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What Is a Case-Control Study? | Definition & Examples

Published on February 4, 2023 by Tegan George . Revised on June 22, 2023.

A case-control study is an experimental design that compares a group of participants possessing a condition of interest to a very similar group lacking that condition. Here, the participants possessing the attribute of study, such as a disease, are called the “case,” and those without it are the “control.”

It’s important to remember that the case group is chosen because they already possess the attribute of interest. The point of the control group is to facilitate investigation, e.g., studying whether the case group systematically exhibits that attribute more than the control group does.

Table of contents

When to use a case-control study, examples of case-control studies, advantages and disadvantages of case-control studies, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions.

Case-control studies are a type of observational study often used in fields like medical research, environmental health, or epidemiology. While most observational studies are qualitative in nature, case-control studies can also be quantitative , and they often are in healthcare settings. Case-control studies can be used for both exploratory and explanatory research , and they are a good choice for studying research topics like disease exposure and health outcomes.

A case-control study may be a good fit for your research if it meets the following criteria.

  • Data on exposure (e.g., to a chemical or a pesticide) are difficult to obtain or expensive.
  • The disease associated with the exposure you’re studying has a long incubation period or is rare or under-studied (e.g., AIDS in the early 1980s).
  • The population you are studying is difficult to contact for follow-up questions (e.g., asylum seekers).

Retrospective cohort studies use existing secondary research data, such as medical records or databases, to identify a group of people with a common exposure or risk factor and to observe their outcomes over time. Case-control studies conduct primary research , comparing a group of participants possessing a condition of interest to a very similar group lacking that condition in real time.

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Case-control studies are common in fields like epidemiology, healthcare, and psychology.

You would then collect data on your participants’ exposure to contaminated drinking water, focusing on variables such as the source of said water and the duration of exposure, for both groups. You could then compare the two to determine if there is a relationship between drinking water contamination and the risk of developing a gastrointestinal illness. Example: Healthcare case-control study You are interested in the relationship between the dietary intake of a particular vitamin (e.g., vitamin D) and the risk of developing osteoporosis later in life. Here, the case group would be individuals who have been diagnosed with osteoporosis, while the control group would be individuals without osteoporosis.

You would then collect information on dietary intake of vitamin D for both the cases and controls and compare the two groups to determine if there is a relationship between vitamin D intake and the risk of developing osteoporosis. Example: Psychology case-control study You are studying the relationship between early-childhood stress and the likelihood of later developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Here, the case group would be individuals who have been diagnosed with PTSD, while the control group would be individuals without PTSD.

Case-control studies are a solid research method choice, but they come with distinct advantages and disadvantages.

Advantages of case-control studies

  • Case-control studies are a great choice if you have any ethical considerations about your participants that could preclude you from using a traditional experimental design .
  • Case-control studies are time efficient and fairly inexpensive to conduct because they require fewer subjects than other research methods .
  • If there were multiple exposures leading to a single outcome, case-control studies can incorporate that. As such, they truly shine when used to study rare outcomes or outbreaks of a particular disease .

Disadvantages of case-control studies

  • Case-control studies, similarly to observational studies, run a high risk of research biases . They are particularly susceptible to observer bias , recall bias , and interviewer bias.
  • In the case of very rare exposures of the outcome studied, attempting to conduct a case-control study can be very time consuming and inefficient .
  • Case-control studies in general have low internal validity  and are not always credible.

Case-control studies by design focus on one singular outcome. This makes them very rigid and not generalizable , as no extrapolation can be made about other outcomes like risk recurrence or future exposure threat. This leads to less satisfying results than other methodological choices.

If you want to know more about statistics , methodology , or research bias , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.

  • Student’s  t -distribution
  • Normal distribution
  • Null and Alternative Hypotheses
  • Chi square tests
  • Confidence interval
  • Quartiles & Quantiles
  • Cluster sampling
  • Stratified sampling
  • Data cleansing
  • Reproducibility vs Replicability
  • Peer review
  • Prospective cohort study

Research bias

  • Implicit bias
  • Cognitive bias
  • Placebo effect
  • Hawthorne effect
  • Hindsight bias
  • Affect heuristic
  • Social desirability bias

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case study controlling beispiel

A case-control study differs from a cohort study because cohort studies are more longitudinal in nature and do not necessarily require a control group .

While one may be added if the investigator so chooses, members of the cohort are primarily selected because of a shared characteristic among them. In particular, retrospective cohort studies are designed to follow a group of people with a common exposure or risk factor over time and observe their outcomes.

Case-control studies, in contrast, require both a case group and a control group, as suggested by their name, and usually are used to identify risk factors for a disease by comparing cases and controls.

A case-control study differs from a cross-sectional study because case-control studies are naturally retrospective in nature, looking backward in time to identify exposures that may have occurred before the development of the disease.

On the other hand, cross-sectional studies collect data on a population at a single point in time. The goal here is to describe the characteristics of the population, such as their age, gender identity, or health status, and understand the distribution and relationships of these characteristics.

Cases and controls are selected for a case-control study based on their inherent characteristics. Participants already possessing the condition of interest form the “case,” while those without form the “control.”

Keep in mind that by definition the case group is chosen because they already possess the attribute of interest. The point of the control group is to facilitate investigation, e.g., studying whether the case group systematically exhibits that attribute more than the control group does.

The strength of the association between an exposure and a disease in a case-control study can be measured using a few different statistical measures , such as odds ratios (ORs) and relative risk (RR).

No, case-control studies cannot establish causality as a standalone measure.

As observational studies , they can suggest associations between an exposure and a disease, but they cannot prove without a doubt that the exposure causes the disease. In particular, issues arising from timing, research biases like recall bias , and the selection of variables lead to low internal validity and the inability to determine causality.

Sources in this article

We strongly encourage students to use sources in their work. You can cite our article (APA Style) or take a deep dive into the articles below.

George, T. (2023, June 22). What Is a Case-Control Study? | Definition & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved February 29, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/methodology/case-control-study/
Schlesselman, J. J. (1982). Case-Control Studies: Design, Conduct, Analysis (Monographs in Epidemiology and Biostatistics, 2) (Illustrated). Oxford University Press.

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What Is A Case Control Study?

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A case-control study is a research method where two groups of people are compared – those with the condition (cases) and those without (controls). By looking at their past, researchers try to identify what factors might have contributed to the condition in the ‘case’ group.

Explanation

A case-control study looks at people who already have a certain condition (cases) and people who don’t (controls). By comparing these two groups, researchers try to figure out what might have caused the condition. They look into the past to find clues, like habits or experiences, that are different between the two groups.

The “cases” are the individuals with the disease or condition under study, and the “controls” are similar individuals without the disease or condition of interest.

The controls should have similar characteristics (i.e., age, sex, demographic, health status) to the cases to mitigate the effects of confounding variables .

Case-control studies identify any associations between an exposure and an outcome and help researchers form hypotheses about a particular population.

Researchers will first identify the two groups, and then look back in time to investigate which subjects in each group were exposed to the condition.

If the exposure is found more commonly in the cases than the controls, the researcher can hypothesize that the exposure may be linked to the outcome of interest.

Case Control Study

Figure: Schematic diagram of case-control study design. Kenneth F. Schulz and David A. Grimes (2002) Case-control studies: research in reverse . The Lancet Volume 359, Issue 9304, 431 – 434

Quick, inexpensive, and simple

Because these studies use already existing data and do not require any follow-up with subjects, they tend to be quicker and cheaper than other types of research. Case-control studies also do not require large sample sizes.

Beneficial for studying rare diseases

Researchers in case-control studies start with a population of people known to have the target disease instead of following a population and waiting to see who develops it. This enables researchers to identify current cases and enroll a sufficient number of patients with a particular rare disease.

Useful for preliminary research

Case-control studies are beneficial for an initial investigation of a suspected risk factor for a condition. The information obtained from cross-sectional studies then enables researchers to conduct further data analyses to explore any relationships in more depth.

Limitations

Subject to recall bias.

Participants might be unable to remember when they were exposed or omit other details that are important for the study. In addition, those with the outcome are more likely to recall and report exposures more clearly than those without the outcome.

Difficulty finding a suitable control group

It is important that the case group and the control group have almost the same characteristics, such as age, gender, demographics, and health status.

Forming an accurate control group can be challenging, so sometimes researchers enroll multiple control groups to bolster the strength of the case-control study.

Do not demonstrate causation

Case-control studies may prove an association between exposures and outcomes, but they can not demonstrate causation.

A case-control study is an observational study where researchers analyzed two groups of people (cases and controls) to look at factors associated with particular diseases or outcomes.

Below are some examples of case-control studies:
  • Investigating the impact of exposure to daylight on the health of office workers (Boubekri et al., 2014).
  • Comparing serum vitamin D levels in individuals who experience migraine headaches with their matched controls (Togha et al., 2018).
  • Analyzing correlations between parental smoking and childhood asthma (Strachan and Cook, 1998).
  • Studying the relationship between elevated concentrations of homocysteine and an increased risk of vascular diseases (Ford et al., 2002).
  • Assessing the magnitude of the association between Helicobacter pylori and the incidence of gastric cancer (Helicobacter and Cancer Collaborative Group, 2001).
  • Evaluating the association between breast cancer risk and saturated fat intake in postmenopausal women (Howe et al., 1990).

Frequently asked questions

1. what’s the difference between a case-control study and a cross-sectional study.

Case-control studies are different from cross-sectional studies in that case-control studies compare groups retrospectively while cross-sectional studies analyze information about a population at a specific point in time.

In  cross-sectional studies , researchers are simply examining a group of participants and depicting what already exists in the population.

2. What’s the difference between a case-control study and a longitudinal study?

Case-control studies compare groups retrospectively, while longitudinal studies can compare groups either retrospectively or prospectively.

In a  longitudinal study , researchers monitor a population over an extended period of time, and they can be used to study developmental shifts and understand how certain things change as we age.

In addition, case-control studies look at a single subject or a single case, whereas longitudinal studies can be conducted on a large group of subjects.

3. What’s the difference between a case-control study and a retrospective cohort study?

Case-control studies are retrospective as researchers begin with an outcome and trace backward to investigate exposure; however, they differ from retrospective cohort studies.

In a  retrospective cohort study , researchers examine a group before any of the subjects have developed the disease, then examine any factors that differed between the individuals who developed the condition and those who did not.

Thus, the outcome is measured after exposure in retrospective cohort studies, whereas the outcome is measured before the exposure in case-control studies.

Boubekri, M., Cheung, I., Reid, K., Wang, C., & Zee, P. (2014). Impact of windows and daylight exposure on overall health and sleep quality of office workers: a case-control pilot study. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, 10 (6), 603-611.

Ford, E. S., Smith, S. J., Stroup, D. F., Steinberg, K. K., Mueller, P. W., & Thacker, S. B. (2002). Homocyst (e) ine and cardiovascular disease: a systematic review of the evidence with special emphasis on case-control studies and nested case-control studies. International journal of epidemiology, 31 (1), 59-70.

Helicobacter and Cancer Collaborative Group. (2001). Gastric cancer and Helicobacter pylori: a combined analysis of 12 case control studies nested within prospective cohorts. Gut, 49 (3), 347-353.

Howe, G. R., Hirohata, T., Hislop, T. G., Iscovich, J. M., Yuan, J. M., Katsouyanni, K., … & Shunzhang, Y. (1990). Dietary factors and risk of breast cancer: combined analysis of 12 case—control studies. JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 82 (7), 561-569.

Lewallen, S., & Courtright, P. (1998). Epidemiology in practice: case-control studies. Community eye health, 11 (28), 57–58.

Strachan, D. P., & Cook, D. G. (1998). Parental smoking and childhood asthma: longitudinal and case-control studies. Thorax, 53 (3), 204-212.

Tenny, S., Kerndt, C. C., & Hoffman, M. R. (2021). Case Control Studies. In StatPearls . StatPearls Publishing.

Togha, M., Razeghi Jahromi, S., Ghorbani, Z., Martami, F., & Seifishahpar, M. (2018). Serum Vitamin D Status in a Group of Migraine Patients Compared With Healthy Controls: A Case-Control Study. Headache, 58 (10), 1530-1540.

Further Information

  • Schulz, K. F., & Grimes, D. A. (2002). Case-control studies: research in reverse. The Lancet, 359(9304), 431-434.
  • What is a case-control study?

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Case Study: Bedeutung, Beispiele, 6 Tipps zur Lösung

Ein Case Study (auch „Fallstudie“) kann Aufgabe im Assessment Center oder im Vorstellungsgespräch sein. Besonders häufig sind die Fallstudien bei Consulting- oder Marketing-Jobs. Hier sind sie ein wichtiger Teil des Auswahlverfahrens. Bei der Case Study schlüpfen Bewerber in die Rolle eines Beraters, analysieren und strukturieren eine komplexe Problemstellungen und entwickeln Lösungen oder Strategien, die sie anschließend präsentieren. Das alles unter Zeitdruck. Wir zeigen Ihnen, wie Sie die Fallstudien in der Bewerbung meistern – inklusive Tipps und Beispielen…

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Case Study: Bedeutung, Beispiele, 6 Tipps zur Lösung

Case Study Bedeutung

Der Begriff „Case Study“ (Deutsch: „ Fallstudie “ oder „Planspiel“) stammt ursprünglich aus der Wissenschaft und beschreibt dort zum Beispiel eine Forschungsmethode zur Bearbeitung eines Einzelfalls. Seine heutige Bedeutung hat der Case Study Test aber vor allem aus der Bewerberauswahl . Heißt: dem Einsatz im Assessment Center oder Vorstellungsgespräch . Hierbei simulieren Bewerber ein praxisnahes Problem und entwickeln dafür – unter Zeitdruck – realistische Lösungen.

Was wird bei der Case Study getestet?

Die Fallstudie kann eine Einzel- oder Gruppenaufgabe sein. Auf dem Prüfstand stehen dabei Kompetenzen wie:

  • Auffassungsgabe
  • Analysestärke
  • Fachliches Know-how
  • Soft Skills und soziale Kompetenzen
  • Zeitmanagement
  • Fokussierung
  • Problemlösungskompetenz
  • Out-of-the-box Denken
  • Unternehmerisches Denken
  • Stressresistenz
  • Konzentrationsfähigkeit
  • Kreativität

Während der Case Study werden die Teilnehmer in der Regel permanent beobachtet. Daher gehört am Schluss noch die Präsentation der Lösung und Lösungswege dazu. Üblich ist, dass die Teilnehmer anschließend noch Feedback von den Prüfern oder Personalern bekommen.

Case Study Arten

Unterschieden werden bei den Fallstudien meist drei Hauptformen:

Business-Cases

Die klassische Fallstudie. Die Bewerber müssen ein praxisnahes Problem analysieren, lösen und präsentieren. Wirtschaftliches Grundverständnis ist dafür unerlässlich. Erfahrungen aus dem Studium oder aus Praktika helfen enorm. Typische Case Study Beispiele sind die Einschätzung für einen Markteintritt, die Optimierung des Firmenauftritts in einem veränderten Marktumfeld oder ein schwieriges Mitarbeitergespräch .

Marktgrößenschätzungen

Bei diesen Schätzaufgaben müssen die Bewerber realistisch einen potenziellen Absatzmarkt einschätzen. Zum Beispiel: „Wie hoch ist das Marktpotential für Carving Skis in Japan?“ Kandidaten müssen bei dieser Case Study nicht nur rechnen und logisch Denken können. Oft geht es um Allgemeinwissen und systematisches Vorgehen, denn ein „richtig“ oder „falsch“ gibt es bei dieser Fallstudie nicht. Lösungsfragen im obigen Fall könnten sein: Wie groß ist die Bevölkerung Japans? Wie viele davon laufen Ski? Wie viele Skier werden importiert? Wie entwickelt sich die Nachfrage?

Brainteaser

Um logisches und analytisches Denken geht es auch bei diesen Rätselfragen und Knobelaufgaben. Brainteaser testen Kreativität und Auffassungsgabe ebenso wie abstraktes oder Nicht-lineares-Denken. Case Study Beispiele: „Wie viele Klavierstimmer gibt es in Chicago?“ (siehe Fermi-Fragen ) oder „Eine Frau besitzt zwei Sanduhren. Die eine läuft fünf Minuten, die andere sieben. Sie möchte damit aber 13 Minuten stoppen. Was muss sie tun?“ ( Lösung ).

Mehr Tipps für das Assessment Center

Weitere typische Übungen und Aufgaben im Assessment Center sind:

  • Postkorbübung
  • Rollenspiele
  • Gruppendiskussion
  • Selbstpräsentation
  • Persönlichkeitstest
  • Eignungstest
  • Einstellungstest
  • Einzelassessment

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Case Study Beispiele: 3 Übungen

3 typische Aufgabenstellungen aus der Praxis.

  • „Sie leiten eine Filiale eines Finanzdienstleisters. Ihnen unterstehen drei Gruppenleiter, die jeweils fünf Mitarbeiter führen. Durch Krankheit und Urlaub ist der Leiter einer Gruppe im Urlaub und einer krank. In einer anderen Gruppe fehlen krankheitsbedingt sogar drei Mitarbeiter. Zahlreiche Termine können nicht eingehalten werden. Zahlreiche Überstunden müssen gemacht werden, die Aufgaben stapeln sich bereits. Arbeiten Sie eine Strategie aus, um die anfallenden Arbeiten schaffen zu können, ohne dass der Kundenservice darunter leidet. Sie haben 25 Minuten Zeit.“
  • „Sie sind Führungskraft eines mittelständischen Unternehmens, das Sportartikel herstellt. Die Geschäftsleitung überlegt, ob sich eine Expansion in den US-Markt lohnt. Hochwertige Produkte zu geringen Preisen – das wäre dort ein Novum und könnte den Markt verändern. In Zeiten einer drohenden Rezession ist der Schritt aber nicht ungefährlich. Die wirtschaftlichen Risiken sind daher genau zu prüfen: Was spricht für eine Expansion, was dagegen? Wägen Sie Vor- und Nachteile ab und erstellen Sie ein Entscheidungskonzept. Präsentieren Sie das Ergebnis anschließend in nicht mehr als zehn Minuten. Zur Vorbereitung Ihrer Präsentation haben Sie keine Hilfsmittel zur Verfügung.“
  • „Sie sind Büroleiter in einer größeren Steuerkanzlei. Als Sie eines Morgens ins Büro kommen, fliegt plötzlich ein Papierflieger von hinten knapp an Ihnen vorbei. Obwohl Sie sich umdrehen, können Sie nicht sehen, wer den Flieger gestartet hat. Alle Kollegen scheinen in Ihre Arbeit vertieft. Wie reagieren Sie? Erläutern Sie Ihre Vorgehensweise und begründen Ihre Reaktion.“

Einsatz: Wo kommen Case Studies vor?

Typisch ist dieses Auswahlinstrument in der (strategischen) Unternehmensberatung . Aber auch in anderen Bereichen des Consultings oder Inhouse Consultings . Weitere Branchen und Berufe, in den Sie mit einer Case Study rechnen sollten sind: Marketing, Wirtschaftsprüfung, Business Development und Projektmanagement.

Gerne genutzt wird das Auswahlverfahren zudem bei der Auswahl künftiger Führungskräfte oder für Trainee-Stellen .

Case Study Vorbereitung

Machen Sie sich klar: Es gibt bei einer Case Study selten nur DIE EINE „richtige“ Lösung. Der Weg dorthin ist wichtiger – das eigenständige Denken, Ihr Arbeitsstil . Zur professionellen Vorbereitung gehört daher, sich möglichst viele verschiedene Case Studies anzusehen und diese für sich (oder mit Freunden) im Vorfeld durchzuspielen und zu lösen. Beispiele dazu finden Sie zahlreich im Internet – oft mit Musterlösungen.

Entwickeln Sie Strategien und Methoden , um sich komplexen Problemen zu nähern und diese in (lösbare) Teilaufgaben zu zerlegen. Strukturieren Sie Schritt für Schritt die Aufgabe (sogenannte „Frameworks“), treffen Sie logische Annahmen und bearbeiten Sie diese Einzelfälle danach zügig. Auch die anschließende Präsentation lässt sich gut vorbereiten. Zum Beispiel nach dem Muster einer freien Rede . Entscheidend ist, das Prüfer wie Personaler Ihren Lösungsweg und Ihre Gedankengänge nachvollziehen können. Denn diese werden höher bewertet als die Lösung und Antwort selbst.

TIPP: Hintergründe recherchieren!

Es schadet sicher nicht, wenn Sie sich in der Vorbereitung zur Case Study genau über das Unternehmen, die Branche und den Markt informieren. Die besten Erfolgschancen haben Sie, wenn Sie sich mit realen Herausforderungen des Unternehmens beschäftigen. Zum Beispiel Konjunkturentwicklung, neue Produkte, Marktbegleiter, Marketing-Strategien… Zudem sollten Sie das schriftliche Rechnen und Kopfrechnen noch einmal auffrischen beziehungsweise trainieren. Case Studies enthalten fast immer Rechenaufgaben.

Case Study lösen: 6 Tipps

Ob im Assessment Center oder im Bewerbungsgespräch : Wann immer Sie mit einer Case Study konfrontiert werden, bewahren Sie bitte stets Ruhe! Aktionismus wäre ein Fehler. Um das Planspiel und die Case Study lösen zu können, haben sich die folgenden Tipps schon vielfach bewährt:

Aufgabe verstehen

Klingt banal, ist es aber nicht. Lesen Sie sich die Aufgabe gründlich durch (Auffassungsgabe!). Gerade Brainteaser wollen Sie oft aufs Glatteis führen. Dabei ist die Lösung ganz einfach. Zum Teil dürfen (oder sollen) Sie auch Rückfragen stellen. Das dokumentiert Lernwille und Reflexionsvermögen über die Aufgabenstellung hinaus. Wichtig ist hierbei eine klare Zielorientierung: Was wird von Ihnen verlangt? Welches Ergebnis wird angestrebt?

Problem strukturieren

Im zweiten Schritt sollten Sie die Fallstudie strukturieren und eingrenzen. Bei Business Cases können Ihnen sogenannte Frameworks (BCG-Matrix, Porters Five Forces, etc.), Mindmaps oder Methoden wie SWOT-Analyse oder Scrum helfen. Wichtig ist, dass Sie sich eine Lösungsskizze oder ein Lösungsschema überlegen und sich daran halten.

Zeit einteilen

Der Zeitdruck gehört zum Test. Manche Case Studies sind so angelegt, dass Sie diese unmöglich in der vorgegebenen Zeit schaffen können. Sie müssen also zugleich auswählen, reduzieren, fokussieren. Dieses ergebnisorientierte Vorgehen ist wichtig, damit Sie sich nicht in Details verlieren. Verschwenden Sie also keine kostbare Minuten und konzentrieren Sie sich auf die wichtigsten Aspekte der Problemstellung. Tipp: Zuerst die groben Schritte, dann die Details!

Informationen beschaffen

Erstellen Sie eine präzise Liste der vorhandenen Daten und Fakten. Teilweise gibt es kurze Case Studies, teils längere, die über 2-3 Stunden oder gar einen Tag gehen. In die Bearbeitungszeit fällt dann auch, relevante Informationen zu recherchieren , falls diese im Informationsmaterial nicht enthalten oder (bewusst) lückenhaft sind. Hier können Sie nachfragen, am Smartphone googeln oder – falls die Zeit zu knapp ist – realistische Annahmen treffen, mit denen Sie anschließend weiterrechnen.

Lösungswege dokumentieren

Machen Sie sich permanent Notizen und dokumentieren Sie alle Lösungsschritte für die Beobachter. Sie werden danach später gefragt und sollten immer erklären können, warum Sie so vorgegangen sind. Gerade das strukturierte und systematische Vorgehen wollen HR-Manager sehen.

Resultat präsentieren

Am Schluss werden Sie Ihr Ergebnis meist präsentieren müssen (zum Beispiel am Flipchart ). Ausnahme: Case-Interviews. Dabei erklären Sie laut gegenüber den Personalern, wie Sie vorgehen würden und warum Sie sich wofür entscheiden. In vielen Fallstudien gibt es mehrere Optionen. In dem Fall sollten Sie für die jeweiligen Alternativen jeweils die wichtigsten Vor- und Nachteile nennen können. Rechnen Sie während und nach der Präsentation mit kritischen Fragen oder Rückmeldungen. Auch das gehört noch zum Case Study Test. Hierbei geht es um Ihre Kritikfähigkeit , Lernbereitschaft und das Selbstreflexions -Vermögen.

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Blog Graphic Design

15+ Professional Case Study Examples [Design Tips + Templates]

By Alice Corner , Jan 12, 2023

Venngage case study examples

Have you ever bought something — within the last 10 years or so — without reading its reviews or without a recommendation or prior experience of using it?

If the answer is no — or at least, rarely — you get my point.

Positive reviews matter for selling to regular customers, and for B2B or SaaS businesses, detailed case studies are important too.

Wondering how to craft a compelling case study ? No worries—I’ve got you covered with 15 marketing case study templates , helpful tips, and examples to ensure your case study converts effectively.

Click to jump ahead:

  • What is a Case Study?

Business Case Study Examples

Simple case study examples.

  • Marketing Case Study Examples

Sales Case Study Examples

  • Case Study FAQs

What is a case study?

A case study is an in-depth, detailed analysis of a specific real-world situation. For example, a case study can be about an individual, group, event, organization, or phenomenon. The purpose of a case study is to understand its complexities and gain insights into a particular instance or situation.

In the context of a business, however, case studies take customer success stories and explore how they use your product to help them achieve their business goals.

Case Study Definition LinkedIn Post

As well as being valuable marketing tools , case studies are a good way to evaluate your product as it allows you to objectively examine how others are using it.

It’s also a good way to interview your customers about why they work with you.

Related: What is a Case Study? [+6 Types of Case Studies]

What is a marketing case study?

A marketing case study is a type of marketing where you use your existing customers as an example of what your product or services can achieve. You can also create case studies of internal, successful marketing projects.

Here’s an example of a marketing case study template:

marketing case study example

Whether you’re a B2B or B2C company, business case studies can be a powerful resource to help with your sales, marketing, and even internal departmental awareness.

Business and business management case studies should encompass strategic insights alongside anecdotal and qualitative findings, like in the business case study examples below.

Conduct a B2B case study by researching the company holistically

When it comes to writing a case study, make sure you approach the company holistically and analyze everything from their social media to their sales.

Think about every avenue your product or service has been of use to your case study company, and ask them about the impact this has had on their wider company goals.

Venngage orange marketing case study example

In business case study examples like the one above, we can see that the company has been thought about holistically simply by the use of icons.

By combining social media icons with icons that show in-person communication we know that this is a well-researched and thorough case study.

This case study report example could also be used within an annual or end-of-year report.

Highlight the key takeaway from your marketing case study

To create a compelling case study, identify the key takeaways from your research. Use catchy language to sum up this information in a sentence, and present this sentence at the top of your page.

This is “at a glance” information and it allows people to gain a top-level understanding of the content immediately. 

Purple SAAS Business Case Study Template

You can use a large, bold, contrasting font to help this information stand out from the page and provide interest.

Learn  how to choose fonts  effectively with our Venngage guide and once you’ve done that.

Upload your fonts and  brand colors  to Venngage using the  My Brand Kit  tool and see them automatically applied to your designs.

The heading is the ideal place to put the most impactful information, as this is the first thing that people will read.

In this example, the stat of “Increase[d] lead quality by 90%” is used as the header. It makes customers want to read more to find out how exactly lead quality was increased by such a massive amount.

Purple SAAS Business Case Study Template Header

If you’re conducting an in-person interview, you could highlight a direct quote or insight provided by your interview subject.

Pick out a catchy sentence or phrase, or the key piece of information your interview subject provided and use that as a way to draw a potential customer in.

Use charts to visualize data in your business case studies

Charts are an excellent way to visualize data and to bring statistics and information to life. Charts make information easier to understand and to illustrate trends or patterns.

Making charts is even easier with Venngage.

In this consulting case study example, we can see that a chart has been used to demonstrate the difference in lead value within the Lead Elves case study.

Adding a chart here helps break up the information and add visual value to the case study. 

Red SAAS Business Case Study Template

Using charts in your case study can also be useful if you’re creating a project management case study.

You could use a Gantt chart or a project timeline to show how you have managed the project successfully.

event marketing project management gantt chart example

Use direct quotes to build trust in your marketing case study

To add an extra layer of authenticity you can include a direct quote from your customer within your case study.

According to research from Nielsen , 92% of people will trust a recommendation from a peer and 70% trust recommendations even if they’re from somebody they don’t know.

Case study peer recommendation quote

So if you have a customer or client who can’t stop singing your praises, make sure you get a direct quote from them and include it in your case study.

You can either lift part of the conversation or interview, or you can specifically request a quote. Make sure to ask for permission before using the quote.

Contrast Lead Generation Business Case Study Template

This design uses a bright contrasting speech bubble to show that it includes a direct quote, and helps the quote stand out from the rest of the text.

This will help draw the customer’s attention directly to the quote, in turn influencing them to use your product or service.

Less is often more, and this is especially true when it comes to creating designs. Whilst you want to create a professional-looking, well-written and design case study – there’s no need to overcomplicate things.

These simple case study examples show that smart clean designs and informative content can be an effective way to showcase your successes.

Use colors and fonts to create a professional-looking case study

Business case studies shouldn’t be boring. In fact, they should be beautifully and professionally designed.

This means the normal rules of design apply. Use fonts, colors, and icons to create an interesting and visually appealing case study.

In this case study example, we can see how multiple fonts have been used to help differentiate between the headers and content, as well as complementary colors and eye-catching icons.

Blue Simple Business Case Study Template

Marketing case study examples

Marketing case studies are incredibly useful for showing your marketing successes. Every successful marketing campaign relies on influencing a consumer’s behavior, and a great case study can be a great way to spotlight your biggest wins.

In the marketing case study examples below, a variety of designs and techniques to create impactful and effective case studies.

Show off impressive results with a bold marketing case study

Case studies are meant to show off your successes, so make sure you feature your positive results prominently. Using bold and bright colors as well as contrasting shapes, large bold fonts, and simple icons is a great way to highlight your wins.

In well-written case study examples like the one below, the big wins are highlighted on the second page with a bright orange color and are highlighted in circles.

Making the important data stand out is especially important when attracting a prospective customer with marketing case studies.

Light simplebusiness case study template

Use a simple but clear layout in your case study

Using a simple layout in your case study can be incredibly effective, like in the example of a case study below.

Keeping a clean white background, and using slim lines to help separate the sections is an easy way to format your case study.

Making the information clear helps draw attention to the important results, and it helps improve the  accessibility of the design .

Business case study examples like this would sit nicely within a larger report, with a consistent layout throughout.

Modern lead Generaton Business Case Study Template

Use visuals and icons to create an engaging and branded business case study

Nobody wants to read pages and pages of text — and that’s why Venngage wants to help you communicate your ideas visually.

Using icons, graphics, photos, or patterns helps create a much more engaging design. 

With this Blue Cap case study icons, colors, and impactful pattern designs have been used to create an engaging design that catches your eye.

Social Media Business Case Study template

Use a monochromatic color palette to create a professional and clean case study

Let your research shine by using a monochromatic and minimalistic color palette.

By sticking to one color, and leaving lots of blank space you can ensure your design doesn’t distract a potential customer from your case study content.

Color combination examples

In this case study on Polygon Media, the design is simple and professional, and the layout allows the prospective customer to follow the flow of information.

The gradient effect on the left-hand column helps break up the white background and adds an interesting visual effect.

Gray Lead Generation Business Case Study Template

Did you know you can generate an accessible color palette with Venngage? Try our free accessible color palette generator today and create a case study that delivers and looks pleasant to the eye:

Venngage's accessible color palette generator

Add long term goals in your case study

When creating a case study it’s a great idea to look at both the short term and the long term goals of the company to gain the best understanding possible of the insights they provide.

Short-term goals will be what the company or person hopes to achieve in the next few months, and long-term goals are what the company hopes to achieve in the next few years.

Check out this modern pattern design example of a case study below:

Lead generation business case study template

In this case study example, the short and long-term goals are clearly distinguished by light blue boxes and placed side by side so that they are easy to compare.

Lead generation case study example short term goals

Use a strong introductory paragraph to outline the overall strategy and goals before outlining the specific short-term and long-term goals to help with clarity.

This strategy can also be handy when creating a consulting case study.

Use data to make concrete points about your sales and successes

When conducting any sort of research stats, facts, and figures are like gold dust (aka, really valuable).

Being able to quantify your findings is important to help understand the information fully. Saying sales increased 10% is much more effective than saying sales increased.

While sales dashboards generally tend it make it all about the numbers and charts, in sales case study examples, like this one, the key data and findings can be presented with icons. This contributes to the potential customer’s better understanding of the report.

They can clearly comprehend the information and it shows that the case study has been well researched.

Vibrant Content Marketing Case Study Template

Use emotive, persuasive, or action based language in your marketing case study

Create a compelling case study by using emotive, persuasive and action-based language when customizing your case study template.

Case study example pursuasive language

In this well-written case study example, we can see that phrases such as “Results that Speak Volumes” and “Drive Sales” have been used.

Using persuasive language like you would in a blog post. It helps inspire potential customers to take action now.

Bold Content Marketing Case Study Template

Keep your potential customers in mind when creating a customer case study for marketing

82% of marketers use case studies in their marketing  because it’s such an effective tool to help quickly gain customers’ trust and to showcase the potential of your product.

Why are case studies such an important tool in content marketing?

By writing a case study you’re telling potential customers that they can trust you because you’re showing them that other people do.

Not only that, but if you have a SaaS product, business case studies are a great way to show how other people are effectively using your product in their company.

In this case study, Network is demonstrating how their product has been used by Vortex Co. with great success; instantly showing other potential customers that their tool works and is worth using.

Teal Social Media Business Case Study Template

Related: 10+ Case Study Infographic Templates That Convert

Case studies are particularly effective as a sales technique.

A sales case study is like an extended customer testimonial, not only sharing opinions of your product – but showcasing the results you helped your customer achieve.

Make impactful statistics pop in your sales case study

Writing a case study doesn’t mean using text as the only medium for sharing results.

You should use icons to highlight areas of your research that are particularly interesting or relevant, like in this example of a case study:

Coral content marketing case study template.jpg

Icons are a great way to help summarize information quickly and can act as visual cues to help draw the customer’s attention to certain areas of the page.

In some of the business case study examples above, icons are used to represent the impressive areas of growth and are presented in a way that grabs your attention.

Use high contrast shapes and colors to draw attention to key information in your sales case study

Help the key information stand out within your case study by using high contrast shapes and colors.

Use a complementary or contrasting color, or use a shape such as a rectangle or a circle for maximum impact.

Blue case study example case growth

This design has used dark blue rectangles to help separate the information and make it easier to read.

Coupled with icons and strong statistics, this information stands out on the page and is easily digestible and retainable for a potential customer.

Blue Content Marketing Case Study Tempalte

Case Study Examples Summary

Once you have created your case study, it’s best practice to update your examples on a regular basis to include up-to-date statistics, data, and information.

You should update your business case study examples often if you are sharing them on your website .

It’s also important that your case study sits within your brand guidelines – find out how Venngage’s My Brand Kit tool can help you create consistently branded case study templates.

Case studies are important marketing tools – but they shouldn’t be the only tool in your toolbox. Content marketing is also a valuable way to earn consumer trust.

Case Study FAQ

Why should you write a case study.

Case studies are an effective marketing technique to engage potential customers and help build trust.

By producing case studies featuring your current clients or customers, you are showcasing how your tool or product can be used. You’re also showing that other people endorse your product.

In addition to being a good way to gather positive testimonials from existing customers , business case studies are good educational resources and can be shared amongst your company or team, and used as a reference for future projects.

How should you write a case study?

To create a great case study, you should think strategically. The first step, before starting your case study research, is to think about what you aim to learn or what you aim to prove.

You might be aiming to learn how a company makes sales or develops a new product. If this is the case, base your questions around this.

You can learn more about writing a case study  from our extensive guide.

Related: How to Present a Case Study like a Pro (With Examples)

Some good questions you could ask would be:

  • Why do you use our tool or service?
  • How often do you use our tool or service?
  • What does the process of using our product look like to you?
  • If our product didn’t exist, what would you be doing instead?
  • What is the number one benefit you’ve found from using our tool?

You might also enjoy:

  • 12 Essential Consulting Templates For Marketing, Planning and Branding
  • Best Marketing Strategies for Consultants and Freelancers in 2019 [Study + Infographic]

Case Control Studies

Affiliations.

  • 1 University of Nebraska Medical Center
  • 2 Spectrum Health/Michigan State University College of Human Medicine
  • PMID: 28846237
  • Bookshelf ID: NBK448143

A case-control study is a type of observational study commonly used to look at factors associated with diseases or outcomes. The case-control study starts with a group of cases, which are the individuals who have the outcome of interest. The researcher then tries to construct a second group of individuals called the controls, who are similar to the case individuals but do not have the outcome of interest. The researcher then looks at historical factors to identify if some exposure(s) is/are found more commonly in the cases than the controls. If the exposure is found more commonly in the cases than in the controls, the researcher can hypothesize that the exposure may be linked to the outcome of interest.

For example, a researcher may want to look at the rare cancer Kaposi's sarcoma. The researcher would find a group of individuals with Kaposi's sarcoma (the cases) and compare them to a group of patients who are similar to the cases in most ways but do not have Kaposi's sarcoma (controls). The researcher could then ask about various exposures to see if any exposure is more common in those with Kaposi's sarcoma (the cases) than those without Kaposi's sarcoma (the controls). The researcher might find that those with Kaposi's sarcoma are more likely to have HIV, and thus conclude that HIV may be a risk factor for the development of Kaposi's sarcoma.

There are many advantages to case-control studies. First, the case-control approach allows for the study of rare diseases. If a disease occurs very infrequently, one would have to follow a large group of people for a long period of time to accrue enough incident cases to study. Such use of resources may be impractical, so a case-control study can be useful for identifying current cases and evaluating historical associated factors. For example, if a disease developed in 1 in 1000 people per year (0.001/year) then in ten years one would expect about 10 cases of a disease to exist in a group of 1000 people. If the disease is much rarer, say 1 in 1,000,0000 per year (0.0000001/year) this would require either having to follow 1,000,0000 people for ten years or 1000 people for 1000 years to accrue ten total cases. As it may be impractical to follow 1,000,000 for ten years or to wait 1000 years for recruitment, a case-control study allows for a more feasible approach.

Second, the case-control study design makes it possible to look at multiple risk factors at once. In the example above about Kaposi's sarcoma, the researcher could ask both the cases and controls about exposures to HIV, asbestos, smoking, lead, sunburns, aniline dye, alcohol, herpes, human papillomavirus, or any number of possible exposures to identify those most likely associated with Kaposi's sarcoma.

Case-control studies can also be very helpful when disease outbreaks occur, and potential links and exposures need to be identified. This study mechanism can be commonly seen in food-related disease outbreaks associated with contaminated products, or when rare diseases start to increase in frequency, as has been seen with measles in recent years.

Because of these advantages, case-control studies are commonly used as one of the first studies to build evidence of an association between exposure and an event or disease.

In a case-control study, the investigator can include unequal numbers of cases with controls such as 2:1 or 4:1 to increase the power of the study.

Disadvantages and Limitations

The most commonly cited disadvantage in case-control studies is the potential for recall bias. Recall bias in a case-control study is the increased likelihood that those with the outcome will recall and report exposures compared to those without the outcome. In other words, even if both groups had exactly the same exposures, the participants in the cases group may report the exposure more often than the controls do. Recall bias may lead to concluding that there are associations between exposure and disease that do not, in fact, exist. It is due to subjects' imperfect memories of past exposures. If people with Kaposi's sarcoma are asked about exposure and history (e.g., HIV, asbestos, smoking, lead, sunburn, aniline dye, alcohol, herpes, human papillomavirus), the individuals with the disease are more likely to think harder about these exposures and recall having some of the exposures that the healthy controls.

Case-control studies, due to their typically retrospective nature, can be used to establish a correlation between exposures and outcomes, but cannot establish causation . These studies simply attempt to find correlations between past events and the current state.

When designing a case-control study, the researcher must find an appropriate control group. Ideally, the case group (those with the outcome) and the control group (those without the outcome) will have almost the same characteristics, such as age, gender, overall health status, and other factors. The two groups should have similar histories and live in similar environments. If, for example, our cases of Kaposi's sarcoma came from across the country but our controls were only chosen from a small community in northern latitudes where people rarely go outside or get sunburns, asking about sunburn may not be a valid exposure to investigate. Similarly, if all of the cases of Kaposi's sarcoma were found to come from a small community outside a battery factory with high levels of lead in the environment, then controls from across the country with minimal lead exposure would not provide an appropriate control group. The investigator must put a great deal of effort into creating a proper control group to bolster the strength of the case-control study as well as enhance their ability to find true and valid potential correlations between exposures and disease states.

Similarly, the researcher must recognize the potential for failing to identify confounding variables or exposures, introducing the possibility of confounding bias, which occurs when a variable that is not being accounted for that has a relationship with both the exposure and outcome. This can cause us to accidentally be studying something we are not accounting for but that may be systematically different between the groups.

Copyright © 2024, StatPearls Publishing LLC.

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  • Ann Indian Acad Neurol
  • v.16(4); Oct-Dec 2013

Design and data analysis case-controlled study in clinical research

Sanjeev v. thomas.

Department of Neurology, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum, Kerala, India

Karthik Suresh

1 Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Louiseville, USA

Geetha Suresh

2 Department of Justice Administration, University of Louisville, Louiseville, USA

Clinicians during their training period and practice are often called upon to conduct studies to explore the association between certain exposures and disease states or interventions and outcomes. More often they need to interpret the results of research data published in the medical literature. Case-control studies are one of the most frequently used study designs for these purposes. This paper explains basic features of case control studies, rationality behind applying case control design with appropriate examples and limitations of this design. Analysis of sensitivity and specificity along with template to calculate various ratios are explained with user friendly tables and calculations in this article. The interpretation of some of the laboratory results requires sound knowledge of the various risk ratios and positive or negative predictive values for correct identification for unbiased analysis. A major advantage of case-control study is that they are small and retrospective and so they are economical than cohort studies and randomized controlled trials.

Introduction

Clinicians think of case-control study when they want to ascertain association between one clinical condition and an exposure or when a researcher wants to compare patients with disease exposed to the risk factors to non-exposed control group. In other words, case-control study compares subjects who have disease or outcome (cases) with subjects who do not have the disease or outcome (controls). Historically, case control studies came into fashion in the early 20 th century, when great interest arose in the role of environmental factors (such as pipe smoke) in the pathogenesis of disease. In the 1950s, case control studies were used to link cigarette smoke and lung cancer. Case-control studies look back in time to compare “what happened” in each group to determine the relationship between the risk factor and disease. The case-control study has important advantages, including cost and ease of deployment. However, it is important to note that a positive relationship between exposure and disease does not imply causality.

At the center of the case-control study is a collection of cases. [ Figure 1 ] This explains why this type of study is often used to study rare diseases, where the prevalence of the disease may not be high enough to permit for a cohort study. A cohort study identifies patients with and without an exposure and then “looks forward” to see whether or not greater numbers of patients with an exposure develop disease.

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Comparison of cohort and case control studies

For instance, Yang et al . studied antiepileptic drug (AED) associated rashes in Asians in a case-control study.[ 1 ] They collected cases of confirmed anti-epileptic induced severe cutaneous reactions (such as Stevens Johnson syndrome) and then, using appropriate controls, analyzed various exposures (including type of [AED] used) to look for risk factors to developing AED induced skin disease.

Choosing controls is very important aspect of case-control study design. The investigator must weigh the need for the controls to be relevant against the tendency to over match controls such that potential differences may become muted. In general, one may consider three populations: Cases, the relevant control population and the population at large. For the study above, the cases include patients with AED skin disease. In this case, the relevant control population is a group of Asian patients without skin disease. It is important for controls to be relevant: In the anti-epileptic study, it would not be appropriate to choose a population across ethnicities since one of the premises of the paper revolves around particularly susceptibility to AED drug rashes in Asian populations.

One popular method of choosing controls is to choose patients from a geographic population at large. In studying the relationship between non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and Parkinson's disease (PD), Wahner et al . chose a control population from several rural California counties.[ 2 ] There are other methods of choosing controls (using patients without disease admitted to the hospital during the time of study, neighbors of disease positive cases, using mail routes to identify disease negative cases). However, one must be careful not to introduce bias into control selection. For instance, a study that enrolls cases from a clinic population should not use a hospital population as control. Studies looking at geography specific population (e.g., Neurocysticercosis in India) cannot use controls from large studies done in other populations (registries of patients from countries where disease prevalence may be drastically different than in India). In general, geographic clustering is probably the easiest way to choose controls for case-control studies.

Two popular ways of choosing controls include hospitalized patients and patients from the general population. Choosing hospitalized, disease negative patients offers several advantages, including good rates of response (patients admitted to the hospital are generally already being examined and evaluated and often tend to be available to further questioning for a study, compared with the general population, where rates of response may be much lower) and possibly less amnestic bias (patients who are already in the hospital are, by default, being asked to remember details of their presenting illnesses and as such, may more reliably remember details of exposures). However, using hospitalized patients has one large disadvantage; these patients have higher severity of disease since they required hospitalization in the first place. In addition, patients may be hospitalized for disease processes that may share features with diseases under study, thus confounding results.

Using a general population offers the advantage of being a true control group, random in its choosing and without any common features that may confound associations. However, disadvantages include poor response rates and biasing based on geography. Administering long histories and questions regarding exposures are often hard to accomplish in the general population due to the number of people willing (or rather, not willing) to undergo testing. In addition, choosing cases from the general population from particular geographic areas may bias the population toward certain characteristics (such as a socio-economic status) of that geographic population. Consider a study that uses cases from a referral clinic population that draws patients from across socio-economic strata. Using a control group selected from a population from a very affluent or very impoverished area may be problematic unless the socio-economic status is included in the final analysis.

In case-controls studies, cases are usually available before controls. When studying specific diseases, cases are often collected from specialty clinics that see large numbers of patients with a specific disease. Consider for example, the study by Garwood et al .[ 3 ] which looked at patients with established PD and looked for associations between prior amphetamine use and subsequent development various neurologic disorders. Patients in this study were chosen from specialty clinics that see large numbers of patients with certain neurologic disorders. Case definitions are very important when planning to choose cases. For instance, in a hypothetical study aiming to study cases of peripheral neuropathy, will all patients who carry a diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy be included? Or, will only patients with definite electromyography evidence of neuropathy be included? If a disease process with known histopathology is being studied, will tissue diagnosis be required for all cases? More stringent case definitions that require multiple pieces of data to be present may limit the number of cases that can be used in the study. Less stringent criteria (for instance, counting all patients with the diagnosis of “peripheral neuropathy” listed in the chart) may inadvertently choose a group of cases that are too heterogeneous.

The disease history status of the chosen cases must also be decided. Will the cases being chosen have newly diagnosed disease, or will cases of ongoing/longstanding disease also be included? Will decedent cases be included? This is important when looking at exposures in the following fashion: Consider exposure X that is associated with disease Y. Suppose that exposure X negatively affects disease Y such that patients that are X + have more severe disease. Now, a case-control study that used only patients with long-standing or ongoing disease might miss a potential association between X and Y because X + patients, due to their more aggressive course of disease, are no longer alive and therefore were not included in the analysis. If this particular confounding effect is of concern, it can be circumvented by using incident cases only.

Selection bias occurs when the exposure of interest results in more careful screening of a population, thus mimicking an association. The classic example of this phenomenon was noted in the 70s, when certain studies noted a relationship between estrogen use and endometrial cancer. However, on close analysis, it was noted that patients who used estrogen were more likely to experience vaginal bleeding, which in turn is often a cause for close examination by physicians to rule out endometrial cancer. This is often seen with certain drug exposures as well. A drug may produce various symptoms, which lead to closer physician evaluation, thus leading to more disease positive cases. Thus, when analyzed in a retrospective fashion, more of the cases may have a particular exposure only insofar as that particular exposure led to evaluations that resulted in a diagnosis, but without any direct association or causality between the exposure and disease.

One advantage of case-control studies is the ability to study multiple exposures and other risk factors within one study. In addition, the “exposure” being studied can be biochemical in nature. Consider the study, which looked at a genetic variant of a kinase enzyme as a risk factor for development of Alzheimer's disease.[ 4 ] Compare this with the study mentioned earlier by Garwood et al .,[ 3 ] where exposure data was collected by surveys and questionnaires. In this study, the authors drew blood work on cases and controls in order to assess their polymorphism status. Indeed, more than one exposure can be assessed in the same study and with planning, a researcher may look at several variables, including biochemical ones, in single case-control study.

Matching is one of three ways (along with exclusion and statistical adjustment) to adjust for differences. Matching attempts to make sure that the control group is sufficiently similar to the cases group, with respects to variables such as age, sex, etc., Cases and controls should not be matched on variables that will be analyzed for possible associations to disease. Not only should exposure variables not be included, but neither should variables that are closely related to these variables. Lastly, overmatching should be avoided. If the control group is too similar to the cases group, the study may fail to detect the difference even if one exists. In addition, adding matching categories increases expense of the study.

One measure of association derived from case control studies are sensitivity and specificity ratios. These measures are important to a researcher, to understand the correct classification. A good understanding of sensitivity and specificity is essential to understand receiver operating characteristic curve and in distinguishing correct classification of positive exposure and disease with negative exposure and no disease. Table 1 explains a hypothetical example and method of calculation of specificity and sensitivity analysis.

Hypothetical example of sensitivity, specificity and predictive values

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Interpretation of sensitivity, specificity and predictive values

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures of the performance of a two by two classification of cases and controls (sick or healthy) against positives and negatives (exposed or non-exposed).[ 5 ] Sensitivity measures or identifies the proportion of actual positives identified as the percentage of sick people who are correctly identified as sick. Specificity measures or identifies the proportion of negatives identified as the percentage of healthy people who are correctly identified as healthy. Theoretically, optimum prediction aims at 100% sensitivity and specificity with a minimum of margin of error. Table 1 also shows false positive rate, which is referred to as Type I error commonly stated as α “Alpha” is calculated using the following formula: 100 − specificity, which is equal to 100 − 90.80 = 9.20% for Table 1 example. Type 1 error is also known as false positive error is referred to as a false alarm, indicates that a condition is present when it is actually not present. In the above mentioned example, a false positive error indicates the percent falsely identified healthy as sick. The reason why we want Type 1 error to be as minimum as possible is because healthy should not get treatment.

The false negative rate, which is referred to as Type II error commonly stated as β “Beta” is calculated using the following formula: 100 − sensitivity which is equal to 100 − 73.30 = 26.70% for Table 1 example. Type II error is also known as false negative error indicates that a condition is not present when it should have been present. In the above mentioned example, a false negative error indicates percent falsely identified sick as healthy. A Type 1 error unnecessarily treats a healthy, which in turn increases the budget and Type II error would risk the sick, which would act against study objectives. A researcher wants to minimize both errors, which not a simple issue because an effort to decrease one type of error increases the other type of error. The only way to minimize both type of error statistically is by increasing sample size, which may be difficult sometimes not feasible or expensive. If the sample size is too low it lacks precision and it is too large, time and resources will be wasted. Hence, the question is what should be the sample size so that the study has the power to generalize the result obtained from the study. The researcher has to decide whether, the study has enough power to make a judgment of the population from their sample. The researcher has to decide this issue in the process of designing an experiment, how large a sample is needed to enable reliable judgment.

Statistical power is same as sensitivity (73.30%). In this example, large number of false positives and few false negatives indicate the test conducted alone is not the best test to confirm the disease. Higher statistical power increase statistical significance by reducing Type 1 error which increases confidence interval. In other words, larger the power more accurately the study can mirror the behavior of the study population.

The positive predictive values (PPV) or the precision rate is referred to as the proportion of positive test results, which means correct diagnoses. If the test correctly identifies all positive conditions then the PPV would be 100% and negative predictive value (NPV) would be 0. The calculative PPV in Table 1 is 11.8%, which is not large enough to predict cases with test conducted alone. However, the NPV 99.9% indicates the test correctly identifies negative conditions.

Clinical interpretation of a test

In a sample, there are two groups those who have the disease and those who do not have the disease. A test designed to detect that disease can have two results a positive result that states that the disease is present and a negative result that states that the disease is absent. In an ideal situation, we would want the test to be positive for all persons who have the disease and test to be negative for all persons who do not have the disease. Unfortunately, reality is often far from ideal. The clinician who had ordered the test has the result as positive or negative. What conclusion can he or she make about the disease status for his patient? The first step would be to examine the reliability of the test in statistical terms. (1) What is the sensitivity of the test? (2) What is the specificity of the test? The second step is to examine it applicability to his patient. (3) What is the PPV of the test? (4) What is the NPV of the test?

Suppose the test result had come as positive. In this example the test has a sensitivity of 73.3% and specificity of 90.8%. This test is capable of detecting the disease status in 73% of cases only. It has a false positivity of 9.2%. The PPV of the test is 11.8%. In other words, there is a good possibility that the test result is false positive and the person does not have the disease. We need to look at other test results and the clinical situation. Suppose the PPV of this test was close to 80 or 90%, one could conclude that most likely the person has the disease state if the test result is positive.

Suppose the test result had come as negative. The NPV of this test is 99.9%, which means this test gave a negative result in a patient with the disease only very rarely. Hence, there is only 0.1% possibility that the person who tested negative has in fact the disease. Probably no further tests are required unless the clinical suspicion is very high.

It is very important how the clinician interprets the result of a test. The usefulness of a positive result or negative result depends upon the PPV or NPV of the test respectively. A screening test should have high sensitivity and high PPV. A confirmatory test should have high specificity and high NPV.

Case control method is most efficient, for the study of rare diseases and most common diseases. Other measures of association from case control studies are calculation of odds ratio (OR) and risk ratio which is presented in Table 2 .

Different ratio calculation templates with sample calculation

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Absolute risk means the probability of an event occurring and are not compared with any other type of risk. Absolute risk is expressed as a ratio or percent. In the example, absolute risk reduction indicates 27.37% decline in risk. Relative risk (RR) on the other hand compares the risk among exposed and non-exposed. In the example provided in Table 2 , the non-exposed control group is 69.93% less likely compared to exposed cases. Reader should keep in mind that RR does not mean increase in risk. This means that while a 100% likely risk among those exposed cases, unexposed control is less likely by 69.93%. RR does not explain actual risk but is expressed as relative increase or decrease in risk of exposed compared to non-exposed.

OR help the researcher to conclude whether the odds of a certain event or outcome are same for two groups. It calculates the odds of a health outcome when exposed compared to non-exposed. In our example an OR of. 207 can be interpreted as the non-exposed group is less likely to experience the event compared to the exposed group. If the OR is greater than 1 (example 1.11) means that the exposed are 1.11 times more likely to be riskier than the non-exposed.

Event rate for cases (E) and controls (C) in biostatistics explains how event ratio is a measure of how often a particular statistical exposure results in occurrence of disease within the experimental group (cases) of an experiment. This value in our example is 11.76%. This value or percent explains the extent of risk to patients exposed, compared with the non-exposed.

The statistical tests that can be used for ascertain an association depends upon the variable characteristics also. If the researcher wants to find the association between two categorical variables (e.g., a positive versus negative test result and disease state expressed as present or absent), Cochran-Armitage test, which is same as Pearson Chi-squared test can be used. When the objective is to find the association between two interval or ratio level (continuous) variables, correlation and regression analysis can be performed. In order to evaluate statistical significant difference between the means of cases and control, a test of group difference can be performed. If the researcher wants to find statically significant difference among means of more than two groups, analysis of variance can be performed. A detailed explanation and how to calculate various statistical tests will be published in later issues. The success of the research directly and indirectly depends on how the following biases or systematic errors, are controlled.

When selecting cases and controls, based on exposed or not-exposed factors, the ability of subjects to recall information on exposure is collected retrospectively and often forms the basis for recall bias. Recall bias is a methodological issue. Problems of recall method are: Limitations in human ability to recall and cases may remember their exposure with more accuracy than the controls. Other possible bias is the selection bias. In case-control studies, the cases and controls are selected from the same inherited characteristics. For instance, cases collected from referral clinics often exposed to selection bias cases. If selection bias is not controlled, the findings of association, most likely may be due to of chance resulting from the study design. Another possible bias is information bias, which arises because of misclassification of the level of exposure or misclassification of disease or other symptoms of outcome itself.

Case control studies are good for studying rare diseases, but they are not generally used to study rare exposures. As Kaelin and Bayona explains[ 6 ] if a researcher want to study the risk of asthma from working in a nuclear submarine shipyard, a case control study may not be a best option because a very small proportion of people with asthma might be exposed. Similarly, case-control studies cannot be the best option to study multiple diseases or conditions because the selection of the control group may not be comparable for multiple disease or conditions selected. The major advantage of case-control study is that they are small and retrospective and so they are economical than cohort studies and randomized controlled trials.

Source of Support: Nil

Conflict of Interest: Nil

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  • Roberta Heale 1 ,
  • Alison Twycross 2
  • 1 School of Nursing , Laurentian University , Sudbury , Ontario , Canada
  • 2 School of Health and Social Care , London South Bank University , London , UK
  • Correspondence to Dr Roberta Heale, School of Nursing, Laurentian University, Sudbury, ON P3E2C6, Canada; rheale{at}laurentian.ca

https://doi.org/10.1136/eb-2017-102845

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What is it?

Case study is a research methodology, typically seen in social and life sciences. There is no one definition of case study research. 1 However, very simply… ‘a case study can be defined as an intensive study about a person, a group of people or a unit, which is aimed to generalize over several units’. 1 A case study has also been described as an intensive, systematic investigation of a single individual, group, community or some other unit in which the researcher examines in-depth data relating to several variables. 2

Often there are several similar cases to consider such as educational or social service programmes that are delivered from a number of locations. Although similar, they are complex and have unique features. In these circumstances, the evaluation of several, similar cases will provide a better answer to a research question than if only one case is examined, hence the multiple-case study. Stake asserts that the cases are grouped and viewed as one entity, called the quintain . 6  ‘We study what is similar and different about the cases to understand the quintain better’. 6

The steps when using case study methodology are the same as for other types of research. 6 The first step is defining the single case or identifying a group of similar cases that can then be incorporated into a multiple-case study. A search to determine what is known about the case(s) is typically conducted. This may include a review of the literature, grey literature, media, reports and more, which serves to establish a basic understanding of the cases and informs the development of research questions. Data in case studies are often, but not exclusively, qualitative in nature. In multiple-case studies, analysis within cases and across cases is conducted. Themes arise from the analyses and assertions about the cases as a whole, or the quintain, emerge. 6

Benefits and limitations of case studies

If a researcher wants to study a specific phenomenon arising from a particular entity, then a single-case study is warranted and will allow for a in-depth understanding of the single phenomenon and, as discussed above, would involve collecting several different types of data. This is illustrated in example 1 below.

Using a multiple-case research study allows for a more in-depth understanding of the cases as a unit, through comparison of similarities and differences of the individual cases embedded within the quintain. Evidence arising from multiple-case studies is often stronger and more reliable than from single-case research. Multiple-case studies allow for more comprehensive exploration of research questions and theory development. 6

Despite the advantages of case studies, there are limitations. The sheer volume of data is difficult to organise and data analysis and integration strategies need to be carefully thought through. There is also sometimes a temptation to veer away from the research focus. 2 Reporting of findings from multiple-case research studies is also challenging at times, 1 particularly in relation to the word limits for some journal papers.

Examples of case studies

Example 1: nurses’ paediatric pain management practices.

One of the authors of this paper (AT) has used a case study approach to explore nurses’ paediatric pain management practices. This involved collecting several datasets:

Observational data to gain a picture about actual pain management practices.

Questionnaire data about nurses’ knowledge about paediatric pain management practices and how well they felt they managed pain in children.

Questionnaire data about how critical nurses perceived pain management tasks to be.

These datasets were analysed separately and then compared 7–9 and demonstrated that nurses’ level of theoretical did not impact on the quality of their pain management practices. 7 Nor did individual nurse’s perceptions of how critical a task was effect the likelihood of them carrying out this task in practice. 8 There was also a difference in self-reported and observed practices 9 ; actual (observed) practices did not confirm to best practice guidelines, whereas self-reported practices tended to.

Example 2: quality of care for complex patients at Nurse Practitioner-Led Clinics (NPLCs)

The other author of this paper (RH) has conducted a multiple-case study to determine the quality of care for patients with complex clinical presentations in NPLCs in Ontario, Canada. 10 Five NPLCs served as individual cases that, together, represented the quatrain. Three types of data were collected including:

Review of documentation related to the NPLC model (media, annual reports, research articles, grey literature and regulatory legislation).

Interviews with nurse practitioners (NPs) practising at the five NPLCs to determine their perceptions of the impact of the NPLC model on the quality of care provided to patients with multimorbidity.

Chart audits conducted at the five NPLCs to determine the extent to which evidence-based guidelines were followed for patients with diabetes and at least one other chronic condition.

The three sources of data collected from the five NPLCs were analysed and themes arose related to the quality of care for complex patients at NPLCs. The multiple-case study confirmed that nurse practitioners are the primary care providers at the NPLCs, and this positively impacts the quality of care for patients with multimorbidity. Healthcare policy, such as lack of an increase in salary for NPs for 10 years, has resulted in issues in recruitment and retention of NPs at NPLCs. This, along with insufficient resources in the communities where NPLCs are located and high patient vulnerability at NPLCs, have a negative impact on the quality of care. 10

These examples illustrate how collecting data about a single case or multiple cases helps us to better understand the phenomenon in question. Case study methodology serves to provide a framework for evaluation and analysis of complex issues. It shines a light on the holistic nature of nursing practice and offers a perspective that informs improved patient care.

  • Gustafsson J
  • Calanzaro M
  • Sandelowski M

Competing interests None declared.

Provenance and peer review Commissioned; internally peer reviewed.

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Vorstellungsgespräch Controlling, Case Study?

Hallo Community,

ich als nicht BWLer habe bald mein erstes Vorstellungsgespräch für eine Junior Controlling Stelle.

Da mir das komplette Controllingwissen fehlt, bereite ich mich schon intensivst vor aber ich würde gerne von euch Controllern wissen, was für Fachfragen euch zum Einstieg im Vorstellungsgespräch gestellt worden sind?

Kann auch eine Fallstudie drankommen?

Vielen Dank für Eure Hilfe Leute

Re: Vorstellungsgespräch Controlling, Case Study?

würde ich auch gerne mal wissen

Wieso bewirbt man sich auf eine Stelle, obwohl man Null Ahnung hat?

Zum Thema: Ich lege ganz gerne eine GuV und DB-Rechnung vor und Frage einiges zu deren Interpretation. Das sind die Grundlagen, wo auch ein Einsteiger zumindest eine Vorstellung haben muss. Dazu ein paar Fachfragen zu Controllingthemen (evtl. auch mit der gezeigten GuV und DB-Rechnung verbunden, z.B. wie würde sich eine bestimmte Kennzahl entwickeln, wenn ich in der GuV an Position XY drehe, was sind aufgrund der DB-Rechnung wichtige Steuerungsgrößen des Unternehmens, usw.) sowie Verhaltensfragen (wie würden sie sich in Situation XY verhalten?). Evtl. lasse ich auch ein paar Excel-Probleme lösen, wobei ich davon etwas abgekommen bin, da das eh kein Absolvent zufriedenstellend beherrscht und es eher immer eine etwas peinliche Situation wird.

Bilanz, paar Buchungssätze, Cashflow, Rückstellungen, etc.

Beim Einstieg wird nie viel gefragt

Ich hatte einige Vorstellungsgespräche im Controlling (allerdings für Praktika) und habe die Erfahrung gemacht, dass dies wohl Branchenabhängig ist. Bei Automotive hatte ich keine einzige Case Study, dafür 2 mal im FMCG (Unilever, L'oreal - Beiersdorf allerdings nicht).

Case Study war bei mir meinst ne excel tabelle mit Daten und redet man bisschen drüber, vllt noch paar kennzahlen berechnen (DB, Marge o.ä.). Aber nicht wildes und ich würde auch idR keine Fachfragen zu Rückstellung u.ä. erwarten.

Kann man nie genau sagen. Mal kommen keine Fachfragen vor mal doch

push wie siehts mit case studies zum controlling in der Pharmabranche aus?

WiWi Gast schrieb am 24.09.2020:

Case studies sind allein abhängig vom Unternehmen und vom Gesprächspartner

Case Studys sehr unwahrscheinlich im Controlling. Excel sollte sitzen, sprich: Ich habe Problem X, wie könnte das in Excel umgesetzt werden?

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ESMT: Urs Müller ist bester Fallstudien-Lehrer 2020

Urs Müller von der ESMT Berlin ist Gewinner im internationalen Fallstudie-Wettbewerb „Outstanding Case Teacher 2020“.

The Case Centre hat Urs Müller, Affiliate Program Director der ESMT Berlin und Associate Professor der SDA Bocconi, am heutigen World Case Teaching Day als besten Fallstudien-Lehrer 2020 ausgezeichnet.

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»Mathemakustik« ist ein akustischer Kopfrechnen-Trainer, der zur Vorbereitung auf Einstellungstests, Assessment Center und Case Study Interviews dient. WiWi-TReFF Leser erhalten die unbefristete Vollversion von Mathemakustik bis zum 30. August 2015 gratis.

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case study controlling beispiel

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Tipps zum Telefoninterview – was jeder wissen sollte

Telefoninterview - Eine geschminkte Frau mit schwarzer Mütze hält sich ein Handy ans Ohr.

Das Telefoninterview gehört bei vielen Unternehmen zum Vorauswahlprozess für das Vorstellungsgespräch. Innerhalb von 20 bis 60 Minuten müssen Bewerberinnen und Bewerber dabei überzeugen, um zum persönlichen Interview eingeladen zu werden. Das Telefoninterview sollte nicht unterschätzt werden. Die kurze, wertvolle Zeit gilt es zu nutzen, um die eigene Qualifikation und Motivation für das Praktikum oder den Job zu signalisieren.

Das Selbstbewusstsein im Vorstellungsgespräch stärken

Wie zeigt man Selbstbewusstsein im Vorstellungsgespräch?

Im Vorstellungsgespräch souverän und selbstbewusst aufzutreten, ist der Wunsch eines jeden Bewerbers. Die eigenen Fähigkeiten authentisch zu präsentieren, ist essentiell, wenn es um den Start ins Berufsleben oder einen wichtigen Karriereschritt geht. Deshalb lohnt es sich herauszufinden, wie sich das Selbstbewusstsein trainieren lässt.

Vorstellungsgespräch per Videointerview

Ein Bewerber im Anzug mit Krawatte an einem Notebook beim Videointerview.

Drei von vier Unternehmen führen aktuell digitale Bewerbungsgespräche per Videointerview. Kommt es zu einem Bewerbungsgespräch per Videokonferenz, ist Microsoft Teams das meist genutzte Tool. Sechs von zehn Unternehmen setzen auf diese Software. Vier von zehn nutzen Skype und jedes Dritte verwendet Zoom für die Videointerviews.

Bewerbungsgespräch: Künstliche Intelligenz analysiert angehende Führungskräfte

Thomas Belker, Vorstandssprecher Talanx Service AG

Thomas Belker, Vorstandssprecher der Talanx Service AG, sprach im Interview mit dem Tagesspiegel über Precire – einer Software, die in zehn Minuten die Persönlichkeit eines Bewerbers durchanalysiert. Der Algorithmus kann 42 Dimensionen einer Persönlichkeit messen. Talanx nutzt die Software, um Bewerber für den Vorstand und die beiden Führungsebenen darunter auszuwählen, sowie für die Weiterentwicklung des Top-Managements.

Das Vorstellungsgespräch 11 - Das passende Outfit

Kleider machen Leute. Dies gilt besonders im Bewerbungsinterview: Mit dem geeigneten Outfit hat man bessere Karten.

Körpersprache: Die 10 größten Fehler im Vorstellungsgesprächen

case study controlling beispiel

Gut ein Drittel der Arbeitgeber erkennen innerhalb der ersten fünf Minuten, ob ein Kandidat gut in ihr Unternehmen passt. 75 Prozent geben an, dass mangelnder Augenkontakt, ein zu ernster Blick und nervöses Zappeln zu den häufigsten Fehlern im Hinblick auf die Körpersprache gehören.

Vorstellungsgespräch: Bewerber reden zu wenig über sich selbst

Drei Frauen sitzen sich im Gespräch gegenüber.

Im Bewerbungsgespräch gilt es, den Personalentscheider von sich als idealem Kandidaten zu überzeugen. Jedoch begehen viele Bewerber den Fehler, im Vorstellungsgespräch zu wenig über die eigenen Kompetenzen und Erfahrungen zu sprechen. Das zeigt die aktuelle Studie des Personaldienstleisters Robert Half unter 200 HR-Managern in Deutschland.

Social Media im Bewerbungsgespräch weiterhin kein Thema

case study controlling beispiel

Persönliche Inhalte aus sozialen Netzwerken spielen im Bewerbungsgespräch keine Rolle. Das ist das Ergebnis einer aktuellen StepStone Umfrage unter 1.595 Fach- und Führungskräften.

Keine Fahrtkostenerstattung bei Verspätung zum Vorstellungsgespräch

Bahnschienen mit weitem Blick und einer heranfahrenden Eisenbahn.

Das Landesarbeitsgericht Rheinland-Pfalz hat entschieden, dass Bewerber bei einem verspäteten Erscheinen oder Nichterscheinen keinen Anspruch auf eine Erstattung der Fahrtkosten hat.

Personaler schätzen ehrliches Auftreten

Portrait-Ausschnitt von Kravatte und Schulterbereich eines Business-Anzugs im Schaufenster eines Herrenausstatters in London..

Bewerbungen vermitteln nicht immer ein objektives Bild ihres Autors. Bereits jeder dritte Personalmanager (30 Prozent) beklagt sich, dass Kandidaten falsche Angaben zu ihren bisherigen Tätigkeiten machen.

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Hertz CEO Kathryn Marinello with CFO Jamere Jackson and other members of the executive team in 2017

Top 40 Most Popular Case Studies of 2021

Two cases about Hertz claimed top spots in 2021's Top 40 Most Popular Case Studies

Two cases on the uses of debt and equity at Hertz claimed top spots in the CRDT’s (Case Research and Development Team) 2021 top 40 review of cases.

Hertz (A) took the top spot. The case details the financial structure of the rental car company through the end of 2019. Hertz (B), which ranked third in CRDT’s list, describes the company’s struggles during the early part of the COVID pandemic and its eventual need to enter Chapter 11 bankruptcy. 

The success of the Hertz cases was unprecedented for the top 40 list. Usually, cases take a number of years to gain popularity, but the Hertz cases claimed top spots in their first year of release. Hertz (A) also became the first ‘cooked’ case to top the annual review, as all of the other winners had been web-based ‘raw’ cases.

Besides introducing students to the complicated financing required to maintain an enormous fleet of cars, the Hertz cases also expanded the diversity of case protagonists. Kathyrn Marinello was the CEO of Hertz during this period and the CFO, Jamere Jackson is black.

Sandwiched between the two Hertz cases, Coffee 2016, a perennial best seller, finished second. “Glory, Glory, Man United!” a case about an English football team’s IPO made a surprise move to number four.  Cases on search fund boards, the future of malls,  Norway’s Sovereign Wealth fund, Prodigy Finance, the Mayo Clinic, and Cadbury rounded out the top ten.

Other year-end data for 2021 showed:

  • Online “raw” case usage remained steady as compared to 2020 with over 35K users from 170 countries and all 50 U.S. states interacting with 196 cases.
  • Fifty four percent of raw case users came from outside the U.S..
  • The Yale School of Management (SOM) case study directory pages received over 160K page views from 177 countries with approximately a third originating in India followed by the U.S. and the Philippines.
  • Twenty-six of the cases in the list are raw cases.
  • A third of the cases feature a woman protagonist.
  • Orders for Yale SOM case studies increased by almost 50% compared to 2020.
  • The top 40 cases were supervised by 19 different Yale SOM faculty members, several supervising multiple cases.

CRDT compiled the Top 40 list by combining data from its case store, Google Analytics, and other measures of interest and adoption.

All of this year’s Top 40 cases are available for purchase from the Yale Management Media store .

And the Top 40 cases studies of 2021 are:

1.   Hertz Global Holdings (A): Uses of Debt and Equity

2.   Coffee 2016

3.   Hertz Global Holdings (B): Uses of Debt and Equity 2020

4.   Glory, Glory Man United!

5.   Search Fund Company Boards: How CEOs Can Build Boards to Help Them Thrive

6.   The Future of Malls: Was Decline Inevitable?

7.   Strategy for Norway's Pension Fund Global

8.   Prodigy Finance

9.   Design at Mayo

10. Cadbury

11. City Hospital Emergency Room

13. Volkswagen

14. Marina Bay Sands

15. Shake Shack IPO

16. Mastercard

17. Netflix

18. Ant Financial

19. AXA: Creating the New CR Metrics

20. IBM Corporate Service Corps

21. Business Leadership in South Africa's 1994 Reforms

22. Alternative Meat Industry

23. Children's Premier

24. Khalil Tawil and Umi (A)

25. Palm Oil 2016

26. Teach For All: Designing a Global Network

27. What's Next? Search Fund Entrepreneurs Reflect on Life After Exit

28. Searching for a Search Fund Structure: A Student Takes a Tour of Various Options

30. Project Sammaan

31. Commonfund ESG

32. Polaroid

33. Connecticut Green Bank 2018: After the Raid

34. FieldFresh Foods

35. The Alibaba Group

36. 360 State Street: Real Options

37. Herman Miller

38. AgBiome

39. Nathan Cummings Foundation

40. Toyota 2010

CBSE Class 12 Case Studies In Business Studies – Controlling

CONTROLLING Controlling: Definition Controlling means ensuring that activities in an organisation are performed as per the plans.

Importance of Controlling

  • It helps in accomplishing organisational goals by constantly monitoring the performance of the employees and bringing to light the deviations, if any, and taking appropriate corrective action.
  • It helps the business managers to judge the objectivity and accuracy of the standards.
  • It seeks to make efficient use of resources.
  • It seeks to motivate the employees and helps them in giving a better performance.
  • It creates an atmosphere of order and discipline in the organisation.
  • It facilitates coordination in action by providing direction to all activities within and among departments.

Features of Controlling

  • It is a goal-oriented function.
  • It is a pervasive function as it is used in the organisations of varying types and sizes.
  • It is considered to be a forward looking function as it helps to improve the planning by providing valuable feedback for reviewing and revising the standards.
  • It is considered to be a backward looking function as it is like the post mortem of the past activities to ascertain the deviations if any.
  • It is not the last function of management as it brings the management cycle back to the planning function.

Steps Involved in the Controlling Process

  • Setting performance standards in clear, specific and measurable terms.
  • Measurement of actual performance as far as possible in the same units in which standards are set.
  • Comparing actual performance with standards to identify deviations if any.
  • Analysing deviations through critical point control and management by exception approaches to identify the causes for their occurrence.
  • Taking corrective action whenever the deviation occurs beyond the permissible limits so that it does not reoccur in future.

Relationship between Planning and Controlling

  • Planning without controlling is useless and controlling without planning is blind.
  • Planning provides the basis of controlling by setting the standards in advance. In the absence of these standards, managers will not know what all activities have to be controlled.
  • Planning is prescriptive in nature whereas, controlling is evaluative.
  • Thus, planning and controlling are interrelated and interdependent. As planning is based on facts, it makes controlling easier and effective whereas controlling helps to improve future planning by providing valuable information derived from the past experiences.

LATEST CBSE QUESTIONS

Question 1. Hina Sweets is a renowned name for quality sweets since 1935. Harsh the owner of Hina Sweets was worried as the sales had declined during the last three months. When he enquired from the Sales Manager, the Sales Manager reported that there were some complaints about the quality of sweets. Therefore Harsh ordered for sample checking of sweets. Identify the step taken by Harsh that is related to one of the functions of management. (CBSE, Delhi 2017) Answer: Measurement of actual performance is the step in controlling process being described.

Question 2. State the steps in the process of controlling. (CBSE, Delhi 2017) Answer: The various steps involved in the controlling process are described below:

  • Setting performance standards: The first step in the controlling process involves setting standards in clear, specific and measurable terms. Standards can be set in both quantitative as well as qualitative terms. It is important that standards should be flexible enough to be modified with the changes taking place in the internal and external business environment.
  • Measurement of actual performance: The next step relates to the measurement of actual performance. Performance should be measured in an objective and reliable manner. As far as possible, performance should be measured in the same units in which standards are set as this would make their comparison easier. Depending upon the nature of work various techniques for measurement of performance like personal observation, sample checking, performance reports, etc. may be used.
  • Comparison of actual performance with standards: This step involves comparison of actual performance with the standard. Such comparison will reveal the deviation and noting deviations if any. If the actual performance is more than planned performance deviations are said to be positive or vice-versa.
  • Critical point control: All the deviations may not be significant. Moreover, it may not be either economical nor easy to monitor each and every activity in the organisation. Therefore, every organisation identifies and states its specific key result areas (KRAs) or critical points which require tight control are likely to have a significant effect on the working of the business. Any deviations on these points are attended to urgently by the management. Like if the expenditure on refreshment of workers goes up by 10% it can be ignored but if the production cost goes up by 5% it may call for managerial action.
  • Management by exception: Management by exception is the principle of management control which is based on the belief that if you try to control everything, you may end up controlling nothing. Therefore, only significant deviations which go beyond the permissible limits should be brought to the notice of the management. Like the output defects upto 2% may be considered acceptable but if goes up by 5% it may call for managerial action.
  • Taking corrective action: This is the final step involved in the controlling process. When the deviations are within acceptable limits no corrective action is required. However, when the deviations go beyond the acceptable range, especially in the important areas, it demands immediate managerial attention so that deviations do not occur again and standards are accomplished. Corrective action might involve training of employees, buying new machinery, increasing supervision and so on.
  • Planning is based on facts and makes controlling process easier and adds to the effectiveness.
  • Controlling also adds to the effectiveness of planning process by providing valuable feedback based on past experiences.

Question 4. State any five points that highlight the importance of ‘controlling’ function of management. (CBSE, Delhi 2017) Answer: The importance of controlling function of management is described below:

  • Accomplishing organisational goals: The controlling function facilitates constant monitoring of the actual performance in comparison to the predetermined standards and brings to light the deviations, if any, and indicates corrective action. All these activities ensure that organisational goals are realised efficiently and effectively.
  • Judging accuracy of standards: A good control system enables management to verify whether the standards set are accurate and objective. Moreover, helps to review and revise the standards in light of changes taking place in the organisation or business environment in general.
  • Making efficient use of resources: By implementing a good control system a manager seeks to reduce wastage and spoilage of resources. This is because each activity is performed in accordance with predetermined standards and norms rather than hit and trial method.
  • Improving employee motivation: An effective control system seeks to provide motivation to the employees as they are made aware well in advance what they are expected to do and what are the standards of performance on the basis of which they will be appraised. This approach helps them to give better performance.
  • Ensuring order and discipline: A constant check on the behaviour and work of the employees leads to creation of an atmosphere of order and discipline in the organisation.

Question 5. How does controlling help in “Judging accuracy of standards” and “Ensuring order and discipline” ? (CBSE, Sample Paper, 2017) Answer: Controlling helps in “Judging accuracy of standards” and “Ensuring order and discipline” as explained below:

  • Judging accuracy of standards: An efficient control system enables management to determine weather the standards set are accurate and objective. This is because it helps to helps to review and revise the standards in light the changes taking place in the organisation and in the environment.
  • Ensuring order and discipline: Controlling helps to minimise dishonest behaviour on the part of the employees by keeping a close check on their activities. Thus, it creates an atmosphere of order and discipline in the organisation.

Question 6. ‘If anything goes wrong with the performance of key activities, the entire organisation suffers. Therefore, the organisation should focus on them.’ Explain the statement with a suitable example. (CBSE, Sample Paper 2015-16) Answer: The given statement refers to the importance of ‘Critical Point Control’ in order to ensure effective performance of key activities in an organisation. Critical Point Control: It may not be either economical nor easy to monitor each and every activity in the organisation. Therefore, every organisation identifies and states its specific Key Result Areas (KRAs) or critical points which require tight control and are likely to have a significant effect on the working of the business. Any deviations on these points are attended to urgently by the management. For example, if in an organisation, the expenditure on stationery goes up by 10%, it can be ignored but if the production cost goes up by 5%, it may call for managerial action.

Question 7. Mr. Nath, a recently appointed production manager of Suntech Ltd., has decided to produce jute bags instead of plastic bags as these are banned by the government. He set a target of producing 1000 jute bags a day. It was reported that the employees were not able to achieve the target. After analysis, he found that employees were demotivated and not putting in their best for achieving the target. Mr. Nath’s behaviour is good towards the employees. His attitude is always positive. So, he announced various incentive schemes for the employees like:

  • Installing awards or certificates for best performance
  • Rewarding an employee for giving valuable suggestions
  • Identify the functions of management highlighted in the above paragraph.
  • State the incentive under which the employee are motivated.
  • State any two values which the production manager wants to communicate to society by his work and behaviour. (CBSE, Sample Paper 2015)
  • The functions of management highlighted in the above paragraph are Controlling and Directing.
  • The employees are motivated under Employee recognition programmes which is a non-financial incentive. Employee recognition programmes helps to fulfill the need of due consideration and appreciation of the people working in an organisation. It boosts their self-esteem and motivates them to work with greater zeal and enthusiasm.
  • Respect for employees
  • Concern for environment

Question 8. A company was manufacturing LED bulbs which were in great demand. It was found that the target of producing 300 bulbs a day was not met by the employees. On analysis, it was found that the workers were not at fault. Due to electricity failure and shortage of workers, the company was not able to achieve the set targets and alternative arrangements were needed. To meet the increased demand, the company assessed that approximately 88 additional workers were required out of which 8 would work as heads of different departments and 10 would work as subordinates under each head. The required qualifications and job specifications were also enlisted. It was also decided that necessary relaxations should be given to encourage women, people from backward and rural areas and people with special abilities to assume responsible positions in the organisations. All efforts were made to match the ability of the applicants with the nature of work.

  • Identify the functions of management discussed above.
  • State the two steps in the process of each function discussed in the above paragraph.
  • List any two values which the company wants to communicate to the society. (CBSE, Delhi 2015)
  • The functions of management discussed above are Staffing and Controlling.
  • Estimating manpower requirements: The manpower requirements of an organisation are estimated through workload analysis and workforce analysis. The workload analysis helps to determine the number and type of human resource required in the organisation to meet its present and future needs. Whereas workforce analysis seeks to determine the number and type of human resource available within the organisation.
  • Recruitment: The process of recruitment involves searching for the prospective candidates and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organisation. There are two sources of recruitment namely, internal and external. The two steps involved in controlling function are as follows:
  • Comparing actual performance with standards to identify deviations if any. “It was found that the target of producing 300 bulbs a day was not met by the employees.”
  • Analysing deviations through critical point control and management by exception approach to identify the causes for their occurrence. “On analysis, it was found that the workers were not at fault. Due to electricity failure and shortage of workers, the company was not able to achieve the set targets and alternative arrangements were needed.”
  • Taking corrective action, if required “To meet the increased demand, the company assessed that approximately … as subordinate under each head.”
  • Women empowerment

Question 9. ‘AS Ltd.’ is a large company engaged in assembling of air-conditioners. Recently the company had conducted the ‘Time’ and ‘Motion’ study and concluded that on an average, a worker can assemble ten air-conditioners in a day. The target volume of the company in a day is assembling of 1,000 units of air-conditioners. The company is providing attractive allowances to reduce labour turnover and absenteeism. All the workers are happy. Even then the assembling of air-conditioners per day is 800 units only. To find out the reason, the company compared actual performance of each worker and observed through CCTV that some of the workers were busy in gossiping.

  • Identify the function of management discussed above.
  • State the steps in the process of the function identified which are discussed in the above paragraph. (CBSE, 2015)
  • The function of management discussed above is Controlling.
  • Setting standards of performance: “concluded that on an average, a worker can assemble ten air-conditioners in a day.” “The target volume of the company in a day is assembling of 1,000 units of air-conditioners.”
  • Measurement of actual performance: ” Even then the assembling of air-conditioners per day is 800 units only.”
  • Comparison of actual performance with the standards: The company compared actual performance of the workers with the planned performance and noted deviation of 200 units.
  • Analysing deviations: “To find out the reason, the company compared the actual performance of each worker and observed through CCTV that some of the workers were busy in gossiping.”

Question 10. PQR Ltd. is engaged in manufacturing machine components. The target production is 200 units per day. The company had been successfully attaining this target until two months ago. Over the last two months, it has been observed that daily production varies between 150-170 units.

  • Identify the management function to rectify the above situation.
  • Briefly state the procedure to be followed so that the actual production may come up to the target production. (CBSE, Delhi 2010)
  • The controlling function of management is needed to rectify the above situation.
  • Providing training to workers if the workers are not well versed with the production process.
  • Improving the work environment if it is not conducive to efficient working.
  • Ensuring timely availability of the raw materials and other equipments if they are not made available on time.
  • Replacing the machinery if it is defective or has become obsolete.

Question 11. Rajeev and Sanjeev are managers in the same organisation heading different units. While discussing about the functions of management, Rajeev says that ‘Planning is looking ahead whereas controlling is looking back.’ But Sanjeev says, ‘You are wrong because planning is looking back whereas controlling is looking ahead.’ Both are giving reasons in favour of their statements. Explain the possible reasons given by both and justify who is correct. (CBSE, 2009) Answer: Both Rajeev and Sanjeev are correct in their statements as explained below:

  • Planning is considered as a forward looking function by Rajeev as plans are made for future.
  • Planning may be considered as a backward looking function by Sanjeev because the quality of planning can be improved with the help of valuable information provided by controlling in terms of results achieved.
  • Controlling is considered as a backward looking function by Rajeev as it is like the post mortem of the past activities to ascertain the deviations if any.
  • Controlling is considered as a forward looking function by Sanjeev as it helps to improve the future performance by providing guidance for taking corrective action so that deviations do not reoccur in future.

Question 12. Kapil & Co. is a large manufacturing unit. Recently the company had conducted time and motion studies and concluded that on an average, a worker could produce 300 units per day. However, it has been noticed that the average daily production per worker is in the range of 200-225 units.

  • Name the function of management and identify the steps in the process of this function which helped in finding out that the actual production of a worker is less than the set target.
  • To complete the process of the function identified in (1) and to ensure the performance as per time and motion studies, explain what further steps a manager has to take? (CBSE, 2010)
  • Setting performance standards in clear, specific and measurable terms. “Recently the company had conducted time and motion studies and concluded that on an average, a worker could produce 300 units per day.”
  • Measurement of actual performance as far as possible in the same units in which standards are set. “It has been noticed that the average daily production per worker is in the range of 200-225 units”.
  • Comparing actual performance with standards to identify deviations if any. In the given case there is a deviation in output in the range of 25-50 units per worker.
  • The workers are not well versed with the production process.
  • The working environment is not conducive to efficient working.
  • The raw materials and other equipment are not available on time.
  • Taking corrective action: The deviations require immediate management attention so that they do not reoccur in future. Therefore, the manager should take appropriate corrective action after analyzing the situation like providing training to workers, improving the work environment, and ensuring timely availability of the raw materials and other equipment.

Question 13. K&K Co. Ltd. is engaged in manufacturing of machine components. The target of production is 200 units daily. The company had been successfully attaining this target until two months ago. Over the last two months it has been observed that daily production varies between 150-170 units. Identify the possible causes for the decline in production and the steps to be taken to achieve the desire targets. (CBSE, 2008) Answer: The possible causes for decline in production are listed below:

  • The machinery is defective or has become obsolete.

The deviations require immediate management attention so that- they do not reoccur in future. Therefore, the manager should take appropriate corrective action after analyzing the situation like providing training to workers, improving the work environment, ensuring timely availability of the raw materials and other equipment or replacing the machinery.

ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS

Question 1. ‘Taste Buds Ltd.’ is a company known for manufacturing good quality confectionery products. The automated system of production ensures uniformity in production and quality maintenance. The quality assurance team conducts stringent checks at all stages, records and analyses the deviations and takes the necessary corrective actions right from the procurement of raw material to its processing, production and packaging. The company has a well-equipped in¬house quality inspection cell where confectionery products are tested on various parameters of quality by the team of experienced quality staff. In context of the above case:

  • Identify and explain the function of management being performed by the quality assurance team of ‘Taste Buds Ltd.’
  • Explain the statement, “records and analyses the deviations and takes the necessary corrective actions”.
  • Controlling is the function of management being performed by the quality assurance team of ‘Taste Buds Ltd.’ Controlling is the process of ensuring that events conform to plans.
  • Comparing the actual performance with the standards: The actual performance is compared with the standards and deviations, if any, are recorded.
  • Critical point control: All the deviations may not be significant. Moreover, it may not be either economical nor easy to monitor each and every activity in the organisation. Therefore, every organisation identifies and states its specific key result areas (KRAs) or critical points which require tight control as they are likely to have a significant effect on the working of the business. Any deviations on these points are attended to urgently by the management. Like in the above case, if the expenditure on refreshment of workers goes up by 10% it can be ignored but if the production cost goes up by 5% it may call for managerial action.
  • Management by exception: Management by exception is the principle of manage¬ment control which is based on the belief that if you try to control everything, you may end up controlling nothing. Therefore, only significant deviations which go beyond the permissible limits should be brought to the notice of the management. Like in the above case, the output defects upto 2% may be considered acceptable but if it goes up by 5%, it may cal for managerial action.
  • Taking corrective action: The last step in controlling process involves taking corrective action whenever the deviation occurs beyond the permissible limits so that they do not reoccur in future. However, the standards may be revised if it is not possible to check deviations through corrective action.

Question 2. Anubhav has set up an export house after completing his masters in fashion designing. As the quality of the garment depends on the quality of raw material used, he assures that the fabric meets the requirements by conducting a series of tests for the fabrics like shrinkage test, testing colour fastness to washing, colour fastness to light, colour fastness to perspiration etc through laboratory tests. Later on, at the production areas, fabric inspection is also conducted by stopping the production process. The tests help to detect the deviations and also take corrective action. Moreover, he ensures that complete training about production work was given to every worker at the time of joining his export house. In context of the above case:

  • Identify the function of management being performed by Anubhav by conducting tests to assure for the quality of the garments manufactured in his export house.
  • Briefly explain the term ‘deviations.’
  • Give any three advantages of giving training to the employees.
  • Controlling is the function of management being performed by Anubhav by conducting tests to assure for the quality of the garments manufactured in his export house.
  • The term ‘deviations’ refers to the difference between the actual performance and planned performance. If the actual performance is more than the planned performance, it may be said to be positive in nature or vice-versa.
  • Training imparts systematic learning to the employees thereby helping to avoid wastage of efforts and money and is considered better than the hit and trial method.
  • It increases the employees’ productivity both in terms of quantity and quality, leading to higher profits.
  • Training increases the morale of the employees and reduces absenteeism and employee turnover.

Question 3. Raghav started a take away eating joint in a nearby market. His business was doing well. He ensured that the food was properly cooked, a standard taste was maintained, packing of food was done effectively and the orders were executed on time. But unfortunately he met with an accident and was advised three months bed rest. In his absence, his cousin Rohit took charge of his business. When he resumed his work after three months, he realised that his clientele had dropped. The people were not happy with the services as the quality of food had deteriorated and the delivery time for orders had increased considerably. All this was happening because most of his previous staff had left as Rohit used to adopt a very strict and authoritative approach towards them. In context of the above case:

  • List any two aspects about his business that Raghav was controlling in order to make it successful.
  • Explain briefly any two points to highlight the importance of the controlling function.
  • Name and explain the style of leadership adopted by Rohit.
  • A standard taste was maintained.
  • The orders were executed on time.
  • Judging accuracy of standards: The controlling function helps the business managers to judge the objectivity and accuracy of the current standards. It also assists in reviewing and revising the standards keeping in view the forthcoming changes in both the internal and external environment of the business.
  • Improving employee motivation: The controlling function seeks to motivate the employees and helps them to give better performance. This is because it makes them aware well in advance about what they are expected to do and what the standards of performance are on the basis of which they will be judged.
  • Rohit had adopted an autocratic style of leadership. An autocratic leader expects strict compliance from his subordinates with regard to the orders and instructions given by him. Therefore, it involves only one-way communication.

Question 4. ‘Saurashtra’ is a company involved in the export of indigenous food products like chutneys and pickles. It has tied up with the small farmers in various states for sourcing of fruits and vegetables. In this way it helps the small farmers to sell their produce at reasonable rates. The company follows a practice where only significant deviations from a budget or plan are brought to the attention of management. The degree of deviations allowed in different categories in the budget are well defined in advance, along with the appropriate levels of management who will respond to the deviations in question. For example, a deviation of Rs. 20,000 or more in purchase costs will be reported to the concerned department manager. In context of the above case:

  • Identify the principle of management control adopted by the company. State the belief underlying this principle.
  • List any two values that the company wants to communicate to the society.
  • Management by exception is the principle of management control adopted by the company. It is based on the belief that ‘if you try to control everything, you may end up controlling nothing’.
  • Rural development
  • Sense of responsibility

Question 5. Shruti has established a small scale factory after completing a course in textile designing. She has tied up with the big home furnishing retail outlets in the city for supplying to them good quality designer home furnishing products like bed covers, cushions etc. She believes that controlling without planning is blind. So, every time she gets an order, she sets the standards in terms of the number of personnel required, the estimated requirements in man-hours per product, the requirements of direct materials for the projected production and the amount of normal overhead expenses required at the projected work-load. She also keeps a close watch on the activities so as to ensure that they conform to plans. Whenever the order size is too large, she hires extra workers by placing a notice on the notice-board of the factory specifying the details of the jobs available. In context of the above case:

  • Identify the functions of management being performed by Shruti.
  • Do you think Shruti is right in her thinking that, “controlling without planning is blind.” Explain by bringing out the relationship between planning and controlling.
  • Name the source of recruitment adopted by Shruti. Also, mention its type.
  • The functions of management being performed by Shruti are Controlling and Staffing.
  • Yes, Shruti is right in thinking that, ” controlling without planning is blind.” Planning provides the basis of controlling by setting the standards in advance. In the absence of these standards, managers will not know what all activities have to be controlled. Planning is prescriptive in nature whereas controlling is evaluative. Thus, planning and controlling are interrelated and interdependent as planning is based on facts and makes controlling easier and effective whereas controlling helps to improve future planning by providing valuable information derived from the past experiences.
  • The source of recruitment adopted by Shruti is Direct Recruitment. It is an external source of recruitment.

Question 6. Vishesh works as an interior designer. He gets a contract to redesign a play school. He employs three painters on the site assuming that an average painter will be able to paint 10 desks in a day. At the end of the first day of their work, Vishesh finds that the painter A, painter B and painter C have painted 12, 14 and 15 desks respectively. On comparing the actual performance with the planned performance, he realises that the standard set by him is too low. Consequently, he decides to review and revise the standard and raise it. In context of the above case:

  • Identify the function of management being performed by Vishesh.
  • “Planning and controlling are both backward looking as well as forward looking functions.” Explain the statement with reference to the above paragraph.
  • Controlling is the function of management being performed by Vishesh.
  • It is appropriate to say that, “Planning and controlling are both backward looking as well as forward looking functions” as evident from the above case. Planning is considered as a forward looking function as plans are made for future. “assuming that an average painter will be able to paint 10 desks in a day.” Planning may be considered as a backward looking function because the quality of planning can be improved with the help of valuable information provided by controlling in terms of results achieved. “On comparing the actual performance with the planned performance, he realises that the standard set by him is too low.” Controlling is considered as a backward looking function as it is like the post mortem of the past activities to ascertain the deviations if any. “At the end of the first day of their work, Vishesh finds that the painter A, painter B and painter C have painted 12, 14 and 15 desks respectively.” Controlling is considered as a forward looking function as it helps to improve the future performance by providing guidance for taking corrective action so that deviations do not reoccur in future. “Consequently, he decides to review and revise the standard and raise it.

Question 7. A critical point control (CPC) approach is followed by McDonald in the cooking and handling process so that any food safety threat can be prevented, eliminated, or reduced to an acceptable level. Hence, continuous monitoring of activities are undertaken to ensure that the process is right at each critical point control. The main principle followed for cooking at McDonald is “less amount many time” which can ensure the high quality and high fresh level of the food. For instance, if four hamburgers have to be made, a worker cannot cook all the four hamburgers at one time. The time figured out for making one hamburger is one hundred and forty-five seconds. Moreover, nearly all foods in the McDonald have the specific holding time, the holding time for hamburgers is ten minutes and for french fries is seven minutes. If it is not sold within that time it is thrown away. Also, the temperature of the milk sent by the supplier must be under 4° C, otherwise, it will be returned. In context of the above case:

  • Name the steps involved in the controlling process which is being discussed in the above lines.
  • What do you understand by ‘critical point control’? Explain.
  • How does the controlling function of management help in accomplishing organisational .goals and ensure efficient use of resources?
  • Analysing deviation and taking corrective action are being discussed in the above lines.
  • Since it may neither be economical nor easy to monitor each and every activity in the organisation, therefore, every organisation identifies ar\d states its specific key result areas (KRAs) or critical points which require tight control are likely to have a significant effect on the working of the business. Any deviations on these points are attended to urgently by the management.
  • Accomplishing organisational goals: The controlling function helps in accomplishing organisational goals by constantly monitoring the performance of the employees and bringing to light the deviations, if any, and taking appropriate corrective action.
  • Making efficient use of resources: The controlling function enables the managers to work as per predetermined standards. This helps to avoid any ambiguity in business operations and reduce wastage and spoilage of resources in the organisation.

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COMMENTS

  1. What Is a Case-Control Study?

    Revised on June 22, 2023. A case-control study is an experimental design that compares a group of participants possessing a condition of interest to a very similar group lacking that condition. Here, the participants possessing the attribute of study, such as a disease, are called the "case," and those without it are the "control.".

  2. Case studies Übungen mit Lösungen

    Fachliche Verantwortung (Controlling → Fertigungscontrolling) - Neutralität. Disziplinarische Verantwortung (Bsp. Fertigung → Fertigungscontrolling) - Nähe zum Geschäft. Zielkonflikt im Fertigungscontrolling, durch Weisungsbindung an Controlling und Fertigung. Case study: Controlling organization at Schmitz GmbH (1 Case -Addition)

  3. PDF Fallbeispiele und Übungsaufgaben im Controlling

    Das Fach Controlling ist in Deutschland ausgehend von der Kostenrechnung in den 1980er Jahren in Abgrenzung zum amerikanischen Management Accounting entstanden. Einigkeit besteht in der wissenschaftlichen Diskussion darin, dass Control-ler Manager bzw. Entscheider unterstützen und aus diesem Zusammenspiel das Controlling ent-steht.

  4. PDF Controlling-Case Study: Zielgenaue Planung und Steuerung ...

    Controlling-Case Study: Zielgenaue Planung und Steuerung ermöglichen: Erfahrungen mit der Implementierung des Shareholder-Value-Ansatzes bei einem international tätigen Börsenunternehmen ... Ein Beispiel ist die Verlängerung der Handelszeiten für das Kassamarktsegment. Zum einen bedeuten die notwendigen Funktionalitäten

  5. Case Control Study: Definition, Benefits & Examples

    A case control study is a retrospective, observational study that compares two existing groups. Researchers form these groups based on the existence of a condition in the case group and the lack of that condition in the control group. They evaluate the differences in the histories between these two groups looking for factors that might cause a ...

  6. Case Control Studies

    A case-control study is a type of observational study commonly used to look at factors associated with diseases or outcomes.[1] The case-control study starts with a group of cases, which are the individuals who have the outcome of interest. The researcher then tries to construct a second group of individuals called the controls, who are similar to the case individuals but do not have the ...

  7. Methodology Series Module 2: Case-control Studies

    Abstract. Case-Control study design is a type of observational study. In this design, participants are selected for the study based on their outcome status. Thus, some participants have the outcome of interest (referred to as cases), whereas others do not have the outcome of interest (referred to as controls). The investigator then assesses the ...

  8. Case Control Study: Definition & Examples

    Examples. A case-control study is an observational study where researchers analyzed two groups of people (cases and controls) to look at factors associated with particular diseases or outcomes. Below are some examples of case-control studies: Investigating the impact of exposure to daylight on the health of office workers (Boubekri et al., 2014).

  9. Research Design: Case-Control Studies

    Characteristics of Case-Control Studies. How do case-control studies fit into classifications of research design described in an earlier article? 1 Case-control studies are empirical studies that are based on samples, not individual cases or case series. They are cross-sectional because cases and controls are identified and evaluated for caseness, historical exposures, and confounding ...

  10. Controlling Projects

    Abstract. Controlling projects is a necessity so that meaningful and timely information can be obtained to satisfy the needs of the project's stakeholders. This control process includes measuring resources consumed, measuring status and accomplishments, comparing measurements to projections and standards, and providing effective diagnosis and ...

  11. Case-control study

    A case-control study (also known as case-referent study) is a type of observational study in which two existing groups differing in outcome are identified and compared on the basis of some supposed causal attribute. Case-control studies are often used to identify factors that may contribute to a medical condition by comparing subjects who have the condition with patients who do not have ...

  12. Fallstudie Assessment-Center

    Fallstudie Assessment-Center - Beispiel mit Lösung. Von Püttjer - Schnierda. Wenn Führungskräfte in Assessment-Centern auf die Übung Fallstudie treffen, die alternativ auch Case Study oder Business Case genannt wird, geht es nicht um die eine, richtige Lösung. Viel wichtiger ist, dass AC-Kandidaten zeigen, dass sie. einen komplexen ...

  13. Case Study: Bedeutung, Beispiele, 6 Tipps zur Lösung

    Case Study Bedeutung. Der Begriff „Case Study" (Deutsch: „Fallstudie" oder „Planspiel") stammt ursprünglich aus der Wissenschaft und beschreibt dort zum Beispiel eine Forschungsmethode zur Bearbeitung eines Einzelfalls. Seine heutige Bedeutung hat der Case Study Test aber vor allem aus der Bewerberauswahl.Heißt: dem Einsatz im Assessment Center oder Vorstellungsgespräch.

  14. Case Studies in Accounting and Controlling

    Classification in the field. The practical seminar "Case Studies in Accounting and Controlling" is offered by the Chair of Accounting and Management Control together with EY Ernst & Young (in the winter semester) or with PricewaterhouseCoopers (in the summer semester) and gives students the opportunity to deal with case studies of practical ...

  15. 15+ Case Study Examples, Design Tips & Templates

    This means the normal rules of design apply. Use fonts, colors, and icons to create an interesting and visually appealing case study. In this case study example, we can see how multiple fonts have been used to help differentiate between the headers and content, as well as complementary colors and eye-catching icons.

  16. Case Control Studies

    A case-control study is a type of observational study commonly used to look at factors associated with diseases or outcomes. The case-control study starts with a group of cases, which are the individuals who have the outcome of interest. The researcher then tries to construct a second group of individuals called the controls, who are similar to ...

  17. Design and data analysis case-controlled study in clinical research

    Introduction. Clinicians think of case-control study when they want to ascertain association between one clinical condition and an exposure or when a researcher wants to compare patients with disease exposed to the risk factors to non-exposed control group. In other words, case-control study compares subjects who have disease or outcome (cases ...

  18. What is a case study?

    Case study is a research methodology, typically seen in social and life sciences. There is no one definition of case study research.1 However, very simply… 'a case study can be defined as an intensive study about a person, a group of people or a unit, which is aimed to generalize over several units'.1 A case study has also been described as an intensive, systematic investigation of a ...

  19. Case Studies

    Case Studies - Controlling. Course: Principles of management (Pom 4003) 23 Documents. Students shared 23 documents in this course. ... Case Studies - (Chapter - 8) Controlling, BST Class 12. Full Screen. Case Studies - (Chapter - 8) Controlling ...

  20. Vorstellungsgespräch Controlling, Case Study?

    Ich hatte einige Vorstellungsgespräche im Controlling (allerdings für Praktika) und habe die Erfahrung gemacht, dass dies wohl Branchenabhängig ist. Bei Automotive hatte ich keine einzige Case Study, dafür 2 mal im FMCG (Unilever, L'oreal - Beiersdorf allerdings nicht). Case Study war bei mir meinst ne excel tabelle mit Daten und redet man ...

  21. CBSE Class 12 Business Studies Case Studies

    CBSE Class 12 Business Studies Case Studies - Controlling. Controlling is the process of monitoring organisational performance, finding out deviations (or gaps in between the actual performance and the set standards), and taking corrective action in order to achieve organisational goals (as per set standards).

  22. Top 40 Most Popular Case Studies of 2021

    Orders for Yale SOM case studies increased by almost 50% compared to 2020. The top 40 cases were supervised by 19 different Yale SOM faculty members, several supervising multiple cases. CRDT compiled the Top 40 list by combining data from its case store, Google Analytics, and other measures of interest and adoption.

  23. CBSE Class 12 Case Studies In Business Studies

    Question 2. State the steps in the process of controlling. (CBSE, Delhi 2017) Answer: The various steps involved in the controlling process are described below: Setting performance standards: The first step in the controlling process involves setting standards in clear, specific and measurable terms. Standards can be set in both quantitative as ...