et al.’s 1974 Physical Review Letters paper describing the detection of the J/ψ particle may have sparked the November Revolution in high-energy physics, but from a bibliometric perspective its impact was short-lived. Of the paper’s nearly 1100 citations, more than 600 came before 1980; it hasn’t racked up more than 31 in any year since. Fellow 1976 laureate Burton Richter’s J/ψ discovery papers have a similar citation trajectory. The pattern may be due to what sociologist Robert K. Merton termed obliteration by incorporation : A discovery becomes common wisdom so quickly that researchers don’t feel the need to cite it.


NMR: Edward Purcell et al.’s 1946 Physical Review paper on nuclear magnetic resonance has been cited more than 3600 times, yet it languished in relative obscurity in the first few decades after publication. The paper’s citation rate began picking up steam in the 1980s, soon after Peter Mansfield and Paul Lauterbur’s pivotal work on magnetic resonance imaging. The Purcell paper’s citation peak came in 2016, seven decades after it was published.


BCS:  Bardeen, Cooper, and Schrieffer’s theory of superconductivity captivated the physics community when it appeared in Physical Review in 1957. Then, after two decades of sagging citations, the paper got a boost in 1986 when Bednorz and Müller discovered the cuprates, which aren’t sufficiently described by the theory. Continued interest in both  conventional and unconventional superconductors has vaulted the BCS paper to about 8000 citations.

We encourage others to slice and dice the data and come to their own conclusions. Our data set, which has citation numbers that are current as of August 2019, is freely available on request.

Editor’s note, 14 October: The article and the Nobel paper data set have been corrected based on reader feedback. The two tables were amended, with the addition of a paper by Saul Perlmutter and colleagues and the removal of a paper by T. W. Hänsch that was not related to his Nobel Prize.



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Nuclear Physics

Nuclear physics.

Nuclear Physics investigates the fundamental interactions governing the world of subatomic particles. Nuclei are the massive tiny core of atoms that give them their identity as specific isotopes of a given element. They are made up of protons, the number of which determine the element, and neutrons, the number of which determine the isotope. These building blocks, protons and neutrons (collectively called hadrons), constitute over 90% of the visible mass in the Universe. They are composites of more fundamental particles known as quarks and gluons. The goal of understanding the structures of nuclei and hadrons has led to the exploration of the fundamental forces, the strong force and the weak force, and their symmetries, which are fundamentally important; the underlying quark and gluonic structure of the protons and neutrons; as well as nuclear matter under extreme conditions.

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Formulation of the underlying mathematical description of quark-gluon interactions is known as the Quantum Chromo-dynamics (QCD). The theory of QCD is complicated and so far only a limited number of predictions have been theoretically made and experimentally validated. The main focus of the research in theoretical nuclear physics is to develop tools and techniques for studying the subatomic structure of matter as well as to advance our understanding of various nuclear phenomena in terms of QCD.

Members of the Indiana University Nuclear Physics Experiment Group perform a wide variety of research to unravel mysteries in nuclear systems. Search for new macroscopic force and tests of fundamental symmetries would potentially open novel windows into hitherto unknown principles of physics. Studies of neutrino oscillations and neutrino-nuclear interactions aim to advance our fundamental understanding of both the weak and the strong forces in nature. Collider experiments involving hadrons and nuclei will help explain some of the most basic properties of hadrons like the origin of their mass and spin.

The boundaries that traditionally separated Nuclear Physics, high-energy physics, condensed matter and many-body physics have been dissolving. Today Nuclear Physics experiments may be using energies that are higher than those of some high-energy laboratories while high-energy physicists may be conducting experiments at Nuclear Physics facilities. Several phenomena that govern strongly interacting quark-gluon systems have analogies in atomic or condensed matter physics. Physics of the stellar evolution involves Nuclear Physics when addressing the question of the origin of elements and fate of stars.

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Continuous research efforts and knowledge expansion in nuclear physics is necessary to further technological innovation, which in turn brings about new benefits for society. The IAEA’s objective is to promote the best solutions available today and to build better solutions for tomorrow.

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Nuclear physics research is focused on understanding the matter composed of quarks and gluons, which makes up 99% of the mass of the universe. Most of this matter is found at the core of atoms, the same atoms that comprise all we see around us (including ourselves). Researchers seek to answer questions such as how the universe evolved just after the Big Bang from a super-hot plasma of quarks and gluons, how the different elements of the universe were formed, and how a nucleus is made up of individual protons and neutrons interacting with each other with the strongest force in Nature. The protons and neutrons themselves are the basic bound states of quarks in the universe; how these states are formed from quarks interacting with the gluonic field described by Quantum Chromodynamics is still only poorly understood, and under active study.

Experimental Nuclear Physics Research

Modern experimental research in this field uses high-energy acceleration of both protons and large nuclei, while much of modern theoretical research relies on high powered computational facilities to understand data and make detailed predictions. The University of Colorado has active groups in both theoretical and experimental research in nuclear physics.

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Theoretical nuclear physics research.

Physicists in this field explore the nature of the strong force by studying the theory of Quantum Chromodynamics. Unlike the quantum theory of electromagnetism, Quantum Chromodynamics has the property that the fundamental particles (quarks and gluons) interact more and more weakly when probed at higher and higher energy scales or temperatures. This property of the theory is called asymptotic freedom.

Quark-Gluon Plasma

One interesting consequence of asymptotic freedom is that at some temper- ature, the interaction should be so weak that the fundamental particles no longer are bound (con ned) inside ordinary nuclei. Using state-of-the art computer simulations of Quantum Chromodynamics at nite temperature, it is possible to calculate this temperature to be T≈170 MeV, or about 2 trillion Kelvin. Above this temperature, matter is in a new phase of matter, called the quark-gluon plasma. The properties of this quark-gluon plasma are currently investigated using experiments at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).

Relativistic Hydrodynamics

The experimental data from RHIC and the LHC strongly indicate that the quark-gluon plasma is an exceptionally good liquid, with a very small viscosity. This motivates the theoretical study of the experimental results using fluid dynamic simulations. Since the energy involved in these experiments is very large, the fluid constituents are moving almost at the speed of light, making it necessary to use a fully relativistic version of hydrodynamics.

Neutron Stars

Very high densities are similar to very high temperatures in the sense that the interaction of Quantum Chromodynamic becomes weak. The centers of neutron stars are expected to reach the highest particle densities in the universe, so it is possible that neutron stars harbor quark matter in their inner cores. Studying the properties of neutron stars and comparing to observational data is also one of the research subject of theoretical nuclear physics.

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SPARC, a compact, high-field, DT burning tokamak

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SPARC, a compact, high-field, DT burning tokamak

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Two and a half years ago, MIT entered into a research agreement with startup company Commonwealth Fusion Systems to develop a next-generation fusion research experiment, called SPARC, as a precursor to a practical, emissions-free power plant.

Now, after many months of intensive research and engineering work, the researchers charged with defining and refining the physics behind the ambitious tokamak design have published a series of papers summarizing the progress they have made and outlining the key research questions SPARC will enable.

Overall, says Martin Greenwald, deputy director of MIT’s Plasma Science and Fusion Center and one of the project’s lead scientists, the work is progressing smoothly and on track. This series of papers provides a high level of confidence in the plasma physics and the performance predictions for SPARC, he says. No unexpected impediments or surprises have shown up, and the remaining challenges appear to be manageable. This sets a solid basis for the device’s operation once constructed, according to Greenwald.

Greenwald wrote the introduction for a set of seven research papers authored by 47 researchers from 12 institutions and published today in a special issue of the Journal of Plasma Physics . Together, the papers outline the theoretical and empirical physics basis for the new fusion system, which the consortium expects to start building next year.

SPARC is planned to be the first experimental device ever to achieve a “burning plasma” — that is, a self-sustaining fusion reaction in which different isotopes of the element hydrogen fuse together to form helium, without the need for any further input of energy. Studying the behavior of this burning plasma — something never before seen on Earth in a controlled fashion — is seen as crucial information for developing the next step, a working prototype of a practical, power-generating power plant.

Such fusion power plants might significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the power-generation sector, one of the major sources of these emissions globally. The MIT and CFS project is one of the largest privately funded research and development projects ever undertaken in the fusion field.

"The MIT group is pursuing a very compelling approach to fusion energy." says Chris Hegna, a professor of engineering physics at the University of Wisconsin at Madison, who was not connected to this work. "They realized the emergence of high-temperature superconducting technology enables a high magnetic field approach to producing net energy gain from a magnetic confinement system. This work is a potential game-changer for the international fusion program​."

The SPARC design, though about twice the size as MIT’s now-retired Alcator C-Mod experiment and similar to several other research fusion machines currently in operation, would be far more powerful, achieving fusion performance comparable to that expected in the much larger ITER tokamak being built in France by an international consortium. The high power in a small size is made possible by advances in superconducting magnets that allow for a much stronger magnetic field to confine the hot plasma.

The SPARC project was launched in early 2018, and work on its first stage, the development of the superconducting magnets that would allow smaller fusion systems to be built, has been proceeding apace. The new set of papers represents the first time that the underlying physics basis for the SPARC machine has been outlined in detail in peer-reviewed publications. The seven papers explore the specific areas of the physics that had to be further refined, and that still require ongoing research to pin down the final elements of the machine design and the operating procedures and tests that will be involved as work progresses toward the power plant.

The papers also describe the use of calculations and simulation tools for the design of SPARC, which have been tested against many experiments around the world. The authors used cutting-edge simulations, run on powerful supercomputers, that have been developed to aid the design of ITER. The large multi-institutional team of researchers represented in the new set of papers aimed to bring the best consensus tools to the SPARC machine design to increase confidence it will achieve its mission.

The analysis done so far shows that the planned fusion energy output of the SPARC tokamak should be able to meet the design specifications with a comfortable margin to spare. It is designed to achieve a Q factor — a key parameter denoting the efficiency of a fusion plasma — of at least 2, essentially meaning that twice as much fusion energy is produced as the amount of energy pumped in to generate the reaction. That would be the first time a fusion plasma of any kind has produced more energy than it consumed.

The calculations at this point show that SPARC could actually achieve a Q ratio of 10 or more, according to the new papers. While Greenwald cautions that the team wants to be careful not to overpromise, and much work remains, the results so far indicate that the project will at least achieve its goals, and specifically will meet its key objective of producing a burning plasma, wherein the self-heating dominates the energy balance.

Limitations imposed by the Covid-19 pandemic slowed progress a bit, but not much, he says, and the researchers are back in the labs under new operating guidelines.

Overall, “we’re still aiming for a start of construction in roughly June of ’21,” Greenwald says. “The physics effort is well-integrated with the engineering design. What we’re trying to do is put the project on the firmest possible physics basis, so that we’re confident about how it’s going to perform, and then to provide guidance and answer questions for the engineering design as it proceeds.”

Many of the fine details are still being worked out on the machine design, covering the best ways of getting energy and fuel into the device, getting the power out, dealing with any sudden thermal or power transients, and how and where to measure key parameters in order to monitor the machine’s operation.

So far, there have been only minor changes to the overall design. The diameter of the tokamak has been increased by about 12 percent, but little else has changed, Greenwald says. “There’s always the question of a little more of this, a little less of that, and there’s lots of things that weigh into that, engineering issues, mechanical stresses, thermal stresses, and there’s also the physics — how do you affect the performance of the machine?”

The publication of this special issue of the journal, he says, “represents a summary, a snapshot of the physics basis as it stands today.” Though members of the team have discussed many aspects of it at physics meetings, “this is our first opportunity to tell our story, get it reviewed, get the stamp of approval, and put it out into the community.”

Greenwald says there is still much to be learned about the physics of burning plasmas, and once this machine is up and running, key information can be gained that will help pave the way to commercial, power-producing fusion devices, whose fuel — the hydrogen isotopes deuterium and tritium — can be made available in virtually limitless supplies.

The details of the burning plasma “are really novel and important,” he says. “The big mountain we have to get over is to understand this self-heated state of a plasma.”

"The analysis presented in these papers will provide the world-wide fusion community with an opportunity to better understand the physics basis of the SPARC device and gauge for itself the remaining challenges that need to be resolved," says George Tynan, professor of mechanical and aerospace engineering at the University of California at San Diego, who was not connected to this work. "Their publication marks an important milestone on the road to the study of burning plasmas and the first demonstration of net energy production from controlled fusion, and I applaud the authors for putting this work out for all to see."​

Overall, Greenwald says, the work that has gone into the analysis presented in this package of papers “helps to validate our confidence that we will achieve the mission. We haven’t run into anything where we say, ‘oh, this is predicting that we won’t get to where we want.” In short, he says, “one of the conclusions is that things are still looking on-track. We believe it’s going to work.”

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Press mentions.

A series of papers by MIT researchers demonstrates how their design for a new nuclear fusion reactor should work, reports Oscar Schwartz for The Guardian . “Fusion seems like one of the possible solutions to get ourselves out of our impending climate disaster,” says Martin Greenwald, deputy director of MIT’s Plasma Science and Fusion Center.

Writing for The Hill , Martin Greenwald, deputy director of MIT’s Plasma Science and Fusion Center, explores the potential of fusion power. Greenwald examines how recent advances in high-temperature superconductors and recent investments in fusion technology from the private sector could “alter the landscape and offer the possibility of a dramatic speed-up in the development of this new energy source.”

The Washington Post

MIT researchers have published a series of new papers demonstrating that the design for the SPARC compact nuclear fusion reactor “is both technically feasible and could produce 10 times the energy it consumes,” reports Dino Grandoni for The Washington Post .

Popular Mechanics

Popular Mechanics reporter Caroline Delbert writes that new research by MIT scientists provides evidence that the compact nuclear fusion design they are developing should be feasible. Delbert writes that the researchers may be able to get the SPARC reactor online within 10 years by “improving materials and shrinking costs.”

The New York Times

In a series of new papers, MIT researchers provide evidence that plans to develop a next-generation compact nuclear fusion reactor called SPARC should be viable, reports Henry Fountain for  The New York Times . The research “confirms that the design we’re working on is very likely to work,” says Martin Greenwald, deputy director for MIT’s Plasma Science and Fusion Center. 

United Press International (UPI)

UPI reporter Brooks Hays writes that a series of papers by MIT researchers finds that the designs for the SPARC compact nuclear fusion experiment should be viable. “Engineers expect their SPARC reactor, or tokamak, to be much more powerful than previous experimental reactors,” writes Hays. 

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205 Outstanding Physics Research Topics To Explore and Write About

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Do you have to submit a physics research paper? Are you looking for the best physics research topics for your academic project? Well, in this blog post, we have presented some excellent physics research topic ideas for students to consider for their academic projects and assignments. Also, we have shared a few important tips for writing a top-quality physics research paper.

Physics Research Topics

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What is Physics?

Physics is a branch of science that focuses on the nature and properties of matter and energy. It basically explains how matter and energy interact with each other. By studying this academic subject, you can get to know about the laws, physical properties, and phenomena of a certain case. It is a standalone discipline that also works in association with other fields. Mostly, physics joins hands with mathematics especially when it comes to calculation and measurements in physics-related areas.

Not just in the science field, the applications of physics also play a vital role in our daily life too. Even this subject assists everyone to get a clear understanding of the function of the Universe and the things that are present in it.

What are the different branches of Physics?

In general, physics is classified into two categories- Classical Physics and Modern Physics.

All the research projects and activities that are conducted before the 20 th century are sorted under classical physics. The subcategories of classical physics include the following.

Modern physics is a category of physics that focuses on all the advancements in the field of physics after the 20 th century. Some popular sub-categories of modern physics are

From the above-mentioned branches of physics, you can select any topic and write an extraordinary physics research paper. But when choosing a physics research paper topic, give more importance to the area that you have strong knowledge of.

How to Write a Physics Research Paper?

Basically, writing a research paper on science subjects is an extremely challenging and tedious task to handle. The same applies to physics research papers too. In order to come up with an excellent physics research paper, you should put a lot of time and effort starting from the topic selection step to the research paper editing step.

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List of Physics Research Paper Topics

Are you struggling to find out the best physics research topic for your assignment? Don’t worry! Here we have compiled some interesting physics research topics on various branches of physics.

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Physics Research Topics

Theoretical Physics Research Topics

Mathematical Physics Research Topics

Experimental Physics Research Topics

Classical Physics Research Topics

Research Topics on Quantum Physics

Modern Physics Research Paper Topics

Nuclear Physics Research Topics

Astrophysics Research Topics

Medical Physics Research Topics

Amazing Physics Research Paper Topics

Top-rated Physics Research Topics

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Research Topics on Physical Geography

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Brilliant Physics Research Paper Topics

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Best Universities for Nuclear Physics in the World

Below is the list of best universities in the World ranked based on their research performance in Nuclear Physics. A graph of 3.85M citations received by 119K academic papers made by 1,008 universities in the World was used to calculate publications' ratings, which then were adjusted for release dates and added to final scores.

We don't distinguish between undergraduate and graduate programs nor do we adjust for current majors offered. You can find information about granted degrees on a university page but always double-check with the university website.

1. Michigan State University

For Nuclear Physics

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2. University of Tokyo

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3. Stanford University

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4. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

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5. University of California - Berkeley

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6. Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz

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7. Goethe University of Frankfurt am Main

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8. University of Washington - Seattle

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9. Durham University

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10. California Institute of Technology

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11. University of Wisconsin - Madison

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12. Stony Brook University

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13. Texas A&M University - College Station

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14. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology

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15. Heidelberg University - Germany

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16. Columbia University

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17. RWTH Aachen University

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18. University of Hamburg

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19. Technical University of Munich

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20. University of Oxford

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21. Osaka University

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22. Moscow State University

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23. Tohoku University

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24. University of Bonn

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25. University of California - Los Angeles

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26. University of Milan

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27. Kyoto University

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28. Ohio State University

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29. University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign

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30. Peking University

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31. Harvard University

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32. Uppsala University

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33. University of Cambridge

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34. Sapienza University of Rome

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35. University of Michigan - Ann Arbor

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36. Lund University

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37. Princeton University

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38. University of Maryland - College Park

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39. Yale University

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40. University of Valencia

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41. Duke University

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42. University of Chicago

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43. University of Jyvaskyla

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44. Indiana University - Bloomington

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45. University of Turin

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46. Catholic University of Louvain

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47. University of Tubingen

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48. University of Minnesota - Twin Cities

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49. University of Rochester

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50. University of Manchester

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51. University of Helsinki

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52. University of Munich

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53. Cornell University

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54. Paris-Sud University

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55. University College London

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56. Florida State University

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57. Darmstadt University of Technology

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58. Nagoya University

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59. Free University of Brussels

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60. University of Zurich

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61. University of Liverpool

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62. McGill University

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63. Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich

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64. Tel Aviv University

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65. Polytechnic School

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66. Purdue University

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67. University of Arizona

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68. Tokyo Institute of Technology

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69. University of California - Davis

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70. University of Padua

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71. University of Pennsylvania

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72. Weizmann Institute of Science

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73. University of Warsaw

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74. University of Birmingham

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75. University of Edinburgh

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76. University of Sao Paulo

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77. Imperial College London

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78. University of Basel

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79. University of Glasgow

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80. University of Bern

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81. University of Bologna

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82. Iowa State University

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83. TU Dortmund University

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84. University of California-San Diego

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85. University of California - Irvine

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86. University of Amsterdam

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87. Pennsylvania State University

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88. University of Freiburg

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89. National Research Nuclear University MEPI

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90. University of Tennessee - Knoxville

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91. Tsinghua University

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92. Ruhr University Bochum

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93. University of Tsukuba

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94. University of Bielefeld

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95. Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

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96. University of Rome Tor Vergata

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97. University of Notre Dame

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98. University of Pisa

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99. University of Oregon

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100. University of Catania

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February 27, 2020

Physics Topics

Physics is the branch of science that studies the nature and properties of matter and energy. As this is a vast subject, there are many physics topics and phenomena to consider to last a lifetime. Therefore, choosing topics in physics either for a project, research, or presentation may be quite demanding, and this is why we offer you this list of interesting physics topics. These cool physics topics will give you just the calm you need for that research paper, presentation, or exam. Without further ado, let’s delve into the physics topics list prepared specially for you!

Physics Research Paper Topics

As a student, you’ll be have to write a research paper during your studies. Every student offering physics has a range of physics research topics they find interesting. Sometimes, you may have the liberty to choose your physics paper topics, and at other times, the professor may give you some physics topics for paper. If you have the liberty to choose physics projects topics, rejoice! While rejoicing, though, remember that choosing physics topics for project or research could be difficult, but at least you can work on areas you most enjoy.

There are a lot of physics research topics for high school. Are you ready to explore physics project topics? Let’s roll!

Physics Essay Topics

Sometimes, students may be required to write a physics essay on physics science topics or topics related to physics. If you’re given the liberty to choose a topic, then you must select interesting topics. Below are some physics essay topics that are cool and captivating.

High School Physics Topics

There are a lot of topics in physics high school curriculum that students are required to study. Sometimes, these topics of physics could include advanced physics topics, mainly taken by people who want a career in physics or science. The topics taught in high school caters for SAT and some other exams. The high school physics topics are therefore embedded in the SAT physics topics below.

SAT Physics Topics

Are you looking towards taking the SAT physics and would like to know where your focus should lie? This SAT physics Topics list will serve as a guide to the essential areas of physics to cover!

Physics GRE Topics

Are you looking towards taking the physics GREs and would like to know what areas of physics to concentrate on? This physics GRE topics list will serve as a guide to the essential areas of physics to cover for your exam!

Physics IA topics

These physics IA topics will help you to write an outstanding paper!

Physics Topics For Presentation

You may be required to give a presentation on diverse topics of physics. As a presenter, you must ensure that you choose interesting physics topics for presentation with amazing concepts!

Theoretical Physics Topics

A theoretical physicist attempts to comprehend nature and the laws governing her. They do not carry out a direct observation of nature or conduct experiments like practical or applied physicists. Theoretical physicists use mathematics to develop and refine physics theories. Here are some theoretical physics topics for your theoretical mind!

So here we are! 50 physics topics just for you! With this list of physics topics, you’ll surely compose a masterpiece. In case you need assistance, don’t hesitate to contact our writing service .

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Example of Nuclear Physics A format

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Related Journals

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Journal Performance & Insights

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27% from 2019

6% from 2019

Nuclear Physics A


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Nuclear Physics A focuses on the domain of nuclear and hadronic physics and includes the following subsections: Nuclear Structure and Dynamics; Intermediate and High Energy Heavy Ion Physics; Hadronic Physics; Electromagnetic and Weak Interactions; Nuclear Astrophysics. The emphasis is on original research papers. A number of carefully selected and reviewed conference proceedings are published as an integral part of the journal. Read Less

Nuclear Physics A focuses on the domain of nuclear and hadronic physics and includes the following subsections: Nuclear Structure and Dynamics; Intermediate and High Energy Heavy Ion Physics; Hadronic Physics; Electromagnetic and Weak Interactions; Nuclear Astrophysics. The em...... Read More

Nuclear and High Energy Physics

Physics and Astronomy

Top papers written in this journal

Materials and Manufacturing Processes template (Taylor and Francis)

SciSpace is a very innovative solution to the formatting problem and existing providers, such as Mendeley or Word did not really evolve in recent years.

- Andreas Frutiger, Researcher, ETH Zurich, Institute for Biomedical Engineering

(Before submission check for plagiarism via Turnitin)

What to expect from SciSpace?

Speed and accuracy over ms word.

With SciSpace, you do not need a word template for Nuclear Physics A.

It automatically formats your research paper to Elsevier formatting guidelines and citation style.

You can download a submission ready research paper in pdf, LaTeX and docx formats.

Time comparison

Time taken to format a paper and Compliance with guidelines

Plagiarism Reports via Turnitin

SciSpace has partnered with Turnitin, the leading provider of Plagiarism Check software.

Using this service, researchers can compare submissions against more than 170 million scholarly articles, a database of 70+ billion current and archived web pages. How Turnitin Integration works?

Turnitin Stats

Freedom from formatting guidelines

One editor, 100K journal formats – world's largest collection of journal templates

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Easy support from all your favorite tools

Nuclear Physics A format uses elsarticle-num citation style.

Automatically format and order your citations and bibliography in a click.

SciSpace allows imports from all reference managers like Mendeley, Zotero, Endnote, Google Scholar etc.

Frequently asked questions

1. can i write nuclear physics a in latex.

Absolutely not! Our tool has been designed to help you focus on writing. You can write your entire paper as per the Nuclear Physics A guidelines and auto format it.

2. Do you follow the Nuclear Physics A guidelines?

Yes, the template is compliant with the Nuclear Physics A guidelines. Our experts at SciSpace ensure that. If there are any changes to the journal's guidelines, we'll change our algorithm accordingly.

3. Can I cite my article in multiple styles in Nuclear Physics A?

Of course! We support all the top citation styles, such as APA style, MLA style, Vancouver style, Harvard style, and Chicago style. For example, when you write your paper and hit autoformat, our system will automatically update your article as per the Nuclear Physics A citation style.

4. Can I use the Nuclear Physics A templates for free?

Sign up for our free trial, and you'll be able to use all our features for seven days. You'll see how helpful they are and how inexpensive they are compared to other options, Especially for Nuclear Physics A.

5. Can I use a manuscript in Nuclear Physics A that I have written in MS Word?

Yes. You can choose the right template, copy-paste the contents from the word document, and click on auto-format. Once you're done, you'll have a publish-ready paper Nuclear Physics A that you can download at the end.

6. How long does it usually take you to format my papers in Nuclear Physics A?

It only takes a matter of seconds to edit your manuscript. Besides that, our intuitive editor saves you from writing and formatting it in Nuclear Physics A.

7. Where can I find the template for the Nuclear Physics A?

It is possible to find the Word template for any journal on Google. However, why use a template when you can write your entire manuscript on SciSpace , auto format it as per Nuclear Physics A's guidelines and download the same in Word, PDF and LaTeX formats? Give us a try!.

8. Can I reformat my paper to fit the Nuclear Physics A's guidelines?

Of course! You can do this using our intuitive editor. It's very easy. If you need help, our support team is always ready to assist you.

9. Nuclear Physics A an online tool or is there a desktop version?

SciSpace's Nuclear Physics A is currently available as an online tool. We're developing a desktop version, too. You can request (or upvote) any features that you think would be helpful for you and other researchers in the "feature request" section of your account once you've signed up with us.

10. I cannot find my template in your gallery. Can you create it for me like Nuclear Physics A?

Sure. You can request any template and we'll have it setup within a few days. You can find the request box in Journal Gallery on the right side bar under the heading, "Couldn't find the format you were looking for like Nuclear Physics A?”

11. What is the output that I would get after using Nuclear Physics A?

After writing your paper autoformatting in Nuclear Physics A, you can download it in multiple formats, viz., PDF, Docx, and LaTeX.

12. Is Nuclear Physics A's impact factor high enough that I should try publishing my article there?

To be honest, the answer is no. The impact factor is one of the many elements that determine the quality of a journal. Few of these factors include review board, rejection rates, frequency of inclusion in indexes, and Eigenfactor. You need to assess all these factors before you make your final call.

13. What is Sherpa RoMEO Archiving Policy for Nuclear Physics A?


14. What are the most common citation types In Nuclear Physics A?

15. how do i submit my article to the nuclear physics a, 16. can i download nuclear physics a in endnote format.

Yes, SciSpace provides this functionality. After signing up, you would need to import your existing references from Word or Bib file to SciSpace. Then SciSpace would allow you to download your references in Nuclear Physics A Endnote style according to Elsevier guidelines.

with Nuclear Physics A format applied

Fast and reliable, built for complaince.

Instant formatting to 100% publisher guidelines on - SciSpace.

research papers on nuclear physics

No word template required

Typset automatically formats your research paper to Nuclear Physics A formatting guidelines and citation style.

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Verifed journal formats

One editor, 100K journal formats. With the largest collection of verified journal formats, what you need is already there.

research papers on nuclear physics

Trusted by academicians

research papers on nuclear physics

I spent hours with MS word for reformatting. It was frustrating - plain and simple. With SciSpace, I can draft my manuscripts and once it is finished I can just submit. In case, I have to submit to another journal it is really just a button click instead of an afternoon of reformatting.

research papers on nuclear physics


  1. Nuclear Physics (Graduate Texts in Physics): Kamal, Anwar: 9783642386541: Books

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  5. (PDF) A Text Book on Nuclear Physics for Graduate Students (revised edition)

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  6. 😎 Physics research papers. Physics Papers • 100% Reliable Writing Help. 2019-02-13

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    Nuclear Physics investigates the fundamental interactions governing the world of subatomic particles. Nuclei are the massive tiny core of atoms that give them their identity as specific isotopes of a given element. They are made up of protons, the number of which determine the element, and neutrons, the number of which determine the isotope.

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  10. Nuclear Physics A

    Nuclear Physics A focuses on the domain of nuclear and hadronic physics and includes the following subsections: Nuclear Structure and Dynamics; Intermediate and High Energy Heavy Ion Physics; Hadronic Physics; Electromagnetic and Weak Interactions; Nuclear Astrophysics. The emphasis is on original … View full aims & scope Insights 8.7 weeks

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  14. Publications

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  20. Nuclear Physics A template

    Nuclear Physics A focuses on the domain of nuclear and hadronic physics and includes the following subsections: Nuclear Structure and Dynamics; Intermediate and High Energy Heavy Ion Physics; Hadronic Physics; Electromagnetic and Weak Interactions; Nuclear Astrophysics. The emphasis is on original research papers.