What is the equivalent command to SET DEFINE OFF Of Oracle in PostgreSQL

set define off in postgresql

It's not needed because psql doesn't do substitution the way sqlplus does it.

That would help if you'd explain what you want to achieve, not everybody knows Oracle.

I took the liberty of looking at what that does (turns of client-side variable interpolation mode) - why do you think you need an equivalent in PostgreSQL? While psql has variables the way they work is completely different.

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Settable global parameter.

New value of parameter.

The possible variables and allowed values are:

use ISO 8601-style dates and times

use Oracle/Ingres-style dates and times

use traditional Postgres format

use dd/mm/yyyy for numeric date representations.

use mm/dd/yyyy for numeric date representations.

use dd.mm.yyyy for numeric date representations.

same as 'NonEuropean'

restores the default values ('US,Postgres')

Date format initialization my be done by:

The variables in globals.c which can be changed are:

The possible values for timezone depends on your operating system. For example on Linux /usr/lib/zoneinfo contains the database of timezones.

Here are some valid values for timezone:

set the timezone for California

set time zone for Portugal.

set time zone for Italy.

set time zone to your local timezone (value of the TZ environment variable).

If an invalid time zone is specified, the time zone becomes GMT (on most systems anyway).

A frontend which uses libpq may be initialized by setting the PGTZ environment variable.

The second syntax shown above, allows one to set the timezone with a syntax similar to SQL92 SET TIME ZONE . The LOCAL keyword is just an alternate form of DEFAULT for SQL92 compatibility.

There are also several internal or optimization parameters which can be specified by the SET command:

Sets the default cost of a heap scan for use by the optimizer.

Set the cost of a heap scan to the specified floating point value.

Sets the cost of a heap scan to the default value.

The frontend may be initialized by setting the PGCOSTHEAP environment variable.

Sets the default cost of an index scan for use by the optimizer.

Set the cost of an index scan to the specified floating point value.

Sets the cost of an index scan to the default value.

The frontend may be initialized by setting the PGCOSTINDEX environment variable.

Sets the threshold for using the genetic optimizer algorithm.

enables the genetic optimizer algorithm for statements with 8 or more tables.

Takes an integer argument to enable the genetic optimizer algorithm for statements with # or more tables in the query.

disables the genetic optimizer algorithm.

Equivalent to specifying SET GEQO='on'

This algorithm is on by default, which used GEQO for statements of eight or more tables. (See the chapter on GEQO in the Programmer's Guide for more information).

The frontend may be initialized by setting PGGEQO environment variable.

Determines whether right-hand plan evaluation is allowed:

enables right-hand evaluation of plans.

disables right-hand evaluation of plans.

Equivalent to specifying SET R_PLANS='off' .

It may be useful when joining big relations with small ones. This algorithm is off by default. It's not used by GEQO anyway.

The frontend may be initialized by setting the PGRPLANS environment variable.

Key Set Query Optimizer forces the query optimizer to optimize repetative OR clauses such as generated by MicroSoft Access :

enables this optimization.

disables this optimization.

Equivalent to specifying SET KSQO='off' .

Sets the number of rows returned by a query.

Maximum number of rows to return for a query. The default is to allow an unlimited number of rows.

Sets the maximum number of rows returned by a query to # .

Sets the maximum number of rows returned by a query to be unlimited.

By default, there is no limit to the number of rows returned by a query.

Message returned if successfully.

If the command fails to set variable.


SET will modify configuration parameters for variable during a session.

Current values can be obtained using SHOW , and values can be restored to the defaults using RESET . Parameters and values are case-insensitive. Note that the value field is always specified as a string, so is enclosed in single-quotes.

SET TIME ZONE changes the session's default time zone offset. A SQL-session always begins with an initial default time zone offset. The SET TIME ZONE statement is used to change the default time zone offset for the current SQL session.

The SET variable statement is a Postgres language extension.

Refer to SHOW and RESET to display or reset the current values.

AWS Database Blog

Postgresql psql client tool commands equivalent to oracle sql*plus client tool.

When you’re working as an application developer or database administrator, you often need to deal with SQL statements to explore your database for various reasons. You need to connect to the database to build or run the SQL code, generate reports, and diagnose application problem related to the database.

There are various ways to connect to a database. You can directly log in to the database server host and use a utility to manage the database, or you can use a desktop GUI or CLI tools or web browser-based interface to interact with the database server remotely.

In general, when you connect to a database server using any database command line client tool, you run two types of commands on the CLI:

PostgreSQL has become the preferred open-source relational database for many enterprise developers and startups, and powers leading business and mobile applications.  PostgreSQL is considered to be the primary open-source database choice when migrating from commercial databases such as Oracle. AWS offers services that make PostgreSQL database deployments easy to set up, manage, and scale for the cloud in a cost-efficient manner. These services are Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS) for PostgreSQL and Amazon Aurora with PostgreSQL compatibility . After you migrated your databases from Oracle to PostgreSQL, most common challenges that any developer or DBA face during the usage of PostgreSQL is with PSQL client as they are used to Oracle SQL*Plus client tool.

In this post, we discuss SQL*Plus (mostly applicable for 12c and 19c version), which is an Oracle command line client tool, and psql (higher than 9.6 Version), which is a PostgreSQL command line client tool. We also provide Oracle SQL*Plus equivalent commands in PostgreSQL psql.

The following diagram illustrates the process of the meta and database commands of SQL*Plus and PSQL client. The meta commands are processed by the client tool itself, and database commands are processed by the database server.

set define off in postgresql

Oracle SQL*Plus

SQL*Plus is an interactive and batch query tool that’s installed with every Oracle database installation as well as SQL*Plus Instant Client. It has a command line user interface and its own commands and environment, and it provides access to the Oracle database. It enables you to do the following:

You can use SQL*Plus to generate reports interactively and output the results to a text file or on screen, or to an HTML file for browsing on the internet. You can generate reports dynamically using the HTML output facility of SQL*Plus.

SQL*Plus installation

There are various ways you can install Oracle Database client tools for different operating systems, versions, and features. For our SQL*Plus use case only, Oracle Instant Client is a good choice.

When installing Oracle Instance Client, we need the Basic and SQL*Plus package to establish a SQL*Plus session with Oracle Database.

After you install the Oracle Instant Client base on your OS type, you need to set some environment variables. For more information, refer to Install Oracle Database Instant Client .

After a successful installation, you may connect to the database using the following command:

You can also use various options (like Silent login, compatibility, and markup) during connection initialization. For a full list, refer to Options .

SQL*Plus meta commands

SQL*Plus meta or SET commands are different than the normal SQL standard commands used to query the data. These SET commands set a system variable to alter the SQL*Plus environment settings for your current session. These are used to put into shape in terms of line size, page size, and so on. You can display all the SET commands by running the help set command as follows:

You can enter a hyphen at the end of the line to continue a long SQL*Plus command and press Enter . If you want, you can type a space before typing the hyphen. SQL*Plus displays a right angle-bracket ( > ) as a prompt for each additional line.

You don’t need to end a SQL*Plus command with a semicolon. When you finish entering the command, you can press Enter . If you want, however, you can enter a semicolon at the end of a SQL*Plus command.

For more information about SET system variables, SET System Variable Summary .

PostgreSQL psql

The primary front end for PostgreSQL is the psql command line client, which you can use to enter SQL queries directly or run them from a file. In addition, psql provides several meta commands and various shell-like features to facilitate writing scripts and automating a wide variety of tasks; for example, tab completion of object names and SQL syntax.


You can download the psql command line for different operating systems using the PostgreSQL download libraries .

On Amazon Linux 2, we can use the following commands to download the psql command line tool:

Connection strings

With psql, we have multiple ways to specify connection options, such as key-values, command text, or as per connection URI.

You can connect the database using psql client using the following command. By default, you will need to provide the password.

For password as credentials, you can use the PGPASSWORD environment to hold the password. It will not prompt for password.

However, it is recommended to use .pgpass file. It resides in operating system user’s home directory.

For host, port, and user, we have the following connection options:

For more information, see Connection Strings .

PSQL meta commands

Anything that you enter in psql that begins with an unquoted backslash is a psql meta command that is processed by psql itself. These commands make psql more useful for administration or scripting. Meta commands are often called slash or backslash commands .

In general, two types of meta commands are used in psql:

Note that set and \set commands are different in psql. SET is run on the database server and \set is on the client

Comparison of SQL*Plus and psql meta commands

This section compares the meta commands of SQL*Plus and psql, which we have categorized as follows:

Format commands

Input and output commands, information display commands, system commands.

Note that we have used a small subset of psql features to compare with sqlplus client. However, you can see more features in “psql specific features” section.

The following table contains the commands that help you format the SQL query output. You can set the format of the results the way you want.

The following table contains the input and output commands, which allow you to transfer the data to and from the database in different ways.

The following table contains the commands that display information about the database objects and SQL*Plus or psql itself.

The following table contains the commands to get the general, systematic functions of SQL*Plus and psql.

Convert meta commands using the AWS Schema Conversion Tool

The AWS Schema Conversion Tool (AWS SCT) helps us convert an Oracle-based SQL script that consists of some of SQL*Plus features to PostgreSQL compatible as per the psql command line.

For more information about converting meta commands, refer to Analyzing and converting your SQL code using the AWS SCT .

The following screenshot is an example of a SQL*Plus command supported as part of conversion to PostgreSQL as psql command line compatible.

set define off in postgresql

PSQL specific features

The following are some psql specific features when compared to sqlplus .

This runs an SQL COPY command (server command), but instead of the server reading or writing the specified file, psql reads or writes the file and routes the data between the server and the local file system using the privileges of the local user. This allows a user to bulk load data into the database without requiring superuser privileges.

The following is an example of using \copy :

In Oracle, we need to use different tool for this

\x – extended output

It is difficult to read the output of a query with a lot of columns in fetch list. The \x sets extended formatting for the query results as shown in the following output:

 UP and DOWN keys

You can use up and down arrows to scroll through the command history. Up and down arrow keys to move backwards and forwards through the history of commands.

\gset [ prefix ]

Sends the current query buffer to the server and stores the query’s output into psql variables. The following is an example:

\s – query history

You can use \s to get the list of commands in the history. The following is an example:

You can hit tab to complete the keywords while writing the commands in psql client. For example, if you type “SEL” and hit tab, it will complete the keyword as “SELECT”. It also helps to complete the table names. If you have tables that starts with TAB, you can type the command to write the query and hit tab twice to see the table names start with TAB. The following is an example:

\d commands

\d can be used to get more information of the objects like tables, views, sequences, indexes, functions, etc.

For example, \d can be used to get column information of table, \d+ get some more information about the table like comments on the columns or definition of the objects like view or function, and \dt+ can be used to get the size of the table.

More \d commands are available in psql documentation .

  Sends the current query buffer to the server, then treats each column of each row of the query’s output as a SQL statement to be executed. The following is an example:

The if-else statement available in psql client is useful to run conditional block in client side.

\watch [ seconds ]

This is very useful command when you want to monitor some events over time. It execute the buffered SQL in regular configurable interval ( default 2 sec) until interrupted. The following example shows the monitoring of pg_stat_activity for active sessions for every 5 secs:

When working in CLI mode, developers often want to save their preferences/client’s customized behavior in a runtime configuration file and want it to get executed every time user login to the database. For PSQL, this file is named as .psqlrc and is reside in the invoking user’s home directory. This file mostly includes setting up or enabling of timing, formatting the output and more. The following is an example:

You can use \? to get help on all the available commands.

Database developers and administrators often use meta commands to get their desired information when working with the SQL*Plus command line tool. However, after you migrate from Oracle to PostgreSQL, you use the psql client tool to interact with the PostgreSQL database. This post discussed the basic functionalities of the SQL*Plus and psql tools and their meta commands, and compared the meta commands between these two tools to help you understand psql better. You can install the SQL*Plus and PSQL clients by referring the installation sections and try the commands.

If you have any questions or suggestions about this post, feel free to leave a comment. We hope the information we shared helps!

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set define off in postgresql

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When or Why to use a "SET DEFINE OFF" in Oracle Database

I'm watching a Script in Oracle and I see something I don't recognize

I'm looking for documentation about "set define off" and it's literally writing "disable the parsing of commands to replace substitution variable with their values"

I don't really understand what they want to say.

Can anyone help me?

Noctis's user avatar

2 Answers 2

By default, SQL Plus treats '&' as a special character that begins a substitution string. This can cause problems when running scripts that happen to include '&' for other reasons:

If you know your script includes (or may include) data containing '&' characters, and you do not want the substitution behaviour as above, then use set define off to switch off the behaviour while running the script:

You might want to add set define on at the end of the script to restore the default behaviour.

Tony Andrews's user avatar

Here is the example:

With set define off , it took a row with &var value, prompted a user to enter a value for it and replaced &var with the entered value (in this case, X ).

cegas's user avatar

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Geodata Master

Oracle database technical articles & geospatial data technology, set define off and ‘&’ in your sql code.

have you ever faced a problem when you executed a SQL code sent to you by a developer and the below pop window appeared ??


to avoid this just add the following starting statement:

set define off

set define off

When you have ‘&’ inside SQL Script you need to specify “ set define off ” at the beginning of the code .  It will Turn off  substitution variables .

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SQL Developer

Set define off causes error in sql worksheet.

set define off in postgresql

I'm using SQL Developer 18.2 to connect to a MS SQL Server database. When running SQL to do inserts with data containing the '&' symbol, I need to use 'SET DEFINE OFF' to prevent the prompts for variable substitution. But when I include that in my SQL, I get the following error:

Error starting at line : 4 in command -


Error report -

'DEFINE' is not a recognized SET option.

I can run "help set" and see "DEF[INE]" listed as an option and "help set define" to see the exact syntax, but the command itself does not work. How can I get this to work, or alternatively, turn off variable substitution by some other method?

set define off in postgresql

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Removing REM INSERTING and SET DEFINE OFF from SQLcl Output

I ran below script to get data from Oracle, and then load to Postgres with psql.

However in SQLcl output, the first few lines are:

which results in error because the first two lines not recognized by Postgres, using psql client with -f option.

What are options that I can further put in SQLcl script to ensure those first two lines not being output? I don't want REM INSERTING and SET DEFINE .. in the output.

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LSU says: We receive files sql (insert statements) to a third party via an automatic process. I want to load these files using sql * more, but also want to SET DEFINE OFF to prevent the substitution of variables. We cannot change the sql sort files. I use: sqlplus user/ [email protected] @file.sql Is there anyway that I can set the parameter in the command line? I do not particularly want to use glogin.sql like other scripts I need DEFINITION be on. Thank you.

Can you add the command "SET DEFINE OFF" at the beginning of the file.sql?

If you cannot change the file.sql, and then create a script called define_off_and_run.sql, like this:

Then call it sqlplus like this:

If you can not do everything above, perhaps you could use instead of glogin.sql login.sql.

This user should always have the VALUE SET OFF? (For example, this user is used only for this download process, or you can create a user to be used only for this download process?) If so, you can do a test to see who's the user in glogin.sql (or login.sql) and SET DEFINE OFF only if the special user.

Tags: Oracle

Similar Questions

SET DEFINE OFF is a SQL Plus command...

You don't need to worry about & in a stored procedure.

Just continue with your code...

(1) Yes (2) no - it remains in force for the duration of your session unless you set this back again

In this case simply update your client. From your database in version 10 already, you must also use a client version 10.

9i and 10g client can be installed on a PC without a problem alnongside. It's just that the 10g client is installed with a little more subfolders. Maybe you have already installed and just continue to use the old client (old link?).

On a windows client system 10g would be in a structure like this: file://c:/oracle/product/10.2.0/client_1/bin

whereus 9i client is in: file://c:/oracle/ora92/bin

Published by: Sven w. on July 21, 2011 19:33

Published by: Sven w. on July 21, 2011 19:36


EMP_FAIL = $(awk-F '=' ' / ^ EMP_FAIL_RECORD / {printf $2}' DBConnectionParameters/DBConnectionParameters.properties)

HR_FAIL = $(awk-F '=' ' / ^ HR_FAIL_RECORD / {printf $2}' DBConnectionParameters/DBConnectionParameters.properties)


-a lot of queries and other things

HR_FAIL$ @ReportOperation/HR_Err_Spool.sql $FILE <-arguments

EMP_FAIL $ @ReportOperation/Emp_Err_Spool.sql $FILE


/ * The above used to work * /.

-just 2 queries below

/ * Works one above * /.



coil & 1 Add;

Select GID | «, » || Display_Name | «, » || Email_Address. «, » || Country_Code | «, » || City | «, » || Department | «, » || Practice | «, » || Designation | «, » || Status_in_AD | «, » || Start_date | «, » || End_date | «, » || Person_Type | «, » || Err_temp_emp_hr status;

You SET DEFINE OFF then never back down it on before running reel & 1 Add.

If the DEFINITION is disabled the & 1 is not evaluated as a parameter.

Oracle10g (R1)

I used to run large number of scripts to a user of single script file execute statement i.e. "SQL > @/ path/script_file_name.sql '. But I can't trace on how statements executed successfully and how much get failed. Is there anyway I can / trace log the execution of all statements in this case?

As others have said, you can create a master script like the example below:

See you soon

Hi, I m a bit new in LabVIEW and I'd like to ask a few questions...

-There is a possibility to run Labview projects or to set them off from a batch file or if the exist and the ability to control labview or run it from an external application?

-One API PI or raspberry beaglebone exists for LabVIEW?

-Power supply Wich can recommend you control with LabVIEW? (some chip solution witn 0 - 30v / 0 - 3A DC)

Thank you very much for your advice!

Best regards

I know raspberry, so no comment on that.

For the rest:

-Do you want to create tools for developers? If so, we must look in the API of project VI and VI server. If this isn't the case, please compile your application LV as executable and call this one using a batch file.

-LV prefer specific supplies. LV is a programming language. There are several power supply providers (including OR) which provide directly the LV API for their power supplies. So, essentially, the approach is:

1. choose food that serves your needs.

2. check if the power supply has a standard interface for programming (such as Ethernet, GPIB, or if the power supply is PXI, is already providing a programming interface!)

3. check if the LV API (so-called "instrument driver") is available for the device. In the case of a PXI system, get you a device driver (for example NI DCPower).

4. check if the LV samples are available (for example in the Finder for example LV once you have installed the driver).

We run VMware vCenter 4.1 with 3 ESX hosts and VMs. 50 vCenter runs on Windows 2008 R2, SQL 2005 Express SP2.

Yesterday, our virtual backup failed, saying: it could not connect to the vCenter agent. When I have looged question, it appeared that he had stopped the vCenter Server service. Upward on the continuation of the investigation, it appears that the SQL Express database had reached 4 GB in size, which is limited, and this caused the vCenter fall service.

I checked some of the forum posts and have accomplished the following:

However, even after all of the above, when I reboot the server, or stop and start the service vCenter, the following errors are recorded in the application log: ------------------------------------------- Log name: Application Source: MSSQL$ SQLEXP_VIM Date: 2011-08-16 08:51:44 Event ID: 1827 Task category: (2) Level: error Keywords: Classic User: SYSTEM Description: CREATE DATABASE or ALTER DATABASE failed because the resulting cumulative database size exceeds your limit allowed 4096 MB per database. ------------------------------------------- Log name: Application Source: MSSQL$ SQLEXP_VIM Date: 2011-08-16 08:51:44 Event ID: 1105 Task category: (2) Level: error Keywords: Classic User: SYSTEM Description: Could not allocate space for object ' dbo. VPX_BINARY_DATA'. 'PK_VPX_BIN_DATA' in 'VIM_VCDB' database because the 'PRIMARY' filegroup is full. Create disk space by deleting unnecessary files, removing objects in the filegroup, adding additional files to the filegroup, or setting autogrowth on it to the existing files in the file group. ------------------------------------------- Log name: Application Source: VMware VirtualCenter Server Date: 2011-08-16 08:51:44 Event ID: 1000 Task category: no Level: error Keywords: Classic User: n/a Description: The description for event ID 1000 from source VMware VirtualCenter Server can not be found. Either the component that triggers this event is not installed on your local computer or the installation is corrupted. You can install or repair the component on the local computer.

If the event is on another computer, the display information had to be saved with the event.

The following information has been included in the event:

Can anyone provide another solution to this problem? We must be able to perform a successful backup!

For any help or suggestions appreciated!

Due to the size of the database, the query may take time. I suggest that you let run and just be patient.

Another option is to upgrade to a version of SQL Server 2005/2008 'complete' (see http://kb.vmware.com/kb/7960893 ), or - where this is an option for you - to migrate towards the currently experimentally supported (starting with vCenter Server 4.1 Update 1) version SQL Express 2008 which supports up to 10 GB per database. (see http://www.vmware.com/pdf/vsphere4/r40/vsp_compatibility_matrix.pdf ) Although there are 32 and 64 bit in compatibility matrix, it seems that there are currently problems with 64-bit (see http://kb.vmware.com/kb/1036085 )

The approach to execute DDL using PL/SQL statements on the fly must be judged badly. Also the script is redundant, as in a controlled environment you know what you have and you don't need to check if a column exists . Also if the column does not exist, the script would fail. The alter table can be done through regular SQL.

Necessary change is drag the script in the trash where it belongs in the first place and leave it there.

Oracle is not a product for hackers to code.

------------- Sybrand Bakker Senior Oracle DBA

Program installed but starts it gives the error that my readers are set to disabled. (DUH!) My drives are NOT set to off. I know that the program is not compatible with Win 7 (element DLA not install), but it is not necessary to start the program.

So, what's the problem?

Duplicate thread:

I have a problem with RecordNow 7.0.

Given that the program is not compatible with the windows operating system 7 install the program in compatibility mode.

Most programs written for Windows Vista also work in this version of Windows, but some older programs might run poorly or not at all. If a program written for an earlier version of Windows does not work, you can try changing the compatibility of the program settings, either manually or by using the program compatibility problems.

To run the troubleshooting program compatibility Troubleshooter

1. open the program compatibility problems by clicking on the Start button, then Control Panel . In the search box, type Troubleshooting , and then click Troubleshooting . Under programs , click run programs made for previous versions of Windows .

2. follow the instructions in the troubleshooting.

If you are unable to install a program, insert the installation disc for the program and, using the Troubleshoot utility, navigate to the program setup file, usually called Setup.exe, Install.exe, or something similar. This utility is not designed to work on programs that have an .msi file name extension.

Is there a way I can find the AUTHID set of PL/SQL?

You can view the current_schema:

You don't need a query, use the COUNT of the collection attribute:

Max [My Italian blog Oracle | http://oracleitalia.wordpress.com/2010/01/23/la-forza-del-foglio-di-calcolo-in-una-query-la-clausola-model/]

Published by: Massimo Ruocchio, January 27, 2010 09:50

My main and sub VI is attatched.

danil33 wrote: Re: void / VI does not run with the main VI.

When you start your main program, the Subvi is called and the main VI must wait the Subvi before it can continue. However, the Subvi is not set to open the Panel before, so very probably that it runs in the background for 100 seconds (1000 iteration to 100ms), because no one can press the stop button at the beginning to put an end to the Subvi. Once the Subvi is completed, the last value is returned to the main VI via the output connector and the main VI can process and display this last value. At this point, the main VI stops, because it's done (hopefully you do not "continuous operation").

Obviously you have some misconceptions of beginners on the stream. Please we tell exactly what you expect the program to do, and we might be able to point in the right direction.

When I wake up the computer in "sleep" or "hibernate" mode, only the photo Office rises, not the icons, so I have to restart with a hard off every time.  What can I do?

Press CTRL + ALT + DELETE and bring up the Task Manager > move in process > select Explorer > end task and it will restart and if all goes well it will bring to the top of your screen properly.

Your computer is completely up-to-date with all the updates?

Note I'm not a fan of setting hibernation or sleep a computer there, it can sometimes lead to problems (as you see)

I hope this helps.

My computer is HP Windows Vista - office computer.  My computer runs slowly, and cut off when I watch or listen to any video or music.  I tried restore, to restore all the drivers for the original version (but did not offer the video card) and all I could think to do.  My computer will not be completely updated anything - I think that my video card is bad.  What can I do?  inexpensive if possible preference.  Thank you!

Hello Deedahday,

Thanks for posting on the Community Forums of Microsoft Vista.

This problem may occur because of many factors. Follow the steps below; It could help us solve the problem.

Access the link below and follow the steps to optimize Windows Vista for better performance. http://windowshelp.Microsoft.com/Windows/en-us/help/83EC0FFE-EE04-4D53-8B87-25D1F05C954E1033.mspx

Try to update display drivers: Try to access the computer manufacturer's website and select the model of your computer and download the latest drivers to screen for your computer and install the same. Access the link to download the drivers from the manufacturer of the computer: http://www.hp.com/#Support

Also set the virtual memory of the system managed size: a. click the Start button and access control panel b. click on system and Maintenance c. click System. d. in the left pane, click Advanced system settings. If you are prompted for an administrator password or a confirmation, type the password or provide confirmation. e. on the Advanced tab, under performance, click settings. f. click on the Advanced tab, and then under virtual memory, click on change. g. Select 'Size of system managed' and click on Set. h. click on apply and Ok.

Restart the computer and check if it works very well.

It will be useful.

Thank you and best regards,

Srinivas Microsoft Answers Support Engineer Visit our Microsoft answers feedback Forum and let us know what you think

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Oracle SQL*Plus: The Definitive Guide, 2nd Edition by Jonathan Gennick

Get full access to Oracle SQL*Plus: The Definitive Guide, 2nd Edition and 60K+ other titles, with a free 10-day trial of O'Reilly.

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The SET DEFINE command changes the prefix character used to mark substitution variables. You can use SET DEFINE to turn variable substitution off.

Is the command, which may be abbreviated SET DEF.

Disables variable substitution.

Enables variable substitution, and resets the substitution prefix character back to the default ampersand (&) character. Variable substitution is on by default.

Is the new substitution prefix character.

When you start SQL*Plus, variable substitution will be on by default, and the default prefix character is an ampersand. If you are running a script that uses ampersands in text strings, you may want to change the prefix character to something else. If your script doesn't use substitution variables, you may find it easiest to turn the feature off.

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set define off in postgresql

Franck Pachot

Aug 3, 2019

Transaction management in PostgreSQL and what is different from Oracle

Tl;dr: everything is different about transaction behavior. this may also change your ideas about “database independent” applications..

I like to explain some PostgreSQL concepts from an oracle DBA point of view. There are many things that are different in the two RDBMS and it is important to understand them.

Auto commit

Here is a short example where I create a table, insert one row and rollback:

I never executed any commit but my changes are saved and published. This is auto-commit by default in psql. I think I prefer the Oracle default where the commit is my decision, and only what I’ve committed is visible:

So, is Oracle the best for transaction management?

Well… autocommit default is only one thing. Let’s go further.

First, this is only a client setting. SQL*Plus has it set to off:

But JDBC drivers may have it set to on. So, rather than a nice thing about the database, it is just a nice default of SQL*Plus.

Commit on exit

And wait… are all sqlplus defaults so smart? Let’s come back to my Oracle database where I committed nothing:

Are sqlplus defaults so smart? I didn’t commit the last insert but it was committed by default. Not because of auto-commit but because of exit-commit:

That’s not a nice default. If I quit without saying ‘commit’ I want a rollback. It is highly recommended to set exit-commit off to avoid any unexpected commit. (also recommendedvfor scripts having a WHENEVER SQLERROR EXIT that mentions ROLLBACK because COMMIT is the default).

DDL auto-commit

And that’s not all… The first row (n=1) was never explicitly committed. It was inserted with DDL (CREATE TABLE) and DDL are always auto-committed. That’s the Oracle Database, nothing to do with the client: you cannot be transactional with DDL.

Start transaction

Back to PostgreSQL, the default is auto-commit but I have the choice. I can explicitly start a transaction and then I’ll have to explicitly commit it.

See? I have the 3 rows from the first run which were all auto-committed. But now that I explicitly started a transaction, everything was transactional, even the DDL: the DROP TABLE, the CREATE TABLE, the INSERT were explicitly rolled-back. And even the last INSERT was implicitly rolled-back on exit.

Now, who is the winner in transaction management? There’s even more: you can send a multi-statement command to the backend and it will be processed as an implicit transaction.

Note that START TRANSACTION is the ANSI SQL syntax, but PostgreSQL accepts also BEGIN, BEGIN TRANSACTION and BEGIN WORK.

Set Transaction name

Don’t think that there are no “begin transaction” in Oracle. The SET TRANSACTION starts it, in order to define the isolation level, or simply to put a name to the transaction.

This example looks at the transaction address in V$SESSION and V$TRANSACTION

This illustrates when a transaction starts (visible with a TADDR in V$SESSION and a row in V$TRANSACTION): the first INSERT/DELETE/UPDATE/MERGE/SELECT FOR UPDATE or a SET TRANSACTION

Autonomous Transaction

Not available in PostgreSQL but possible in Oracle: we can have nested transactions. This is very convenient in some limited cases, like logging the error in the database (and commit this insert) before the rollback of the transaction.

This shows that there can be multiple transactions for the same session. The PADDR is only the address or the top-level one.

User Call level rollback

(Note that I’ve previously written “statement-level rollback” but this is misleading because a statement can be executed in a recursive call, as in a PL/SQL block. What I show here is about a user call statement which can actually be a SQL statement or a PL/SQL block or a procedure call ).

Still in Oracle, when a statement fails in a user call, the modifications done by this user call are rolled back, but not the previous modifications. The transaction can continue (like re-try, or do an alternative change):

ERROR: current transaction is aborted

That’s different in PostgreSQL where the transaction cannot continue when you encounter an error:

Here I rolled back. But I can also commit to terminate the transaction, but it will rollback anyway:

Actually, we can achieve user call level rollback even in PostgreSQL, using savepoints:

With Oracle, you don’t need to because there is an implicit savepoint before each execution.

Well, the PostgreSQL client psql do the same:

and then psql will automatically create a “pg_psql_temporary_savepoint”.

PostgreSQL 11 Procedures

Before version 11 all commands (which can be one statement, or multiple ones, or PL/pgSQL anonymous or stored procedures) were run in an atomic context, with no intermediate commits possible without a roundtrip with the client. Like this:

The first call has inserted values 10 and 12 and they were committed because I run in the default AUTOCOMMIT. But the second call has encountered a duplicate key and the whole was rolled-back. But in PostgreSQL 11 I can add an intermediate commit so that the first rows are committed before I encounter the error.

Here the rows 5 to 9 have been committed before encountering the exception for row 10.

Still, no need for an explicit BEGIN here. The COMMIT in the loop will end the transaction (started implicitly on the server as I did no BEGIN before) and start a new one. The last transaction started will be committed implicitly.

Additionally, you can look at the timestamps in the two previous demos. In PostgreSQL, current_timestamp is consistent in the transaction.

Invalid transaction termination

Here is the same, but with AUTOCOMMIT off:

Actually, this is what made me start this blog post. But that’s already a lot, and further investigation on this will be on the next post: AUTOCOMMIT and PostgreSQL transaction management in procedures

Implicit transactions

Ok, just one more on this. The error above is not really caused by AUTOCOMMIT but by the way psql handles AUTOCOMMIT. Actually, with PostgreSQL, the AUTOCOMMIT is not a BEGIN statement added by the psql client, but the backend server creating an implicit transaction when there is not already one. It is even the opposite: when AUTOCOMMIT is off, the client adds a “BEGIN” so that the server does not create an implicit one. Which means that the “invalid transaction termination” occurs also without auto-commit when we CALL the procedure from an explicit transaction.

This long post is only a short sample of the many differences between Oracle and PostgreSQL transaction management. And I’ve only used psql and sqlplus here. Do you want to test the same from Java JDBC and Python psycopg2?

Comments welcome on Twitter:

More from Franck Pachot

Developer Advocate at Yugabyte, Open Source distributed SQL database 🚀 Also Oracle ACE Director, Oracle Certified Master, AWS Data Hero, OakTable member

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    autocommit default is only one thing. Let's go further. First, this is only a client setting. SQL*Plus has it set to off: SQL> show autocommit