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identify works tasks in line with farm operation
Crop, nursery, and greenhouse farmworkers and laborers perform numerous tasks related to growing and harvesting grains, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and other crops. They plant, seed, prune, irrigate, and harvest crops, and pack and load them for shipment.
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What are different work task in line with farm operation
Crop, nursery, and greenhouse farmworkers and laborers perform numerous tasks related to growing and harvesting grains, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and other crops. They plant, seed, prune, irrigate, and harvest crops, and pack and load them for shipment.
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7 Managing Farming Activities
This chapter contains the following topics:
Section 7.1, "Understanding Managing Farming Activities"
Section 7.2, "Understanding Operation Withholding Dates"
Section 7.3, "Reviewing Base Operations"
Section 7.4, "Setting Up Configured Operations"
Section 7.5, "Entering Grower Operations"
Section 7.6, "Setting Up Spray Masters"
Section 7.7, "Updating Operations"
Section 7.8, "Reversing Operations"
Section 7.9, "Reviewing Operation History"
Section 7.11, "Running Operation Reports"
7.1 Understanding Managing Farming Activities
During the harvest growing period up until the actual harvesting of the crop, several activities, operations, and data collection occurs. The purpose of the activities is to enable instruction of work and provide a way to update operational information, such as information about additives, styles, costs, equipment, and resources, to the harvest record. Common growing activities include:
Managing farming operations, such as tilling, planting, pruning, spraying, and irrigating.
Conducting quality inspections or product classification assessment.
Tracking growing statistics.
This diagram shows the flow for managing farming activities:
Figure 7-1 Managing Farming Activities
7.1.1 Spray Operations
Tracking spray operations is common practice to help protect growers from the risk of agrochemical residue that exceeds the maximum residue limits for export or domestic markets. The maintenance of spray operations is a quality issue and a legislative safety requirement.
Due to holding times from the last spray, planning must consider the lead time between the spray operations and the estimated harvest date. For example, if a block is due to be harvested, planners must ensure that the block is not sprayed for approximately 30 days before harvest.
If a spray operation is submitted and shows that a particular agrochemical was used for the wrong purpose or the timing is incorrect, the harvest from the block or the block itself may be quarantined for a period.
7.1.2 Farming Operations
You use farming operations to record when activities such as planting, irrigating, and pruning occur. Typical information to be captured includes the planting method, pruning method, and associated comments.
The business must understand the irrigation method and volume, the pruning techniques, the dates on which the operations are complete, and the stages of crop growth. Comparisons between all these harvest activities are required to ensure that the crop growth and maturity are managed. Growers might to measure the irrigation volume by plant or volume per area.
7.1.3 Weigh Tag Operations
Weigh tag operations and farming operations share the same Grower Harvest and Weigh Tag Receipt Operation program (P40G30). Weigh tag operations require additional functionality that is called by the Processing Options for Grower Weigh Tags program (P40G0700).
You create weigh tag operations using the same base operations and configured operations that are defined in this chapter.
7.1.4 Deleting Operations
You can delete operations that are in Draft status only. Operations can be deleted using these programs:
Farming Activities Workbench (P31B94).
Weigh Tag Workbench (P31B94).
Work Order Workbench (P31B95).
7.1.5 Harvest Unit of Measure Versus Operation Unit of Measure
You can use two programs to set up default units of measure. You use the Grower Cost Center Defaults program (P40G002) to define default units of measure (00/UM) for harvest records. You use the Winery Constants program (P31B13) to define default units of measure (31B/UM) for operations. If the area unit of measure differs between the programs, you must add a standard unit of measure conversion in the Unit of Measure Conversion program (P41003).
For example, you measure the area of your harvests in hectares. You apply a pesticide using a spray operation by the acre. Therefore, you must add a conversion to convert one hectare to 2.471053815 acres.
The system requires special handling codes when converting the units of measure. For example:
7.2 Understanding Operation Withholding Dates
Harvest operations can have interdependencies that should be managed to ensure optimum crop production of a harvest and worker safety. These interdependencies are managed using withholding dates to control the validation between harvest operations. The system displays a warning message when an operation is planned inside of the withholding period of another operation.
This table defines the withholding type codes, provides descriptions, explains when to use each code, and gives examples of when to use each code:
When entering the first operation for a harvest, the system does not perform a validation. When the first operation for a harvest is in the system, any additional operations that are entered or modified are validated against all other operations for that harvest.
This table describes the fields used to activate the validation process, describes the field, and defines the program where the field is located:
7.2.2 Two-Way Validation
When a new operation is added to an existing harvest, the system performs a two-way validation. The first validation compares the new operation to existing operations. The system verifies, for each withholding type that has a check in the validation check box on the new operation, that the operation dates do not overlap with the withholding periods for the existing operations.
The second validation compares existing operations to the new operation. The system verifies, for each withholding type that has a check in the validation check box for the existing operation, that the operation dates do not overlap with the holding periods for the new operations.
This diagram shows three existing operations, and the validation that occurs based on the validation check box being selected and the withholding days being defined in a new operation:
Figure 7-2 Two-way validation
In the above example, a new operation is added that has the validation check box selected for prior and subsequent activities. The system validates against the existing operation, Operation 2, because it has withholding days entered for subsequent activities. The system also validates against existing operations that have prior withholding days entered. In this example, none of the operations have prior withholding days.
Next, the system validates the existing operations that have any validation check boxes selected. For Operation 1, the reentry validation check box is selected. The system validates against the new operation because the reentry withholding days is set to two.
7.2.3 Example 1
This table and the subsequent timeline demonstrate the interdependencies of several operations that use withholding codes:
This diagram is a graphical representation of the four operations in the table. The dotted lines represent the operation start and end dates for the prune and pesticide operations. The solid lines, for these two operations, represent the withholding periods.
Figure 7-3 Operation interdependency timeline 1
7.2.4 Example 2
In this example, a new operation is added to the system. The chemical spray operation validates against existing harvest operations that have withholding days for both subsequent activities and prior activities. For each validation check box that is checked on existing operations, the system also validates against the current withholding days for the corresponding operations.
This table and subsequent timeline demonstrate how the system validates a new harvest operation using the two-way validation:
This diagram is a graphical representation of the five operations in the table. The dotted lines represent the operation start and end dates for the prune, pesticide, and chemical spray operations. The solid lines, for these three operations, represent the withholding periods.
Figure 7-4 Operation interdependency timeline 2
The first validation checks against existing operations:
Prune: A warning message appears if the new operation is scheduled to start from May 6 through May 10.
Spray-Pesticide: A warning message appears if the new operation is scheduled to start from May 12 through May 14.
The system validates existing operations against the new operation's withholding period and displays a warning message if an existing operation is scheduled:
The day before the start date for the new operation.
During the reentry-withholding period for the new operation.
Adding the new operation using a start date of May 16 with an end date of May 17 prevents any warning messages.
7.2.5 Start and End Dates
The system does not validate the withholding days for an operation's harvests unless both the start and end dates for either the instructed or actual dates are entered in the operation header. If a date is missing, when the user clicks Save and Close, the system issues an error message stating that the operation start and end dates are required.
7.3 Reviewing Base Operations
This section provides an overview of base operations for JD Edwards EnterpriseOne Grower Management and discusses how to view base operations.
7.3.1 Understanding Base Operations
Base operations serve as predefined templates that are delivered with the JD Edwards EnterpriseOne Grower Management and Blend Management systems. Base operations determine which components are available for a configured operation. You can view base operations, but you cannot modify them.
7.3.2 Forms Used to View Base Operations
7.3.3 viewing base operations.
Access the Edit Base Operation Configuration form.
Displays a short code that describes the base operations. These operations are considered in-place operations. Grower values are:
FARM: Farm operation.
FARMQA: Grower QA operation.
SPRAY: Spray operation
HARVEST: Scheduled harvest operation.
WT: Weigh tag.
Displays a description that further defines the base operation. For example, the base operation code WT is for grower weigh tag operations.
184.108.40.206 Vessel Details
Select the Vessel Details tab.
Figure 7-5 Edit Base Operation Configuration form
Controls whether from vessel information is displayed for the operation.
Displays the type of from vessel to use in the operation. For Grower Management, vessel classes are:
Select the Lot/General tab.
Figure 7-6 Edit Base Operation Configuration form: Lot/General tab
Displays the blend ID instructables for the operation.
Displays the material type instructables for the operation.
Displays the wine status instructables for the operation.
Displays the EUR instructables for the operation. Select this check box for Blend Management and weigh tag operations only. The system does not process EURs at the lot level for farm, farmqa, and spray operations.
Displays the ownership instructables for the operation. Select this check box for Blend Management and weigh tag operations only. The system does not process ownership at the lot level for farm, farmqa, and spray operations.
Displays the instructable lot attributes for the operation if this option is selected.
Displays the instructable lot comments for the operation if this option is selected.
Displays the style instructables for the operation if this option is selected.
Displays accumulated additive instructables for the operation if this option is selected.
Displays equipment details for the operation if this option is selected. Equipment is defined as all physical items, other than vessels, at a production facility.
Displays consumable details (that are required by equipment) for the operation if this operation is selected. Consumables are dry goods that are used by equipment but do not affect wine attributes.
Displays additive details for the operation if this option is selected. You can enter an additive operation separately from other operations to retain a clear history and traceability of the additive throughout the wine-making process using Operational Trace/Track.
Displays resource details for the operation if this option is selected. Instruct specific people or work groups to perform an operation in accordance with their skill sets, schedules, resource management, and so forth.
Displays blend lot details for the operation.
Designates that this operation is a QA operation if this option is selected.
Designates this operation as a grower operation if this option is selected. Examples of grower operation include farming and spraying. Operations, such as QA and weigh tag can also be used in grower applications if this option is selected.
Designates this operation as a spray operation. Spray operations are used in grower applications. The Grower option must also be selected in the Base Operation definition to activate the farming operation.
Designates this operation as a farming operation. Farming operations are used in grower applications. The Grower option must also be selected in the Base Operation definition to activate the Farming operation.
Select to allow lot cost changes at the operation.
Designates a scheduled harvest operation that is different from other farming operations. The harvest operation is an in-place operation that is performed on a harvest. Using this base operation enables you to tie the considerable expense that might be incurred because of harvesting a crop to a specific activity in the growing cycle.
The harvest operation enables you to plan harvesting activities with information such as quantity or area to harvest, cut instructions, date and time of the harvest, and delivery instructions. You can also assign resources, equipment, and consumables to track the associated cost. Lot attributes, lot comments, and styles are the instructables for this base operation. The From vessel class is Harvest. The harvest operation is classified as a cut operation using the Base Operation Category Code 1 UDC table.
Planning and recording a harvest operation is optional.
Select to designate that the operation updates the composition material type. Select this check box for Blend Management and weigh tag operations only. The system does not process composition material type at the lot level for farm, farmqa, and spray operations.
220.127.116.11 Category Codes
Select the Category Codes tab.
Figure 7-7 Edit Base Operation Configuration form: Category Codes tab
Displays base operation category codes (B31/B1–B5) that specify the type of base operations.
7.4 Setting Up Configured Operations
This section discusses how to set up configured operations.
7.4.1 Forms Used to Set Up Configured Operations
7.4.2 setting up configured operations.
Access the Edit Operation Configuration form.
Enter a unique, user-defined name to identify the configured operation. This is a required field. The user must specify this code to instantiate an operation.
Enter a base operation code for the basis of the operation. Use the search button to review all available base operation codes and descriptions.
Enter a user-defined description for the configured operation.
Select the Defaults tab.
Figure 7-8 Edit Operation Configuration form: Defaults tab
Select to indicate that the operation is a harvest operation. This field is used only for searching and identifying configured operations.
Displays one of these vessel classes from which the operation directs material. In JD Edwards EnterpriseOne Grower Management, the values are:
Harvest: Used for farm, spray, and farmqa operations.
Weigh Tag: Used for weigh tag operations.
Select the UOM for the From (source) material type. Use a UOM for volume or weight. This value is critical for the system to correctly perform UOM conversions within an operation. Values are:
For farm, farmqa, spray and harvest operations, the material type UOM must be area. For all other operations, the material type UOM cannot be area.
Enter a customized title for forms that you use when entering operations.
Select a UDC (H95/PT) to identify who is permitted to perform the operation.
Select the Results tab.
Figure 7-9 Edit Operation Configuration form: Results tab
Enter the method that calculates the blend ID for the after from lot. Values are:
Copy after from before .
Do not default after Blend ID .
Generate new Blend ID .
Enter a specific material type for the After From Lot field. If this field is blank, the system uses lot blending rules to determine the After From Material Type. Material type is used for accounting purposes. This is the hierarchy for populating the material type at the operation level:
Use the user-specified material type on the lot.
Copy the material type from the Before Lot, if it exists.
Use the value from the After From Material Type field on the configured operation.
Use the default from the Material Type field on the harvest record.
Enter a specific wine status for the After From Lot. If this field is blank, the system uses lot blending rules to determine the After From wine status.
Enter a specific wine status for the After To Lot. If this field is blank, the system uses lot blending rules to determine the After To wine status.
Select the Instructables tab.
Figure 7-10 Edit Operation Configuration form: Instructables tab
Select the check box to specify whether the user can manually override these lot attributes after the system has blended the lots:
Accumulated Additives (error correction only)
Composition (error correction only)
18.104.22.168 Instructed Lot Attributes
Select the Instructed Lot Attributes tab.
Figure 7-11 Edit Operation Configuration form: Instructed Lot Attributes tab
Enter specific values for the instructed attributes of the after from lot instructed attributes.
Enter specific values for the instructed attributes of the after to lot. If you leave this field blank, the system uses blending rules to determine the After From instructed attribute.
22.214.171.124 Cat Code 1 - 5
Select the Cat Code 1–5 tab.
Figure 7-12 Edit Operation Configuration form: Cat Code 1- 5 tab
Enter a UDC (31B/B1–B5) to define various categories for configured operations. The system supplies the default base operation in the first category code field. Therefore, you cannot modify the first category code field.
Select the Cost tab.
Figure 7-13 Edit Operation Configuration form: Cost tab
Enter a document type to support the accounting functionality.
Enter the legal report line number corresponding to the before lot.
Line numbers 101–199 are grouped in Section 1 of the Legal Report.
Line numbers 201–299 are grouped in Section 2 of the Legal Report.
Line numbers 301–399 are grouped in Section 3 of the Legal Report.
Line numbers 100, 200, and 300 are balance line numbers.
Enter the legal report line number corresponding to the after lot.
Select to indicate that periodic costs apply to the use of a vessel.
Select to indicate that you allow changes to lot costs.
Select the Grower tab.
Figure 7-14 Edit Operation Configuration form: Grower tab
Select to indicate that a requirement exists to add consumable details for equipment that is used in the operation. Consumables are dry goods that are used by equipment but do not affect crop attributes. Select the check box to display the consumable details for the operation. The status of this check box is supplied by the system from the base operation and can be overridden at the configured operation level.
Select to indicate whether specific people or a work group should perform an operation. Select the check box to display the human resource details for the operation. The status of this check box is supplied by the system from the base operation and can be overridden at the configured operation level.
Select to indicate whether the system displays equipment details. Select the check box to display the equipment details for the operation. The status of this check box is supplied by the system from the base operation and can be overridden at the configured operation level.
The Partial Receipts Control Flag determines when the quantity that is received on a Weigh Tag is updated to inventory. It also determines the point at which a receipt line is added or updated for the received quantity.
Deselect the option to update inventory and receipts when the operation status is Closed .
Select the option to update inventory and receipts when the operation status is greater than Draft .
Select to indicate that the system validates all operations that have withholding days defined for the harvest activity type.
Select to indicate that the system validates all operations that have withholding days defined for the prior activity type.
Select to indicate that the system validates all operations that have withholding days defined for the reentry activity type.
Select to indicate that the system validates all operations that have withholding days defined for the subsequent activity type.
126.96.36.199 Edit Farming Operation Categories
Access the Edit Farming Operation Categories form.
Figure 7-15 Edit Farming Operation Categories form
Enter a farming application code for the farming operation.
Enter a description for the farming code.
Enter the optimum result value for the farming operation.
7.5 Entering Grower Operations
This section provides overviews of grower operations, lists prerequisites, and discusses how to:
Set processing options for Farming Operations (P40G30).
Enter farm operations.
Enter spray operations.
Enter harvest operations.
Enter farm operations using Create From List - Farming Operations.
7.5.1 Understanding Grower Operations
Companies growing crops use several operations that are specific to the grower environment. To accommodate these requirements, you can use the base operations provided by the system to set up the following configured operations:
188.8.131.52 Farming Operations
Growers require various operations to be performed on a block throughout the growing season. Operation activities might include tilling, planting, pruning, spraying, irrigating, and harvesting. The purpose of the activities is to enable instruction of work, and provide a mechanism to update operational costs to the harvest record.
The type of operation that is required depends on the type of crop that is being harvested. For example, tuber crops do not require pruning. This table describes two different types of farm operations, their use, and typical information that is maintained:
184.108.40.206 Spray Operations
The business must understand what agrochemicals have been sprayed on which dates and at what stages of crop growth. The maintenance of spray operations is both a quality and a legislative safety requirement. Due to holding times from the last spray, planning must consider the lead time between spray and the estimated harvest date. For example, if a block is due to be harvested, planners must ensure that the block is not sprayed for approximately 30 days before harvest.
This tables describes a spray operation, its use, and typical information:
220.127.116.11 Harvest Operations
Scheduled harvest operations provide a mechanism for planning a farming activity that potentially incurs considerable costs. By entering harvest operations, you can create a plan that includes information, such as quantity or area to harvest, cut instructions, date and time to harvest, and delivery instructions. In addition, as with other operations, you can assign equipment, resources, and consumables. This information enables you to track associated cost.
To enter harvest operations, you use a configured operation that is defined based on the HARVEST base operation. The vessel class for the harvest operations is always Harvest. The category codes for the base operation designate the harvest operation as a CUT operation. You can associate only one harvest with a harvest operation. However, for every harvest, you can enter multiple scheduled harvest operations. You can select a harvest by accessing the Search and Select Harvests form.
You can enter a scheduled harvest quantity that exceeds the current estimate. In this case, the system issues a warning. However, you do not receive the warning if you change the estimate manually in the harvest.
You can enter a harvest operation for acreage or for a quantity. If you enter an acreage, you can calculate the resulting quantity using the following equation: Harvest Quantity = (Current Estimate/Planted Area) x Harvest Area. If you have entered a scheduled quantity, but decide to recalculate the quantity based on the acreage, you must clear the quantity from the Scheduled Quantity field and then recalculate it based on the acreage.
If you use continuous estimates, the Current Estimate field remains blank and you must enter both the quantity and the area for the operation.
When you enter or revise a harvest operation, the system supports planning by displaying the scheduled, completed, received and remaining harvest quantities. The Schedule Quantity field displays the total of all scheduled harvest quantities that are at a status beyond Draft. The system updates the quantity in the Grower Harvest table (F40G03) only for harvest operations at a status beyond Draft. The completed quantity represents the total of all scheduled quantities on harvest operations for a specific harvest with a status of Closed. You can review scheduled harvest quantities using the Harvest Workbench program (P40G032).
When you close the first harvest operation for a harvest, the system automatically creates a purchase order for the harvest, if you have not entered a purchase order. If the harvest is associated with a contract, the system checks contract details before creating the purchase order. The purchase order updates the On Receipt and the On PO fields in the Summary Availability program (P41202). In addition, the system updates the cut date in the Grower Harvest table with operation end date and the Completed Harvest Quantity field with the quantity of the operation. If you schedule the harvest by area, the system performs the conversion from acreage to quantity and uses the calculation result for the update.
You can delete a scheduled harvest if it is at a Draft or Planned status. If you cancel a scheduled harvest operation, the system deducts the scheduled quantity from the total scheduled quantity in the Grower Harvest table. The same thing occurs when you reverse a closed harvest operation. You can change the status and other information using the Speed Actuals program (P31B67), but you cannot set the operation to a Closed status. You can also use the Speed Operation Update program (P31B96) to update harvest operations, including closing them.
From the Harvest Workbench program, you can access the Scheduled Harvest Details program (R40G60) to print a report with harvest operation information, such as planned, and actual dates, harvest quantities, and areas, deliver date, receipt branch and so on.
Before you complete the tasks in this section:
Set up configured operations.
Set up facility master records.
Set up equipment master records within the winery.
Add operation consumables as item branch records.
Set up work order templates.
See "Setting Up Blend Facilities" in the JD Edwards EnterpriseOne Applications Blend Management Implementation Guide .
See "Setting Up Equipment" in the JD Edwards EnterpriseOne Applications Blend Management Implementation Guide .
See Entering Item Information, Entering Item Master Information .
"Defining Work Orders and Templates" in the JD Edwards EnterpriseOne Applications Blend Management Implementation Guide .
7.5.3 Forms Used to Enter Farming Operations
7.5.4 setting processing options for farming operations (p40g30).
Use these processing options to control system processing and define default versions.
These processing options control whether the actual dates are displayed and whether the Work Order Status batch process is run automatically. These processing options are specific to weigh tag operations.
Specify whether the system enables you to enter actual dates. Values are:
Blank: Do not allow users to enter actual dates.
1: Allow users to enter actual dates.
For future use.
Specify whether the Work Order Status batch process is run immediately following the addition of a work order. The Work Order Status batch process uses the operation statuses to determine the work order status. Values are:
Blank: Do not automatically run the Work Order Status batch process.
1: Run the Work Order Status batch process automatically.
This processing option controls whether the purchase order and receipts information appear. This processing option is specific to weigh tag operations.
Specify whether the application displays the purchase order and receipts information. Values are:
Blank: Display the purchase order and receipts information.
1: Do not display the purchase order and receipts information.
These processing options control the versions that are called by the program.
Specify the version of the Calculate Work Order Status batch program (R31B19) the work order application uses when automatically updating the work order status. If you leave this processing option blank, the system uses XJDE0001.
Specify the version of the Grower Weigh Tag Process program (P40G0700) that the system uses. If you leave this processing option blank, the system uses ZJDE0001.
Specify the version of the Matrix Order Entry program (P41902) that is available from the Sales Order application. If you leave this processing option blank, the system uses ZJDE0001.
Specify the version of the Weigh Tag Master Details program (P31B77) that the system uses. If you leave this processing option blank, the system uses ZJDE0001.
7.5.5 Entering Farm Operations
Access the Edit Grower Operation form.
Figure 7-16 Edit Grower Operation form
Displays a unique numeric identifier for the operation number.
Displays a numeric work order number.
Displays the configured operation that is entered on the Configured Operation Code Selection form.
Displays the default grower cost center. Grower branch plants must be set up in the Winery Constants program (P31B13).
Supplies the user's system sign-on. You should enter each user sign-on in the address book master.
Select the operation status. Inventory transactions and costing occurs when you change an operation status to closed. In addition, the system:
Supplies a default status of draft when initially adding an operation.
Assigns operation numbers when the operation is at an Active, Actual, or Closed status.
Requires an assigned harvest when an operation is at an Active or Actual status.
Does not validate withholding dates when an operation is at a Cancelled status.
The grower operation statuses are:
Select the General tab.
Figure 7-17 Edit Grower Operation form: General tab
Supplies the system date and time by default when the operation is created. You can override the start date. The system uses the system time as a default that you cannot override.
Enter the expected end date for the operation.
Enter the expected instructed duration for the operation. If this field is left blank, the system calculates the duration using the start and end dates.
Select the duration UOM. Values are:
Enter the actual start and end dates for the operation.
Enter the actual duration for the operation.
Displays the date that the operation was entered into the system.
Select the Instructions tab. Enter free-form text to provide detailed instructions for performing the operation.
Select the Comments tab. Enter free-form text containing additional comments regarding the operation.
Select the Misc. tab.
Figure 7-18 Edit Grower Operation form: Misc. tab
Enter UDCs (31B/B2–B5) to further define the operation. Category Code 1 displays the base operation.
Enter an additional operation number to identify an outside processor's reference number or to track information after the fact. The system does not validate this number.
Enter a code for the material type. This field is specific to weigh tags.
18.104.22.168 Harvest Assignment
Click Save and Continue on the General tab to enable additional fields.
Select the Harvest Assignment tab.
Figure 7-19 Edit Grower Operation form: Harvest Assignment tab
Enter the assigned block code for the operation.
Enter the assigned harvest period and suffix for the operation.
Select to save the harvest assignment for the operation and continue updating the operation information.
Select to view harvest lot details.
Select to remove the displayed harvest from the operation.
Enter the total area on which the activity was performed during the farming or spray operation. If this field is left blank, this user-entered value is supplied by default from the total harvest planted area.
22.214.171.124 Harvest Lot Detail
Click the Harvest Lot Detail link. The cost center on the harvest record and the branch on the operation must be the same to track lot details.
Figure 7-20 View Wine Lot Details form
126.96.36.199 Farming Info
Select the Farming Info tab.
Figure 7-21 Edit Grower Operation form: Farming Info tab
Select a UDC (40G/SM) to identify the method of farming operation.
Enter the address book number for the person performing the operation.
Enter the operator ID for the person operating the grower operation (use when the base operation is Farm or Spray). If this is an internal block, the system supplies by default the operator ID that is defined on the block. If this is an external block or if the operation has multiple harvests, the user must manually enter the operator information.
Displays a value from the configured operation that signifies the number of days that must elapse since the last activity on this harvest record. You can override this value.
Displays a value from the configured operation that signifies the number of days that must elapse before the next harvest activity can take place on the harvest record. You can override this value.
Displays a value from the configured operation that signifies the number of days that must elapse before you reenter the harvest block. You can override this value.
Displays a value from the configured operation that signifies the number of days that must elapse before he next harvest activity can take place on the harvest record. You can override this value.
Enter a unique identifier representing a farming activity. Values are set up in the Farming Activities Additional Configuration program (P40G75), which is accessed from the Configured Operation Setup program (P31B75P). Values can include:
Displays the optimum value that is set up on the farming code.
Displays the farming code description.
Select the Equipment tab.
Figure 7-22 Edit Grower Operation form: Equipment tab
Enter an identifier for a piece of equipment that performs this operation. The system uses this information to schedule the equipment on the block when required and to manage cost control. Values are set up in the Equipment Attributes program (P31B05).
Enter the business unit that owns the equipment. Costs are pulled from the business unit and equipment number record.
Enter free-form text detailing information for the piece of equipment that is used in this operation.
Enter the actual time a work group or staff member spent on an operation or the actual time a piece of equipment was used on an operation.
Select the code for the time duration.
Select the Consumables tab.
Figure 7-23 Edit Grower Operation form: Consumables tab
Specify the consumable template to attach to the operation. If you have set up consumable templates, you can select the appropriate template on the Search & Select Consumable Template form. You can set up consumable templates to simplify data entry.
You have the option to append a consumable template or to replace any consumables that you entered with the list of consumables from the template.
You can also manually enter consumables and then save them as a template.
See "Creating Consumable Templates" in the JD Edwards EnterpriseOne Applications Blend Management Implementation Guide .
Enter an item number for anything that is consumed by the operation.
Select the Resources tab.
Specify the work group code for the operation. Values are set up in the Work Groups program (P31B11).
Specify a staff number for the operation. The system enables you to enter either a staff number or a work group code. Values are set up in the Staff Information program (P31B02).
Enter the actual time that a work group or staff member spent on an operation.
188.8.131.52 Instruct Lot Attributes
Click the Instruct Lot Attributes link. The system does not support EUR, Composition, and Ownership Lot Attributes for operations using FARM, FARMQA, and SPRAY as the base operation. Most grower operations use an area unit of measure and the system cannot calculate a lot quantity for an area.
The system displays a negative 1 for active ingredients for spray operations.
See "Managing Lot Attributes" in the JD Edwards EnterpriseOne Applications Blend Management Implementation Guide .
7.5.6 Entering Spray Operations
Access the Farming Activities - [spray operation name] form.
Entering spray operations is similar to entering farming operations. You enter the instructed start date, end date, and duration. You can also add instructions, comments, and category codes.
See Entering Farm Operations .
184.108.40.206 Harvest Assignments
Select the Harvest Assignments tab.
Figure 7-24 Edit Grower Operation form: Harvest Assignments tab
Displays the treated area from the harvest.
Enter the total treated area that is affected by the spray operation. This is a user-entered value, or it is supplied by default from the total harvest planted area if this field is left blank. This value is for informational purposes only and does not drive any functionality.
Displays the default area unit of measure that is entered in the Winery Constants program (P31B13).
Displays a concatenated number using the block code, harvest period, and harvest suffix.
220.127.116.11 Spray Info
Select the Spray Info tab.
Figure 7-25 Edit Grower Operation form: Spray Info tab
Enter the item number for the spray master.
Displays the cost center from the operation branch that is associated with the spray item. You can override the cost center and use a spray item from another business unit.
Enter a UDC (40G/SM) to identify the method of spray operation. Values might include:
Enter a quantity for an additive on a spray operation. This value represents a fixed quantity. This value is supplied by default from the item spray master.
Enter the total quantity of an additive for an operation to override the system-calculated additive quantity. Select the check box to the right of this field to enable input.
After you enter a value, select the Calculate Rate From Total check box and click the Refresh button. The system recalculates the Additive Quantity value and disables that field.
Enter a value that signifies the number of days that must have elapsed since the last activity took place on this harvest record. This value is supplied by default from the item spray master and can be overridden.
Enter a value that signifies the number of days that must elapse before the next harvest activity can take place on the harvest record. This value is supplied by default from the item spray master and can be overridden.
Enter a value that signifies the number of days that must elapse before you reenter the harvest block. This value is supplied by default from the item spray master and can be overridden.
Enter a value that signifies the number of days that must elapse before any other activity can take place on the harvest. This value defaults from the item spray master and can be overridden.
Select to denote that the spray item being used in the operation is supplied internally by the grower and issued from inventory when the operation is closed.
Enter the inventory location that the system uses when issuing the spray item from inventory.
Enter the lot number of the spray item being used.
Select a UDC (40G/PT) to denote whether the spray is production or nonproduction.
Enter the operator ID for the person operating the grower operation (Base Ops Farm and Spray). If this is an internal block, the system operator ID that is defined on the block as the default value. If this is an external block or if the operation has multiple harvests, the user must manually enter the operator information.
Enter a code to specify the chemical that is used in the operation. The system copies this code from the item spray information at the time the operation is created.
Select to indicate that the system validates all operations that have withholding days for the corresponding withholding activity.
Enter a UDC (40G/SI) to be used with nonproduction sprays that identifies the type of site being sprayed.
Enter the spray operator license number as assigned by the government.
7.5.7 Entering Harvest Operations
Complete the operation header information and click Save and Continue.
Click to access the Search and Select Harvests form to select the desired harvest.
You can also manually enter the block code and harvest period on the Harvest Assignment tab. The system retrieves additional harvest information, for example the current estimates, and displays it on the Harvest Assignment tab.
Click to activate the Scheduled Harvest tab. If you enter the harvest operation at a status beyond Draft, the system reserves the harvest record at this point.
18.104.22.168 Scheduled Harvest
Select the Scheduled Harvest tab.
Figure 7-26 Edit Grower Operation form: Scheduled Harvest tab
Enter the quantity to be harvested. The system supplies the unit of measure from the harvest.
If you enter a quantity that is larger than the current estimate, the system issues a warning. However, if you manually change the harvest estimate, the system does not issue a warning if, because of this change, the scheduled quantity exceeds the current estimate.
If you use continuous estimates, the Current Estimate field remains blank. In this case, you must enter both the scheduled quantity and the area.
Enter the area to be harvested if you prefer to define the harvest in terms of acreage. The system supplies the default unit of measure from the harvest.
If you use continuous estimates, the Current Estimate field remains blank. In this case, you must enter both the scheduled quantity and the area. If the system cannot calculate the quantity when the operation is moved to a status beyond Draft, the system issues an error.
Click to calculate the scheduled harvest quantity. The system uses the following equation for this calculation: Harvest Quantity = (Current Estimate/Planted Area) x Harvest Area.
If the Scheduled Quantity field contains a positive number, the system does not override the value because of this calculation. You must manually clear the field and then perform the calculation.
Enter the code for the recipient of the harvested crop. The system displays the address book number of the receiving branch in the Deliver To field.
If a purchase order exists for the harvest, this option appears checked. If you have not yet created a purchase order, this field is enabled.
As you create or update a harvest operation, the system updates the harvest quantities in the Grower Harvest table (F40G03) and displays them in these fields.
The scheduled quantity represents the total of all scheduled quantities on harvest operations at a status beyond Draft for a specific harvest.
The completed quantity is the sum of all scheduled quantities on closed harvest operations for a specific harvest.
The received quantity is the total received quantity from all closed weigh tag operations for a harvest.
The Remaining Quantity field stores the difference between the scheduled and the received quantity.
When you close the harvest operation, the system generates a purchase order and populates this field with the purchase order number.
Click to access lot detail about the harvest. When you enter a harvest information, the system generates a new lot number, but retains all lot attributes. The new lot number applies to the entire harvest, not just the actual quantity of harvested crops.
The system uses the scheduled quantity and area that you enter or calculate to update only the Grower Harvest table, but do not change the lot quantity.
Select to remove the harvest assignment. Consequently, the system clears the values on the Scheduled Harvest tab and disables it.
7.5.8 Entering Farm Operations Using Create From List - Farming Operations
Access the Operation/WO Template Selection form.
Figure 7-27 Operation/WO Template Selection form
Enter the facility that the work order template was created for.
Enter the number of the work order template to associate with the selected vessel or vessels.
Enter a description for the operation.
Enter the configured operation code to create an operation for the selected vessels. If you enter a configured operation code to create an operation, the system does not enable you to enter work order template information.
Enter a UDC (31B/TW) that identifies the type of work order that is being created. You can use this code to identify a group of operations that are performed . For example:
PPP: Plant, pick, prune
PIS: Plant, irrigate, spray
Initially displays a status of Draft when you add an operation.
Enter the anticipated start date for the operation.
Enter the anticipated end date for the operation.
7.6 setting up spray masters.
This section provides an overview of spray master records, lists prerequisites, and discusses how to set up spray masters.
7.6.1 Understanding Spray Masters
Spray master records are set up as enterprise requirements planning (ERP) items. You must create an item and item branch record for each spray master. You can use any stocking type when creating the item record. The spray master must exist before you can apply it to a harvest.
22.214.171.124 Restricted EURs and Styles
When you create a spray master, you can assign one or more end-use reservation (EUR) codes that are restricted for the spray master. For example, you have an organic EUR that you do not want to spray with chemicals. Diazinon is a chemical that is used in the pesticide spray. When you create the spray item for pesticide, you enter the organic EUR code. The same logic applies to styles.
The system issues a warning message when you attach a harvest to a spray operation and the spray operation has one or more restricted EURs and the harvest has the same EURs.
Create a spray master using the Item Master program (P4101).
Create a branch-specific spray master using the Item Branch/Plant program (P41026).
Set up EUR records.
Set up block styles.
See "Entering Branch, Plant Information" in the JD Edwards EnterpriseOne Applications Inventory Management Implementation Guide .
"Entering Item Master Information" in the JD Edwards EnterpriseOne Applications Inventory Management Implementation Guide .
7.6.3 Forms Used to Set Up Spray Masters
7.6.4 setting up spray masters.
Access the Edit Spray Item form.
Figure 7-28 Edit Spray Item form
Select to indicate that the spray item has chemical restrictions imposed on it.
Enter a registration number for the pesticide that is assigned by the government. This number is specific to the branch/plant.
Enter the name of the chemical manufacturer.
Enter the optimum application quantity and unit of measure for the spray operation. Changing the divisor quantity or unit of measure changes the divisor quantity or unit of measure for the minimum and maximum rates.
Enter the minimum application quantity for the spray operation for a given area.
Enter the maximum application quantity for the spray operation for a given area.
Enter the target organisms for the spray operation.
Enter a code to identify the chemical. When creating an operation, the system copies the chemical code for use in data selection.
Enter the secondary pesticide registration number that is used for spray items.
Enter the identification number of the manufacturer.
Click to access the Enter Bill of Material Information form. On this form, you define ingredients as active ingredients, enter quantities, and define effective dates.
See "Entering a Bill of Material" in the JD Edwards EnterpriseOne Applications Product Data Management Implementation Guide .
126.96.36.199 Withholding Periods
Enter a value that signifies the number of days that must have elapsed since the last activity took place on this harvest record.
Enter a value that signifies the number of days that must elapse before the next harvest activity can take place on the harvest record.
Enter a value that signifies the number of days that must elapse before reentering the harvest block.
Enter a value that signifies the number of days that must elapse before any other activity can take place on the harvest record.
188.8.131.52 Restricted EURs
Select the Restricted EURs tab.
184.108.40.206 Restricted Styles
Select the Restricted Styles tab.
7.7 Updating Operations
This section provides an overview of updating farming operations and discusses how to:
Update operations using speed operation update.
Set processing options for Speed Actuals Update (P31B67)
Update operations using speed actuals update.
Review withholding warning details.
7.7.1 Understanding Updating Farming Operations
If you want to update operations, you search for and retrieve them on the Search For Operations form using the available filters. After the system retrieves the operations, you can update them by adding further details to one or more operations. You use the Speed Operation Update program (P31B96) to provide detailed information for operations. You can define planned start and end dates, and the system calculates the duration for each operation. In addition, you can assign staff and equipment to the selected operations. For example, you can group operations of a similar nature by assigning them a job number. You assign qualified resources to a job number for a particular type of operation. For example, you assign quality assurance personnel to quality assurance operations. These operations can belong to multiple work orders.
220.127.116.11 Operations Workflow
This flowchart shows the operation statuses:
Figure 7-29 Operation Workflow
The flowchart shows the operation status and the paths that are valid for updating statues. For example
When you create an operation, you can save it with an active or draft status. You cannot create a new operation with a closed status.
When the operation is in an active status, you can maintain the operation and keep it at an active status or update the status to Actuals, Cancelled, or Closed.
Once an operation is at a Closed status, the only status you can move it to is back to active (as part of reversing an operation).
Once all farming activities are complete, you update the harvest status to closed to indicate all activities for this harvest record have been completed. You can set up user-defined statuses, using the Operation Workflow Status program (P31B74), however each of the user-defined statuses must correspond to a status in the flowchart.
18.104.22.168 Record Reservation
To avoid simultaneous processing of the same operation, the system reserves (locks) records for processing by any other program. When you access and edit an operation record, the system reserves the record for that program. Additionally, the system reserves all harvests that are attached to the operation, and its downstream operations.
When another user attempts to access a reserved operation, the system issues an error indicating that the operation is reserved. Users must wait until the system releases the records; however, any user can view the records.
If you reschedule operations by changing the planned date of an operation, you change the dependency chain. That means that revising an upstream operation may now affect different downstream operations and vessels. If a vessel in a downstream operation is reserved from a different application, the system cannot process the record reservation and returns an error.
22.214.171.124 Speed Operation Update
This diagram shows the information that you can update using the Speed Update program (P31B96)
Figure 7-30 Speed Operation Update
You use the Speed Operation Update program (P31B96) to change the operation status to active, actual, or closed. You can also assign a job number to the operation.
The system recalculates the elapsed time when you change either the instructed start time or the instructed end time. However, if you change the elapsed time, the system does not recalculate the instructed end date.
You can edit equipment and resources also. You cannot edit spray and farm information using this program.
126.96.36.199 Speed Actuals
Occasionally, you might to add or change the actual values on several operations. You can use the Speed Actuals Update program (P31B67) to add and change the actual values on multiple operations using one form. The system displays the appropriate tabs, based on the type of operation that you choose. For example, when you choose a farm operation, you cannot access the spray tab. When you enter actuals for harvest operations, the system displays the Scheduled Harvest tab.
When you select operations, the system reserves those operations. If the operation is currently reserved, an error message appears on the Speed Actuals Update form.
As you enter or change actual values using the Speed Actuals Update form, the system enters a check mark in the Process Y/N field in the row of the operation with which you are working. The system accepts changes only to operations with a check mark. To discard changes, remove the check mark and the system does not accept changes to the operation.
You can change only the Instructed Start, Instructed End, Actual Start, Actual End, and Status fields for the operation header record. You can change the status of an operation to active or actual, not closed. You can remove the actual end date and enter the actual elapsed time and the system recalculates the actual end date. The system calculates the new actual end date using the unit of measure entered during operation entry.
You can edit equipment and resources also.
188.8.131.52 Withholding Warnings in Speed Actuals
When you make changes to farming or spray operations, these changes may cause withholding date violations. When you save the changes, the system validates withholding dates for the selected operations that have a check mark in the Update column. The system performs the validation for each withholding type that is selected for an operation. The validation checks whether the operation dates overlap with the withholding dates of other operations. If an operation in the Speed Actuals Update program overlaps with multiple existing operation, the system only finds the first existing operation for each validation rule and validates the next harvest or operation.
When you change the actual start or end date of the operation and then attempt to save the changes, the system performs a two-way validation. The system issues a warning if:
The operation that you selected in the Speed Actuals Update program is planned or performed within the withholding period of another operation.
One or more operations have been planned or performed within the withholding period of the operation that you selected in the Speed Actuals Update program.
If either of these conditions is met, the system displays a warning. If you set the withholding date processing options for any of the four types of withholding dates for the Speed Actuals Update program, the system automatically displays the Withholding Warning Detail form. The form lists the operation number and all harvest records that are associated with an operation.
To enable the Speed Actuals Update program to validate withholding dates, ensure that the appropriate validation check boxes for farm and spray operations are selected.
7.7.3 Forms Used to Update Operations
7.7.4 updating operations using speed operation update.
Access the Speed Operation Update form.
Figure 7-31 Speed Operation Update form
Select Generate New Job Number to generate an operation job number. This number is used for grouping and planning purposes. You can also manually enter a job number.
Enter the new workflow status of the operation.
The system selects this check box when you change the operation status.
Enter the instructed start time of the operation. Changing the start date or end date triggers the withholding validation process and issues a warning if any overlap exists.
Enter the instructed end time of the operation. Changing the start date or end date triggers the withholding validation process and issues a warning if any overlap exists.
Enter the elapsed time for the operation.
Enter the work group that performed the operation. This value is created in the Setup Work Group Master program (P31B11).
Enter the staff number of the individual who performed the operation. This value is created in the Staff Setup program (P31B02).
Select the unit of measure representing the actual time that is spent for each work group and staff member.
Enter the equipment number that is used to perform the operation. This value is created in the Create Equipment Attributes program (P31B05). The equipment and operation must have the same branch.
The system defaults the winery providing the equipment.
Enter free-form text that is specific to the equipment.
7.7.5 Setting Processing Options for Speed Actuals Update (P31B67)
Use these processing options to control default processing for the Speed Actuals Update program.
This processing option enables you to specify a default workflow status.
Enter the name of a workflow status. The system uses this status as the default when updating the status of the operations. For example, a configured workflow status might be Issued, Instructed, or Pending. If you leave this processing option blank, the system does not update the status of the operation.
This processing option controls the versions that the system uses when it calls additional programs.
Specify the version the system uses to call the Grower Speed Weigh Tag program. If you leave this processing option blank, the system uses the default version ZJDE0001.
These processing options control the display of withholding warnings.
Indicate whether the Withholding Warning Detail form should automatically be displayed when a prior withholding warning occurs. Values are:
1: Automatically display the warning screen.
Blank: Do not automatically display the warning screen.
When you display the warning screen, the system automatically highlights the Existing Prior Withholding Period and Existing Prior Activity columns.
Indicate whether the Withholding Warning Detail form should automatically be displayed when a reentry withholding warning occurs. Values are:
When you display the warning screen, the system automatically highlights the Existing Reentry Withholding Period and Existing Reentry Activity columns.
Indicate whether the Withholding Warning Detail form should automatically be displayed when a subsequent withholding warning occurs. Values are:
When you display the warning screen, the system automatically highlights the Existing Subsequent Withholding Period and Existing Subsequent Activity columns.
Indicate whether the Withholding Warning Detail form should automatically be displayed when a harvest withholding warning occurs. Values are:
When you display the warning screen, the system automatically highlights the Existing Harvest Withholding Period and Existing Harvest Activity columns.
7.7.6 Updating Operations Using Speed Actuals Update
Access the Speed Actuals Update form.
Figure 7-32 Speed Actuals Update form
Click to validate withholding dates.
When you first access the Speed Actuals Update form to work with grower operations, this check box is always selected and disabled. When you click Save and Close after making changes, the system always validates the withholding dates. After the first validation, the check box remains selected, but you can deselect it.
If you want the system to continue performing validations, keep the check box selected. However, if you do not want the system to continue validating withholding dates after the first time, you must deselect the check box.
Click to access the Withholding Warning Detail form.
You can use this link if you did not set the processing options for the Speed Actuals Update program to display the warning detail form automatically when you click Save and Close and the validation identifies overlapping withholding dates.
If you access the Withholding Warning Detail form manually, the system does not highlight any columns.
7.7.7 Reviewing Withholding Warning Details
Access the Withholding Warning Detail form.
Figure 7-33 Withholding Warning Detail form
7.8 Reversing Operations
This section provides an overview of reversing operations and discusses how to reverse operations.
7.8.1 Understanding Reversing Operations
After an operation is closed, you might reverse the operation, for example, if the user makes a data entry error or if the work was entered in the system but never performed. This might occur when the supervisor tells the user to create an irrigation operation for 600 blocks, and just after closing the operations, it rains; the operation is not complete. Another example would be when the user enters an operation for the wrong block. The user must reverse the operation and then record the information for the correct block.
You can also reverse weigh tag operations. An example would be when the farmer delivers the crop to the wrong crush site. The person at the weigh bridge may accept delivery, but when the grower representative runs the weigh tag summary report and sees the delivery to the wrong site, he or she may ask that the material be shipped to the correct crush site. Sending premium merlot grapes to a box wine crush site is an example of a mistake that must be reversed.
7.8.2 Forms Used to Reverse Operations
7.8.3 reversing operations.
Access the Reverse Operations form.
Figure 7-34 Reverse Operations form
Enter the reason for the reversal. This is a required field.
Select the name of the workflow status. For example, a configured workflow status can be draft, actual, or active. This workflow status should be unique to the status type. For each workflow type, the workflow name should be unique.
7.9 Reviewing Operation History
This section provides an overview of operation history and discusses how to review operation history.
7.9.1 Understanding Operation History
After operations are attached to a grower harvest, you can view all the operations using the Operation History program (P40G70).
7.9.2 Forms Used to Review Operation History
7.9.3 reviewing operation history.
Access the View Operations History form.
Figure 7-35 View Operation History form
Select whether the system uses the planned dates or actual dates when searching for operations that are assigned to the identified grower harvest.
Specify the from start date to narrow your search for operations.
Specify a through start date when searching based on a range of start dates.
Specify the from end date to narrow your search for operations.
Specify a through start date when searching based on a range of operation end dates.
Select an operation status.
7.10 Reviewing Grower Hierarchy
This section provides an overview of grower hierarchy and discusses how to set up processing options for the Grower Hierarchy program (P40G0400)
7.10.1 Understanding Grower Hierarchy
The grower hierarchy is a term that refers to the hierarchal structure of a farm. The hierarchal structure consists of four levels:
Farm. This is the highest level of the hierarchy (level 1).
Block. This is the second level of the hierarchy.
Harvest. This is the third level of the hierarchy.
Harvest Suffix. This is the lowest level of the hierarchy (level 4).
You can use the Grower Hierarchy program (P40G0400) to view the grower hierarchy. The Grower Hierarchy program provides links for easy access to the Grower Farm (P40G01), Grower Block (P40G02), Grower Harvests (P40G03), and Item Master (P4101) programs. The Grower Hierarchy program also enables you to save and edit queries
7.10.2 Form Used to Review Grower Hierarchy
7.10.3 setting processing options for the grower hierarchy program (p40g0400).
Use these processing options to set default values.
These processing options enable you to enter default information for the Grower Hierarchy program.
Specify the default farm code the system uses for this version of the Grower Hierarchy program.
Specify the default block code the system uses for this version of the Grower Hierarchy program.
Specify the default harvest period the system uses for this version of the Grower Hierarchy program.
Specify the default harvest suffix the system uses for this version of the Grower Hierarchy program.
Specify the default farm type the system uses for this version of the Grower Hierarchy program.
Specify the default cost center the system uses for this version of the Grower Hierarchy program.
Specify the default farm status code the system uses for this version of the Grower Hierarchy program.
Specify the default block status code the system uses for this version of the Grower Hierarchy program.
Specify the default harvest status code the system uses for this version of the Grower Hierarchy program.
Specify which version of Grower Farm Maintenance program (P40G01) you want the system to use. If left blank, the system uses version ZJDE0001.
Specify which version of Grower Block Maintenance program (P40G02) you want the system to use. If left blank, the system uses version ZJDE0001.
Specify which version of Grower Harvest Maintenance program (P40G03) you want the system to use. If left blank, the system uses version ZJDE0001.
Specify which version of Item Master program (P4101) you want the system to use. If left blank, the system uses version ZJDE0001.
7.10.4 Reviewing Grower Hierarchy
Access the Grower Hierarchy form.
Figure 7-36 Grower Hierarchy form
7.11 Running Operation Reports
This section discusses how to:
Run the Pesticide Usage report.
Set processing options for Pesticide Usage Report (R40G300).
7.11.1 Running the Pesticide Usage Report
Select Reports (G40G1211), Pesticide Usage Report.
Figure 7-37 Pesticide Usage Report
7.11.2 Setting Processing Options for Pesticide Usage Report (R40G300)
Use these processing options to specify contact types and select dates when running the report.
184.108.40.206 Contact Types
Specify up to three contact types to be printed on the Spray report. If multiple contacts exists in the Grower Contacts table (F40G102), the first one prints.
Specify whether you want to run the report by the actual start date or the Instructed start date in the Operation Header table (F31B65). Values are:
Blank or 0: Run the report based on the actual start date.
1: Run the report based on the instructed start date.
Specify the start date for the spray report. Spray operations with start dates that are later than or equal to this date and before or equal to the specified ending date are included on the report. If this processing option is left blank, the start date is not used in the selection criteria.
Specify the end date for the spray report. The report includes spray operations with end dates that are before or equal to this date and later than or equal to the specified starting date. If this processing option is left blank, the system does not use the end date in the selection criteria.
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- 1. APPLYING SAFETY MEASURES IN FARM OPERATIONS DETERMINE AREAS OF CONCERN FOR SAFETY MEASURES
- 2. Write true if the statement is correct and false if the statement is wrong. Write your answer on your answer sheet. 1. To reduce the risk of tractor accidents, the farm worker must be familiar with operator`s manual. 2. First harrowing is at 4 days before transplanting. 3. Keep the machine and supply of fuel in locked storage and remove the ignition key. 4. To reduce fire hazards, clean the machine thoroughly before storage. 5. Do not clean your disc harrow after use.
- 3. OBJECTIVES •Identify work tasks in line with farm operations. •Determine place and time for safety measures in line with farm operations. •Prepare appropriate tools, materials, and outfits in line with job requirements
- 4. WHAT IS AGRICULTURAL WORKERS? •Agricultural workers maintain crops and tend to livestock. They perform physical labor and operate machinery under the supervision of farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers.
- 5. DUTIES OF AN AGRICULTURAL WORKER •Inspect and harvest crop by hand. •Irrigate farm soil and maintain ditches or pipes and pumps. •Operate and service farm machinery and tools •Spray fertilizer or pesticide solutions to control insects, fungi, and weeds. •Move shrubs, plants, and trees with wheelbarrows or tractors.
- 6. •Feed livestock and clean and disinfect their pens, cages, yards, and hutches. •Examine animals to detect symptoms of illnesses or injuries and administer vaccines to protect animals from diseases. •Use brands, tags, or tattoos to mark livestock in order to identify ownership and grade. •Herd livestock to pastures for grazing or to scales, trucks, or other enclosures. •Keep records on the production, maintenance and repair.
- 7. CROP , NURSERY, AND GREENHOUSE FARM WORKERS AND LABORERS • perform numerous tasks related to growing and harvesting grains, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and other crops. a. They plant, seed, prune, irrigate, and harvest crops, and pack and load them for shipment. b. Farm workers also apply pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers to crops. c. They repair fences and some farm equipment.
- 8. AGRICULTURAL EQUIPMENT OPERATORS • use a variety of farm equipment to plow and sow seeds, as well as maintain and harvest crops. a. They may use tractors, fertilizer spreaders, balers, combines, threshers, and trucks. b. These workers also operate machines such as conveyor belts, loading machines, separators, cleaners, and dryers. c. Workers may make adjustments and minor repairs to equipment.
- 9. DIFFERENT FARM ACTIVITY 1. Land preparation- covers a wide range of practices form zero-tillage or minimum tillage which maximizes soil disturbances. It typically involves plowing to till or dig-up, mix, and overturn the soil, harrowing to break the soil clods into smaller mass and incorporate plant residue and leveling the field.
- 10. 2. Planting- are practiced in crop farming. Planting may be done by hand or on some sites by machine. 2 two methods of planting •direct planting • indirect planting.
- 11. 3. Irrigation- •helps to grow agricultural crops, maintain landscapes, and revegetate disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of less than average rainfall. The goal is to apply the water to the plants as uniformly as possible, so that each plant has the amount of water it needs, neither much nor too little.
- 12. 4. Fertilizer application- is carried out in such a way to replenish the soil nutrient levels removed during the growth and to optimally maintain physiological health of the plant. Farmer apply fertilizer either directly onto plant or to the soil.
- 13. 5. Harvesting- is the act of removing a crop from where it was growing and moving it to a more secure location for processing, consumption, or storage. Before the crop can be harvested, the grower must be sure that there is a demand for the crop and that the price is sufficient to make harvesting the crop profitable.
- 14. HAZARD, RISK AND EXPOSURE IN THE FARM • Hazard is the potential for harm, or adverse effect on an employee’s heath. Anything which may cause injury or ill health anyone at or near a workplace is a hazard. • Risk is the likelihood that a hazard will cause injury or ill health to anyone at or near a workplace. Risk level increases with the severity of the hazard duration and frequency of exposure. • Exposure occurs when a person comes into contact with a hazard.
- 15. TYPES OF HAZARD •Physical Hazard- includes floors, stairs, work platforms, steps, ladders, fire, falling objects, slippery surfaces, manual handling (lifting, pushing, pulling), excessively loud and prolonged noise, vibration, heat and cold, radiation, poor lighting, ventilation, air quality.
- 16. •Chemical Hazard- includes chemical substances such as acid or poisons and those that could lead fire or explosion, like pesticides, herbicides, cleaning agents, dusts and fumes from various processes such as welding
- 17. •Psychosocial environment - includes workplace stressors arising from a variety of sources. •Biological - includes bacteria, viruses, mold, mildew, insects, vermin, animals •Mechanical and/or electrical - includes electricity, machinery, equipment, pressure vessels, dangerous goods, forklifts, cranes,
- 18. •Ergonomic hazards are a result of physical factors that can result in musculoskeletal injuries. For example, a poor workstation setup in an office, poor posture and manual handling.
- 19. FARM EMERGENCY PROCEDURES REGARDING SAFETY WORKING ENVIRONMENT 1. Identify the potential emergencies. The emergencies that may occur on a crop production farm could include fire, flood, typhoon, machinery entrapment, electrical shock, snake or spider bite, chemical exposure, farm injuries, farm illness and farm accidents. 2. Provide emergency facilities appropriate for the sorts of emergencies that might occur on the farm (e.g. deluge showers, eye washes, fire fighting equipment, first aid kits).
- 20. 3. Make sure that the correct equipment is available to contain and handle any chemical or other dangerous materials spills that might happen. 4. Visitors need to be aware regarding emergency procedure and their responsibilities to minimize the risk of personal injury in the event of emergency. 5. Instruct everyone working on the farm in the emergency response procedures.
- 21. 6. Everyone should know the location of fire alarms, fire extinguishers and first aid kits; how and where to contact emergency services; and where to safely assemble in the event of an emergency. 7. Know the emergency services; and where to safely assemble in the event of an emergency.
- 22. HIGH RISK FACTOR 1. Age-injury rate are highest among those 15 and younger and adults over 65 years old. Because no mandatory retirement age exists for farmers, many continue to perform some tasks even though they are unable to execute them safely. •One in nine farmers aged 65 and older have been involved in a tractor rollover. •Those aged 65 and older account for half of all farming deaths
- 23. 2. Lack of medical care- since most of the farmers live in the rural area, hospitals and EMS are often a far distance away from the farm. Response time could be upwards of an hour before the injured receives medical care.
- 24. 3. Machinery • The most commonly utilized pieces of equipment around the farm are tractors, trucks, wagons, mowers, spreaders, grinders, blowers, augers, shredders, balers, rakes and combines. matter how different they are if they used improperly and carelessly it can be fatal.
- 25. FARM WORKS THAT INVOLVE USING CHEMICALS AND HAZARDOUS TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT 1. LAND PREPARATIONS USING TRACTOR •Victims fall off or are thrown from the tractor •Run over by either the tractor or an implement being towed, or both. •Overturn
- 26. Safety reminders: •Tractors are not passenger vehicles. •Use seat belts when driving tractors. •ROPS will protect the operator from serious injuries. Causes of run over accidents •Sudden stops •Driving over holes, stumps and debris, or a sharp turn
- 27. HOW TO PREVENT RUNOVER? •Never allow riders on tractors. •Discuss with family members and farm workers the potential risks of riding tractor. •It's also helpful to post 'no riders' decals on all tractors to remind others about the policy. •Use or provide other vehicles that allow passengers, such as trucks or cars, when transportation is needed to fields or remote work sites.
- 28. 2. SPRAYING CHEMICALS •These chemicals are used to fertilize and control pests such as insects, weeds, mollusk, etc. Examples of chemical hazards: •Spraying in a strong wind and the spray drifting over a dam or the farm house. •Washing spray equipment and the water running into open drains, collecting in puddles, or running
- 29. •Washing spray equipment and the water running into open drains, collecting in puddles, or running into stockyards or dams. •Containers or chemicals left lying around. Empty containers lying in a heap
- 30. SOME WAYS YOU CAN REDUCE THE RISK OF HAZARDS FROM CHEMICALS ARE: • Use personal protective equipment such as respirators, waterproof clothes, rubber gloves and waterproof footwear. • Make sure chemicals are safely stored and cupboards locked. • Never spray chemicals on days when there is a high wind. • Know first aid procedures. • Keep a list of all hazardous substances used on the farm.
- 31. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (PPE) •can reduce the number and severity of farm work related injuries and illnesses. Personal protective equipment not only helps protect people but also improves productivity and profits. Farmers and ranchers can share in these benefits by using the appropriate protective equipment for themselves, family members and employees when the job and its potential hazards call for it.
- 32. LIST OF FARM PPE: Helmet/hard hat -protect your head with a hard hat when performing construction work, trimming trees, repairing machinery, and doing other jobs with head injury risks. •Use a sun safety hat (one with a wide brim and neck protection) to assist in the prevention of skin cancer.
- 33. Goggle •- Protect your vision with appropriate safety eyewear (safety glasses, goggles, face-shields) when applying pesticides, fertilizers, working in the shop, or in heavy dust conditions. Earmuffs/Plugs - protect you hearing when operating noisy such as grain dryers, feed grinder, old tractors and chainsaws.
- 34. Mask/ respirators -protect your lungs with the correct respiratory equipment when working in dusty or moldy conditions, spray painting, applying chemicals manure storage places.
- 35. ACTIVITY 1 You are going to identify the different farm operation activity. Determine the time and place where accident takes place and determine also the safety measure to control a workplace hazard.
- 36. Farm operation activity Safety measures
- 37. ACTIVITY 2 •In this activity you are going to identify which individual wearing a proper use of PPE in applying pesticides. Assess the images and tell if there is a difference and list down the different PPE you’ve seen in the picture.
- 38. Picture 1 Picture 2
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9405 Farm Operations Manager
TITLE Farm Operations Manager
CLASSIFICATION NUMBER 9405
IMMEDIATE SUPERVISOR Dean, College of Agriculture
The Farm Operations Manager manages the daily operations of the Darr Agricultural Center, Baker’s Acres, and the Kindrick Family Farm teaching and research farms.
MINIMUM ACCEPTABLE QUALIFICATIONS
Education: A Bachelor’s degree in Agriculture is required; a Master’s degree in Agriculture is preferred.
Experience: Three years of experience managing livestock or farm and ranch operations is required. Experience with low stress livestock handling techniques, management intensive grazing (MIG), farm machinery operation, and crop management and harvest is required. Experience working with a livestock operation and performing duties such as fence building, maintenance, and livestock vaccination, etc., are required.
Skills: Effective verbal and written communication skills are required. Organizational skills are required. Proficiency with Microsoft Office Applications, such as Word and Excel, is required. The ability to develop knowledge of, respect for, and skills to engage with those of other cultures or backgrounds is required.
License: Must have a valid motor vehicle operator's license.
Effort: Requires the ability to lift and carry livestock and farm supplies and equipment weighing fifty pounds or more on a regular basis, prolonged walking or standing, and frequent bending, stooping, kneeling, and reaching on a daily basis. Requires a full range of physical motion in order to operate manual, electrically-powered and/or gasoline-powered equipment and machines and to load cattle. Requires the ability to access facilities and areas which may only be accessible by climbing stairs or by climbing ladders to a height of 15 feet. Must be able to move throughout assigned areas, as the work is often performed out-of-doors, year round.
Other: The scope of the position requires exposure to and use of chemical compounds for application on trees, crops, and grasses which may be hazardous and cause injury if specific instructions regarding their mixture, application, use and disposal/storage are not properly followed.
ESSENTIAL DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES
1. Oversees the maintenance and repair of equipment, vehicles, and facilities and performs livestock and crop production activities, which may include coordinating the feeding, fitting, and exhibition of cattle as appropriate for meeting departmental objectives, at the Darr Center, Baker’s Acres, and the Kindrick Family Farm as directed by the Dean, College of Agriculture.
2. Participate in the planning, preparation, and execution of Journagan Ranch activities as directed by the Dean, College of Agriculture.
3. Works in coordination with the Dean, College of Agriculture to prepare the Pinegar Arena and Learning Center building for rentals and other activities.
4. Assists with research and educational activities by following verbal and written protocols and communicating effectively with Missouri State University agricultural researchers and educators and the general public.
5. Participates in training and supervising student employees working with livestock and performing other farm duties.
6. Contributes to a work environment that encourages knowledge of, respect for, and development of skills to engage with those of other cultures or backgrounds.
7. Remains competent and current through self-directed professional reading, developing professional contacts with colleagues, attending professional development courses, and attending training and/or courses as required.
8. Supports the overall success of the Darr College of Agriculture by performing all other duties as assigned.
The Farm Operations Manager is supervised by the Dean, College of Agriculture and Darr Agricultural Center project leaders and supervises student workers.
OFFICE OF HUMAN RESOURCES
REVISED APRIL 2020
Revolutionize Your Farm Operations with AGRIVI’s New Work Orders: Streamline Tasks, Boost Productivity, and Digitize Your Workflow
Introducing AGRIVI’s new Work Orders 2.0 . One of our latest features streamlines your farm’s operational processes, making it easier than ever to manage and track work activities. With AGRIVI’s work orders, you can create, assign, and monitor tasks in real-time , ensuring your team stays on top of their to-do list. Plus, with detailed insights and reporting features, you can analyze your team’s productivity and optimize your farm’s workflow.
Gone are the days of manual record-keeping and tedious paperwork. With AGRIVI’s new work orders, you can digitize your entire farm operation and make data-driven decisions . Our user-friendly interface allows you to quickly create and assign tasks to specific team members, set deadlines, and track progress all in one place.
AGRIVI’s work orders also offer flexibility and customization to fit your unique farm needs . Create recurring tasks for regular maintenance, set up alerts and notifications to keep everyone in the loop, and attach important documents and photos to each work order for easy access. Our system adapts to your farm’s workflow, making it easier for you to stay organized and in control.
Users can now assign work orders to multiple crops at the same time, plan work or production material applications on an operative task level, and can input production material applications in a quantity per area format – water, fertilizer, pesticide applications, and planting/sowing. Also, users can track and analyze planned vs actual activities done at the farm.
With this, AGRIVI becomes more comprehensive, seamless, and user-friendly platform for planning and recording farm operations while also simplifying farm operations management via better control over material applications and work allocations but also worker and machinery efficiency tracking.
Whether you have a small family farm or a large commercial operation, AGRIVI’s new work orders 2.0 are the perfect tool to streamline your farm management processes. Try it out today and experience the benefits of more organized, efficient, and productive farming.
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Crop Rotation on Organic Farms
Key responsibilities and related tasks in the chart.
or call (301) 779-1007 to order.
This section discusses each of the key responsibilities in the “ Managing a Crop Rotation System ” chart and illustrates some of the important, difficult, or less obvious tasks, with examples from the operations of expert farmers (see sidebar 2.7).
Responsibility A: Identify Rotation Goals
Rotations are a means to meet overall farm goals. Expert farmers manage their field rotations in the context of their whole farm systems. Although they may not consciously review them, each farmer has a set of farming goals that guide rotation planning for each field and for the whole farm. Some goals are common to all farms (sidebar 2.8); others are unique to a particular farmer. Examples of experts’ rotation goals include:
- Jack Gurley’s goal is to maximize production on 100 percent of his small acreage without sacrificing soil health and tilth.
- One of Will Stevens’s goals is to design rotations to keep brassicas out of fields with a history of clubroot.
- Since Jim Gerritsen produces certified seed potatoes that must be disease free, the goal of his entire rotation is to control potato diseases and increase organic matter.
Under responsibility A, the most important and most difficult task is reviewing the overall farm operation. This includes reviewing the production plan: the crops, cover crops, fallows, and livestock that need to be allocated to particular field areas in the coming year. Certain factors— including cropland available, equipment, cash flow, crop mix, and marketing strategies—define the parameters within which the rotation must be designed. Another important task is to identify which problems can be addressed by rotation.
M os t Important and Most Difficult Tasks
Expert farmers built the chart “ Managing a Crop Rotation System ” by reaching consensus on the key responsibilities and tasks involved in managing a crop rotation system. Other expert farmers reviewed the chart and indicated the ten most important tasks and the ten tasks they considered most difficult to perform. Tasks are listed in order of most to least. Codes in parentheses correspond to the number of the task on the chart.
T en Most Important Tasks
- Maintain crops. (F-12)
- Implement production plan. (F-4)
- Prepare soils as soon as weather permits. (F-9)
- Plant crops. (F-10)
- Walk fields regularly to observe crops and fields. (C-1)
- Review overall farm operation. (A-2)
- Draft annual [rotation] plans. (E-15)
- Monitor soil and crop conditions. (F-6)
- Adjust actions according to field and crop conditions. (F-13)
- Identify problems that can be addressed through rotation. (A-3)
T en Most Difficult Tasks
- Assess profitability on a whole-farm and crop-by- crop basis. (G-5)
- Assess whether pest, disease, and weed pressures must be addressed. (D-4)
- Investigate new market opportunities. (H-3)
- Review regulations. (B-13)
- Analyze weather probabilities. (D-1)
- Determine if successes or failures were due to on-farm or regional factors. (G-11)
- Develop collaborations to verify successes and solve problems. (H-2)
- Tweak the crop mix. (H-4)
R e s pon s i b ilit y B: Identify Resources and Con s tr a i n t s
Identifying the possibilities and limits of the overall farm production plan and the rotation for each field is central to planning. At the farm scale, parameters such as market demand, available land, equipment, projected labor availability, and regulatory issues have to be reviewed annually. Farmers consider complying and keeping up with regulations to be among their most difficult tasks. This responsibility also includes numerous “communication” tasks, such as establishing market relationships, making labor arrangements, accessing information, and contacting suppliers.
Constraints may include field-specific limits like whether a field is ready for planting and harvest early or late in the season and how that relates to market timing, cash flow, and profitability. Problems of specific fields in a particular year must be identified. For example, heavy weed pressure the previous season may preclude small-seeded crops. Crop cultural needs, such as spacing and trellising, also have to be accommodated. Constraints imposed by equipment, such as row width, must be figured into the rotation plan. Crops with similar irrigation, fertility, labor, and cultivation regimes or planting times are often managed as a block to simplify field operations.
Exper t Farmers’ Common Goals for Crop Rotation
- Maintain healthy soil (including chemical balance, drainage, humus, vitality, biological health, fertility, nutrient cycling, tilth, organic matter, and soil cover to prevent erosion); for example: “Conserve and build organic matter in my light sandy soil.”
- Produce nutritious food.
- Control diseases, especially soilborne diseases; for example, “Break the wilt cycle among crops in the tomato family.”
- Reduce weed pressure; for example, “Manage the rotation to confuse the weeds.”
- Increase profitability.
- Have a holistic approach and a good rotation that leads to healthy crops.
- Manage the farm as a whole system.
- Have a diverse line of products to market.
- Provide economic stability.
- Control insects.
- Add nitrogen and other nutrients in a way that is environmentally safe and conforms with regulations.
- Maintain biotic diversity.
- Unlock the living potential of the soil.
- Reduce labor costs.
- Balance economic viability and soil fertility.
- Diversify tasks to keep labor happy and productive all season.
- Balance the needs of the farm with the needs of the farmer.
- Minimize off-farm inputs.
- Capture solar energy wherever possible.
- Refine the aesthetic quality of fields and farm.
- Bring the farmer to life; develop a spiritual relationship with the land.
R e s po n s i b ilit y C: Gather Data
Rotation decisions, for each field and for the whole farm, are based on an impressive array of information. Some information is collected on the farm, and some is gathered from off-farm sources. Observing crops and fields is on the expert farmers’ list of the ten most important tasks (sidebar 2.7). All the expert farmers agreed that regularly walking the fields is a crucial way to gather data and monitor ongoing conditions for the current and coming seasons. Will Stevens interviews his workers throughout the season, because they are able to observe many field situations he does not have the opportunity to see. Even in winter, expert farmers are observing their fields, sometimes while cross-country skiing or walking the dog. This helps them review field conditions and logistics of previous seasons and organize their thinking for the season ahead.
Production and marketing information usually needs to be updated and cross-checked annually. A new crop, research recommendations, or market arrangements may require that new data be considered. For example, seed potato grower Jim Gerritsen uses his rotation to interrupt potato disease life cycles and pest vectors. He reviews the scientific research annually, staying current to take advantage of any advances in the understanding of the ecology of his system.
Tasks C-9 and C-10, “Categorize crops” and “Categorize fields,” are among the most critical steps in data gathering. Categorization of crops and fields helps guide the optimal allocation of particular crops to individual fields or beds each year. These tasks rely on the cumulative process of integrating information and experience over many growing seasons. Information about both crops and fields is necessary to effectively match them in a given year. The first task is to characterize every cash and cover crop in the farm’s crop mix according to a range of important characteristics, from the number and timing of harvests to soil requirements (see sidebar 2.9). Farmers also characterize their fields, on the basis of the field’s permanent characteristics (such as slope and exposure) and shorter-term conditions (such as weed pressure). Categorizations provide a reference of “interchangeable crops” if a plan needs modification. For example, it is useful to know what late crops or varieties can go into a field in a wet year. The variety of characteristics considered indicates the complexity of the issues farmers balance in crop rotation decisions.
R e s po n s i b ilit y D: Analyze Data
All of the decisions and information generated through previous tasks and responsibilities are pulled together for analysis at this key phase of the planning process. The data on market options, equipment, labor and seed availability, and financial constraints, along with the overall farm and rotation goals are reviewed. Information is cross-referenced and, when necessary, weighted. Possible trade-offs are considered. For example, the field crew may be able to plant two fields to high-value crops but not also harvest an early crop the same week. Crop cultural needs are compared to each field’s characteristics and conditions. The experts assess soil conditions and determine how pest (animal, insect, weed) and disease pressures from the previous season should be addressed. This is among the most difficult tasks. Even weather projections are considered. Every possible crop mix is analyzed. Various possible pairings of crop to field are outlined, and options for each field are compared.
Responsibility E: Plan Crop Rotation
This responsibility is the ultimate synthesis of information and results in a production plan and a rotation plan. Expert farmers distinguish between these two types of plans. The production plan specifies what needs to be grown (the crop mix) and how it will be grown, whereas the rotation plan determines where each crop will be planted. Final decisions about the crop mix and the allocation of crops to fields and fields to crops are pivotal to this responsibility. Information such as what crops to grow, in what quantities, labor availability at various times in the season, required equipment, and desired harvest dates are integrated into the rotation plan for each field and for the entire farm.
Two questions bounce back and forth. One is what will be grown in each field? The other is where will each crop grow? These questions are answered based on observation and experience. Several steps are involved. First, the cropping history of each field or bed for the past three or more years is reviewed. This includes what crops and crop families were grown; how well they performed; any particular successes or failures; and any logistical issues relating to equipment use, irrigation, harvesting, or labor. Obviously, the size of the field and market needs (how much of each crop is required) are also considered. The allocation of crops to fields includes consideration of future cropping plans as well as the cropping history of a field. The rotation plan must be responsive to weed pressures or other legacies from earlier years and must provide future crops with favorable conditions.
Expert farmers first assign their highest-priority crops to fields (or beds). High-priority crops include the most profitable crops, cover crops with the greatest benefits, and crops particularly vulnerable to pests, diseases, or weather. Decisions are also based on high-priority fields—for example, those that have the highest fertility, are prime locations for u-pick crops, or have current problems that need to be addressed. Remaining fields (or parts of fields) are then assigned to the remaining crops, cover crops, fal- low areas, and sometimes pasturage for livestock. All these decisions are based on both business and biology. An example is provided in sidebar 2.10.
The crops and fields are tentatively matched, creating a cropping plan for the entire farm for the year. Many experts plot this information on farm maps and notebooks. They take this initial plan and, in the words of one, “Farm it in my head.” That is, they work through the sequence of field operations from tillage to harvest over the entire season for each crop and field. Several expert farmers take their plans into the field and walk the farm for this task. They think through why any sequence might not work, reviewing any possible logistical or biological conflicts like timing of operations or spread of pests between adjacent crops. They then adjust the plan as necessary.
G r o u pi ng Crops by Their Need for Accessibility
The logistics of harvesting affect rotations. For example, crops with frequent harvests or need for frequent care must be easily accessible. Expert farmer Jean-Paul Courtens considers road access and produce characteristics. He prefers to allocate some crops to fields with close proximity to packing sheds. Long rides on bumpy roads can bruise delicate produce like tomatoes. He locates salad greens and braising greens in the same field due to the time of day they are harvested. Crops are also grouped based on the time of the season when they are harvested.
R e s pon s i b ilit y F: Execute Rotation
Farmers indicated that executing the rotation involves many of the most important and difficult tasks (see sidebar 2.7 ). They identified maintaining crops (including activities such as weeding, thinning, and irrigation) as the most important task and the second most difficult task in crop rotation. Scheduling tillage and planting for all the fields across an entire farm every season is also a challenge for most farmers. Although they generally want to till the soil as early as possible to accelerate soil warming and residue breakdown, they must wait for workable soil moisture conditions. Other critical steps in crop production and central to executing the crop rotation are soil preparation and planting. Delays in soil preparation or planting may cause crop failures due to poor emergence, runaway weeds, or inadequately broken down cover crops and require shifts in the crop rotation (see sidebar 2.11).
Expert farmers attempt to plant priority fields or beds and their most important crops as scheduled in their plan. If they have to alter the plan, they still prioritize high-value or sensitive crops and fields. Many decisions and adjustments have to be made on the fly.
In early spring, farmers monitor the weather—sometimes hourly—as they implement and alter their rotation plan. Problems related to weather, cover crop maturity, crop emergence, and weeds may cause farmers to alter their original plan. Soil moisture conditions affect the timing of tillage and subsequent field operations (see sidebar 2.12). Cover crops are monitored to determine maturity, thickness of stands, and optimal time for incorporation. Farmers also monitor the breakdown and incorporation of crop and cover crop residues. Soil and air temperatures influence planting and transplanting decisions, as well. Any of these factors can cause crops to be reassigned to different fields or beds.
While a change necessitated by weather or the conditions in one field can cause reassignment of crops around the farm, general and farm-specific rotation goals and guidelines remain the basis of every decision; for example, cucurbit crops will never be planted in the same field two years in a row. Most expert farmers anticipate problems that might occur and have contingency plans ready (see sidebar 2.13 ). Expert farmer Paul Arnold suggested that this ability to make effective on-the-fly adjustments is an important factor in the success of his farm. In the event of crop failure, crops may be abandoned, replanted, or replaced with a cover crop or even a different cash crop. Drew Norman, another expert farmer, described this pro- cess as finding “a profitable punt.”
As the season progresses, short-season crops like salad greens are harvested, subsequent crops are planted, and cover crops are seeded or plowed under. Even as the rotation plan is implemented, the process of crop-to-field allocation and prioritization continues. The expert farmers emphasize the importance of recording actual cropping as it happens (particularly deviations from the plan) for later comparison with their initial rotation plan for the year.
C o n s i dering Options
After harvesting late snap beans, wet weather prevented expert farmer Roy Brubaker from fall-seeding a rye cover crop in a particular field. One option for the field might have been to plant oats and field peas in early spring, which would have had to be plowed down prior to planting fall brassicas. Another option would have been to plant the field to a spring crop of brassicas and then put in buckwheat or an early rye cover crop. Either decision had repercussions for the rotations on other fields because the farm’s CSA needed both spring and fall brassicas.
Nonuniform cover crop growth does not change Brett Grohsgal’s overall rotation, but it can change his crop mix or the selected varieties on a particular field. He may subdivide the field and plant heavy feeders where the legume cover crop was most successful. For example, beefsteak tomatoes, which are heavy feeders, would get that part of the tomato acreage that had good cover crop growth; whereas thrifty cherry tomatoes would get the remainder. Alternatively, he might plant heavy-feeding and high-value watermelons on the most fertile, weed-free areas, whereas lower-value and resilient winter squash would be assigned to the less fertile areas.
At both farms, all the options are considered before finalizing a decision.
F i e l d and Crop Conditions That Expert Farmers Monitor
Fields and crops need continual monitoring during the season. Biological and physical conditions can change relatively quickly due to management, weather, and mistakes. Experts often have contingency plans in mind to accommodate such situations, especially for their priority fields and key crops. In-season observations also inform experts’ decisions for the next year’s rotation. Although most farmers do not measure all these parameters directly, they are aware of, observe, and monitor conditions in their own ways. Conditions they monitor regularly include:
- Weed pressure
- Insect emergence and pressure
Cover crop performance
- Success of previous cover crops (e.g., production of organic matter, weed suppression)
- Ground cover
- Cover crop nodulation and nitrogen fixation
- Soil test results
- Chemical balance (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and micronutrients)
- Nutrient cycles
- “Biological health and vitality—earthworms, etc.
- Soil organic matter
- Crop residues and residue breakdown
- Composted organic matter or “humus” in the soil
- Soil aggregation
- Soil moisture
- Soil and air temperature
- Soil compaction and porosity
R e s po n s i b ilit y G: Evaluate Rotation Execution
Throughout the season, expert growers monitor the performance of their fields, each crop, and the farm as a whole. They record how their plans have worked and evolved. This is not just to solve problems in the current season, but also to observe, learn, and collect ideas and data for future seasons. Expert farmers do this directly and through communicating with their crews. Several said they interview their field crews at the end of the season. Workers often have suggestions, such as improving the farm layout, that enhance the efficiency of operations.
At the end of the season, growers carefully assess what actually happened relative to what they expected based on the original rotation plan. The factors they consider include yields; soil conditions; timing of events and operations; costs of crop production; disease, weed, and pest levels and their control; crop losses; labor satisfaction and efficiency; and profitability of each crop and of the whole farm. By walking around the farm and by analyzing data at their desk, they review the success of the production year. They compare the results with those of previous years to detect any trends or patterns. When attempting to analyze the causes of success or failure of various elements of the rotation, growers talk to other growers and extension agents to determine whether problems were the result of actions on their farm rather than, for example, a bad disease year for all farms in the region, regardless of rotation. Assessing whether regional conditions or on-farm mistakes were the source of problems is among the most difficult tasks, even for experts.
Rotation goals and rotation plans serve as benchmarks to measure the success of the cropping season and the rotation. Expert farmers consider how closely they followed biological principles in their rotation, whether they met their production and market objectives, and how their rotation execution supported their biological and business goals. Successes and failures are assessed, analyzed, and evaluated. The results are recorded to assist in planning and management for future seasons. Farmers note that assessing the profitability of crops, especially on a field-by-field basis, is another difficult task.
Expert farmers have enough experience to know that their best plans can sometimes be derailed. Knowing how to adapt or when to start over with a particular field or crop is essential to the success of the farm business. Expert farmers have developed many techniques to help them adapt to changing circumstances that typically influence their rotations.
Del a y e d planting due to wet fields
A common reason to diverge from the rotation plan is wet fields in spring. This can delay the plow-down of cover crops and, consequently, of residue decomposition, field preparation, and transplanting. Many expert farmers switch key crops to other fields when this happens, causing a cascading (somewhat pre-planned) shift in the allocation of many crops.
The growth of transplants in greenhouses is monitored to determine whether transplants are on schedule for planting out, relative to soil and weather conditions. Greenhouse environments are managed to speed or slow growth so that transplants are at the right developmental stage when field conditions are right for transplanting. Transplants will also be “hardened off ” to prepare them for the shock of the particular season’s outside environment.
P oo r germination
David Blyn replants crop failures with fast-growing, short-season crops like radishes. He stocks extra seed for crops like sweet corn and carrots that can be planted on multiple occasions and replants when necessary. He often finds that the reason for failed germination was a poor seedbed, and on the second try the seedbed is usually better.
Blyn also uses cover crops to “paint in” gaps caused by failed crops or early harvests.
W ee d challenges
Brett Grohsgal responds to heavy weed pressure by sowing cover crops at higher rates.
Crops with bad weed problems are often plowed down and planted to cover crops. Eero Ruuttila uses a cover crop of oats and field peas for this purpose, which also produces a marketable crop of pea shoots.
Growers sometimes have to decide whether a cover crop stand that has a lot of weeds is worth keeping for the fertility benefits or should be plowed under early. They weigh the potential benefits and investment in the cover crop against potential increases in the weed seed bank.
One expert farmer uses intensively cultivated crops to control bad weed infestations. For example, infestations of bindweed and Canada thistle are followed by a triple crop of lettuce, which is high value enough to justify the costs of frequent cultivation. This is followed by a weed-suppressing cover crop of rye.
W e a th e r problems
Drought can affect the germination of direct-seeded crops and shallow-rooted crops like garlic. Contingency strategies include mulching instead of cultivation for weed control, and substituting larger-seeded or transplanted crops.
In the event of drought and limited water for irrigation, Don Kretschmann irrigates only the portion of the crop destined for retail markets, allowing the wholesale portion of his crops to perish.
When an oat and pea cover crop does not winterkill, it delays planting of strawberries because of the time needed for the cover crop to break down. In that situation, Roy Brubaker plants the strawberries close together so their runners will fill in the rows more quickly for good weed control.
S e v e r e pest and fertility problems
Brett Grohsgal occasionally finds that a whole field needs to be temporarily removed from production to rebuild fertility or manage weed infestations. He chooses sequences of cover crops based on ability to add organic matter, fix nitrogen, survive drought, and compete with weeds. He often pastures livestock on these fields to disrupt weeds and add fertility.
R e s pon s i b ilit y H: Adjust Rotation Plan
As the cropping season closes in late fall, expert farmers begin the final phase of the annual rotation cycle in which they modify their rotations and plan for the coming year. This occurs concurrently with the evaluation of the past season. They revisit the tasks associated with “Identify rotation goals” (Responsibility A). They then focus on the productivity and problems of each field and of the overall farm. They first consider altering the crop mix by adding or removing crops or changing the area planted to a crop. Such decisions are affected by the market, as well as by field and crop performance and rotation imperatives. For example, Paul and Sandy Arnold found that high-quality, disease-free beets were very important for sales at farmers’ markets, so they decided to open up new acreage to break up the life cycle of soilborne beet diseases. This resulted in adjustment of their entire rotation so that their fields spend a longer time in cover crops.
Growers may also decide to change their field management by changing the order or dates of planting or plow-down of cover crops. They may decide to shift crops to alternative fields, try new crop sequences, or improve fertility of a field by planting it into a cover crop or hay ahead of schedule. They record notes for the next year’s rotation plan, new guidelines for contingencies, and results of experiments. The next year’s plan begins to take shape.
Adjusting the rotation plan presents three particularly challenging tasks: (1) developing collaborations to solve problems, (2) investigating markets, and (3) tweaking the crop mix. Tweaking the crop mix requires balancing market opportunities with biological needs. Growers indicated that this is a core task in managing crop rotations.
Expert growers stress the importance of experimentation, play, and a sense of adventure in managing their rotations. The art of adjusting every aspect of the rotation was discussed as the core of successfully managing rotations. While the NEON chart makes rotation planning seem linear and quantifiable, all of our farmer panelists felt that managing rotations is a continuous, integrated, intuitive, and cyclical process developed through intensive information gathering and extensive experience. They glean and incorporate new ideas into their rotations, which continue to evolve. These expert growers agreed on the importance of making new and interesting mistakes each season.
AGRI CROP 7&8 Module 4-1
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Some farmers raise both crops and livestock or produce food for their animals on the farm. EachFarming is much more complex than many people realize. Although farmers might once have had. Post a Question. Provide details on what you need help with along with a budget and time limit. ...
Farmers typically work 12 or more hour days during harvesting, supervising operations in various fields and ensuring that crops are getting loaded onto trucks and shipped to market. Farmer's Responsibilities Performing manual labor Performing maintenance on the farm Handling heavy machinery Repairing faulty vehicles and machinery
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answers to question: identify works tasks in line with farm operation ... Cahl 13.06.2022. Answer: Crop, nursery, and greenhouse farmworkers and laborers perform numerous tasks related to growing and harvesting grains, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and other crops. They plant, seed, prune, irrigate, and harvest crops, and pack and load them for ...
Crop, nursery, and greenhouse farmworkers and laborers perform numerous tasks related to growing and harvesting grains, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and other crops. They plant, seed, prune, irrigate, and harvest crops, and pack and load them for shipment. Advertisement Still have questions? Find more answers Ask your question
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