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APA Formatting and Style Guide (7th Edition)

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  • How to cite a PDF in APA Style

How to Cite a PDF in APA Style | Format & Examples

Published on December 17, 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on December 27, 2023.

APA Style doesn’t provide a specific citation format for PDFs. Instead, you’ll have to determine what kind of source the PDF is (e.g., a book, a journal article) and cite it in the appropriate format.

If you’re not sure what type of source you’re dealing with, look for clues in the PDF. For example, you might find the name of the larger publication the PDF comes from, which you can then look up to see what kind of source it is. If you received the PDF from an instructor, you can always ask them to clarify how to cite it.

This article explains the formats for several source types you might encounter in PDF form below.

Table of contents

Citing a book in pdf form, citing a journal article, citing a dissertation or thesis, citing a report, citing a white paper, citing a brochure, citing a newspaper or magazine article.

Books, or extracts from books, may be encountered online in PDF form. A book will generally include a copyright page with the details of publication. To cite an online book like this, list the usual information for a book, followed by a URL or DOI at the end.

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Journal articles will usually indicate the volume, issue, and name of the journal they’re published in.

Journal articles published as PDFs often use an e-locator (the letter “e” followed by a series of numbers, e.g. e1034762) instead of a page range to identify their location within the journal. If the article cited lacks a page range, use the e-locator instead.

A dissertation or thesis published online will often be in PDF form. These will generally feature a title page clearly marking them as a dissertation or thesis.

List the author, date, and title, followed by the type of document (e.g. “Master’s thesis”) and university in square brackets, the name of the website, and finally the URL.

Reports are frequently accessed online in PDF form. They will generally clearly identify the organization they’re published by and frequently list a report number. They may also have “report” in the title.

Include the title, author, date, publisher, report number (if available), and the URL.

A white paper is a type of report presenting the ideas, policy, or proposals of the organization that issued it (e.g., a government or business) concerning a particular topic.

The format for citing one is similar to that for a report, except that white papers generally don’t have report numbers, and the label “White paper” in square brackets appears after the title instead.

Brochures and pamphlets are small, informative promotional texts designed, for example, to introduce an exhibition or advertise a range of products or services.

Brochures encountered in PDF form are cited in a similar format to reports. Note that when the organization listed as author is the same as the publisher (as in the example below), you should only list it once.

When you encounter a newspaper or magazine article in PDF form, the page numbers will generally be available, so that you can just cite it in the format for a print article .

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.

Caulfield, J. (2023, December 27). How to Cite a PDF in APA Style | Format & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved January 2, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/apa-examples/pdf/

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Computer Science > Computation and Language

Title: task contamination: language models may not be few-shot anymore.

Abstract: Large language models (LLMs) offer impressive performance in various zero-shot and few-shot tasks. However, their success in zero-shot and few-shot settings may be affected by task contamination, a potential limitation that has not been thoroughly examined. This paper investigates how zero-shot and few-shot performance of LLMs has changed chronologically over time. Utilizing GPT-3 series models and several other recent open-sourced LLMs, and controlling for dataset difficulty, we find that on datasets released before the LLM training data creation date, LLMs perform surprisingly better than on datasets released after. This strongly indicates that, for many LLMs, there exists task contamination on zero-shot and few-shot evaluation for datasets released prior to the LLMs' training data creation date. Additionally, we utilize training data inspection, task example extraction, and a membership inference attack, which reveal further evidence of task contamination. Importantly, we find that for classification tasks with no possibility of task contamination, LLMs rarely demonstrate statistically significant improvements over simple majority baselines, in both zero and few-shot settings.

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CBSE Class 10 Maths Pre-Board Sample Paper 2024: Download in PDF

Class 10 maths pre-board sample paper: check and download the maths sample paper to prepare for the cbse class 10 pre-boards to be held in january, 2024..

Gurmeet Kaur

CBSE 10th Maths Pre-Board Sample Paper 2023-24: As the year 2024 has knocked, it's time to gear up for the CBSE Class 10 Pre-Boards 2. This is going to be your last chance to refine your strategies before you sit for your CBSE Class 10 Board Exam in February-March. Mathematics is one of the challenging subjects that students struggle with. But now preparing for CBSE Class 10 Maths Exam can be less stressful with the help of the sample paper presented here.

The CBSE Class 10 Maths Pre-Board Sample Paper 2024 is crafted by experienced faculty and aligns with the pattern of the latest CBSE sample papers. Questions are based on the latest syllabus making it the most valuable resource to ensure thorough revision of all mathematical concepts covered in the syllabus. Therefore, all class 10 students should practise with the help of the sample paper provided below to conquer their CBSE Class 10 Maths fears and ace the upcoming CBSE pre-board exam.

CBSE Class 10 Maths Pre-Board Sample Paper 2023-24

General Instructions:

1. This Question Paper has 5 Sections A, B, C, D and E.

2. Section A has 20 MCQs carrying 1 mark each

3. Section B has 5 questions carrying 02 marks each.

4. Section C has 6 questions carrying 03 marks each.

5. Section D has 4 questions carrying 05 marks each.

6. Section E has 3 case based integrated units of assessment (04 marks each) with sub-parts of the values of 1, 1 and 2 marks each respectively.

1 . If two positive integers m and n are expressible in the form m = pq 3  and n = p 3 q 2 , where p, q are prime numbers, then HCF (m, n) = 

(b) pq 2  

(c) p 3 q 3

2. If α and β are the zeroes of the polynomials 2x2 + 3x +5, then the value of 1/α + 1/β is:

(c) 3/5  

3. If the lines given by 3x+2ky=2 and 2x+5y+1=0 are parallel, then the value of k is

(c) 15/4 

4. The pair of equation x+2y+5=0 and -3x-6y+1=0 have :

(a) A unique solution

(b) Exactly two solutions

(c) Infinitely many solutions

(d) No Solution

5. The list of numbers – 10, – 6, – 2, 2,... is

(a) an AP with d = – 16

(b) an AP with d = 4

(c) an AP with d = – 4

(d) not an AP

6. The line 3x + y – 9 = 0 divides the line joining the points (1, 3) and (2, 7) internally in the ratio

(a) 3 : 4 

7. If (a/3, 4) is the mid-point of the segment joining the points P(-6, 5) and R(-2, 3), then the value of ‘a’ is

(c) -12 

8. In the figure given below, KP/PM=4/13, and KN = 20.4 cm, then the value of KQ is:

apa essay pdf

(b) 3.8 cm  

(c) 4.8 cm 

9. APB is a tangent to a circle with centre O, at point P. If < QPB = 50 0 , then the measure of <POQ is:

apa essay pdf

(a)120 0  

10. In the fig. if the semi perimeter of ∆ABC = 23cm, then AF + BD + CE is

apa essay pdf

(c) 23cm 

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