Mohammad Hatta

1902 - 1980

Photo of Mohammad Hatta

Mohammad Hatta (; 12 August 1902 – 14 March 1980) was an Indonesian statesman, nationalist, and independence activist who served as the country's first vice president. Known as "The Proclamator", he and a number of Indonesians, including the first president of Indonesia, Sukarno, fought for the independence of Indonesia from the Netherlands . Read more on Wikipedia

Since 2007, the English Wikipedia page of Mohammad Hatta has received more than 613,598 page views. His biography is available in 36 different languages on Wikipedia (up from 33 in 2019) . Mohammad Hatta is the 4,932nd most popular politician (down from 4,591st in 2019) , the 11th most popular biography from Indonesia and the 9th most popular Indonesian Politician .

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Among politicians.

Among politicians , Mohammad Hatta ranks 4,932 out of 15,577 .  Before him are Zhong Hui , Lala Lajpat Rai , Mahaut, Countess of Artois , Nakşidil Sultan , Pietro II Orseolo , and Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut . After him are Al-Qa'im , Louis III, Grand Duke of Hesse , José María Morelos , Shabaka , Prince Alfonso, Count of Caserta , and Duke Wen of Jin .

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Contemporaries

Among people born in 1902 , Mohammad Hatta ranks 57 .  Before him are Carlo Levi , E. E. Evans-Pritchard , Anatole Litvak , Maximilian, Duke of Hohenberg , Carlo Gambino , and Oskar Morgenstern . After him are Takeichi Nishi , Kirill Moskalenko , Rafael Alberti , Hans Bellmer , Josep Samitier , and Demchugdongrub .  Among people deceased in 1980 , Mohammad Hatta ranks 63 .  Before him are Philipp, Landgrave of Hesse , Heinz Linge , Winifred Wagner , Raoul Walsh , Nadezhda Mandelstam , and Patrick Depailler . After him are Ernő Gerő , Filipp Golikov , Yigal Allon , Tex Avery , Kazimierz Kuratowski , and John Mauchly .

Others Born in 1902

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1902 - 1975

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1902 - 1973

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1902 - 1974

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1902 - 1962

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1902 - 1976

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1902 - 1977

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Takeichi Nishi

1902 - 1945

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Kirill Moskalenko

1902 - 1985

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Rafael Alberti

1902 - 1999

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Hans Bellmer

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Josep Samitier

1902 - 1972

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Demchugdongrub

1902 - 1966

Others Deceased in 1980

Photo of Philipp, Landgrave of Hesse

Philipp, Landgrave of Hesse

1896 - 1980

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Heinz Linge

1913 - 1980

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1908 - 1980

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Kazimierz Kuratowski

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John Mauchly

1907 - 1980

In Indonesia

Among people born in Indonesia , Mohammad Hatta ranks 11 out of 126 .  Before him are Joko Widodo (1961) , Megawati Sukarnoputri (1947) , Abdurrahman Wahid (1940) , Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono (1949) , Anthony Fokker (1890) , and Gajah Mada (1290) . After him are Dharmakirti (700) , Jan Toorop (1858) , Laura Gemser (1950) , Anggun (1972) , Diponegoro (1785) , and Pramoedya Ananta Toer (1925) .

Others born in Indonesia

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Among POLITICIANS In Indonesia

Among politicians born in Indonesia , Mohammad Hatta ranks 9 .  Before him are B. J. Habibie (1936) , Joko Widodo (1961) , Megawati Sukarnoputri (1947) , Abdurrahman Wahid (1940) , Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono (1949) , and Gajah Mada (1290) . After him are Diponegoro (1785) , Jusuf Kalla (1942) , Tan Malaka (1897) , Ki Hajar Dewantara (1889) , Hamengkubuwono IX (1912) , and Adam Malik (1917) .

Indonesian born Politicians

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Cara mudah belajar bahasa inggris online gratis, biografi mohammad hatta dalam bahasa inggris dan artinya.

30/12/2016 admin Biografi Tokoh 0

Biografi Mohammad Hatta Dalam Bahasa Inggris

Biografi Mohammad Hatta Dalam Bahasa Inggris dan Artinya – Mohammad Hatta merupakan salah satu pahlawan Indonesia. Beliau dikenal karena jasanya yang membebaskan Indonesia dari tangan penjajah. Berikut ini adalah biografi Mohammad Hatta dalam bahasa Inggris beserta artinya.

Biografi Mohammad Hatta Dalam Bahasa Inggris:

Mohammad Hatta or often called Bung Hatta was the first Vice President of Indonesia. Mohammad Hatta was born in Bukit tinggi, West Sumatera on August 12th, 1902. His father is Haji Mohammad Djamil and his mother is Siti Saleha. His father died when he was eight months old. Hatta married to Rahmi Hatta on November 18th, 1945. The couple had three children named Meutia Farida Hatta, Gemala Rabi’ah Hatta, and Halida Nuriah Hatta.

Hatta started his education at a private school named Sekolah Melayu. Then he went to ELS (European Language School). He continued his school to MULO (Meer Uitgebreid Lager Onderwijs). Hatta began to show his interested in politics and national movement since he was sixteen years old. He joined Jong Sumatranen Bond and he was chosen as the treasurer.

In 1919, Hatta went to Hogere Burgerschool (HBS) in Batavia (Jakarta). He finished his study with distinction in 1921 and he was allowed to continue his study to Rotterdam School of Commerce in Netherlands. He took economics as his major and got a doctorandus degree. He then continued to pursue his doctorate degree, but he didn’t finish his thesis because politics had taken over his life.

In Netherlands Hatta joined the Indische Vereeniging. In 1922, Indische Vereeniging changed its named to Indonesische Vereeniging (Perhimpoenan Indonesia). Hatta was the treasurer from 1922-1925 and then he became the chairman from 1926-1930. Perhimpoenan Indonesia then changed from a student organization to political organization that demand for Indonesia’s Independence. It expressed its voice through a magazine called Indonesia Merdeka of which Hatta was the editor.

Hatta attended congresses all over Europe to gain more support from other nations, he always as the chairman of Indonesia delegation. By the middle of 1927, Perhimpoenan Indonesia’s activites had alarmed the Dutch authorities. On June 1927, Dutch authorities put Hatta and four other Indonesian activists in jail. In 1929, Hatta and other Perhimpoenan Indonesia activists were released.

On August 1932, after returning to Indonesia, Hatta became the chairman of the new PNI. On February 1934, the Dutch Colonial government arrested PNI leaders from its Jakarta branch (including Hatta) and Bandung branch. They were prisoned for a year. In 1935, it was decided that Hatta and the other PNI leaders would be exiled to Boven Digoel Papua. In 1936, Hatta and Sutan Syahrir were transfered to Bandaneira in Maluku. There, they joined other nationalists such as Iwa Kusumasumantri and Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo.

In 1942, Hatta and Syahrir were transferred to Sukabumi, West Java. In the same year, the Dutch Colonial Government surrendered. However, because of World War II was under way, the Empire of Japan came to Indonesia to fulfil their imperial ambitions in East Asia and South East Asia. On March 1942, Hatta and Syahrir were transferred to Jakarta.

In July 1942, Hatta was reunited with Sukarno. In a secret meeting at Hatta’s Jakarta home, Sukarno, Hatta and Syahrir agreed to organise the revolutionary resistance to achieve independence from Japan. In a speech on December 1942, Hatta said that Indonesia already free from the Dutch Colonial Government, but Indonesia was free only to be colonized by another power, he would rather to see Indonesia drown to the bottom of the ocean.

As the tide of the war began to turn against the Japanese, the Japanese Occupational government in Indonesia began to lose its control of Indonesia. On August 1945, Japanese finally approved Indonesian Independence. August 16th, 1945, the Indonesian youths kidnapped Sukarno and Hatta to Rengasdengklok to force both of them to declare Independence of Indonesia.

Finally, August 17th, 1945, at Sukarno’s residence, Indonesia’s Independence was proclaimed in a short statement on a paper signed by Sukarno and Hatta. On August 18th, 1945 Hatta was selected as Indonesia’s first Vice President to accompany Sukarno as the President of Indonesia. Hatta died on March 14th, 1980 and he was buried in Tanah Kusir public cemetary, Jakarta.

Arti dalam Bahasa Indonesia:

Mohammad Hatta atau yang lebih sering dipanggil Bung Hatta adalah Wakil President pertama Indonesia. Mohammad Hatta lahir di Bukit tinggi, Sumatera Barat pada tanggal 12 Agustus 1902. Ayahnya adalah Haji Mohammad Djamil dan ibunya adalah Siti Saleha. Ayahnya meninggal saat Hatta berusia delapan bulan. Hatta menikah dengan Rahmi Hatta pada tanggal 18 November 1945. Pasangan ini dikaruniai tiga orang anak bernama Meutia Farida Hatta, Gemala Rabi’ah Hatta, dan Halida Nuriah Hatta.

Hatta memulai pendidikannya di ssebuah sekolah swasta bernama Sekolah Melayu. Setelah itu beliau melanjutkan ke ELS (European Language School). Beliau melanjutkan sekolahnya ke MULO (Meer Uitgebreid Lager Onderwijs). Hatta mulai menunjukkan ketertarikannya pada dunia politik dan pergerakan national sejak beliau berusia 16 tahun. Beliau bergabung dengan Jong Sumatranen Bond dan beliau terpilih sebagai bendahara.

Pada tahun 1919, Hatta bersekolah di Hogere Burgerschool(HBS) di Batavia (Jakarta). Beliau menamatkan sekolahnya dengan tanda kehormatan sehingga beliau diperbolehkan untuk melanjutkan sekolahnya ke Rotterdam School of Commerce di Belanda. Beliau mengambil jurusan ekonomi dan mendapatkan gelar doktorandus di sana. Kemudian beliau melanjutkan untuk mengejar gelar doktornya, namun beliau tidak menyelesaikan tesisnya karena politik telah mengambil alih kehidupannya.

Di Belanda Hatta bergabung dengan Indische Vereeniging(Organisasi Indonesia). Pada tahun 1922, Indische Vereeniging bergaanti nama menjadi Indonesische Vereeniging(Perhimpoenan Indonesia). Hatta menjabat sebagai bendahara dari tahun 1922-1925 kemudian beliau menjadi ketua dari tahun 1926-1930. Perhimpoenan Indonesia kemudian berubah dari sebuah organisasi pelajar menjadi organisasi politik yang berjuang memperjuangkan kemerdekaan Indonesia. Ini ditunjukkan melalui suaranya di sebuah majalah bernama Indonesia Merdeka dimana Hatta adalah editornya.

Hatta menghadiri semua kongres diseluruh Eropa untuk mendapatkan dukungan dari negara lain, beliau selalu menjadi delegasi dari Indonesia. Pada pertengahan tahun 1927, aktifitas dari Perhimpoenan Indonesia diberi peringatan oleh pemerintah Belanda. Pada Juni 1927, pemerintah belanda menjebloskan Hatta dan empat aktivis Indonesia ke penjara. Pada tahun 1929, Hatta dan aktivis lainnya dari Perhimpoenan Indonesia dibebaskan.

Pada Agustus 1932, setelah kembali ke Indonesia, Hatta menjadi ketua dari PNI yang baru. Pada Februari 1934, pemerintah kolonial Belanda menangkap para ketua PNI dari cabang Jakarta (termasuk Hatta) dan dari cabang di Bandung. Mereka di penjara selama satu tahun. Pada tahun 1935, diputuskan bahwa Hatta dan ketua PNI yang lainnya akan diasingkan ke Boven Digoel Papua. Pada tahun 1936, Hatta dan Sutan Syahrir dipindahkan ke Bandaneira di Maluku. Di sana, mereka bergabung dengan nationalis lainnya seperti Iwa Kusumasumantri and Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo.

Pada tahun 1942, Hatta dan Syahrir dipindahkan ke Sukabumi, Jawa Barat. Ditahun yang sama, pemerintah kolonial Belanda menyerah. Akan tetapi, karena adanya Perang Dunia II yang sedang berlangsung, Penguasa Jepang datang ke Indonesia untuk memenuhi ambisi untuk menguasai Asia Timur dan Asia Tenggara. Pada Maret 1942, Hatta dan Syahrir dipindahkan ke Jakarta.

Pada Juli 1942, Hatta bergabung kembali dengan Sukarno. Pada sebuah rapat rahasia di kediaman Hatta di Jakarta, Sukarno, Hatta dan Syahrir setuju untuk membentuk sebuah pergerakan revolusi untuk meraih kemerdekaan Indonesia dari Jepang. Dalam pidatonya pada bulan Desember 1942, Hatta berkata bahwa Indonesia telah bebas dari pemerintah kolonial Belanda, tapi Indonesia bebas hanya untuk dijajah lagi oleh kekuasaan lainna, beliau lebih memilih untuk melihat Indonesia tenggelam ke dasar laut.

Sebagai imbas dari perang yang mulai berbalik arah melawan Jepang, pemerintah Jepang di Indonesia mulai kehilangan kendalinya di Indonesia. Pada Agustus 1945, Jepang akhirnya menyetujui Kemerdekaan Indonesia. Pada tanggal 16 Agustus 1945, golongan muda Indonesia menculik Sukarno dan Hatta ke Rengasdengklok untuk memaksa mereka berdua untuk mendeklarasikan Kemerdekaan Indonesia.

Akhirnya pada tanggal 17 Agustus 1945, di kediaman Sukarni, Kemerdekaan Indonesia diprklamasikan dengan sebuah pernyataan singkat di atas kertas yang ditandatangani oleh Sukarno dan Hatta. Pada tanggal 18 Agustus 1945 Hatta dipilih menjadi Wakil Presiden pertama untuk mendampingi Sukarno sebagai Presiden Indonesia. Hatta meninggal pada tanggal 14 Maret 1980 dan beliau dimakamkan di pemakaman umum Tanah Kusir, Jakarta.

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親族の結婚式用に購入。派手過ぎず、かつおしゃれなデザインがとても気に入りました。結婚式に着ていくのが楽しみです。

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発送まで素早く対応していただけました。また利用させていただきたいです。

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使用に対してまったく問題ありません。 ですが・・・見た目などを気にするなら量販店でメーカー物を 買われた方が良いと思います。

2023-12-26 22:56:10

画質○、防水○、のり◎、貼り易さ◎、値段○ 1人で貼れるし、部屋の雰囲気も変わり買って良かった。他の方のレビュー通り慣れればこんなに簡単にDIYが出来る商品は無いと思います。次はまた違う柄を注文しようと思います。

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まだ使ってませんが、適度に重たくて使いやすそうです

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小学生の娘が 来年3月の卒業式で 袴をはくので、それに合わせて購入。 10月現在、身長158センチ、 足のサイズが25.5センチ。 来年の3月までに もう少し成長するのでは・・・と思い、ブーツサイズは 26.0センチ で購入しました。 去年から 色々なショップでブーツを 探していましたが、丸みをおびたブーツが多い中、こちらのショップのブーツは スッキリしていて、筒丈も長く、袴の長さも 調節しやすそうなので、このブーツに決定しました(^^) 購入後、実際に着付けをして ブーツを履かせましたが、袴とのバランスも良く、歩きやすいとのこと。 小学生でも 5センチのヒールは 大丈夫でしたよ(^^) ただ、歩くたびに「キュッキュッ」と皮が擦れて 音が鳴るのが気になったので、☆4つにしました(^^;)

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Sukarno (June 6, 1901–June 21, 1970) was the first leader of independent Indonesia . Born in Java when the island was part of the Dutch East Indies, Sukarno rose to power in 1949. Rather than supporting Indonesia's original parliamentary system, he created a "guided democracy" over which he held control. Sukarno was deposed by a military coup in 1965 and died under house arrest in 1970.

Fast Facts: Sukarno

  • Known For : First leader of an independent Indonesia
  • Also Known As : Kusno Sosrodihardjo (original name), Bung Karno (brother or comrade)
  • Born:  June 6, 1901 in Surabaya, Dutch East Indies
  • Parents : Raden Sukemi Sosrodihardjo, Ida Njoman Rai
  • Died : June 21, 1970 in Jakarta, Indonesia
  • Education : Technical Institute in Bandung
  • Published Works:  Sukarno: An Autobiography, Indonesia Accuses!, To My People
  • Awards and Honors : International Lenin Peace Prize (1960), 26 honorary degrees from universities including Columbia University and the University of Michigan
  • Spouse(s) : Siti Oetari, Inggit Garnisih, Fatmawati, and five polygamous wives: Naoko Nemoto (Indonesian name, Ratna Dewi Sukarno), Kartini Manoppo, Yurike Sanger, Heldy Djafar, and Amelia do la Rama.
  • Children : Totok Suryawan, Ayu Gembirowati, Karina Kartika, Sari Dewi Sukarno, Taufan Sukarno, Bayu Sukarno, Megawati Sukarnoputri, Rachmawati Sukarnoputri, Sukmawati Sukarnoputri, Guruh Sukarnoputra, Ratna Juami (adopted), Kartika (adopted)
  • Notable Quote : "Let us not be bitter about the past, but let us keep our eyes firmly on the future."

Sukarno was born on June 6, 1901, in Surabaya , and was given the name Kusno Sosrodihardjo. His parents later renamed him Sukarno after he survived a serious illness. Sukarno's father was Raden Soekemi Sosrodihardjo, a Muslim aristocrat and school teacher from Java. His mother Ida Ayu Nyoman Rai was a Hindu of the Brahmin caste from Bali.

Young Sukarno went to a local elementary school until 1912. He then attended a Dutch middle school in Mojokerto, followed in 1916 by a Dutch high school in Surabaya. The young man was gifted with a photographic memory and a talent for languages, including Javanese, Balinese, Sundanese, Dutch, English, French, Arabic, Bahasa Indonesia, German, and Japanese.

Marriages and Divorces

While in Surabaya for high school, Sukarno lived with the Indonesian nationalist leader Tjokroaminoto. He fell in love with his landlord's daughter Siti Oetari, who he married in 1920.

The following year, however, Sukarno went to study civil engineering at the Technical Institute in Bandung and fell in love again. This time, his partner was the boarding-house owner's wife Inggit, who was 13 years older than Sukarno. They each divorced their spouses and married each other in 1923.

Inggit and Sukarno remained married for 20 years but never had children. Sukarno divorced her in 1943 and married a teenager named Fatmawati. She would bear Sukarno five children, including Indonesia's first female president , Megawati Sukarnoputri.

In 1953, President Sukarno decided to become polygamous in accordance with Muslim law. When he married a Javanese woman named Hartini in 1954, First Lady Fatmawati was so angry that she moved out of the presidential palace. Over the next 16 years, Sukarno would take five additional wives: a Japanese teen named Naoko Nemoto (Indonesian name Ratna Dewi Sukarno), Kartini Manoppo, Yurike Sanger, Heldy Djafar, and Amelia do la Rama.

Indonesian Independence Movement

Sukarno began to think about independence for the Dutch East Indies while he was in high school. During college, he read deeply on different political philosophies, including communism , capitalist democracy, and Islamism, developing his own syncretic ideology of Indonesian socialist self-sufficiency. He also established the Algameene Studieclub for like-minded Indonesian students.

In 1927, Sukarno and the other members of the Algameene Studieclub reorganized themselves as the Partai Nasional Indonesia (PNI), an anti-imperialist, anti-capitalist independence party. Sukarno became the first leader of the PNI. Sukarno hoped to enlist Japanese help in overcoming Dutch colonialism and unite the different peoples of the Dutch East Indies into a single nation.

The Dutch colonial secret police soon learned of the PNI, and in late December 1929, Sukarno and the other members were arrested. At his trial, which lasted for the last five months of 1930, Sukarno made a series of impassioned political speeches against imperialism that attracted widespread attention.

Sukarno was sentenced to four years in prison and went to the Sukamiskin Prison in Bandung to begin serving his time. However, press coverage of his speeches so impressed liberal factions in the Netherlands and in the Dutch East Indies that Sukarno was released after just one year. He had also become very popular with the Indonesian people.

While Sukarno was in prison, the PNI split into two opposing factions. One party, the Partai Indonesia , favored a militant approach to revolution, while the Pendidikan Nasional Indonesia (PNI Baroe) advocated slow revolution through education and peaceful resistance. Sukarno agreed with the Partai Indonesia approach more than the PNI's, so he became the head of that party in 1932 after his release from prison. On August 1, 1933, the Dutch police arrested Sukarno once again while he was visiting Jakarta.

Japanese Occupation

In February 1942, the Imperial Japanese Army invaded the Dutch East Indies. Cut off from help by the German occupation of the Netherlands, the colonial Dutch quickly surrendered to the Japanese. The Dutch forced-marched Sukarno to Padang, Sumatra, intending to send him to Australia as a prisoner, but had to leave him in order to save themselves as Japanese forces approached.

The Japanese commander, Gen. Hitoshi Imamura, recruited Sukarno to lead the Indonesians under Japan's rule. Sukarno was happy to collaborate with them at first, in hopes of keeping the Dutch out of the East Indies.

However, the Japanese soon began to impress millions of Indonesian workers, particularly Javanese, as forced labor. These romusha workers had to build airfields and railways and grow crops for the Japanese. They worked very hard with little food or water and were regularly abused by the Japanese overseers, which quickly soured relations between the Indonesians and Japan. Sukarno would never live down his collaboration with the Japanese.

Declaration of Independence for Indonesia

In June 1945, Sukarno introduced his five-point Pancasila , or principles of an independent Indonesia. They included a belief in God but tolerance of all religions, internationalism and just humanity, the unity of all Indonesia, democracy through consensus, and social justice for all.

On August 15, 1945, Japan surrendered to the Allied Powers . Sukarno's young supporters urged him to immediately declare independence, but he feared retribution from the Japanese troops still present. On August 16, the impatient youth leaders kidnapped Sukarno and then convinced him to declare independence the following day.

On August 18 at 10 a.m., Sukarno spoke to a crowd of 500 in front of his home and declared the Republic of Indonesia independent, with himself serving as president and his friend Mohammad Hatta as vice president. He also promulgated the 1945 Indonesian Constitution, which included the Pancasila.

Although the Japanese troops still in the country tried to suppress news of the declaration, word spread quickly through the grapevine. One month later, on September 19, 1945, Sukarno spoke to a crowd of more than one million at Merdeka Square in Jakarta. The new independence government controlled Java and Sumatra, while the Japanese maintained their hold on the other islands; the Dutch and other Allied Powers had yet to show up.

Negotiated Settlement With the Netherlands

Toward the end of September 1945, the British finally made an appearance in Indonesia, occupying the major cities by the end of October. The Allies repatriated 70,000 Japanese and formally returned the country to its status as a Dutch colony. Due to his status as a collaborator with the Japanese, Sukarno had to appoint an untainted prime minister, Sutan Sjahrir, and allow the election of a parliament as he pushed for international recognition of the Republic of Indonesia.

Under the British occupation, Dutch colonial troops and officials began to return, arming the Dutch POWs formerly held captive by the Japanese and going on shooting sprees against Indonesians. In November, the city of Surabaya experienced an all-out battle in which thousands of Indonesians and 300 British troops died.

This incident encouraged the British to hurry their withdrawal from Indonesia and by November of 1946, all British troops were gone and 150,000 Dutch soldiers returned. Faced with this show of force and the prospect of a long and bloody independence struggle, Sukarno decided to negotiate a settlement with the Dutch.

Despite vociferous opposition from other Indonesian nationalist parties, Sukarno agreed to the November 1946 Linggadjati Agreement, which gave his government control of Java, Sumatra, and Madura only. However, in July 1947, the Dutch violated the agreement and launched Operatie Product, an all-out invasion of the Republican-held islands. International condemnation forced them to halt the invasion the following month, and former Prime Minister Sjahrir flew to New York to appeal to the United Nations for intervention.

The Dutch refused to withdraw from the areas already seized in Operatie Product, and the Indonesian nationalist government had to sign the Renville Agreement in January 1948 as a result, which recognized Dutch control of Java and the best agricultural land in Sumatra. All over the islands, guerrilla groups not aligned with Sukarno's government sprang up to fight the Dutch.

In December 1948, the Dutch launched another major invasion of Indonesia called Operatie Kraai. They arrested Sukarno, then-Prime Minister Mohammad Hatta, Sjahrir, and other Nationalist leaders.

The backlash to this invasion from the international community was even stronger; the United States threatened to halt Marshall Aid to the Netherlands if it did not desist. Under the dual threat of a strong Indonesian guerrilla effort and international pressure, the Dutch yielded. On May 7, 1949, they signed the Roem-van Roijen Agreement, turning over Yogyakarta to the Nationalists and releasing Sukarno and the other leaders from prison. On December 27, 1949, the Netherlands formally agreed to relinquish its claims to Indonesia.

Sukarno Takes Power

In August 1950, the last part of Indonesia became independent from the Dutch. Sukarno's role as president was mostly ceremonial, but as the "Father of the Nation" he wielded a lot of influence. The new country faced a number of challenges; Muslims, Hindus, and Christians clashed; ethnic Chinese clashed with Indonesians; and Islamists fought with pro-atheist communists. In addition, the military was divided between Japanese-trained troops and former guerrilla fighters.

In October 1952, the former guerrillas surrounded Sukarno's palace with tanks, demanding that the parliament be dissolved. Sukarno went out alone and gave a speech, which convinced the military to back down. New elections in 1955 did nothing to improve stability in the country, however. Parliament was divided among all the various squabbling factions and Sukarno feared the entire edifice would collapse.

Growing Autocracy

Sukarno felt he needed more authority and that Western-style democracy would never function well in volatile Indonesia. Despite protests from Vice President Hatta, in 1956 he put forth his plan for "guided democracy," under which Sukarno, as president, would lead the population to a consensus on national issues. In December 1956, Hatta resigned in opposition to this blatant power grab—a shock to citizens around the country.

That month and into March 1957, military commanders in Sumatra and Sulawesi ousted the Republican local governments and took power. They demanded that Hatta be reinstated and communist influence over politics end. Sukarno responded by installing Djuanda Kartawidjaja as vice president, who agreed with him on "guided democracy," and declaring martial law on March 14, 1957.

Amid growing tensions, Sukarno went to a school function in Central Jakarta on November 30, 1957. A member of the Darul Islam group tried to assassinate him there with a grenade. Sukarno was unharmed, but six school children died.

Sukarno tightened his grip on Indonesia, expelling 40,000 Dutch citizens and nationalizing all of their property, as well as that of Dutch-owned corporations such as the Royal Dutch Shell oil company. He also instituted rules against ethnic-Chinese ownership of rural land and businesses, forcing many thousands of Chinese to move to the cities and 100,000 to return to China.

To quell military opposition in the outlying islands, Sukarno engaged in all-out air and sea invasions of Sumatra and Sulawesi. The rebel governments had all surrendered by the beginning of 1959, and the last guerrilla troops surrendered in August 1961.

On July 5, 1959, Sukarno issued a presidential decree voiding the current Constitution and reinstating the 1945 Constitution, which gave the president significantly broader powers. He dissolved parliament in March 1960 and created a new Parliament, for which he directly appointed half of the members. The military arrested and jailed members of the opposition Islamist and socialist parties and shut down a newspaper that had criticized Sukarno. The president also began to add more communists to the government so that he wouldn't be solely reliant on the military for support.

In response to these moves toward autocracy, Sukarno faced more than one assassination attempt. On March 9, 1960, an Indonesian Air Force officer strafed the presidential palace with the machine gun on his MiG-17, trying unsuccessfully to kill Sukarno. Islamists later shot at the president during Eid al-Adha prayers in 1962, but again Sukarno was unhurt.

In 1963, Sukarno's hand-picked Parliament appointed him president for life. As a dictator, he made his own speeches and writings mandatory subjects for all Indonesian students, and all mass media in the country was required to report only on his ideology and actions. To top his cult of personality, Sukarno renamed the highest mountain in the country "Puntjak Sukarno," or Sukarno Peak, in his own honor.

Suharto's Coup

Although Sukarno seemed to have Indonesia gripped in a mailed fist, his military/communist support coalition was fragile. The military resented the rapid growth of communism and began to seek an alliance with Islamist leaders, who also disliked the pro-atheism communists. Sensing that the military was growing disillusioned, Sukarno rescinded martial law in 1963 to curb the Army's power.

In April 1965, the conflict between the military and communists increased when Sukarno supported communist leader Aidit's call to arm the Indonesian peasantry. U.S. and British intelligence may or may not have established contacts with the military in Indonesia to explore the possibility of bringing down Sukarno. Meanwhile, the ordinary people suffered enormously as hyperinflation spiked to 600%; Sukarno cared little about economics and did nothing about the situation.

At the break of day on October 1, 1965, the pro-communist " 30 September Movement " captured and killed six senior Army generals. The movement claimed that it acted to protect President Sukarno from an impending Army coup. It announced the dissolution of parliament and the creation of a "Revolutionary Council."

Major General Suharto of the strategic reserve command took control of the Army on October 2, having been promoted to the rank of army chief by a reluctant Sukarno, and quickly overcame the communist coup. Suharto and his Islamist allies then led a purge of communists and leftists in Indonesia, killing at least 500,000 people nationwide and imprisoning 1.5 million.

Sukarno sought to maintain his hold on power by appealing to the people over the radio in January 1966. Massive student demonstrations broke out, and one student was shot dead and made a martyr by the Army in February. On March 11, 1966, Sukarno signed a Presidential Order known as the Supersemar that effectively handed control of the country over to General Suharto. Some sources claim he signed the order at gunpoint.

Suharto immediately purged the government and the Army of Sukarno loyalists and initiated impeachment proceedings against Sukarno on the grounds of communism, economic negligence, and "moral degradation"—a reference to Sukarno's infamous womanizing.

On March 12, 1967, Sukarno was formally ousted from the presidency and placed under house arrest at the Bogor Palace. The Suharto regime did not allow him proper medical care, so Sukarno died of kidney failure on June 21, 1970, in the Jakarta Army Hospital. He was 69 years old.

Sukarno left behind an independent Indonesia—a major achievement of international proportions. On the other hand, despite his rehabilitation as a respected political figure, Sukarto also created a set of issues that continue to plague today's Indonesia. His daughter, Megawati, became Indonesia's fifth president.

  • Hanna, Willard A. “ Sukarno .”  Encyclopædia Britannica , 17 June 2018.
  • “ Sukarno .”  Ohio River - New World Encyclopedia .
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Mohammad Hatta was born in Fort De Kock (now known as Bukittinggi) into a prominent and strongly Islamic family. His mother's family was wealthy, and Hatta was able to study Dutch as well as finishing Qur'an after school.

In 1919, Hatta went to the HBS in Batavia. He completed his study with distinction in 1921, and was allowed to continue to study at the Erasmus University

Rotterdam) in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. He took economics as his major and earned a doctorandus degree in 1932.

In the Netherlands, Hatta joined the Indische Vereeniging. In 1922, the organization changed its name to Indonesische Vereeniging and later to its Indonesian translation: the Perhimpoenan

Indonesia .

By the middle of 1927, Perhimpoenan Indonesia' s activities had alarmed the Dutch authorities. In June 1927, Dutch authorities raided the residence of the organization's leaders, searching through their rooms and putting Hatta and other four Indonesian activists behind bars. After spending nearly six months in prison, they were taken to trial in the Hague. They were permitted to explain themselves during the hearing, and Hatta took to the opportunity to explain Indonesia's nationalist cause. He made a speech to the court explaining that Indonesia's interests were in conflict with those of the Dutch, and that was why they could not cooperate. Hatta advocated cooperation between Indonesia and the Netherlands, but only if Indonesia was independent and treated as an equal partner, not unequally because of its status as a colony. The speech became famous and it is known as the Indonesia Vrij (Indonesia Merdeka) or Free Indonesia speech.

In 1929, Hatta and other Perhimpoenan Indonesia activists were released. In July 1932, Hatta made his way home to Indonesia.

(source: hhtp://en.m.wikipedia.org>wiki>Mohammad Hatta)

  • What major did Hatta take in his study?

Organization

Cooperation

Why did the Dutch authorities put Hatta behind the bars? Because …

Hatta joined the Indische Vereeniging

Hatta asked Indonesia should be treated equally

Indonesia could not cooperate with the Dutch

Hatta made a speech for Indonesian independence

Perhimpoenan Indonesia' s activities had made Dutch authorities panic

From the text we know that …

Hatta’s family did not support his education

Hatta’s speech had alarmed the Dutch authorities

Hatta was not only smart but also loyal to his country

Dutch did not give a chance to Hatta for an explanation

after being released from the prison, Hatta continued running his organization

“…putting Hatta and other four Indonesian activists behind bars .”(Paragraph 3). The underlined phrase means ….

in the court

at a restaurant

Buya Hamka was born in Sungai Batang, Tanjung Raya, Agam

Regency, West Sumatra, Dutch

East Indies on 17 February 1908 and died in Jakarta, Indonesia on 24 July 1981 at the age of 73 years. He was an Indonesian ulama, novelist, philosopher and political activist.

Before his education in formal schools,

Hamka lived with his grandmother in a house south of Maninjau. When he was six years

old he moved with his father to Padang Panjang, West Sumatera. Following common

tradition in Minang, as a child he studied the Quran and slept in a mosque

because Minang boys did not have a place to sleep in the family house. In the

mosque he studied the Quran and silek. While studying in Helmi Talib, he was

not considered as a smart child, he even often did not attend in a few days

because he felt bored and chose to seek knowledge in his own way. He preferred

to be in a library owned by his public teacher. In the library, he was free to

read a variety of books, even some he borrowed to be taken home. He was scolded

by his father when he was caught busy reading Kaba Cindua Mato. His father said, "Are you going to be

a pious person or become a storyteller?" At the same time, he was no

longer interested in completing education at Thawalib. After studying for four

years, he decided to get out of Thawalib. He came out without obtaining a

diploma. In those days after that, Hamka was taken to Parabek, about 5 km from

the Pengkalan Batu in 1922 to learn with Aiman Ibrahim Wong, but did not last long. He preferred to

follow his heart to seek knowledge and experience in his own way. He decided to

leave for Java. After a year in Java, in July 1925 Hamka was going back to Padang Panjang. Between the businesses of his activity in the field of Dawah through writing, he took speech in several places in Padang Panjang. But at that moment, everything is precisely sharply criticized by his father, "Speeches alone are useless, fill yourself with knowledge, then those speeches would be meaningful and useful." On the other hand, he did not get a good reception from the public. He was often derided as "uncertified Islam orator", even he had received criticism from some scholars because he did not master Arabic language well. Criticism he received in his native land, he made it as a whip to make him more mature.

(source: hhtp://en.m.wikipedia.org>wiki>Hamka)

What did Hamka do during spending his childhood in the mosque?

Studying Quran and Silek.

Reading a variety of books.

Praying and reading Quran

Delivering a speech.

Writing his speech.

What made people in Padang Panjang not respect his speech?

He was a politic activist

His own father criticized his speech

His ability was not on speech but on writing.

He did not got the certification Islam orator.

He did not complete his education in Thawalib Padang Panjang.

To be a novelist was his dream

Continuing his education at Parabek was not his idea.

Criticism he received made him down and leave for Java.

His father supported his decision seeking knowledge on his own way.

Reading habit made Hamka interested in completing his education at Parabek

Buya Hamka was born in Sungai Batang, Tanjung Raya, Agam Regency, West Sumatra, Dutch

Hamka lived with his grandmother in a house south of Maninjau. When he was six years old he moved with his father to Padang Panjang, West Sumatera. Following common tradition in Minang, as a child he studied the Quran and slept in a mosque because Minang boys did not have a place to sleep in the family house. In the mosque he studied the Quran and silek. While studying in Helmi Talib, he was not considered as a smart child, he even often did not attend in a few days because he felt bored and chose to seek knowledge in his own way. He preferred to be in a library owned by his public teacher. In the library, he was free to read a variety of books, even some he borrowed to be taken home. He was scolded by his father when he was caught busy reading Kaba Cindua Mato. His father said, "Are you going to be a pious person or become a storyteller?" At the same time, he was no longer interested in completing education at Thawalib. After studying for four

years, he decided to get out of Thawalib. He came out without obtaining a diploma. In those days after that, Hamka was taken to Parabek, about 5 km from the Pengkalan Batu in 1922 to learn with Aiman Ibrahim Wong, but did not last long. He preferred to follow his heart to seek knowledge and experience in his own way. He decided to leave for Java. After a year in Java, in July 1925 Hamka was going back to Padang Panjang. Between the businesses of his activity in the field of Dawah through writing, he took speech in several places in Padang Panjang. But at that moment, everything is precisely sharply criticized by his father, "Speeches alone are useless, fill yourself with knowledge, then those speeches would be meaningful and useful." On the other hand, he did not get a good reception from the public. He was often derided as "uncertified Islam orator", even he had received criticism from some scholars because he did not master Arabic language well. Criticism he received in his native land, he made it as a whip to make him more mature.

The underlined word “derided” in the last paragraph means …

To concern for someone

To give attention to someone

To become aware of someone.

To admire someone very much

To say that someone has no value.

Ali Akbar Navis (born in Padang Panjang, West Sumatra November 17, 1924 - died in Padang March 22, 2003 at 78 years of age) was a prominent Indonesian author, poet and humorist.

Navis showed signs of creativity from a young age. Before discovering his talents as a writer, he was an accomplished flautist and viola player. He was also a skilled painter. His skill as a writer led to his appointment on the Central Sumatra Cultural Committee from 1953–55, and his good English language skills meant he was often asked to assist foreign scholars studying Minangkabau culture.

Navis rose to prominence with the story Surau Kami in 1955, which was voted one of the three best stories of the year by the literary magazine, Kisah. The story was considered very brave in criticizing the pious who neglect the poor. His collection of short stories was released under the same title in 1956 and has been translated into English, German and Japanese.

Navis taught many other writers while producing his own short stories, novels, poetry, children’s stories, radio plays and essays on cultural and social problems. He wrote 22 books, plus five anthologies with other poets, and eight anthologies abroad. He also composed 106 papers for academic publishers and activities at home and abroad. They were later collected in the book A Walk Along the Way.

Between 1971-1982 Navis served as a member of his home province's house of representatives. He also served as President of the INS KayuTanam, an educational foundation. He was also concerned about the quality of national education, especially what he saw as the failure to read and write with open minds. Navis died after a long illness.

(source: hhtp://en.m.wikipedia.org>wiki>A.A_Navis)

One skill that made Navis prominent is ….

Playing flute

Playing viola

Writing novel

Speaking English

Painting an object

What made Surau Kami be voted one of the three best stories?

It was a compilation from many essays.

It talked about the quality of national education.

It was translated into English, German and Japanese.

The book was used as reference for studying Minangkabau culture.

The content of the book was a critic toward the pious who neglect the poor.

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biography text mohammad hatta

Biografi Mohammad Hatta, Kisah Proklamator Indonesia Yang Sangat Sederhana

Biografiku.com  | Mohammad Hatta terkenal sebagai wakil presiden Indonesia pertama dan salah satu Proklamator yang membawa Indonesia merdeka bersama Presiden Soekarno . Ia juga menjadi salah satu pahlawan nasional Indonesia.

Mohammad Hatta dikenal merupakan tokoh yang dikenal sangat bersahaja dan sederhana hingga akhir hayatnya. Mohammad Hatta sangat berperan penting dalam sejarah bangsa Indonesia khususnya ketika membawa Indonesia merdeka. Bagaimana kisahnya?

Biografi Mohammad Hatta

Biodata Mohammad Hatta

Biografi mohammad hatta singkat.

Mohammad Hatta lahir pada tanggal 12 Agustus 1902 di Bukittinggi. Di kota kecil yang indah inilah Bung Hatta dibesarkan di lingkungan keluarga ibunya yang bernama Siti Saleha. Ayahnya, Haji Mohammad Djamil, meninggal ketika Hatta berusia delapan bulan.

Biografi Mohammad Hatta, Kisah Proklamator Indonesia Yang Sangat Sederhana

Mohammad Hatta memiliki enam saudara perempuan. Ia adalah anak laki-laki satu-satunya. Ia memulai pendidikan dasarnya di ELS (Europeesche Lagere School). Sejak duduk di MULO (Meer Uitgebreid Lager Onderwijs) di kota Padang, ia telah tertarik pada pergerakan.

Sejak tahun 1916, timbul perkumpulan-perkumpulan pemuda seperti Jong Java, Jong Sumatranen Bond, Jong Minahasa. dan Jong Ambon. Hatta masuk ke perkumpulan Jong Sumatranen Bond.

Sebagai bendahara Jong Sumatranen Bond, ia menyadari pentingnya arti keuangan bagi hidupnya perkumpulan. Tetapi sumber keuangan baik dari iuran anggota maupun dari sumbangan luar hanya mungkin lancar kalau para anggotanya mempunyai rasa tanggung jawab dan disiplin. Rasa tanggung jawab dan disiplin selanjutnya menjadi ciri khas sifat-sifat Mohammad Hatta.

Belajar ke Belanda

Pada tahun 1921, Mohammad Hatta tiba di Negeri Belanda untuk belajar pada Handels Hoge School di Rotterdam. Ia mendaftar sebagai anggota Indische Vereniging. Tahun 1922, perkumpulan ini berganti nama menjadi Indonesische Vereniging. Perkumpulan yang menolak bekerja sama dengan Belanda itu kemudian berganti nama lagi menjadi Perhimpunan Indonesia (PI).

Hatta juga mengusahakan agar majalah perkumpulan, Hindia Poetra, terbit secara teratur sebagai dasar pengikat antaranggota. Pada tahun 1924 majalah ini berganti nama menjadi Indonesia Merdeka.

Mohammad Hatta Muda

Mohammad Hatta lulus dalam ujian handels economie (ekonomi perdagangan) pada tahun 1923. Semula dia bermaksud menempuh ujian doctoral di bidang ilmu ekonomi pada akhir tahun 1925.

Karena itu pada tahun 1924 dia non-aktif dalam PI. Tetapi waktu itu dibuka jurusan baru, yaitu hukum negara dan hukum administratif. Hatta pun memasuki jurusan itu terdorong oleh minatnya yang besar di bidang politik.

Perpanjangan rencana studinya itu memungkinkan Hatta terpilih menjadi Ketua PI pada tanggal 17 Januari 1926. Pada kesempatan itu, ia mengucapkan pidato inaugurasi yang berjudul “ Economische Wereldbouw en Machtstegenstellingen ” atau Struktur Ekonomi Dunia dan Pertentangan kekuasaan.

Bergabung Dengan Perhimpunan Indonesia

Mohammad Hatta mencoba menganalisis struktur ekonomi dunia dan berdasarkan itu, menunjuk landasan kebijaksanaan non-kooperatif. Sejak tahun 1926 sampai 1930, berturut-turut Hatta dipilih menjadi Ketua PI. Di bawah kepemimpinannya, PI berkembang dari perkumpulan mahasiswa biasa menjadi organisasi politik yang mempengaruhi jalannya politik rakyat di Indonesia.

Sehingga akhirnya diakui oleh Pemufakatan Perhimpunan Politik Kebangsaan Indonesia (PPPI) PI sebagai pos depan dari pergerakan nasional yang berada di Eropa. PI melakukan propaganda aktif di luar negeri Belanda. Hampir setiap kongres intemasional di Eropa dimasukinya, dan menerima perkumpulan ini. Selama itu, hampir selalu Hatta sendiri yang memimpin delegasi.

Nama ‘Indonesia’ Oleh Mohammad Hatta

Pada tahun 1926 dengan tujuan memperkenalkan nama “Indonesia”, Mohammad Hatta memimpin delegasi ke Kongres Demokrasi Intemasional untuk Perdamaian di Bierville, Prancis. Tanpa banyak oposisi, “Indonesia” secara resmi diakui oleh kongres. Nama “Indonesia” untuk menyebutkan wilayah Hindia Belanda ketika itu telah benar-benar dikenal kalangan organisasi-organisasi internasional.

Hatta dan pergerakan nasional Indonesia mendapat pengalaman penting di Liga Menentang Imperialisme dan Penindasan Kolonial, suatu kongres internasional yang diadakan di Brussels tanggal 10-15 Pebruari 1927.

Di kongres ini Hatta berkenalan dengan pemimpin-pemimpin pergerakan buruh seperti G. Ledebour dan Edo Fimmen, serta tokoh-tokoh yang kemudian menjadi negarawan-negarawan di Asia dan Afrika seperti Jawaharlal Nehru (India), Hafiz Ramadhan Bey (Mesir), dan Senghor (Afrika). Persahabatan pribadinya dengan Nehru mulai dirintis sejak saat itu.

Pada tahun 1927 itu pula, Hatta dan Nehru diundang untuk memberikan ceramah bagi “Liga Wanita Internasional untuk Perdamaian dan Kebebasan” di Gland, Swiss. Judul ceramah Hatta L ‘Indonesie et son Probleme de I’ Independence (Indonesia dan Persoalan Kemerdekaan).

Mohammad Hatta Di Penjara

Bersama dengan Nazir St. Pamontjak, Ali Sastroamidjojo, dan Abdul Madjid Djojoadiningrat, Mohammad Hatta dipenjara selama lima setengah bulan. Pada tanggal 22 Maret 1928, mahkamah pengadilan di Den Haag membebaskan keempatnya dari segala tuduhan.

Dalam sidang yang bersejarah itu, Hatta mengemukakan pidato pembelaan yang mengagumkan, yang kemudian diterbitkan sebagai brosur dengan nama “Indonesia Vrij”, dan kemudian diterjemahkan ke dalam Bahasa Indonesia sebagai buku dengan judul Indonesia Merdeka.

Antara tahun 1930-1931, Mohammad Hatta memusatkan diri kepada studinya serta penulisan karangan untuk majalah Daulat Ra‘jat dan kadang-kadang De Socialist. Ia merencanakan untuk mengakhiri studinya pada pertengahan tahun 1932.

Kembali ke Indonesia

Pada bulan Juli 1932, Moh Hatta berhasil menyelesaikan studinya di Negeri Belanda dan sebulan kemudian ia tiba di Jakarta. Antara akhir tahun 1932 dan 1933, kesibukan utama Hatta adalah menulis berbagai artikel politik dan ekonomi untuk Daulat Ra’jat.

Biografi Mohammad Hatta

Selain itu ia juga aktif melakukan berbagai kegiatan politik, terutama pendidikan kader-kader politik pada Partai Pendidikan Nasional Indonesia. Prinsip non-kooperasi selalu ditekankan kepada kader-kadernya.

Reaksi Hatta yang keras terhadap sikap Soekarno sehubungan dengan penahannya oleh Pemerintah Kolonial Belanda, yang berakhir dengan pembuangan Soekarno ke Ende, Flores, terlihat pada tulisan-tulisannya di Daulat Ra’jat, yang berjudul “Soekarno Ditahan” (10 Agustus 1933), “Tragedi Soekarno” (30 Nopember 1933), dan “Sikap Pemimpin” (10 Desember 1933).

Di Penjara oleh Belanda

Pada bulan Pebruari 1934, setelah Soekarno dibuang ke Ende, Pemerintah Kolonial Belanda mengalihkan perhatiannya kepada Partai Pendidikan Nasional Indonesia. Para pimpinan Partai Pendidikan Nasional Indonesia ditahan dan kemudian dibuang ke Boven Digoel.

Seluruhnya berjumlah tujuh orang. Dari kantor Jakarta adalah Mohammad Hatta, Sutan Syahrir , dan Bondan. Dari kantor Bandung: Maskun Sumadiredja, Burhanuddin, Soeka, dan Murwoto.

Sebelum ke Digoel, mereka dipenjara selama hampir setahun di penjara Glodok dan Cipinang, Jakarta. Di penjara Glodok, Hatta menulis buku berjudul “Krisis Ekonomi dan Kapitalisme”.

Di Buang Ke Boven Digoel, Papua

Pada bulan Januari 1935, Mohammad Hatta dan kawan-kawannya tiba di Tanah Merah, Boven Digoel (Papua). Kepala pemerintahan di sana, Kapten van Langen, menawarkan dua pilihan: bekerja untuk pemerintahan kolonial dengan upah 40 sen sehari dengan harapan nanti akan dikirim pulang ke daerah asal. Atau menjadi buangan dengan menerima bahan makanan in natura, dengan tiada harapan akan dipulangkan ke daerah asal.

Hatta menjawab, bila dia mau bekerja untuk pemerintah kolonial waktu dia masih di Jakarta, pasti telah menjadi orang besar dengan gaji besar pula. Maka tak perlulah dia ke Tanah Merah untuk menjadi kuli dengan gaji 40 sen sehari.

Dalam pembuangan, Hatta secara teratur menulis artikel-artikel untuk surat kabar Pemandangan. Honorariumnya cukup untuk biaya hidup di Tanah Merah dan dia dapat pula membantu kawan-kawannya. Rumahnya di Digoel dipenuhi oleh buku-bukunya yang khusus dibawa dari Jakarta sebanyak 16 peti.

Dengan demikian, Hatta mempunyai cukup banyak bahan untuk memberikan pelajaran kepada kawan-kawannya di pembuangan mengenai ilmu ekonomi, sejarah, dan filsafat. Kumpulan bahan-bahan pelajaran itu di kemudian hari dibukukan dengan judul-judul antara lain, “Pengantar ke Jalan llmu dan Pengetahuan” dan “Alam Pikiran Yunani.” (empat jilid).

Pada bulan Desember 1935, Kapten Wiarda, pengganti van Langen, memberitahukan bahwa tempat pembuangan Hatta dan Sjahrir dipindah ke Bandaneira. Pada Januari 1936 keduanya berangkat ke Bandaneira.

Mereka bertemu Dr. Tjipto Mangunkusumo dan Mr. Iwa Kusumasumantri. Di Bandaneira, Hatta dan Sjahrir dapat bergaul bebas dengan penduduk setempat dan memberi pelajaran kepada anak-anak setempat dalam bidang sejarah, tatabuku, politik, dan lain-Iain.

Kembali Ke Jakarta

Pada tanggal 3 Pebruari 1942, Hatta dan Sjahrir dibawa ke Sukabumi. Pada tanggal 9 Maret 1942, Pemerintah Hindia Belanda menyerah kepada Jepang, dan pada tanggal 22 Maret 1942 Hatta dan Sjahrir dibawa ke Jakarta.

Pada masa pendudukan Jepang, Hatta diminta untuk bekerja sama sebagai penasehat. Hatta mengatakan tentang cita-cita bangsa Indonesia untuk merdeka, dan dia bertanya, apakah Jepang akan menjajah Indonesia?

Kepala pemerintahan harian sementara, Mayor Jenderal Harada. menjawab bahwa Jepang tidak akan menjajah. Namun Hatta mengetahui, bahwa Kemerdekaan Indonesia dalam pemahaman Jepang berbeda dengan pengertiannya sendiri.

Pengakuan Indonesia Merdeka oleh Jepang perlu bagi Hatta sebagai senjata terhadap Sekutu kelak. Bila Jepang yang fasis itu mau mengakui, apakah sekutu yang demokratis tidak akan mau? Karena itulah maka Jepang selalu didesaknya untuk memberi pengakuan tersebut, yang baru diperoleh pada bulan September 1944.

Selama masa pendudukan Jepang, Hatta tidak banyak bicara. Namun pidato yang diucapkan di Lapangan Ikada (sekarang Lapangan Merdeka) pada tanggaI 8 Desember 1942 menggemparkan banyak kalangan. Ia mengatakan, “Indonesia terlepas dari penjajahan imperialisme Belanda.

Dan oleh karena itu ia tak ingin menjadi jajahan kembali. Tua dan muda merasakan ini setajam-tajamnya. Bagi pemuda Indonesia, ia Iebih suka melihat Indonesia tenggelam ke dalam lautan daripada mempunyainya sebagai jajahan orang kembali.”

Proklamasi Kemerdekaan Indonesia

Pada awal Agustus 1945, Panitia Penyidik Usaha-Usaha Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia diganti dengan Panitia Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia, dengan Soekamo sebagai Ketua dan Mohammad Hatta sebagai Wakil Ketua. Anggotanya terdiri dari wakil-wakil daerah di seluruh Indonesia, sembilan dari Pulau Jawa dan dua belas orang dari luar Pulau Jawa.

Biografi Mohammad Hatta, Kisah Proklamator Indonesia Yang Sangat Sederhana

Pada tanggal 16 Agustus 1945 malam, Panitia Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia mempersiapkan proklamasi dalam rapat di rumah Admiral Maeda (JI Imam Bonjol, sekarang), yang berakhir pada pukul 03.00 pagi keesokan harinya.

Panitia kecil yang terdiri dari 5 orang, yaitu Soekamo , Hatta, Soebardjo, Soekarni, dan Sayuti Malik memisahkan diri ke suatu ruangan untuk menyusun teks proklamasi kemerdekaan.

Soekarno meminta Hatta menyusun teks proklamasi yang ringkas. Hatta menyarankan agar Soekarno yang menuliskan kata-kata yang didiktekannya. Setelah pekerjaan itu selesai. mereka membawanya ke ruang tengah, tempat para anggota lainnya menanti.

Soekarni mengusulkan agar naskah proklamasi tersebut ditandatangi oleh dua orang saja, Soekarno dan Mohammad Hatta. Semua yang hadir menyambut dengan bertepuk tangan riuh.

Tangal 17 Agustus 1945, kemerdekaan Indonesia diproklamasikan oleh Soekarno dan Mohammad Hatta atas nama bangsa Indonesia, tepat pada jam 10.00 pagi di Jalan Pengangsaan Timur 56 Jakarta.

Wakil Presiden Indonesia Pertama

Tanggal 18 Agustus 1945, Ir Soekarno diangkat sebagai Presiden Republik Indonesia dan Drs. Mohammad Hatta diangkat menjadi Wakil Presiden Republik Indonesia. Soekardjo Wijopranoto mengemukakan bahwa Presiden dan Wakil Presiden harus merupakan satu dwitunggal.

Indonesia harus mempertahankan kemerdekaannya dari usaha Pemerintah Belanda yang ingin menjajah kembali. Pemerintah Republik Indonesia pindah dari Jakarta ke Yogyakarta. Dua kali perundingan dengan Belanda menghasilkan Perjanjian Linggarjati dan Perjanjian Reville, tetapi selalu berakhir dengan kegagalan akibat kecurangan pihak Belanda.

Untuk mencari dukungan luar negeri, pada Juli I947, Bung Hatta pergi ke India menemui Jawaharlal Nehru dan Mahatma Gandhi. dengan menyamar sebagai kopilot bernama Abdullah (Pilot pesawat adalah Biju Patnaik yang kemudian menjadi Menteri Baja India di masa Pemerintah Perdana Menteri Morarji Desai).

Nehru berjanji, India dapat membantu Indonesia dengan protes dan resolusi kepada PBB agar Belanda dihukum. Kesukaran dan ancaman yang dihadapi silih berganti. September 1948 PKI melakukan pemberontakan.

Menjadi Perdana Menteri

19 Desember 1948, Belanda kembali melancarkan agresi kedua. Presiden dan Wapres ditawan dan diasingkan ke Bangka. Namun perjuangan Rakyat Indonesia untuk mempertahankan kemerdekaan terus berkobar di mana-mana. Panglima Besar Sudirman melanjutkan memimpin perjuangan bersenjata.

Pada tanggal 27 Desember 1949 di Den Haag, Bung Hatta yang mengetuai Delegasi Indonesia dalam Konferensi Meja Bundar untuk menerima pengakuan kedaulatan Indonesia dari Ratu Juliana. Bung Hatta juga menjadi Perdana Menteri waktu Negara Republik Indonesia Serikat berdiri. Selanjutnya setelah RIS menjadi Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia, Bung Hatta kembali menjadi Wakil Presiden.

Periode Tahun 1950-1956

Dalam Biografi Mohammad Hatta, Selama menjadi Wakil Presiden, Bung Hatta tetap aktif memberikan ceramah-ceramah di berbagai lembaga pendidikan tinggi. Dia juga tetap menulis berbagai karangan dan buku-buku ilmiah di bidang ekonomi dan koperasi.

Dia juga aktif membimbing gerakan koperasi untuk melaksanakan cita-cita dalam konsepsi ekonominya. Tanggal 12 Juli 1951, Bung Hatta mengucapkan pidato radio untuk menyambut Hari Koperasi di Indonesia.

Karena besamya aktivitas Bung Hatta dalam gerakan koperasi, maka pada tanggal 17 Juli 1953 dia diangkat sebagai Bapak Koperasi Indonesia pada Kongres Koperasi Indonesia di Bandung. Pikiran-pikiran Bung Hatta mengenai koperasi antara lain dituangkan dalam bukunya yang berjudul Membangun Koperasi dan Koperasi Membangun (1971).

Pada tahun 1955, Bung Hatta mengumumkan bahwa apabila parlemen dan konsituante pilihan rakyat sudah terbentuk, ia akan mengundurkan diri sebagai Wakil Presiden. Niatnya untuk mengundurkan diri itu diberitahukannya melalui sepucuk surat kepada ketua Perlemen, Mr. Sartono. Tembusan surat dikirimkan kepada Presiden Soekarno.

Setelah Konstituante dibuka secara resmi oleh Presiden, Wakil Presiden Hatta mengemukakan kepada Ketua Parlemen bahwa pada tanggal l Desember 1956 ia akan meletakkan jabatannya sebagai Wakil Presiden RI. Presiden Soekarno berusaha mencegahnya, tetapi Bung Hatta tetap pada pendiriannya.

Pada tangal 27 Nopember 1956, ia memperoleh gelar kehormatan akademis yaitu Doctor Honoris Causa dalam ilmu hukum dari Universitas Gajah Mada di Yoyakarta. Pada kesempatan itu, Bung Hatta mengucapkan pidato pengukuhan yang berjudul “Lampau dan Datang”.

Sesudah Bung Hatta meletakkan jabatannya sebagai Wakil Presiden RI, beberapa gelar akademis juga diperolehnya dari berbagai perguruan tinggi. Universitas Padjadjaran di Bandung mengukuhkan Bung Hatta sebagai guru besar dalam ilmu politik perekonomian.

Universitas Hasanuddin di Ujung Pandang memberikan gelar Doctor Honoris Causa dalam bidang Ekonomi. Universitas Indonesia memberikan gelar Doctor Honoris Causa di bidang ilmu hukum. Pidato pengukuhan Bung Hatta berjudul “Menuju Negara Hukum”.

Biografi Mohammad Hatta, Kisah Proklamator Indonesia Yang Sangat Sederhana

Pada tahun 1960 Bung Hatta menulis “Demokrasi Kita” dalam majalah Pandji Masyarakat. Sebuah tulisan yang terkenal karena menonjolkan pandangan dan pikiran Bung Hatta mengenai perkembangan demokrasi di Indonesia waktu itu. Dalam masa pemerintahan Orde Baru, Bung Hatta lebih merupakan negarawan sesepuh bagi bangsanya daripada seorang politikus. Hatta menikah dengan Rahmi Rachim pada tanggal l8 Nopember 1945 di desa Megamendung, Bogor, Jawa Barat. Mereka mempunyai tiga orang putri, yaitu Meutia Farida, Gemala Rabi’ah, dan Halida Nuriah.

Dua orang putrinya yang tertua telah menikah. Yang pertama dengan Dr. Sri-Edi Swasono dan yang kedua dengan Drs. Mohammad Chalil Baridjambek. Hatta sempat menyaksikan kelahiran dua cucunya, yaitu Sri Juwita Hanum Swasono dan Mohamad Athar Baridjambek.

Pada tanggal 15 Agustus 1972, Presiden Soeharto menyampaikan kepada Bung Hatta anugerah negara berupa Tanda Kehormatan tertinggi “Bintang Republik Indonesia Kelas I” pada suatu upacara kenegaraan di Istana Negara.

Mohammad Hatta Wafat

Bung Hatta, Proklamator Kemerdekaan dan Wakil Presiden Pertama Republik Indonesia, wafat pada tanggal 14 Maret 1980 di Rumah Sakit Dr Tjipto Mangunkusumo, Jakarta, pada usia 77 tahun dan dikebumikan di TPU Tanah Kusir pada tanggal 15 Maret 1980.

Atas jasa Moh Hatta kepada negara Indonesia, Pemerintah Indonesia kemudian menganugerahkan gelar Pahlawan Nasional Indoensia kepadanya.

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Soekarno (or Soekarno), was born as Kusno Sosrodihardjo (6 June 1901 – 21 June 1970). He was the first President of Indonesia (from 1945 to 1967). Soekarno was the leader of Indonesia’s struggle for independence from the Netherlands.

Indonesians also remember him as Bung Karno or Pak Karno. Like many old Javanese people, he had only one name. In religious contexts, he was occasionally referred to as “Achmed Soekarno”. In some other occasions, he referred as “Soekarno Soekarno”. The name Soekarno means “Good Karna” in Javanese.

Background Soekarno’s father, an aristocrat named Raden Soekemi Sosrodihardjoa was Javanese primary school teacher.  His mother, named Ida Ayu Nyoman Rai was Balinese Brahman caste from Buleleng regency. Soekarno was born at Jl. Pandean IV / 40 Surabaya, East Java in the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia). Following Javanese custom, he was renamed after surviving a childhood illness. After graduating from a native primary school in 1912, he was sent to Europeesche Lagere School (Dutch-medium junior secondary school) in Mojokerto. When his father sent him to Surabaya in 1916 to attend a Hogere Burger School (Dutch-medium secondary school), he met Tjokroaminoto, a nationalist and founder of Sarekat Islam, the owner of the boarding house where he lived. In 1920, Soekarno married Tjokroaminoto’s daughter Siti Oetari. In 1921 he began to study at the Technische Hogeschool (Technical Institute) in Bandung. He studied civil engineering and focused on architecture. In Bandung, Soekarno became romantically involved with Inggit Garnasih, the wife of Sanoesi, the boarding house owner where he lived as student. Inggit was 13 years older than Soekarno. On March 1923, Soekarno divorced Siti Oetari to marry Inggit (who also divorced her husband Sanoesi). And later on Soekarno also divorced Inggit and married Fatmawati.

Soekarno graduated with a degree in engineering on 25 May 1926. In July 1926, with his university friend Anwari, he established the architectural firm Soekarno & Anwari in Bandung, which provided planning and contractor services.  One of Soekarno’s architectural works is the renovated building of the Preanger Hotel (1929), where he acted as assistant to famous Dutch architect Charles Prosper Wolff Schoemaker. Soekarno also designed many private houses where today named as Jalan Gatot Subroto, Jalan Palasari, and Jalan Dewi Sartika in Bandung. Later on, as president, Soekarno remained engaged in architecture, designing the Proclamation Monument and adjacent Gedung Pola in Jakarta, the Youth Monument (Tugu Muda) in Semarang, the Alun-alun Monument in Malang, the Heroes’ Monument in Surabaya, and also the new city of Palangkaraya in Central Kalimantan.

Soekarno was fluent in several languages such as Sundanese, Balinese and of Indonesian, and especially strong in Dutch. He was also quite comfortable in German, English, French, Arabic, and Japanese, all of which were taught at his HBS. He was helped by his photographic memory and precocious mind.

In his studies, Soekarno was “intensely modern,” both in architecture and in politics. He despised both the traditional Javanese feudalism, which he considered as “backward” and was to blame for the fall of the country under Dutch colonialism, and the imperialism practiced by Western countries, which he termed as exploitation of humans by other humans and is responsible for the deep poverty and low levels of education of Indonesian people under the Dutch. To promote nationalistic pride amongst Indonesian people, Soekarno interpreted these ideas in his dress, in his urban planning for the capital (eventually Jakarta), and in his socialist politics, though he did not extend his taste for modern art to pop music; he had Koes Plus imprisoned for their allegedly decadent lyrics despite his reputation for womanising. For Soekarno, modernity was blind to race, neat and Western in style, and anti-imperialist.

Independence struggle

Soekarno was first exposed to nationalist ideas while living under Tjokroaminoto. Later, while a student in Bandung, he immersed himself in Western, communist, and Islamic political philosophy, eventually developing his own political ideology of Indonesian-style socialist self-sufficiency. He begin styling his ideas as Marhaenism, named after Marhaen, an Indonesian peasant he met in southern Bandung area, who owned his little plot of land and worked on it himself, producing sufficient income to support his family. In university, Soekarno began organising study club for Indonesian students, the Algemeene Studieclub, in opposition to the established student clubs dominated by Dutch students.

On 4 July 1927, Soekarno with his friends from the Algemeene Studieclub established a pro-independence party, Partai Nasional Indonesia (PNI), upon which Soekarno was elected as the first leader. The party advocated independence for Indonesia, and opposed imperialism and capitalism because it opined that both systems worsened the life of Indonesian people. The party also advocated secularism and unity amongst the many different ethnicities in the Dutch East Indies, to establish a united Indonesia. Soekarno also hoped that Japan would commence a war against the western powers and that Java could then gain its independence with Japan’s aid. Coming soon after the disintegration of Sarekat Islam in early 1920s and the crushing of Partai Komunis Indonesia after their failed rebellion of 1926, PNI began to attract a large number of followers, particularly among the new university-educated youths eager for larger freedoms and opportunities denied to them in the racist and constrictive political system of Dutch colonialism.

PNI activities came under the attention of the colonial government, and Soekarno’s speeches and meetings was often infiltrated and disrupted by agents of the colonial secret police (Politieke Inlichtingen Dienst/PID). Eventually, Soekarno and other key PNI leaders were arrested on 29 December 1929 by Dutch colonial authorities in a series of raids throughout Java. Soekarno himself was arrested while on a visit to Yogyakarta. On his trial at the Bandung Landraad courthouse from August to December 1930, Soekarno made a series of long political speech attacking the injustices of colonialism and imperialism, titled Indonesia Menggoegat (Indonesia Accuses).

On December 1930, Soekarno was sentenced to four years in prison, which was served in Sukamiskin prison in Bandung. His impressive speech, however, received wide coverage by the press, and due to strong pressure from the liberal elements both in Netherlands and Dutch East Indies, Soekarno was released early on 31 December 1931. By this time, he had become a popular hero widely known throughout Indonesia.

However, during his imprisonment, PNI had been splintered by oppression of colonial authorities and internal dissension. The original PNI was disbanded by the Dutch, and its former members formed two different parties; the Partai Indonesia (Partindo) under Soekarno’s associate Sartono who were promoting mass agitation, and the Pendidikan Nasional Indonesia (PNI Baroe) under Mohammad Hatta and Soetan Sjahrir, two nationalists who recently returned from studies in Netherlands who were promoting long-term strategy of dispensing modern education to the uneducated Indonesian populace to develop an intellectual elite able to offer effective resistance to Dutch rule. After attempting to reconcile the two parties to establish one united nationalist front, Soekarno chose to become the head of Partindo on 28 July 1932. Partindo has maintained its alignment with Soekarno’s own strategy of immediate mass agitation, and Soekarno disagreed with Hatta’s long-term cadre-based struggle. Hatta himself believed Indonesian independence will not occur within his lifetime, while Soekarno believed Hatta’s strategy to be ignorant of the fact that politics can only make real changes through formation and utilisation of force (machtsvorming en machtsaanwending).

During this period, to support himself and the party financially, Soekarno re-entered architecture, opening the bureau Soekarno & Rooseno. He also wrote articles for the party’s newspaper, Fikiran Ra’jat. While being based in Bandung, Soekarno travelled extensively throughout Java to establish contacts with other nationalists. His activities attracted further attention by the Dutch PID. On mid-1933, Soekarno published a series of writings titled Mentjapai Indonesia Merdeka (“To Attain Independent Indonesia”). For this writing, he was arrested by Dutch police while visiting fellow nationalist Mohammad Hoesni Thamrin in Jakarta on 1 August 1933.

This time, to prevent providing Soekarno with platform to make political speeches, the hardline governor-general jonkheer Bonifacius Cornelis de Jonge utilised his emergency powers to send Soekarno to internal exile without trial. In 1934, Soekarno was shipped, along with his family (including Inggit Garnasih), to the remote town of Ende, on the island of Flores. During his time in Flores, he utilised his limited freedom of movement to establish a children’s theatre, among its members was future politician Frans Seda. Due to an outbreak of malaria in Flores, the Dutch authorities decided to move Soekarno and his family to Bencoolen (now Bengkulu) on western coast of Sumatera, on February 1938.

In Bengkulu, Soekarno became acquainted with Hassan Din, the local head of Muhammadiyah organisation, and he was allowed to teach Islamic religion at a local school owned by the Muhammadiyah. One of his students was 15-year old Fatmawati, daughter of Hassan Din. He became romantically involved with Fatmawati, which he justified by stating the inability of Inggit Garnasih to produce children during their almost 20-year marriage. Soekarno was still in Bengkulu exile when the Japanese invaded the archipelago in 1942.

World War II and the Japanese occupation Early 1929, during the Indonesian National Revival, Soekarno and fellow Indonesian nationalist leader Mohammad Hatta (later Vice President), first foresaw a Pacific War and the opportunity that a Japanese advance on Indonesia might present for the Indonesian independence cause. In February 1942 Imperial Japan invaded the Dutch East Indies quickly defeating Dutch forces who marched, bussed and trucked Soekarno and his entourage three hundred kilometres from Bengkulu to Padang, Sumatra. They intended keeping him prisoner and shipping him to Australia, but abruptly abandoned him to save themselves upon the impending approach of Japanese forces on Padang.

The Japanese had their own files on Soekarno and the Japanese commander in Sumatera approached him with respect, wanting to use him to organise and pacify the Indonesians. Soekarno on the other hand wanted to use the Japanese to free Indonesia: “The Lord be praised, God showed me the way; in that valley of the Ngarai I said: Yes, Independent Indonesia can only be achieved with Dai Nippon…For the first time in all my life, I saw myself in the mirror of Asia.” On July 1942, Soekarno was sent back to Jakarta, where he re-united with other nationalist leaders recently released by the Japanese, including Mohammad Hatta. There, he met the Japanese commander General Hitoshi Imamura, who asked Soekarno and other nationalists to galvanise support from Indonesian populace to aid Japanese war effort.

Soekarno was willing to support the Japanese, in exchange for a platform for himself to spread nationalist ideas to the mass population. The Japanese, on the other hand, needed Indonesia’s manpower and natural resources to help its war effort. The Japanese recruited millions of people, particularly from Java, to be forced labor called “romusha” in Japanese. They were forced to build railways, airfields, and other facilities for the Japanese within Indonesia and as far away as Burma. Additionally, the Japanese requestioned rice and other food produced by Indonesian peasants to supply their own troops, while forcing the peasantry to cultivate castor oil plants to be used as aviation fuel and lubricants.

To gain cooperation from Indonesian population and to prevent resistance to these draconian measures, the Japanese put Soekarno as head of Tiga-A mass organisation movement. On March 1943, the Japanese formed a new organisation called Poesat Tenaga Rakjat (POETERA/ Concentration of People’s Power) under Soekarno, Hatta, Ki Hadjar Dewantara, and KH Mas Mansjoer. The aim of these organisations were to galvanise popular support for recruitment of romusha forced labor, requisitioning of food products, and to promote pro-Japanese and anti-Western sentiments amongst Indonesians. Soekarno coined the term, Amerika kita setrika, Inggris kita linggis (“Let’s iron America, and bludgeon the British”) to promote anti-Allied sentiments. In later years, Soekarno was lastingly ashamed of his role with the romusha. Additionally, food requisitioning by the Japanese caused widespread famine in Java which killed more than one million people in 1944-1945. In his view, these were necessary sacrifices to be made to allow for future independence of Indonesia. He also was involved with the formation of Pembela Tanah Air (PETA) and Heiho (Indonesian volunteer army troops) via speeches broadcast on the Japanese radio and loud speaker networks across Java and Sumatera. By mid-1945 these units numbered around two million, and were preparing to defeat any Allied forces sent to re-take Java.

In the meantime, Soekarno eventually divorced Inggit, who refused to accept her husband’s wish for polygamy. She was provided with a house in Bandung and a pension for the rest of her life. In 1943, he married Fatmawati. They lived in a house in Jl. Pegangsaan Timur No. 56, confiscated from its previous Dutch owners and presented to Soekarno by the Japanese. This house would later be the venue of the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence in 1945.

On 10 November 1943 Soekarno and Hatta was sent for seventeen-day tour of Japan, where they were decorated by the Emperor Hirohito and was wined and dined in the house of Prime Minister Hideki Tojo in Tokyo. On 7 September 1944, with the war going badly for the Japanese, Prime Minister Kuniaki Koiso promised independence for Indonesia, although no date was set. This announcement was seen, according to the U.S. official history, as immense vindication for Soekarno’s apparent collaboration with the Japanese. The U.S. at the time considered Soekarno one of the “foremost collaborationist leaders.”

On 29 April 1945, with the fall of Philippines to American hands, the Japanese allowed for the establishment of Badan Penjelidik Oesaha-oesaha Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia (BPUPKI), a quasi-legislature consisting of 67 representatives from most ethnic-groups in Indonesia. Soekarno was appointed as head of BPUPKI and was tasked to lead discussion to prepare the basis of a future Indonesian state. To provide a common and acceptable platform to unite the various squabbling factions in BPUPKI, Soekarno formulated his ideological thinking developed for the past twenty years into five principles. On 1 June 1945, he introduced these five principles, known as pancasila, during the joint session of BPUPKI held in the former Volksraad Building (now called Gedung Pancasila).

Pancasila as presented by Soekarno during the BPUPKI speech, consisted of five common principles which Soekarno saw as commonly shared by all Indonesians:

  • Nationalism, whereby a united Indonesian state would stretch from Sabang to Merauke, encompassing all former Dutch East Indies
  • Internationalism, meaning Indonesia is to appreciate human rights and contribute to world peace, and should not fall into chauvinistic fascism such as displayed by Nazis with their belief in the racial superiority of Aryans
  • Democracy, which Soekarno believed has always been in the blood of Indonesians through the practice of consensus-seeking (musyawarah untuk mufakat), an Indonesian-style democracy different from Western-style liberalism
  • Social justice, a form of populist socialism in economics with Marxist-style opposition to free capitalism. Social justice also intended to provide equal share of the economy to all Indonesians, as opposed to the complete economic domination by the Dutch and Chinese during the colonial period
  • Belief in God, whereby all religions are treated equally and have religious freedom. Soekarno saw Indonesians as spiritual and religious people, but in essence tolerant towards differing religious beliefs

On 22 June, the Islamic and nationalist elements of BPUPKI created a small committee of nine, which formulated Soekarno’s ideas into the five-point Pancasila, in a document known as the Jakarta Charter:

  • Belief in one God, with obligation for Muslims to observe Islamic law
  • Civilised and just humanity
  • Unity of Indonesia
  • Democracy through representative consensus-building
  • Social justice for all Indonesians

Due to pressure from the Islamic element, the first principle mentioned the obligation for Muslims to practice Islamic law (sharia). However, the final Sila as contained in the 1945 Constitution which was put into effect on 18 August 1945, excluded the reference to Islamic law for sake of national unity. The elimination of sharia was done by Mohammad Hatta based upon request by Christian representative Alexander Andries Maramis, and after consultation with moderate Islamic representatives Teuku Mohammad Hassan, Kasman Singodimedjo, and Ki Bagoes Hadikoesoemo.

On 7 August 1945, the Japanese allowed the formation a smaller Panitia Penjelidik Kemerdekaan Indonesia (PPKI), a 21-person committee tasked with creating specific governmental structure of future Indonesian state. On 9 August, the top leaders of PPKI (Soekarno, Hatta, and KRH Radjiman Wediodiningrat), were summoned by Commander-in-Chief of Japan’s Southern Expeditionary Forces, Field Marshal Hisaichi Terauchi, to Da Lat, 100 km from Saigon. Field Marshal Terauchi gave Soekarno the freedom to proceed with preparation for Indonesian independence, free of Japanese interference. After much wining and dining, Soekarno’s entourage was flown back to Jakarta on 14 August. Unbeknownst to the guests, atomic bombs had been dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and the Japanese were preparing for surrender.

The following day, on 15 August, the Japanese declared their acceptance of Potsdam Declaration terms, and unconditionally surrendered to the Allies. On the afternoon of that day, Soekarno received this information from leaders of youth groups and members of PETA Chairul Saleh, Soekarni, and Wikana, who had been listening to Western radio broadcasts. They urged Soekarno to declare Indonesian independence immediately, while the Japanese were in confusion and before the arrival of Allied forces. Faced with this quick turn of events, Soekarno procrastinated. He feared bloodbath due to hostile response from the Japanese to such a move, and was concerned with prospects of future Allied retribution.

At early morning on 16 August, the three youth leaders, impatient with Soekarno’s indecision, kidnapped him from his house and brought him to a small house in Rengasdengklok, Karawang, owned by a Chinese family and occupied by PETA . There they gained Soekarno’s commitment to declare independence within the next day. That night, the youths drove Soekarno back to the house of Admiral Tadashi Maeda, the Japanese naval liaison officer in Menteng area of Jakarta, who sympathised with Indonesian independence. There, he and his assistant Sajoeti Melik prepared text of Proclamation of Indonesian Independence.

War leader On early morning of 17 August 1945, Soekarno returned to his house at Jl Pegangsaan Timur No. 56, where he was joined by Mohammad Hatta. Throughout the morning, impromptu leaflets printed by PETA and youth elements informed the population of the impending proclamation. Finally, on 10 am, Soekarno and Hatta stepped to the front porch, where Soekarno declared the independence of the Republic of Indonesia in front of a crowd of 500 people.

On the following day, 18 August, PPKI declared the basic governmental structure of the new Republic of Indonesia:

  • Appointing Soekarno and Mohammad Hatta as President and Vice-President and their cabinet.
  • Putting into effect the 1945 Indonesian constitution, which by this time excluded any reference to Islamic law.
  • Setting a Central Indonesian National Committee (Komite Nasional Indonesia Poesat/KNIP) to assist the president prior to election of a parliament.

Soekarno’s vision for the 1945 Indonesian constitution comprised the Pancasila (five principles). Soekarno’s political philosophy was mainly a fuse of elements of Marxism, nationalism and Islam. This is reflected in a proposition of his version of Pancasila he proposed to the BPUPKI (Inspectorate of Indonesian Independence Preparation Efforts), in which he originally espoused them in a speech on 1 June 1945.

Soekarno argued that all of the principles of the nation could be summarized in the phrase gotong royong. The Indonesian parliament, founded on the basis of this original (and subsequently revised) constitution, proved all but ungovernable. This was due to irreconcilable differences between various social, political, religious and ethnic factions.

In the days following the Proclamation, the news of Indonesian independence was spread by radio, newspaper, leaflets, and word of mouth despite attempts by the Japanese soldiers to suppress the news. On 19 September, Soekarno addressed a crowd of one million people at the Ikada Field of Jakarta (now part of Merdeka Square) to commemorate one month of independence, indicating the strong level of popular support for the new republic, at least on Java and Sumatera. In these two islands, the Soekarno government quickly established governmental control while the remaining Japanese mostly retreated to their barracks awaiting arrival of Allied forces. This period was marked by constant attacks by armed groups on Europeans, Chinese, Christians, native aristocracy and anyone who were perceived to oppose Indonesian independence. The most serious cases were the Social Revolutions in Aceh and North Sumatera, where large numbers of Acehnese and Malay aristocrats were killed by Islamic groups (in Aceh) and communist-led mobs (in North Sumatera), and the “Three Regions Affair” in northwestern coast of Central Java where large numbers of Europeans, Chinese, and native aristocrats were butchered by mobs. These bloody incidences continued until late 1945 to early 1946, and begin to peter-out as Republican authority begin to exert and consolidate its control.

Soekarno’s government initially postponed the formation of a national army, for fear of antagonizing the Allied occupation forces and their doubt over whether they would have been able to form an adequate military apparatus to maintain control of seized territory. The members of various militia groups formed during Japanese occupation such as the disbanded PETA and Heiho, at that time were encouraged to join the BKR—Badan Keamanan Rakjat (The People’s Security Organization)—itself a subordinate of the “War Victims Assistance Organization”. It was only in October 1945 that the BKR was reformed into the TKR—Tentara Keamanan Rakjat (The People’s Security Army) in response to the increasing Allied and Dutch presence in Indonesia. The TKR armed themselves mostly by attacking Japanese troops and confiscating their weapons.

Due to sudden transfer of Java and Sumatera from General Douglas MacArthur’s American-dominated Southwest Pacific Area to Lord Louis Mountbatten’s British-dominated Southeast Asian Command, the first Allied soldiers (1st Battalion of Seaforth Highlanders) only arrived in Jakarta on late September 1945. British forces began to occupy major Indonesian cities on October 1945. The commander of British 23rd Division, Lieutenant General Sir Philip Christison, set-up command in the former governor-general’s palace in Jakarta. Christison stated its intentions as the liberation of all Allied prisoners-of-war, and to allow the return of Indonesia to its pre-war status, as colony of Netherlands. The Republican government were willing to cooperate with regards to the release and repatriation of Allied civilian and military POWs, setting-up the Committee for the Repatriation of Japanese and Allied Prisoners of Wars and Internees (Panitia Oeroesan Pengangkoetan Djepang dan APWI/POPDA) for this purpose. POPDA, in cooperation with the British, repatriated more than 70,000 Japanese and Allied POWs and internees by the end of 1946. To resist Dutch attempts to regain control of the country, Soekarno’s strategy was to seek international recognition and support for the new Indonesian Republic, in view of the relative military weakness of the Republic compared with British and Dutch military power.

Soekarno was aware that his past history as Japanese collaborator might complicate relationship with the Western countries. Hence, to help acquire international recognition as well as to accommodate domestic demands for establishment of political parties, Soekarno allowed the formation of parliamentary system of government, whereby a prime minister controlled day-to-day affairs of the government, while Soekarno as president remained as figurehead. The prime minister and his cabinet will be responsible to the Central Indonesian National Committee instead of the president. On 14 November 1945, Soekarno appointed Sutan Sjahrir as first prime minister, he was a European-educated politician who was never involved with the Japanese occupation authorities.

Ominously, Dutch soldiers and administrators under the name of Netherlands Indies Civil Administration (NICA) began to return under the protection of the British. They were led by Hubertus Johannes van Mook, a pre-war Dutch colonial administrator who led the Dutch East Indies government-in-exile in Brisbane, Australia. They armed released Dutch POWs, which began to engage in shooting rampages against Indonesian civilians and Republican police. As consequence, armed conflict soon erupted between the newly-constituted Republican forces aided by a myriad of pro-independence mob groups, against the British and Dutch forces. On 10 November, a full-scale battle broke-out in Surabaya between British Indian 49th Infantry Brigade and Indonesian population, involving air and naval bombardments of the city by the British. 300 British soldiers were killed (including its commander Brigadier AWS Mallaby), while thousands of Indonesians died. Shootouts broke-out with alarming regularity in Jakarta, including an attempted assassination of Prime Minister Sjahrir by Dutch gunmen. To avoid this menace, Soekarno and majority of his government left for the safety of Yogyakarta on 4 January 1946. There, the Republican government received protection and full support from Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX. Yogyakarta will remain as the Republic’s capital until end of the war in 1949. Sjahrir remained in Jakarta to conduct negotiations with the British.

The initial series of battles in late 1945 and early 1946 left the British in control of major port cities on Java and Sumatera. During the Japanese occupation, the Outer Islands (excluding Java and Sumatera) was occupied by Japanese Navy (Kaigun), which did not allow for political mobilisation in their areas on account of the small population base available for mobilisation, and the proximity of these areas to active theatres of war. Consequently, there were little Republican activity in these islands post-proclamation. Australian and Dutch forces quickly occupied these islands without much fighting by end of 1945 (excluding the resistance of I Gusti Ngurah Rai in Bali, the insurgency in South Sulawesi, and fighting in Hulu Sungai area of South Kalimantan). Meanwhile, the hinterland areas of Java and Sumatera remained under Republican administration.

Eager to pull-out its soldiers from Indonesia, the British allowed for large-scale infusion of Dutch forces into the country throughout 1946. By November 1946, all British soldiers have been withdrawn from Indonesia, replaced by more than 150,000 Dutch soldiers. On the other hand, the British sent Lord Archibald Clark Kerr, 1st Baron Inverchapel and Miles Lampson, 1st Baron Killearn to bring the Dutch and Indonesians to the negotiating table. The result of these negotiations was the Linggadjati Agreement signed on November 1946, where the Dutch acknowledged de facto Republican sovereignty over Java, Sumatera, and Madura. In exchange, the Republicans were willing to discuss future Commonwealth-like United Kingdom of Netherlands and Indonesia.

Soekarno’s decision to negotiate with the Dutch was met with strong opposition by various Indonesian factions. Tan Malaka, a communist politician, organised these groups into a united front called the Persatoean Perdjoangan (PP). PP offered a “Minimum Program” which called for complete independence, nationalisation of all foreign properties, and rejection of all negotiations until all foreign troops are withdrawn. These programmes received widespread popular support, including from armed forces commander General Sudirman. On 4 July 1946, military units linked with PP kidnapped Prime Minister Sjahrir who was visiting Yogyakarta. Sjahrir was leading the negotiation with the Dutch. Soekarno, after successfully influencing Sudirman, managed to secure the release of Sjahrir and the arrest of Tan Malaka and other PP leaders. Disapproval of Linggadjati terms within the KNIP led Soekarno to issue a decree doubling KNIP membership by including many pro-agreement appointed members. As consequence, KNIP ratified the Linggadjati Agreement on March 1947.

On 21 July 1947, the Linggadjati Agreement was broken by the Dutch, who launched Operatie Product, a massive military invasion into Republican-held territories. Although the newly-reconsitituted TNI was unable to offer significant military resistance, the blatant violation by the Dutch on internationally-brokered agreement outraged world opinion. International pressure forced the Dutch to halt their invasion force on August 1947. Sjahrir, who has been replaced as prime minister by Amir Sjarifuddin, flew to New York City to appeal Indonesian case in front of United Nations. UN Security Council issued a resolution calling for immediate ceasefire, and appointed a Good Offices Committee (GOC) to oversee the ceasefire. The GOC, based in Jakarta, consisted of delegations from Australia (led by Richard Kirby, chosen by Indonesia), Belgium (led by Paul van Zeeland, chosen by Netherlands), and United States (led by Frank Porter Graham, neutral).

The Republic was now under strong Dutch military stranglehold, with the Dutch military occupying West Java, and the northern coast of Central Java and East Java, along with the key productive areas of Sumatera. Additionally, the Dutch navy blockaded Republican areas from supplies of vital food, medicine, and weapons. As consequence, Prime Minister Amir Sjarifuddin has little choice but to sign the Renville Agreement on 17 January 1948, which acknowledged Dutch control over areas taken during Operatie Product, while the Republicans pledged to withdraw all forces that remained on the other side of the ceasefire line (“Van Mook Line”). Meanwhile, the Dutch begin to organize puppet states in the areas under their occupation, to counter Republican influence utilising ethnic diversity of Indonesia.

The signing of highly disadvantageous Renville Agreement caused even greater instability within the Republican political structure. In Dutch-occupied West Java, Darul Islam guerrillas under Sekarmadji Maridjan Kartosuwirjo maintained their anti-Dutch resistance and repealed any loyalty to the Republic, they will cause a bloody insurgency in West Java and other areas in the first decades of independence. Prime Minister Sjarifuddin, who signed the agreement, was forced to resign on January 1948, and was replaced by Mohammad Hatta. Hatta cabinet’s policy of rationalising the armed forces by demobilising large numbers of armed groups that proliferated the Republican areas, also caused severe disaffection. Leftist political elements, led by resurgent Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) under Musso took advantage of public disaffections by launching rebellion in Madiun, East Java, on 18 September 1948. Bloody fighting continued during late-September until end of October 1948, when the last communist bands were defeated and Musso shot dead. The communists have overestimated their potential to oppose the strong appeal of Soekarno amongst the population.

On 19 December 1948, to take advantage of the Republic’s weak position following the communist rebellion, the Dutch launched Operatie Kraai, a second military invasion designed to crush the Republic once and for all. The invasion was initiated with an airborne assault on Republican capital Yogyakarta. Soekarno ordered the armed forces under Sudirman to launch guerilla campaign in the countryside, while he and other key leaders such as Hatta and Sjahrir allowed themselves to be taken prisoner by the Dutch. To ensure continuity of government, Soekarno sent a telegram to Sjafruddin Prawiranegara, providing him the mandate to lead an Emergency Government of the Republic of Indonesia (PDRI), based on the unoccupied hinterlands of West Sumatera, a position he kept until Soekarno was released on June 1949. The Dutch sent Soekarno and other captured Republican leaders to captivity in Prapat, in Dutch-occupied part of North Sumatera and later to the island of Bangka.

The second Dutch invasion caused even more international outrage. United States, impressed by Indonesia’s ability to defeat the 1948 communist challenge without outside help, threatened to cut-off Marshall Aid funds to Netherlands if military operations in Indonesia continued. TNI did not disintegrate and continued to wage guerilla resistance against the Dutch, most notably the assault on Dutch-held Yogyakarta led by Lieutenant-Colonel Suharto on 1 March 1949. Consequently, the Dutch were forced to sign the Roem-van Roijen Agreement on 7 May 1949. According to this treaty, the Dutch released the Republican leadership and returned the area surrounding Yogyakarta to Republican control on June 1949. This is followed by the Dutch-Indonesian Round Table Conference held in The Hague which led to the complete transfer of sovereignty by the Queen Juliana of the Netherlands to Indonesia, on 27 December 1949. On that day, Soekarno flew from Yogyakarta to Jakarta, making a triumphant speech at the steps of the governor-general’s palace, immediately renamed the Merdeka Palace (“Independence Palace”).

Figurehead president

At this time, as part of compromise with the Dutch, Indonesia adopted a new federal constitution that made the country a federal state called the Republik Indonesia Serikat (Republic of United States of Indonesia), consisting of the Republic of Indonesia whose borders were determined by the “Van Mook Line”, along with 6 states and 9 autonomous territories created by the Dutch. During the first half of 1950, these states gradually dissolved itself as the Dutch military that previously propped them, was withdrawn. On August 1950, with the last state – State of East Indonesia – dissolving itself, Soekarno declared a Unitary Republic of Indonesia based on newly-formulated provisional constitution of 1950. Both the Federal Constitution of 1949 and the Provisional Constitution of 1950 were parliamentary in nature, where executive authority laid with the prime minister, and which—on paper—limited presidential power. However, even with his formally reduced role, he commanded a good deal of moral authority as Father of the Nation.

The first years of parliamentary democracy proved to be very unstable for Indonesia. Cabinets fell in rapid succession due to the acute differences between the various political parties within the newly-appointed parliament (Dewan Perwakilan Rakjat/DPR). There was severe disagreements on future path of Indonesian state, between nationalists who wanted a secular state (led by Partai Nasional Indonesia first established by Soekarno), the Islamists who wanted an Islamic state (led by Masyumi Party), and the communists who wanted a communist state (led by PKI, only allowed to operate again in 1951). On the economic front, there was severe dissatisfaction with continuing economic domination by large Dutch corporations and the ethnic-Chinese.

In the regions, the Darul Islam rebels under Kartosuwirjo in West Java refused to acknowledge Soekarno’s authority and declared a NII (Negara Islam Indonesia – Islamic State of Indonesia) on August 1949. Rebellions in support of Darul Islam also broke-out in South Sulawesi in 1951, and in Aceh in 1953. Meanwhile, pro-federalism members of the disbanded KNIL launched failed rebellion in Bandung (APRA rebellion of 1950), in Makassar in 1950, and in Ambon (Republic of South Maluku revolt of 1950).

Additionally, the military was torn with hostilities between officers originating from the colonial-era KNIL, who wished for a small and elite professional military, and the overwhelming majority of soldiers who started their careers in the Japanese-formed PETA, who were afraid of being discharged and were more known for nationalist-zeal over professionalism.

On 17 October 1952, the leaders of the former-KNIL faction, Army Chief Colonel Abdul Haris Nasution and Armed Forces Chief-of-Staff Major-General Tahi Bonar Simatupang mobilized their troops in a show of force. Protesting against attempts by the DPR to interfere in military business on behalf of the former-PETA faction of the military, Nasution and Simatupang had their troops surround the Merdeka Palace and point the tank turrets in the direction of the said building. Their demand to Soekarno was that the current DPR be dismissed. For this cause, Nasution and Simatupang also mobilized civilian protesters. Soekarno came out of the palace and using nothing but his famed oratory skills, convinced both soldiers and civilians alike to go home. Nasution and Simatupang had been defeated, and both were later dismissed. Nasution, however, would be re-appointed as Army Chief after reconciling with Soekarno in 1955.

In 1954, Soekarno married Hartini, a 30-years-old widow from Salatiga, whom he met during a reception. His third wife, Fatmawati was outraged by this fourth marriage. She left Soekarno and their children, although they never officially divorced. Fatmawati no longer took-up the duties as First Lady, a role subsequently filled by Hartini.

The 1955 elections produced a new Parliament and a Constitutional Assembly. The election results equally shared power between the antagonistic powers of PNI, Masyumi, Nahdlatul Ulama, and PKI. Hence, domestic political instability continued unabated. Talks in the Constitutional Assemby to produce a new constitution met a deadlock over the issue of whether to include Islamic law.

On the international front, Soekarno organised the Bandung Conference in 1955, with the goal of uniting developing Asian and African countries into a non-aligned movement to counter against the competing superpowers at the time.

Soekarno resented his figurehead position and the increasing disorder of the country’s political life. Claiming Western-style democracy was unsuitable for Indonesia, he called for a system of “guided democracy.” The Indonesian way of deciding important questions, he argued, was by way of prolonged deliberation designed to achieve a consensus. This was the way problems were solved at the village level, and Soekarno argued it should be the model for the entire nation. He proposed a government based not only on political parties but on “functional groups” composed of the nation’s basic elements, which would together form a National Council, through which a national consensus could express itself under presidential guidance.

Vice-President Mohammad Hatta was strongly opposed to Soekarno’s guided democracy concept. Citing irreconcilable differences, Hatta resigned from his position in December 1956. Hatta’s retirement sent a shockwave across Indonesia, particularly among the non-Javanese ethnicities, who viewed Hatta as their representative in a Javanese-dominated government.

From December 1956 to January 1957, regional military commanders in North Sumatera, Central Sumatera, and South Sumatera provinces took over local government control. They declared a series of military councils which will run their respective areas and refused to accept orders from Jakarta. A similar regional military movement took control of North Sulawesi on March 1957. They demanded the elimination of communist influence in government, equal share in government revenues, and reinstatement of Soekarno-Hatta duumvirate.

Faced with this serious challenge to the unity of the republic, Soekarno declared martial law (Staat van Oorlog en Beleg) on 14 March 1957. He appointed a non-partisan prime minister Djuanda Kartawidjaja, while the military was in the hands of his loyalist General Nasution. Nasution increasingly shared Soekarno’s views on the negative impact of western democracy on Indonesia, and he foresaw greater role for the military to bring much-needed discipline to the country.

As a reconciliatory move, Soekarno invited the leaders of the regional councils to Jakarta on 10–14 September 1957, to attend a National Conference (Musjawarah Nasional), which failed to bring a solution to the crisis. On 30 November 1957, an assassination attempt was made by grenade attack against Soekarno when he was visiting a school function in Cikini, Central Jakarta. Six children were killed, but Soekarno did not suffer any serious wounds. The perpetrators were members of the Darul Islam extremist group, under the order of its leader Sekarmadji Maridjan Kartosuwirjo.

By December 1957, Soekarno began to take concrete steps to enforce his authority over the country. On that month, he nationalised 246 Dutch companies which have been dominating Indonesian economy (most notably the NHM, Royal Dutch Shell subsidiary Bataafsche Petroleum Maatschappij, Escomptobank, Internatio, Geo Wehry & Co, Jacobson & Berg, etc.) and expelled 40,000 Dutch citizens remaining in Indonesia while confiscating their properties, due to the failure by the Dutch government to continue negotiations on the fate of Netherlands New Guinea as was promised in the 1949 Round Table Conference. Soekarno’s economic nationalism policy was followed by issuance Presidential Directive No. 10 of 1959, which banned commercial activities by foreign nationals in rural areas. This rule targeted the ethnic-Chinese, who dominated both the rural and urban retail economy despite the fact that at this time few of them had Indonesian citizenship. This policy resulted in massive relocation of the rural ethnic-Chinese population to urban areas, while approximately 100,000 chose to return to China.

To face the dissident regional commanders, Soekarno and Army Chief Nasution decided to take drastic steps following the failure of Musjawarah Nasional. By utilising regional officers that remained loyal to Jakarta, Nasution organised a series of “regional coups” which ousted the dissident commanders in North Sumatera (Colonel Maludin Simbolon) and South Sumatera (Colonel Barlian) by December 1957. This returned government control over key cities of Medan and Palembang.

On February 1958, the remaining dissident commanders in Central Sumatera (Colonel Ahmad Hussein) and North Sulawesi (Colonel Ventje Sumual) declared PRRI-Permesta Movement aimed at overthrowing the Jakarta government. They were joined by many civilian politicians from the Masyumi Party, such as Sjafruddin Prawiranegara who were opposed to growing influence of communists. Due to their anti-communist rhetoric, the rebels received monetary, weaponry, and manpower aid from the CIA until Allen Lawrence Pope, an American pilot, was shot down after a bombing raid on government-held Ambon on April 1958. On April 1958, central government responded by launching airborne and seaborne military invasions on Padang and Manado, the rebel capitals. By the end of 1958, the rebels have been militarily defeated, and the last remaining rebel guerilla bands surrendered on August 1961.

‘Guided Democracy’ and increasing autocracy

The impressive military victories over the PRRI-Permesta rebels and the popular nationalisation of Dutch companies left Soekarno in a very strong position. On 5 July 1959, Soekarno reinstated the 1945 constitution by presidential decree. It established a presidential system which he believed would make it easier to implement the principles of guided democracy. He called the system Manifesto Politik or Manipol—but was actually government by decree. Soekarno envisioned an Indonesian-style socialist society, who adhere to the principle of USDEK:

  • Undang-Undang Dasar ’45 (Constitution of 1945)
  • Sosialisme Indonesia (Indonesian socialism)
  • Demokrasi Terpimpin (Guided Democracy)
  • Ekonomi Terpimpin (Commanded Economy).
  • Kepribadian Indonesia (Indonesia’s Identity)

On March 1960, Soekarno disbanded parliament and replaced it with a new parliament where half the members were appointed by the president (Dewan Perwakilan Rakjat – Gotong Rojong / DPR-GR). On September 1960, he established a Provisional People’s Consultative Assembly (Madjelis Permusjawaratan Rakjat Sementara/MPRS) as the highest legislative authority according to the 1945 constitution. MPRS members consisted of members of DPR-GR and members of “functional groups” appointed by the president.

With the backing of the military, Soekarno disbanded the Islamic party Masyumi and Sutan Sjahrir’s party PSI, accusing them of involvement with PRRI-Permesta affair. The military arrested and imprisoned many of Soekarno’s political opponents, from socialist Sjahrir to Islamic politicians Mohammad Natsir and Hamka. Using martial law powers, the government closed-down newspapers who were critical of Soekarno’s policies.

During this period, there were several assassination attempts on Soekarno’s life. On 9 March 1960, Daniel Maukar, an Indonesian airforce lieutenant who sympathised with the Permesta rebellion, strafed the Merdeka Palace and Bogor Palace with his MiG-17 fighter jet, attempting to kill the president; he was not injured. On May 1962, Darul Islam agents shot at the president during Eid al-Adha prayers on the grounds of the palace. Soekarno again escaped injury.

On the security front, the military started a series of effective campaigns which ended the long-festering Darul Islam rebellion in West Java (1962), Aceh (1962), and South Sulawesi (1965). Kartosuwirjo, the leader of Darul Islam, was captured and executed in September 1962.

To counter-balance the power of the military, Soekarno started to rely on the support of the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI). In 1960, he declared his government to be based on Nasakom, a union of the three ideological strands present in Indonesian society: nasionalisme (nationalism), agama (religions), and komunisme (communism). Accordingly, Soekarno started admitting more communists into his government, while developing strong relationship with the PKI chairman Dipa Nusantara Aidit.

In order to increase Indonesia’s prestige, Soekarno supported and won the bid for the 1962 Asian Games held in Jakarta. Many sporting facilities such as the Senayan sports complex (including the 100,000-seat Bung Karno Stadium) were built to accommodate the games. There was political tension when the Indonesians refused the entry of delegations from Israel and Taiwan. After the International Olympic Committee put sanctions on Indonesia due to this exclusion policy, Soekarno retaliated by organising a “non-imperialist” competitor event to the Olympic Games, called Games of New Emerging Forces (GANEFO). GANEFO was successfully held in Jakarta on November 1963, and was attended by 2,700 athletes from 51 countries.

As part of his prestige-building program, Soekarno ordered the construction of large monumental buildings such as National Monument (Monumen Nasional), Istiqlal Mosque, CONEFO Building (now the Parliament Building), Hotel Indonesia, and the Sarinah shopping centre to transform Jakarta from a former colonial backwater to a modern city. The modern Jakarta boulevards of Jalan Thamrin, Jalan Sudirman, and Jalan Gatot Subroto was planned and constructed under Soekarno.

Foreign policy

As Soekarno’s domestic grip on power was secured, he began to pay more attention to the world stage, where Soekarno embarked on a series of aggressive and assertive policies based on anti-imperialism to increase Indonesia’s prestige internationally. These anti-imperialist and anti-Western policies, often bordering on brinkmanship, were also designed to provide a common cause to unite the diverse and fractious Indonesian people. In this, he was aided by his Foreign Minister Subandrio.

Since his first visit to Beijing in 1956, Soekarno has began in the 1950s to increase his ties to the People’s Republic of China and the communist bloc in general. He also began to accept increasing amounts of Soviet bloc military aid. By early 1960s, Soviet bloc provided more aid to Indonesia than to any other non-communist country, while Soviet military aid to Indonesia was only equalled by aid provided to Cuba. This large influx of communist aid prompted an increase in military aid from the Dwight Eisenhower and John F. Kennedy administrations, which worried about a leftward drift should Soekarno rely too much on Soviet bloc aid.

Soekarno was feted during his visit to United States in 1956, where he addressed a joint session of United States Congress. Soon after his first visit to America, Soekarno visited Soviet Union, where he received even more lavish welcome to Moscow. Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev paid a return visit to Jakarta and Bali in 1960, where Khrushchev awarded Soekarno with the Lenin Peace Prize. To make amends for the CIA involvement in the PRRI-Permesta rebellion, President Kennedy invited Soekarno to Washington, and provided Indonesia with billions of dollars in civilian and military aid.

Despite his close relationships with both Western and Communist Blocs, Soekarno increasingly attempted to forge a new alliance called the “New Emerging Forces”, as a counter to the old superpowers, whom he accused of spreading “Neo-Colonialism and Imperialism” (NEKOLIM). In 1961, this first president of Indonesia also found another political alliance, an organization, called the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM, in Indonesia known as Gerakan Non-Blok, GNB) with Egypt’s President Gamal Abdel Nasser, India’s Prime Minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, Yugoslavia’s President Josip Broz Tito, and Ghana’s President Kwame Nkrumah, in an action called The Initiative of Five (Soekarno, Nkrumah, Nasser, Tito, and Nehru). This action was a movement to not give any favour to the two superpower blocs, who were involved in the Cold War. Soekarno is still fondly remembered for his role in promoting the influence of newly-independent countries; among others, his name is used as streetnames in Cairo, Egypt and Rabat, Morocco, and as a major square in Peshawar, Pakistan. In 1956, the University of Belgrade awarded him an honorary doctorate.

As the NAM countries were becoming split into differing factions, and as fewer countries were willing to support Soekarno’s growing aggressive anti-Western foreign policies, he increasingly began to abandon his non-alignment rhetoric, in exchange for a new alliance with China, North Korea, North Vietnam, and Cambodia, an alliance he called the “Beijing-Pyongyang-Hanoi-Phnom Penh-Jakarta Axis”. After withdrawing Indonesia from the “imperialist-dominated” United Nations on January 1965, Soekarno sought to establish a competitor organisation to the UN called Conference of New Emerging Forces (CONEFO) with support from China, who at that time was not yet a member of United Nations.

Soekarno began an aggressive foreign policy to secure Indonesian territorial claims. On August 1960, Soekarno broke-off diplomatic relations with the Netherlands over continuing failure to commence talks on the future of Netherlands New Guinea, as was agreed at the Dutch-Indonesian Round Table Conference of 1949. After the Dutch announced the formation of a Nieuw Guinea Raad on April 1961, with the intention of creating an independent Papuan state, Soekarno declared military confrontation in his Tri Komando Rakjat (TRIKORA) speech in Yogyakarta, on 19 December 1961. He organised military incursions into the half-island, whom he referred to as West Irian, which by end of 1962 has landed around 3,000 Indonesian soldiers throughout West Irian. On January 1962, a naval battle erupted when an Indonesian infiltration fleet of four torpedo boats were intercepted by Dutch ships and planes off the coast of Vlakke Hoek. In this battle, one Indonesian boat was sunk, killing the Naval Deputy Chief-of-Staff Commodore Jos Sudarso. On February 1962, the Kennedy administration, worried of a continuing Indonesian shift towards communism should the Dutch held-on to West Papua, sent Attorney-General Robert Kennedy to Netherlands, to underline that United States will not support Netherlands in case of conflict with Indonesia. With massive Soviet armaments and even manpower aid, Soekarno planned a large-scale air and seaborne invasion on the Dutch military headquarters of Biak scheduled for August 1962, called Operasi Djajawidjaja, to be led by Major-General Suharto. Before these highly risky plans can be realised, Indonesia and Netherlands signed the New York Agreement on August 1962. The two countries agreed to implement the Bunker Plan (formulated by American diplomat Ellsworth Bunker), whereby the Dutch agreed to hand-over West Papua to UNTEA on 1 October 1962. UNTEA handed the territory to Indonesian authority on May 1963.

After securing control over West Irian, Soekarno also opposed the British-supported establishment of Federation of Malaysia in 1963, claiming that it was a neo-colonial plot by the British to besiege Indonesia. In spite of his political overtures, which was partly justified when some leftist political elements in British Borneo territories Sarawak and Brunei opposed the Federation plan and aligned themselves with Soekarno, Malaysia was proclaimed in September 1963. This led to the Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation (Konfrontasi), proclaimed by Soekarno in his Dwi Komando Rakjat (DWIKORA) speech in Jakarta on 3 May 1964. Soekarno’s proclaimed objective was not to annex Sabah and Sarawak into Indonesia, but to establish a State of North Kalimantan under the control of North Kalimantan Communist Party. From 1964 until early 1966, limited numbers of Indonesian soldiers, “volunteers”, and Malaysian communist guerillas were infiltrated into both north Borneo and the Malay Peninsula, where they engaged in jungle warfare with British and Commonwealth soldiers deployed to protect the nascent Malaysia. Indonesian agents also exploded several bombs in Singapore. Domestically, Soekarno whipped up anti-British sentiment and the British Embassy was burned down. In 1964, all British companies operating in the country, including Indonesian operations of the Chartered Bank and Unilever, were nationalized.

By 1964, Soekarno commenced an anti-American campaign due to his growing shift towards the communist bloc, and less friendly Lyndon Johnson administration. American interests and businesses in Indonesia denounced and even attacked by PKI-led mobs. American movies were banned, American books and records of the Beatles were burned, and Indonesian band Koes Plus was jailed for playing American-style rock and roll music. As a result, US aid to Indonesia was halted, to which Soekarno made his famous remark, “Go to hell with your aid”. Soekarno withdrew Indonesia from the United Nations membership on 7 January 1965 when, with US backing, Malaysia took a seat of UN Security Council. By this time, Soekarno’s brinkmanship policies left him with few international allies. With the government already severely indebted to the tune of US$ 1 billion to the Soviet Union, Soekarno became increasingly dependent to Communist China for support. He spoke increasingly of a Peking-Jakarta axis, which will be the core of a new anti-imperialist world organization, the CONEFO.

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  • February 2012
  • October 2011
  • Soekarno's life

biography text mohammad hatta

7 Contoh Biography Text Beserta Penjelasan dan Rumusnya dalam Bahasa Inggris!

  • Fatimatuzuhroh
  • April 10, 2022

Biography text

Apakah kamu pembelajar bahasa Inggris, fellas ? Artikel ini akan membahas contoh-contoh biography text bahasa Inggris beserta penjelasan dan rumusnya. Sehingga, nantinya kamu akan jauh lebih mudah dalam menulis biography text dalam bahasa Inggris lho . Simak 7 contoh biography text beserta penjelasannya di sini!

Pengertian Biography Text

Secara harafiah, Biography terdiri dari dua kata yaitu “ Bios ”  artinya hidup dan “ Graphia ”  artinya tulisan . Teks biografi itu menggambarkan riwayat hidup seseorang secara nyata, biasanya ditulis melalui sudut pandang yang lain.

Biografi adalah sebuah teks yang bercerita mengenai kisah kehidupan seseorang yang lebih kompleks dari sekadar daftar riwayat hidup dan data-data pekerjaanya. Biasanya, teks biografi menceritakan lebih dalam lagi tentang perasaan yang dihadapi oleh seseorang dalam menghadapi suatu kejadian atau kehidupan seseorang.

Bagian-Bagian Biography Text

1. orientation.

Pada tahap orientasi, bagian ini akan memberi pembaca informasi tentang latar belakang mengapa biografi ditulis. Paragraf pembuka menjawab pertanyaan 5w+1h.

Pada tahap events ini akan mengisahkan peristiwa atau kejadian yang dialami tokoh yang akan ditulis biografinya. Bagian ini berisi penjelasan suatu cerita seperti pemecahan masalah, proses lain, dan berbagai peristiwa yang dialami tokoh sebelum mencapai kesuksesan. Pada intinya, diceritakan secara kronologis yang merujuk pada waktu tertentu.

3. Re-Orientation (Closing)

Pada bagian ketiga ini berisi pandangan penulis tentang tokoh yang dikisahkan. Namun, tahap ini opsional artinya penulis bisa memberi pandangan pribadinya tentang tokoh yang diceritakan yang terdiri dari jenis kesimpulan tentang kontribusi sehingga menjadi cerita yang menarik untuk dibaca.

Baca juga: Biografi BJ.Habibie, Mimpi dan Kenangan

Contoh Biography Text

Raden Dewi Sartika.jpg

Short Biography of Dewi Sartika Dewi Sartika was the leading figure for the education for Indonesia women. She was born on 4 December 1884 and died on 11 September 1947. The most important acts she made were when she founded the first school for women. Because of it, she was acknowledged formally as National Hero in 1966. Dewi Sartika was born in Cicalengka on 4 December 1884 in the aristocratic Sundanese family. Her father is R. Rangga Somanegara and her mother is R. A. Raja pemas. According to some biographies, as a child, Dewi Sartika often pretended to be a teacher. He studied in the Dutch School. She lived with her uncle after her father died and then received Sundanese education culture there. In 1899 she decided to move to Bandung. She founded Sekolah Isteri on 16 January 1904 in Bandung. The school took place at Badung Regency’s Pendopo but then relocated to Ciguriang Street. In the new location, the name of the school was changed to Sekolah Kaoetamaan Isteri. In 1912, the school became so popular and had nine branches in West Java. In 1920, all cities in West Java have one school. However, the school changed its name in September 1929 to Sekolah Raden Dewi.

Leonardo self.jpg

Short Biography of Leonardo da Vinci Leonardo da Vinci was an Italian polymath who was born in 15 April 1452 and died 2 may 1519. He was famous because of his interest on many areas, including architecture, sculpting, music, science, engineering, mathematics, anatomy, literature and many more. He is also the man who has been called as the father of iconology, architecture and paleontology. Some experts on aeronautic said that Leonardo da Vinci was the man who firstly put the foundation of helicopter, parachute and tank. Many scholars and historians regard the Italian man as the prime exemplar of the Renaissance man, unquenchable curiosity, feverishly inventive imagination and Universal Genius. Leonardo da Vinci was educated in the studio belonged to Andrea del Verrocchio in Florence. Much of his life was spent in Milan to serve Ludovicoil Moro. Later, he them moved to Rome, Venice and Bologna and spent his last years in France. Many people recognized Leonardo da Vinci as a great painter. Mona Lisa is the most popular portrait he made and maybe the most expensive art collection in the world. Besides creating portrait and invented many things, Leonardo also creating religious painting, the most famous is of course The Last Supper. There are no such genius artists in the world who can replace Leonardo da Vinci.

Einstein 1921 by F Schmutzer - restoration.jpg

Short Biography of Albert Einstein Albert Einstein was born near the end of the 1800s in Ulf, Germany. He graduated from the University of Zurich in Switzerland at age 26. That was also when he did his famous work in physics. Fourteen years later he won the Nobel Prize for Physics. For the next ten years he lived in Germany and traveled a lot to talk to other scientists. Then in the early 1930s he had to leave Germany because of Hitler and the Nazi party. He moved to the United States. From that time until his death he lived in Princeton, New Jersey. He died at the age of 74.

Presiden Sukarno.jpg

Biography of Sukarno, Indonesian First President Sukarno was the first president of Indonesia. He was born in 6 June 1901 and died in 21 June 1970. He led his country to fight against Netherlands and the man who proclaimed the independence. Sukarno was a prominent leader of nationalist movement during the colonial period. He spent more than a decade under the detention before released by the Japanese force. Ir. Sukarno and all his nationalist fellows collaborated to collect support in spreading nationalist ideas. When Japan surrender the Indonesian independence was declared by Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta on 17 August 1945. At the same time, Sukarno was appointed as the president and Mohammad Hatta as vice president. After became president, Sukarno had to fight once again against resisting Dutch re-colonization efforts. After parliamentary democracy chaos in 1957, Sukarno put an autocratic system called Guided Democracy. It successfully ended the rebellions and instability which were threatening the country. In the early 1960s, Sukarno brought the country to the Soviet by giving protection and support to the Indonesian Communist Party. Unfortunately, the 30 September movement in 1965 ended the communist era and Sukarno’s position as president was replaced by Suharto, the man who became president for 32 years. After Suharto in charged, Sukarno was exiled to Bogor and spent the rest of his life there.

Walt Disney 1946.JPG

Biography of Biography of Walt Disney Walt Disney was born with the name Walter Elias Disney on December 5th, 1901 at Chicagos Hermosa Community Area. His father was Elias Charles Disney and his mother was Flora Call Disney. Walt Disney was Irish-Canadian descendant from his father and German-English descendant from his mother. Walt Disney is well known as co-founder of The Walt Disney Company and as cultural icon that hardly matched by others. He was the animator who created Mickey Mouse and many others Disney famous characters. He was also successful film producer, voice actor, and entrepreneur. His voice acting works were including the original voice of Mickey Mouse. Disneyland and Disney resort were started from his innovation. Walt Disney was very influential person in entertainment industry, especially Hollywood animation industry. His works in American animation and entertainment industry brought him 59 nominations in Academy Awards that he won 22 of them and 4 honorary Academy Awards. He also won 7 Emmy Awards and much more awards. Walt Disney died on December 15, 1966 in Burbank, California after long fight with lung cancer, leaving myriad legacy. Many of his legacies are still remembered and enjoyed by people, including hundreds of animated films, theme parks, animation studio, and the company. Cal Arts (California Institute of the Arts) is also the legacy of Walt Disney.

VP Hatta.jpg

Biography of Bung Hatta Bung Hatta is one of “The Proclamators” of Indonesia Independence. Born with full name Mohammad Hatta on 12 August 1902 at Fort de Kock, West Sumatra, Dutch East Indies, and Bung Hatta played important roles in Indonesian strive for Independence. He is well-educated person that strive not with physical power but used intelligent instead. After the independence day of Indonesia, Mohammad Hatta became the first vice president of the country and became prime minister later on. He continued to build the country with his efforts and thoughts. Bung Hatta died at the age 77 on 14 March 1980 at Jakarta, Indonesia. He was buried at Tanah Kusir public cemetery at Jakarta. To honor his name and Soekarno as the independence proclamators, Indonesia’s biggest airport at Cengkareng is named Soekarno-Hatta.

refer to caption

Biography of Marion Barber Marion Barber was born on June 9, 1983, and growing up in Minnesota. He attended Wayzata High School in Minnesota, and excelled in football, baseball, and track. Then, he attended the University of Minnesota, where he majored in Business Marketing. In his college football career, Marion Barber would earn myriad honors and broke numerous records to boot. Marion Barber’s 3,276 yards and 14 100-yard rushing games ranked third in Minnesota Golden Gophers history. Marion Barber hit the big time when the Dallas Cowboys selected him as the fourth round of the 2005 NFL Draft. Fans with Dallas Cowboys tickets watched Marion Barber emerge as a starter, rushing for 95 yards against the Seattle Seahawks and 127 yards against the Arizona Cardinals, which was the first 100-yard rushing game of the season for the Dallas Cowboys. He and the Dallas Cowboys agreed to a six-year contract extension worth $45 million. His stats will continue to improve and impress his teammates, coaches, and fans with Dallas Cowboys tickets.

Itulah 7 contoh biography text yang bisa kamu jadikan sebagai referensi belajar cara membuat biography text sendiri ya, fellas . Jika memahami materi ini masih terasa sulit, kamu bisa bergabung di Kelas Academic Writing untuk mendapat arahan dari pengajar yang profesional di bidangnya. Yuk daftar sekarang!

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COMMENTS

  1. Mohammad Hatta

    Mohammad Hatta, (born August 12, 1902, Bukittinggi, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies [now in Indonesia]—died March 14, 1980, Jakarta, Indonesia), a leader of the Indonesian independence movement who was prime minister (1948-50) and vice president (1950-56) of Indonesia.

  2. Mohammad Hatta

    Alma mater Erasmus University Rotterdam ( drs.) Signature Mohammad Hatta ( listen ⓘ; 12 August 1902 - 14 March 1980) was an Indonesian statesman, nationalist, and independence activist who served as the country's first vice president.

  3. Mohammad Hatta

    Mohammad Hatta (1902-1980), one of the foremost intellectuals in the Afro-Asian anticolonial movement, was a leader of the Indonesian nationalist movement leading to its independence in 1945. He was a champion of non-alignment and of socialism grounded in Islam. Mohammad Hatta was born in Bukittinggi, West Sumatra, Indonesia, on August 12, 1902.

  4. Indonesia Free : A Political Biography of Mohammad Hatta

    Mavis Rose Equinox Publishing, 2010 - Biography & Autobiography - 356 pages Mohammad Hatta, the first Vice President and joint proclaimer of the Republic of Indonesia, was a man who devoted...

  5. Rose, Mavis: Indonesia Free: A Political Biography of Mohammad Hatta

    see the chronological categories included within the text for easier reference, and the English translation of titles placed at the end of each entry rather than ... Mavis Rose has written the first English biography of Mohammad Hatta, the man who signed the Republic's brief declaration of Independence with Sukarno, then proclaimed it with him ...

  6. Vice President

    Hatta were relegated to Digul and then to Banda for 6 years. In 1945, Hatta unanimously elected as first vice president of the Republic of Indonesia, with the Bung Karno, who became president of the Republic of Indonesia. Summary: Name : Mohammad Hatta Place / Date of birth at Kampong Aur Tajungkang Bukittinggi on August 12, 1902 Religion :Islam

  7. PDF Indonesia Indonesia Free: A Political Biography of Mohammad Hatta. By

    photographic reproductions supplemented by a printed character text for ease of reading and, just to tempt a casual guest, the English translation. Volume Two is to ... The story is told with admirable clarity by Mavis Rose in this biography of Mohammad Hatta, and her account looks at the by now familiar events of the

  8. Mohammad Hatta Biography

    Mohammad Hatta (; 12 August 1902 - 14 March 1980) was an Indonesian statesman, nationalist, and independence activist who served as the country's first vice president. Known as "The Proclamator", he and a number of Indonesians, including the first president of Indonesia, Sukarno, fought for the independence of Indonesia from the Netherlands.

  9. Mohammad Hatta: Biografi Politik (Mohammad Hatta: A Political Biography

    Mohammad Hatta: Biografi Politik (Mohammad Hatta: A Political Biography). By Deliar Noer. Jakarta: LP3ES, 1990. Pp. xiv, 778. Notes, Bibliography, Index. [In Indonesian.] ... - No HTML tags allowed - Web page URLs will display as text only - Lines and paragraphs break automatically - Attachments, images or tables are not permitted. Please enter ...

  10. Proclamation of Indonesian Independence

    The document was signed by Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta, who were appointed president and vice-president respectively the following day. [3] [4] The date of the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence was made a public holiday by a government decree issued on 18 June 1946.

  11. Biography Text

    Biography of Bung Hatta. Bung Hatta is one of "The Proclamators" of Indonesia Independence. Born with full name Mohammad Hatta on 12 August 1902 at Fort de Kock, West Sumatra, Dutch East Indies, and Bung Hatta played important roles in Indonesian strive for Independence. He is well-educated person that strive not with physical power but used intelligent instead.

  12. Biografi Mohammad Hatta Dalam Bahasa Inggris dan Artinya

    Mohammad Hatta was born in Bukit tinggi, West Sumatera on August 12th, 1902. His father is Haji Mohammad Djamil and his mother is Siti Saleha. His father died when he was eight months old. Hatta married to Rahmi Hatta on November 18th, 1945. The couple had three children named Meutia Farida Hatta, Gemala Rabi'ah Hatta, and Halida Nuriah Hatta.

  13. Mohammad Hatta

    Dr. (H.C.) Drs. H. Mohammad Hatta (12 Agustus 1902 - 14 Maret 1980) adalah seorang tokoh penting dalam perjuangan kemerdekaan Indonesia, negarawan, dan ekonom Indonesia yang menjabat sebagai Wakil Presiden Indonesia pertama.

  14. Biografi Mohammad Hatta Dalam Bahasa Inggris dan Artinya

    Death: Jakarta, March 14 1980 Islam Parents: Muhammad Djamil (father), Siti Saleha (mother) Wife: Rahmi Rachim Children: Meutia Hatta, Halida Hatta, Des Alwi, Gemala Hatta Education: Erasmus University, Rotterdam, the Netherlands A Short Biography of Mohammad Hatta Mohammad Hatta was born on August 12, 1902 in Bukittinggi.

  15. Biografi Bung Hatta Panjang

    Biography of Mohammad Hatta. Early Life Dr.(HC) Drs. H. Mohammad Hatta was born in Fort De Kock (now known as Bukittinggi) on 12 August 1902 into a prominent and strongly Islamic family. His grandfather was a respected ulema in Batuhampar, near Payakumbuh. His father, Haji Mohammad Djamil, died when he was eight months old and he was left with his six sisters and his mother.

  16. Muhammad Hatta

    Muhammad Hatta was of Indonesian founding fathers. He lived from 1902 until 1980. Together with Soekarno, he proclaimed the independence of Indonesia on 17th August 1945. Muhammad Hatta was born on 12th August 1902 in Bukittinggi, West Sumatra. When he was still in junior high school in Bukittinggi he joined the league of Young Sumatrans.

  17. Biography of Sukarno, Indonesia's First President

    Sukarno (June 6, 1901-June 21, 1970) was the first leader of independent Indonesia. Born in Java when the island was part of the Dutch East Indies, Sukarno rose to power in 1949. Rather than supporting Indonesia's original parliamentary system, he created a "guided democracy" over which he held control.

  18. Contoh Recount Text (Biography of Drs Moh Hatta)

    Drs. Moh. Hatta. Mohammad Hatta, (born August 12, 1902, Bukittinggi, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies [now in Indonesia]—died March 14, 1980, Jakarta, Indonesia), a leader of the Indonesian independence movement who was prime minister (1948-50) and vice president (1950-56) of Indonesia. While he studied in the Netherlands from 1922 to 1932, he ...

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    Biography text is a detailed description or account of a person's life and written by someone else, it is nonfiction text. Biography consists of two words, there are : ... Born with full name Mohammad Hatta on o 12 August 1902 at Fort de Kock, West Sumatra, ...

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    2.5K plays 10 questions Copy & Edit Show Answers See Preview Multiple Choice 30 seconds 1 pt Mohammad Hatta was born in Fort De Kock (now known as Bukittinggi) into a prominent and strongly Islamic family. His mother's family was wealthy, and Hatta was able to study Dutch as well as finishing Qur'an after school.

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    Biografi Mohammad Hatta Singkat. Mohammad Hatta lahir pada tanggal 12 Agustus 1902 di Bukittinggi. Di kota kecil yang indah inilah Bung Hatta dibesarkan di lingkungan keluarga ibunya yang bernama Siti Saleha. Ayahnya, Haji Mohammad Djamil, meninggal ketika Hatta berusia delapan bulan.

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    1. Orientation Pada tahap orientasi, bagian ini akan memberi pembaca informasi tentang latar belakang mengapa biografi ditulis. Paragraf pembuka menjawab pertanyaan 5w+1h. 2. Events Pada tahap events ini akan mengisahkan peristiwa atau kejadian yang dialami tokoh yang akan ditulis biografinya.