Civics Education

Recognizing innovative civics education.

Each year, NCSC awards the   Sandra Day O’Connor Award for the Advancement of Civics Education . This award recognizes an organization, court, program or individual who has promoted, inspired, improved or led an innovation or accomplishment in the field of civics education related to the justice system. The 2023 recipient is the Court of Appeals of Indiana.

Court of Appeals of  Indiana - Appeals on Wheels

Since 2000, the Court of Appeals of Indiana has held more than 650 traveling oral arguments across the state, including 20 sessions in early 2023. The court, which includes 15 judges who represent five Appeals Court districts, hits the road to hold proceedings in a variety of settings including schools, retirement homes,  conference centers, and more. This in-person civics education lesson provides the public with a unique opportunity to meet the judges and see, first hand, how the judiciary resolves real-world disputes based on the rule of law.

civic education essay 2023

Liberty Matters

Civic education is not enough.

By: Lee Trepanier Nov 21, 2023

civic education essay 2023

Copyright and Fair Use Statement

“Liberty Matters” is the copyright of Liberty Fund, Inc . This material is put on line to further the educational goals of Liberty Fund, Inc. These essays and responses may be quoted and otherwise used under “fair use” provisions for educational and academic purposes. To reprint these essays in course booklets requires the prior permission of Liberty Fund, Inc. Please contact [email protected] if you have any questions.

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  • Did the American Colonies Pay Too High a Cost for Revolution? (August/September 2023) (Aug 14, 2023)
  • Adam Smith's Emergent Rules of Justice (June/July 2023) (Jun 01, 2023)
  • Archived Posts...

Part of: Liberty and Civic Education

  • Response Essay Reflections on the State of Civics Education in America
  • Response Essay Nurturing American Democracy: The Importance of Transforming Learning Environments
  • Response Essay Civic Education is Not Enough
  • Conversation Comments Civic Education: More or Better?
  • Conversation Comments How Did It Get This Bad? Reflections on Davenport, Trepanier, and Davison Humphries
  • Conversation Comments Earliest Learning and Civil Society
  • Conversation Comments The Next Step in Renewing Civic Education


Your lesson notes in a blink.

NECO ANSWERS , Past Questions & Answer

2023 NECO: Civic Education Essay And Objectives Questions with Solutions

civic education essay 2023


SECTION A Answer four questions in all, two from each section


(1a) A Constitution can be defined as a written set of fundamental principles and rules that govern a country or organization. It establishes the framework for the organization’s structure powers and limitations as well as the rights and responsibilities of its citizens or members.

(1b) (PICK ANY FOUR) (i) Written Constitution: The 1999 Constitution of Nigeria is a written document that outlines the fundamental principles and rules guiding the governance of Nigeria. (ii) Federalism: It establishes Nigeria as a federal republic with power shared between the central government and the states. It defines the powers and responsibilities of both levels of government. (iii) Separation of Powers: The Constitution provides for the separation of powers among the three arms of government: the executive legislative and judicial branches. This ensures a system of checks and balances. (iv) Fundamental Human Rights: The Constitution enshrines fundamental human rights and freedoms such as the right to life liberty and fair hearing. It sets out the framework for the protection and promotion of these rights. (v) Citizenship: The Constitution defines who is considered a citizen of Nigeria and outlines their rights privileges and obligations. (vi) Presidential System: The 1999 Constitution establishes a presidential system of government where the president is the head of state and head of government. It outlines the powers and functions of the president. (vii) Amendment Process: The Constitution provides for its amendment outlining the procedures to be followed when changes are proposed. It requires a two-thirds majority of the National Assembly and state legislatures for amendments to take effect.

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(2a) (PICK ANY FIVE) (i) Strong Leadership: A strong and visionary leadership can play a pivotal role in promoting national unity by fostering a sense of identity and purpose among diverse groups of people. (ii) Inclusive Governance: Ensuring inclusive governance where all ethnic religious and regional groups have a voice in decision-making processes can help bridge divides and promote unity. (iii) Respect for Diversity: A society that values and respects diversity can foster a climate of acceptance and tolerance. Appreciating different cultures languages and beliefs can contribute to national unity. (iv) Effective Communication: Open and transparent communication platforms can help promote dialogue and understanding among different groups. It allows for the exchange of ideas and perspectives promoting unity. (v) Equal Opportunities: Providing equal opportunities in education employment and socioeconomic development can contribute to national unity by reducing social and economic disparities between different groups. (vi) Shared National Identity: Promoting a shared national identity that transcends ethnic religious and regional differences can help forge a sense of belonging and unity among citizens. (vii) Peaceful Coexistence: Ensuring peace security and stability within a country promotes national unity. Addressing and resolving conflicts peacefully and fostering a culture of dialogue can contribute to unity.

(3a) (PICK ANY FIVE) (i) Economic Development: Youth empowerment skills enable young people to acquire the knowledge and expertise needed to participate in the workforce and contribute to the country’s economic growth. (ii) Reduced Unemployment: By equipping young people with marketable skills youth empowerment programs can help reduce the unemployment rate providing opportunities for self-employment and job creation. (iii) Poverty Alleviation: Empowered youth can generate income for themselves and their families leading to poverty reduction and improved living conditions. (iv) Entrepreneurship Promotion: Youth empowerment skills often include entrepreneurship training encouraging young people to start their own businesses and become self-reliant. (v) Social Stability: When young people are engaged in meaningful activities and have access to opportunities it can reduce social unrest crime and anti-social behaviors contributing to social stability. (vi) Skill Development: Empowerment programs focus on building practical skills that are essential for personal and professional growth. These skills can help young people adapt to a rapidly changing job market. (vii) Civic Engagement and Leadership: Empowered youth are more likely to be actively engaged in their communities taking leadership roles and participating in decision-making processes ultimately contributing to the development of a stronger civil society.

(4a) Orderliness can be defined as a state or condition characterized by systematic arrangement and adherence to established rules and regulations. It implies a well-organized and structured environment where people act in a disciplined manner respecting authority and following established procedures.

(4b) (PICK ANY FOUR) (i) Traffic Rules: Obeying traffic rules and regulations such as stopping at red lights yielding to pedestrians and following speed limits contributes to orderliness on the roads. (ii) Public Transportation: Queueing in an orderly manner at bus stops or train stations respecting line spaces and waiting for one’s turn to board public transportation helps maintain order and efficiency. (iii) Law and Order: Adhering to laws respecting the authority of law enforcement agencies and cooperating with legal procedures contributes to maintaining order and justice within society. (iv) Organized Events: Events that are well-planned and executed with clear directions designated areas and proper crowd management ensure orderliness and the safety of participants. (v) Meeting Protocols: Orderliness is essential during meetings or gatherings to ensure effective communication and decision-making. Following meeting protocols such as having an agenda time management and giving each person an opportunity to speak helps maintain order and achieve objectives. (vi) Law and Social Order: Upholding laws and regulations is vital for maintaining orderliness in society. The legal system ensures that individuals are held accountable for their actions and law enforcement agencies play a crucial role in ensuring social order and public safety. (vii) Queueing: In various settings such as banks supermarkets or public transport stations orderliness is maintained through queueing systems. People form lines or queues and wait their turn ensuring fairness and efficiency in providing services.

(5a) Civic Education is the educational process that aims to develop and nurture the knowledge skills attitudes and values necessary for active and responsible citizenship. It provides individuals with an understanding of their rights responsibilities and participation in society and equips them with the tools to engage in effective civic action.

(5b) (i) Promoting active citizenship: Civic Education encourages individuals to actively participate in their communities and engage in democratic processes such as voting community service and advocacy. It instills a sense of responsibility and encourages individuals to make positive contributions to society. (ii) Fostering social cohesion: Civic Education teaches tolerance respect and understanding of diverse cultures values and beliefs. It promotes inclusivity and helps to bridge social and cultural divides fostering a sense of unity among community members. (iii) Enhancing critical thinking and decision-making skills: Civic Education equips individuals with the knowledge and skills necessary to analyze societal issues evaluate different perspectives and make informed decisions. It encourages critical thinking problem-solving and the ability to engage in constructive dialogue with others. (iv) Safeguarding democracy: Civic Education plays a crucial role in strengthening democratic values and institutions. It promotes an understanding of democratic principles such as rule of law human rights and social justice and helps individuals become active participants in shaping the democratic process. By educating citizens about their rights and the importance of democratic principles Civic Education helps to safeguard democracy.


(6a) Rule of law refers to the principle that all individuals and institutions are subject to and accountable to the law. It ensures that laws are applied equally and impartially without discrimination or favoritism. The rule of law establishes a framework for a just and fair society.

(6b) (PICK ANY FOUR) (i) Protection of individual rights: The rule of law safeguards the fundamental rights and freedoms of individuals providing them with legal recourse in case of violations. It ensures that all individuals are treated equally under the law and protects them from arbitrary actions by the state or other individuals. (ii) Promotion of justice and fairness: Rule of law ensures that legal processes and procedures are fair transparent and accessible to all. It establishes an impartial judiciary that interprets and applies the law objectively ensuring that justice is administered without bias or discrimination. (iii) Prevention of abuse of power: Rule of law acts as a check on the abuse of power by those in authority. It establishes clear limitations on the actions of the government ensuring that it operates within the bounds of the law and respects the rights of citizens. (iv) Economic stability and development: Rule of law provides a stable and predictable legal framework that is essential for economic growth and development. It protects property rights promotes contract enforcement and provides a conducive environment for business and investment. (v) Social cohesion and trust: When the rule of law is upheld it promotes social cohesion and trust within a society. People feel secure in their rights and are more likely to trust institutions and engage in civic participation. (vi) International standing: Countries that uphold the rule of law tend to have a stronger international standing. They are seen as reliable partners in trade investment and diplomacy and are more likely to attract foreign investment and cooperation. (vii) Preserving order and stability: Rule of law ensures that society functions with order and stability. It provides a framework for resolving disputes preventing conflicts and maintaining peace within a society.

(6c) (PICK ANY TWO) (i) Independent judiciary (ii) Respect for human rights (iii) Access to justice (iv) Transparency and accountability

(7a) Representative democracy is a form of government where citizens elect representatives to make decisions on their behalf. These representatives are responsible for representing the interests and concerns of their constituents in the decision-making process.

(7b) (PICK ANY THREE) (i) Elections (ii) Separation of powers (iii) Freedom of speech and expression (iv) Protection of individual rights (v) Pluralism and diversity

(7c) (PICK ANY FIVE) (i) Decision-making process: In direct democracy citizens participate directly in decision-making through popular votes referendums or initiatives. In contrast WHILE in indirect democracy citizens elect representatives who make decisions on their behalf. (ii) Scope: Direct democracy is more suitable for small communities or issues of local concern where citizens can gather and participate directly WHILE Indirect democracy allows for larger-scale governance where representatives can effectively represent a larger population. (iii) Efficiency: Direct democracy can be time-consuming and slower in reaching decisions due to the need for widespread citizen participation. WHILE Indirect democracy allows for more efficient decision-making due to the delegation of authority to elected representatives. (iv) Expertise: Direct democracy relies on the collective judgment of citizens which may not always reflect the same level of expertise. WHILE In indirect democracy elected representatives can bring expertise and specialization to the decision-making process. (v) Responsibility: In direct democracy citizens bear direct responsibility for decisions made collectively. WHILE In indirect democracy representatives are accountable to the citizens who elected them and can be held responsible for their decisions through periodic elections. (vi) Protection of minority rights: Direct democracy without these safeguards can potentially lead to the tyranny of the majority where minority interests are overlooked. WHILE Indirect democracy incorporates institutional safeguards and checks and balances to protect minority rights.


(8a) Stigmatization refers to the process of labeling and discriminating against individuals or groups based on certain characteristics or attributes that are seen as deviating from societal norms. Stigmatization often results in negative stereotypes prejudices and social exclusion.

(8b) (PICK ANY THREE) (i) social stigmatization (ii) verbal stigmatization (iii) Employment discrimination (iv) Healthcare stigmatization (v) Self stigmatization (vi) Legal stigmatization

(8c) (PICK ANY FOUR) (i) Public education and awareness: Increasing public knowledge and awareness about HIV/AIDS through targeted campaigns educational programs and media can help dispel myths and misconceptions. It promotes understanding and reduces stigmatizing attitudes. (ii) Promoting empathy and compassion: Encouraging empathy and compassion towards individuals living with HIV/AIDS can foster a supportive and inclusive society. By emphasizing shared humanity and challenging stereotypes people are more likely to show understanding and reduce stigmatizing behavior. (iii)Empowering affected individuals: Empowering individuals living with HIV/AIDS to speak out share their stories and advocate for their rights helps to challenge stigmatization. By promoting self-advocacy and providing support networks affected individuals can regain control and counteract stigma. (iv) Legal protection: Enacting and enforcing laws that protect individuals living with HIV/AIDS from discrimination and stigmatization is essential. These laws should address employment healthcare education housing and other areas where discrimination may occur. (v) Engaging communities and key stakeholders: Collaborating with community leaders healthcare providers educators and other stakeholders can help to address HIV-related stigma at the grassroots level. By involving multiple sectors and promoting dialogue attitudes can be changed and stigmatization reduced. (vi) Counseling and psychosocial support: Providing counseling services and psychosocial support to individuals living with HIV/AIDS contributes to their emotional well-being and resilience. Support groups and counseling sessions can help individuals cope with stigma build self-esteem and develop strategies to navigate societal challenges.


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Civic Education Essay

Civic education is necessary for every citizen to be able to perform the required obligations in a democracy. However, the teaching of civic education in schools has declined. This discussion aims to shed light on the current situation of civic education in the United States.

The reasons why the teaching of this subject is being neglected are explored. Moreover, the differences in the way white and minority students participate in civic education are discussed. The paper also examines the importance of teaching this subject in schools and the best methods that can be used to efficiently pass on this knowledge to the students.


Civic education arms students with the necessary knowledge and skills in order for them to be able to take part in the activities that citizens in a democracy are involved with. It enables them to exercise their civil liberties and carry out their responsibilities as future responsible citizens.

In addition, it prepares the young people for the roles of leading their country or participating in the country’s political activities. Civic education also aims to bond the youth and their country. It teaches the youth not to be self centered but also be concerned about the welfare of their society and country as a whole. Moreover, it teaches them to be loyal to their country and be ready to defend it at all times. Therefore, it is important that this subject is adequately represented in the school curriculum.

Reasons why schools have stopped teaching civic education

In the United States, civic education is rarely taught in schools. Courses touching on civic education are rarely included in the curriculum, and if they are, the students study it for a very short time. The subject is assigned few lessons. This is not enough to instill knowledge to the students about their government, rights and responsibilities.

Many students are disinterested in the subject because they are not enlightened on the importance of political awareness. Many Students do not even take part in student elections and are disinterested in community initiatives like taking care of the environment. Most of them do not even know what is contained in the constitution or their civil rights. Therefore they have no idea what privileges they are entitled to as legitimate citizens in a democracy, and consequently would not know if their rights were violated (Gehring, 2005).

In addition, there is little effort on the part of the government to enforce a public policy in support of civic education. Therefore, civic education is not adequately included in the school curriculums. The curriculum incorporates civic education in few units or courses and therefore it is not taught thoroughly.

Moreover, the teachers are not well prepared to teach the subject. The teaching of the subject is done by teachers qualified to teach other subjects. Many teachers are also not knowledgeable in the matters of civic education. Therefore, they cannot be able to enlighten the students on this matter. Some of them do not even know the relevance of teaching the subject.

Additionally, the teachers feel that civic education should not be allocated a lot of time. Therefore, they reduce the civic education lessons and spend more time teaching other subjects that they consider to be important, for instance, mathematics and sciences. This therefore denies the students enough knowledge on the subject.

The teachers also feel that instilling civic knowledge to students is not their responsibility only and therefore they can get it from other sources outside the school. They assume that students can learn this information from churches, community or though adult civic education programs once they finish school. Outside the school, civic education is taught to adults through adult civic education programs. These programs are initiated by the government or Non-Governmental Organizations.

The citizens are taught about how to become good citizens and leaders, how to participate in electing leaders and what their rights as citizens are. In addition, issues like low levels of citizens’ participation in the government’s activities and neglecting of certain groups in the society are tackled. However, the teaching of civic education should start from school so that the students gain a proper understanding of civic issues from an early age (Office of Democracy and Governance, 2002).

Minorities’ involvement with civic education

American schools comprise of white students and those from minority groups. There is a difference in civic participation between these two groups of students. Students from minority groups are less involved with civic education than the white ones. They rarely attend civic meetings and seldom participate in civic activities like volunteering and voting, among others.

America has a history of sidelining the minorities and consequently, the minority students do not trust the government. Before the 1960’s minority groups in America were denied their civil rights. For instance, the education facilities for the whites and the minorities were separated. The facilities designed for the minority groups were usually of poor quality and little government funds were availed to improve them.

The minorities were also denied voting rights by being deregistered. Therefore, they could not take part in the process of electing their representatives. The minorities were also discriminated in matters of economic and employment opportunities. Crimes of violence were also perpetrated against them.

Therefore, this history of slavery and injustices against the minority groups creates disinterest among the minority students. They feel alienated and unwanted in their country. Many minority students feel excluded from the American history therefore they are not interested in civic education (Iram, 2006).

Today the minority groups have equal civil rights as the other white children. However students from minority groups do not actively take part in civic education. Discursive democracy is encouraged in civic education, which does not enable members from all groups, including minorities to participate equally and voice their concerns.

Even if they participate, their contributions are not taken seriously and therefore they are not able to influence the discussion. The minorities also need to learn the common language of expression so that their views can not be misunderstood (Blum, 1999).

Students from the minority groups think that civic engagement is for rich white children because they feel discriminated. The school curriculum is not accommodating to the minorities as it is designed with the assumption that all students are white. The curriculum and teachers also assume that all students are well off.

Therefore, the problems of poor minorities are not taken into consideration during civic education. Therefore, these students feel that they are being treated as insignificant citizens. The schools also assume that every student speaks English whereas many minorities have other native languages. All the documents used in teaching civic education like the constitution are written in English. This denies the minority students an equal opportunity to understand civic knowledge (Nodding, 2005).

Citizens from minority groups are mostly less educated and have lower incomes than whites and these contribute to their low participation in civic activities. The civic education curriculum taught to minorities is different as the teachers feel that the minorities need proper understanding on how to become good citizens (Levinson, 2003).

Involvement and participation of white children in civic education

White children have always been given better privileges in schools throughout American history. During racial segregation, the schools attended by white children were well funded and had good facilities compared to those of the minority groups.

White American children participate a lot in civic education. They feel a sense of belonging in their country and therefore engage in activities to improve its welfare. This is because the system of education and the laws were designed with the white students in mind. The school curriculum is in favor of white children as it is designed with the assumption that all children are white, rich and speak English as their native language (Nodding, 2005).

Students from white families are also rich and are able to participate properly in civic activities. They can participate in community building, and other activities. They can also afford the necessary equipment required for students to participate actively in civic activities.

The white students also actively take part in civic activities like electing student leaders. They have trust in their government because they are properly represented. Even when they leave school, statistics show that white citizens are the most active participants in civic activities. They vote in large numbers and are more likely to attend civic meetings, and take part in community development activities (Blum, 1999).

The country’s core documents like the constitution are written in English; therefore the white children can clearly understand its contents as they are native English speakers. During civic discussions in class, the white students participate more actively because they are English speakers and can express their views without being misunderstood. Therefore they are able to influence the discussion.

Reasons why civic education should be taught in schools

Civic education is taught in schools, communities, labor unions, churches. The citizens are taught how to vote wisely, what rights they are entitled to, or how to resolve conflicts. Teaching civic education in schools is important because it instills civic knowledge to the students from an early age. Civic education can be taught from as early as kindergarten all the way through the entire school life. Therefore, this knowledge prepares the students to be future democratic citizens.

They learn the importance of shared responsibility and taking initiative. Civic education should be incorporated in school curriculums in order to achieve this goal. The contents of the course should be in line with the needs and the level of the students. For instance, kindergarten children should not be taught complex issues as this will be taught later when they can clearly understand it.

The students must be prepared to either be good rulers or obedient citizens. Students need to be taught that in democracies there must be the rule of law and everyone should obey it. They are also supposed to challenge the rules that are unjust It teaches them how to co-exist with other members of the society and to live ethically.

Civic education entails knowing the country’s governance history, how an autonomous government works, the responsibilities of different sections in the government, their privileges and responsibilities as citizens, the rationale and procedures of voting, among others (Crittenden, 2007).

The citizens in a democracy must have the correct knowledge, virtues and behavior in order for it to develop. The citizens must understand how their government is run and whether their welfare is being taken into consideration. Citizens need civic education in order to be able to know how they can progress themselves locally and nationally.

They must be taught the importance of trusting in their government and obeying the law in order to avoid any conflicts. This ensures a stable democratic system. Civic education enables the citizens to learn the virtues expected of them in a democratic system like loyalty, forbearance, concession and reverence for the law. The citizens are also encouraged to actively and responsibly participate in activities like voting, among others (Lynch, 1997).

Civic education should be taught to every student in a democracy in order to mold them into responsible and enlightened citizens in future. It instills political knowledge and awareness about various issues in the government, including the functions of the government, the rights of citizens, the responsibilities of leaders, and the composition of the political organizations, among others. The citizens also get to know their civil rights and what to expect from the government.

In addition, civic education encourages political participation among the citizens. It enlightens the citizens and empowers them to take part in political activities that shape their future. These include voting, attending government meetings, challenging injustices, and pressurizing their elected leaders to represent them effectively. They learn that they are not just passive but active participants in their own governance.

Civic education also raises the political worth among the citizens. The citizens feel empowered, in control, and in charge of making the decisions that affect their welfare. They have the audacity to challenge any injustices perpetrated against them. They even condemn poor representation by their leaders. They can even protest if their rights are violated.

Civic education is also important because it imparts the necessary democratic principles in the citizens. For instance the students learn that they should have loyalty, forbearance, respect for the rule of law and concession. These values are important for a democratic government to prosper.

The study of this subject also creates awareness to the citizens and therefore they begin to see the defects in the way their government is run. Therefore they are able to push for changes in the way things are done. This leads to better governance and a better democracy.

Moreover, civic education empowers all the members to actively take part in the political activities. This includes the women and the minority groups. These citizens get enlightened on equal rights and therefore there is increased participation in the activities of the democracy by all the citizens regardless of their gender or race.

According to Branson (1998) civic education involves teaching the ideals of self governance to the students. The students learn how to take part in the civic activities in order to enhance the wellbeing of their country. It enables them to make informed choices about the governance off their country. Civic education arms the students with civic skills, knowledge and dispositions.

Civic education gives the students knowledge about their country and how it is governed. The students get to know the proper meaning of being civically engaged and what government means.

This helps them to understand why it is important to have a government and the rule of law governing all the citizens. It will enable them to learn the roles of the government and therefore they can challenge the government if those roles are not performed satisfactorily. They will get a clear understanding of the importance of self-governance (Audigier, 1993).

Besides they get to know the composition of the political system and its values. This enables them to know the history of their country and the values that it upholds. This will in addition enable them to know their constitutional rights as citizens and the need to obey the rule of law, and practice loyalty and other virtues. Understanding of this knowledge will involve the exploration of certain documents like the constitution and other legal documents with fundamental information about that country.

The students also gain knowledge about what is contained in the constitution and whether the government is in line with democratic principles. This will enable them to find out if their government is upholding the values contained in the constitution and whether the rights of the citizens are being violated.

In addition, the students get to know what is expected of them as citizens in the democracy. The students get to understand that each one of them has obligations as a citizen to ensure the well being of the country. They learn that their active participation in civic activities can improve their standards of living. This can be achieved through participation in the election of leaders, community service, among others.

Furthermore, they get insight on how their country relates with other countries in the world. The students get to knows how matters happening around the world affect them. The world is interconnected and matters happening in one country affect the rest in some way. They understand why good relations with other countries area important in ensuring their wellbeing.

According to OBrien (2010) civic education enables students to acquire the necessary skills to enable them to perform their obligations and fight for their rights. They acquire both logical skills and other skills to enable them to take part in civic activities. Logical skills include critical thinking, evaluating and analyzing issues. The citizens are able to think critically and analyze issues related to the democracy.

They are able to understand the meaning of national symbols like the flag. Moreover they understand the importance of values such as loyalty. They get to analyze how their government works and therefore are able to identify any misconduct on the part of government officials. The students acquire good decision-making skills which enable them to make informed and correct decisions on matters affecting them.

The students as well learn how to relate with others without conflict. They learn to share and exchange ideas with others meaningfully. Civic education enables students to learn enough skills to enable them to take part in the civic activities of their country. It teaches them how to resolve crises by engaging in peaceful dialogue. Students learn to participate in activities like meetings, court hearings, elections, community service, among others.

Another importance of civic education is that it helps students to develop values that are necessary in a democracy. The students are taught to be responsible, respectful of others and loyal to the country. They are also taught to abide by the laws of the democracy. They learn that self-governance involves people performing their responsibilities and having self-regulation in everything and not relying on the country’s laws to govern them.

They also learn what is expected of them as citizens including serving the community, electing leaders, pin-pointing injustices, paying taxes, among others. It enables the students to be informed about what is going on in the government and whether proper procedures are being followed, failure of which corrective measures should be recommended.

Methods used in teaching civic education

In order for civic education to be effective, it has to be taught through a number of ways. These include discussion groups, staging dramatizations, mock political and legal dealings, distributing civic literature, lectures and mass media among others.

Each method applied should match with the intended goal. For instance, passive methods like lectures are used to merely pass on information about a particular issue whereas vigorous methods like dramatization should be used to change the citizens’ perceptions and actions towards democracy (Feith, 2010).

Successful civic learning takes place when the lessons are held frequently. Moreover when teaching methods that are participatory like dramatizations, mock-ups and discussions are applied, better results are achieved. In addition, when teachers encourage their students to actively participate in the civic learning activities more productive learning takes place and the students are able to grasp concepts more swiftly. Therefore the quality of training is important in fostering good democratic behavior to the students (Lewis-Ferrell, 2007).

Successful civic education should include participatory activities. The teacher should initiate discussions about civic issues that are happening both locally and internationally in order to illustrate her points. In addition, after the theoretical teaching is over the teacher should look for avenues where the students can apply the knowledge. This can be in form of doing community service. Moreover, the schools’ extracurricular activities should include civic engagement.

The activities should include ways through which students can contribute to the welfare of their school and the community as a whole. Students should also be included in the process of making decisions that affect them. This encourages them to participate more actively in civic activities. Engaging students in community service gives them a sense of responsibility and prepares them to take up their roles in the community in future (Levinson and Stevick, 2007).

The teaching of civic education should largely include discussions. The students should be allowed to voice their opinions about various issues. Discussions will enhance the detailed learning of a range of civic issues and will also create a feeling of democracy among the sstudents because each person will be ggiven an opporrtunity to share theirs views (Prasanth, 2004).

From the above discussion, it is evident that civic education is an important ingredient in molding students into politically enlightened and democratic citizens in future.

Therefore it is a pity that currently, this subject is not taken seriously in American schools. The subject is not adequately represented in the school curriculums and therefore most students have little or no civic knowledge. This calls for action to be taken to ensure that students gain civic education because the future of a democratic nation depends on civically enlightened citizens.

Reference List

Audigier, F. (1993). Teaching About Society, Passing On Values: Elementary Law In Civic Education. Germany: Council of Europe.

Blum, L. (1999). Race, Community and Moral Education: Kohlberg and Spielberg as civic educators. Journal of Moral Education. Vol. 28, No 2, 1999. USA: Taylor & Francis.

Branson, M.S. (1998). The Role of Civic Education. Web.

Crittenden, J. (2007). Civic Education . Web.

Feith, D. (2011). Teaching America: The Case for Civic Education . USA: R&L Education.

Gehring, V. V. (2005). Community Matters: Challenges to Civic Engagement in the 21st Century. USA: Rowman & Littlefield.

Iram, Y. (2006). Education of Minorities and Peace Education. USA: IAP.

Levinson, B. A. and Stevick, D. (2007). Reimagining Civic Education: How Diverse Societies Form Democratic Citizens. USA: Rowman & Littlefield.

Levinson, M. (2003). Challenging Deliberation . Web.

Lewis-Ferrell, G.D. (2007). Democracy Renaissance: Civic Education as a Framework For Elementary Education Methods Courses . USA: ProQuest.

Lynch, J. (1997). Education and Development: Tradition and Innovation . Great Britain: Continuum International Publishing Group.

Nodding, N. (2005). Educating Citizen for Global Awareness. USA: Teachers College Press.

Obrien, A. (2010). Let’s Bring Civic Education to the Front Burner . Web.

Office of Democracy and Governance. (2002). Approaches To Civic Education: Lessons Learned. Web.

Prasanth, J. K. (2004). Methods of Teaching Civics . New Delhi: Discovery Publishing House.

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IvyPanda. (2023, August 21). Civic Education.

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Why the Humanities Are Indeed Worth Teaching

Readers respond to a guest essay by a philosophy professor about difficulties defending the humanities.

A photo illustration of a wooden desk in a white void. One of its legs is shorter than the rest, and it’s being propped up by a hardcover copy of “Ulysses” by James Joyce.

To the Editor:

Re “ I Teach the Humanities. I Still Don’t Know What Their Value Is ,” by Agnes Callard (Opinion guest essay, Dec. 3):

As a fellow humanist, I understand Dr. Callard’s desire to avoid conventional pieties and, in the spirit of ongoing inquiry, to claim not to know the value of humanities disciplines. But it is still dispiriting to read this essay with the fear that only humanities undergraduates — well schooled in the reading of subtle texts — will understand the irony in hers.

As one who taught in an English department for almost three decades and went on to be the head of a rare book library, I do know the value of the humanities. Right-thinking humanists do not claim to make their students better people or even try to do so. Such a claim smacks of egotism and hubris. But we do claim to make students better critical readers, thinkers and writers — people better equipped as a result of studying complex texts to judge competing claims, to weigh evidence and to make better-informed judgments on a host of issues.

We humanists are the keepers and interpreters of our civilization, defined globally, and we are charged by tradition and consensus to evaluate that civilization in our teaching and scholarship. This is, of course, itself a conventional piety — but like many conventional pieties, it is a true one.

Because we have done so in the face of growing indifference and shrinking support, it is simply not helpful to have an academic colleague proclaim, even ironically, that she does not know the value of the humanities.

Gail Kern Paster Washington The writer is director emerita of the Folger Shakespeare Library.

The debate over the value of humanities courses is really a question of value for money — especially when college costs so much. But it’s worth remembering the skills that humanities courses give us.

First: curiosity. None of us know exactly where we are heading; we can shape the journey if we are curious about the unknown. Humanities courses teach us to be flexible and make us question our assumptions.

Second: the power of example. Works of art and literature link our current concerns to those of others. They show us the frightening power of a secret shared, of misplaced trust, of leadership forged by challenges. History is a lively tale of tough decisions, of choices and their consequences.

Third: communication. Google Translate may make language classes seem unnecessary. But learning another language gives you a deeper understanding of what others value. And the art of debate is a skill we all need.

When I went to university, I saw my humanities courses as a foundation. It turns out they were a staircase. I could find and change careers, thrive in my choice and lead in a crisis.

I use my “useless” knowledge all the time. An elected leader in Germany once asked me about globalization and its consequences in America. I found myself talking about the power of community, the role of local government and the consequences of job loss. I cited work by an American playwright to underscore my point. In German.

Turns out, those humanities courses were useful after all.

Robin Quinville Arlington, Va. The writer is a former diplomat.

As an academic scientist, I eagerly read Agnes Callard’s thought-provoking essay. It is simply not true that “scientists are under a lot less pressure to explain why they exist.” While society understands that science in general is useful, individual researchers are under great pressure to justify the applicability of their work in order to obtain funding to support it.

Moreover, most academics, whether scientists or humanists, work at universities that center teaching rather than research. In teaching universities, the number of students who major, minor or take courses in a given discipline is the primary determinant of a discipline’s value. Since the majority of students do not major in a science discipline, most scientists will need to justify why they exist.

David Snyder Queens The writer is a chemistry professor at William Paterson University but is expressing his own views.

In her guest essay, a humanities professor, Agnes Callard, conceded, “I do not know what the value of the humanities is.”

As a psychologist, I rely daily on the many lessons of my various humanities classes. A psychologist’s only tool to help people remediate their symptoms, reform their lives and stave off suicide is words. My education in the humanities has helped me, more than anything else, to pick the right words to treat my patients’ “dis-ease” as effectively as possible.

The bane of existence for most educators is that they rarely get to harvest the fruits of their labor, and in this way Dr. Callard’s despondence is understandable. However, I hope she and others who teach the humanities can take solace in knowing their efforts contribute, albeit indirectly, to the healing of many — one word at a time.

John G. Cottone Stony Brook, N.Y.

I was a high school history teacher for more than 30 years, I taught what used to be called Western Civ, as well as U.S. history, women’s history, African American Voices and geography. The whole gamut. Yes, I loved what I taught. But sharing that love was not my motivation.

My students have become engineers, doctors, moms, software creators and leaders of nonprofits of various sorts. They may well have forgotten that they have read Mary Wollstonecraft, Frederick Douglass or Nietzsche. But they still retained the habits of critical reading, clear writing, thorough research and thoughtful deliberation. Many of them found solace and inspiration in the historical figures they encountered. Some found vocations in the movements they studied.

Like Agnes Callard, I have no need to defend the humanities one author or one discipline at a time. But when schools stop teaching humanities courses, students lose more than just education in social values and cultural literacy. They lose valuable life skills that sustain them regardless of their future paths.

Liz Zucker Cambridge, Mass.

WAEC GCE Civic Education Answers Objectives and Essays 2023

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WAEC GCE Civic Education Nov / Dec 2023

The 2023 WAEC GCE Civic Education examination is an important milestone for students in Nigeria. It tests their knowledge and understanding of civic responsibilities, governance, and societal issues. In this article, we will provide you with comprehensive answers to both the objectives and essay questions of the WAEC GCE Civic Education exam. Our aim is to help you prepare effectively and confidently for this crucial examination, November December External Waec.

Objectives Section

The objectives section of the WAEC GCE Civic Education exam requires you to choose the correct answer from a set of options. It tests your understanding of key concepts, principles, and facts related to civic education. Let’s dive into the answers to the objectives questions:

civic education essay 2023


civic education essay 2023

  • Option: C – Force Explanation: The legitimate power to compel others into obedience is referred to as force.
  • Option: A – Federal Road Safety Commission Explanation: The organization responsible for the issuance of driving licenses in Nigeria is the Federal Road Safety Commission.
  • Option: E – Students should be counseled on the evils of cultism. Explanation: One of the preventive measures against cultism is to counsel students on the dangers and negative impacts of joining cult groups.
  • Option: C – National Drugs Law Enforcement Agency Explanation: The agency in Nigeria charged with the responsibility of controlling drug abuse is the National Drugs Law Enforcement Agency.
  • Option: A – Ideas Explanation: Civil society organizations contribute to the citizens’ ability to exchange ideas on national issues.

These are just a few examples of the objectives questions that you may encounter in the WAEC GCE Civic Education exam. Make sure to thoroughly study the subject material to increase your chances of selecting the correct answers.

Note : This questions may not be accurate as they are based on previous past questions.

Essay Section

The essay section of the WAEC GCE Civic Education exam requires you to provide detailed and well-structured responses to given prompts. It tests your ability to analyze complex issues, express your thoughts coherently, and provide informed opinions. Let’s explore some possible essay questions and their answers in detail:

Essay Question 1: Discuss the role of responsible parenthood in child upbringing.

Responsible parenthood is the act or process of effectively discharging the duties and obligations of upbringing/rearing children by parents or guardians. It plays a crucial role in shaping the future of children and society as a whole. Here are some key points to consider when discussing the role of responsible parenthood:

  • Education: Every child has the right to education. Parents should ensure their children receive a quality education, as it is the greatest gift they can give.
  • Good Home Training: Parents should instill moral, ethical, and societal values in their children. They should teach them love, respect, discipline, and other important qualities.
  • Respecting the Child’s Feelings: Parents should be mindful of how they speak about their children in front of others. Negative talk can negatively impact a child’s self-esteem and emotional well-being.
  • Providing for the Household: Parents have a responsibility to provide for their family’s basic needs, including shelter, food, clothing, healthcare, and education.
  • Caring: Parents should show kindness and care towards their children. This involves looking after their health, safety, and overall well-being.
  • Building Positive Self-Concept: Responsible parents should help build their children’s self-esteem by encouraging and supporting their talents, interests, and aspirations.

Responsible parenthood is crucial for the holistic development of children and the overall progress of society.

Essay Question 2: Discuss the effects of human trafficking on victims.

Human trafficking is a heinous crime that involves the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring, or receipt of people through force, fraud, or deception for the purpose of exploitation. This essay question requires a comprehensive understanding of the effects of human trafficking on victims. Here are some key points to consider:

  • Mental Trauma: Victims of human trafficking often experience severe psychological effects, including post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, depression, fear, guilt, shame, and memory loss.
  • Physical Trauma: Many victims of human trafficking suffer physical injuries due to the abuse inflicted upon them by their traffickers. They may endure rape, beatings, and prolonged abuse, leading to various health issues and diseases.
  • Exploitation and Deprivation: Trafficked individuals are exploited for various purposes, such as forced labor, sexual exploitation, and organ trafficking. They are often deprived of their basic human rights, including freedom, dignity, and autonomy.
  • Insecurity: Human trafficking is often linked to organized criminal groups, posing a threat to national security. These criminal networks engage in various illicit activities beyond trafficking, further endangering the safety and stability of societies.
  • Social Stigma and Reintegration Challenges: Victims of human trafficking face social stigma and difficulties.

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WAEC Civic Education Questions and Answers 2023/2024 (Essay and Objectives)

WAEC Civic education Questions and Answers 2023. I will be showing you  WAEC  Civic Education objective and theory repeated questions for free. You will also understand how WAEC Civic Education questions are set and many more examination details.

The West African Examination Council is an examination body that set questions annually from areas students should, after their studies in senior secondary school, be able to write and pass without stress.

WAEC Civic Education answers and questions Objectives and Essay are dealt with here in detail. And the authenticity of this WAEC 2023 Civic Education solutions to questions have been tested and confirmed to be sure.

You will find WAEC Civic Education Paper 1 (Objectives) and Paper 2 (Essay) here.

WAEC Civic Education Essay and Objective 2023 (EXPO)

The 2023 WAEC Civic Education expo will be posted on this page today, 25th May during the WAEC Civic Education examination. Keep checking and refreshing/reloading this page for the answers.

WAEC Civic Education Questions and Answers 2023 Loading…

OBJ Answers:






(1a) (PICK ANY FIVE) (i) Civic education equips individuals with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary to become active and informed citizens. (ii) Civic education is vital for the functioning and strengthening of democratic systems. It helps individuals understand the importance of democratic values. (iii) Civic education promotes social cohesion by fostering a sense of shared identity, values, and goals within a diverse society. (iv) Civic education encourages individuals to actively engage in their communities and take responsibility for addressing social issues. (v) Civic education instills values such as respect, tolerance, integrity, and social responsibility. It helps individuals develop an ethical framework that guides their behavior and decision-making. (vi) Civic education prepares individuals to be active participants in the global community. It promotes understanding of global issues, cultural diversity, and interdependence. (vii) Civic education equips individuals with a global perspective, enabling them to understand global challenges, interconnections, and their responsibilities as global citizens. (viii) Civic education emphasizes the value of diversity, promoting respect for different cultures, beliefs, and identities. It encourages dialogue, understanding, and appreciation of diverse perspectives. (1b) (PICK ANY FIVE) (i) Fostering Civic Knowledge and Understanding: Citizenship education equips individuals with knowledge and understanding of their country’s history, political systems, institutions, and cultural heritage. (ii) Developing Civic Skills and Competencies: Citizenship education cultivates essential civic skills and competencies, such as critical thinking, problem-solving, effective communication, and collaboration. (iii) Promoting Active Citizenship and Civic Engagement: Citizenship education encourages active participation in civic and community affairs. It promotes a sense of responsibility and empowers individuals (iv) Instilling Values and Ethical Behavior: Citizenship education helps instill values such as respect, tolerance, empathy, and integrity. These values promote social cohesion, cooperation, and ethical behavior among citizens. (v) Cultivating National Identity and Unity: Citizenship education plays a vital role in cultivating a sense of national identity and unity. It helps citizens develop a shared understanding of their nation’s heritage, symbols, traditions, and aspirations. (vi) Enhancing Democratic Participation: Citizenship education is closely linked to democratic participation. It educates individuals about their rights, responsibilities, and the importance of participating in democratic processes, such as voting etc (vii) Building Social Cohesion and Understanding: Citizenship education promotes social cohesion by encouraging citizens to appreciate and embrace the diversity within their nation.It emphasizes the importance of understanding and respecting different cultures, religions, and perspectives. (3a) (PICK ANY ONE) Inter-communal relationship can be defined as interactions, connections, and dynamics between different communities or groups of people within a specific geographical area. OR Inter-communal relationships refer to the interactions, connections, and bonds between different communities or ethnic groups within a specific geographical area. Inter-communal relationships refer to connections and interactions between different communities or groups within a society. OR Inter-communal relationships refer to the interactions and connections,between different communities or groups within a larger society. (3b) (PICK ANY FOUR) (i) Cultural Exchange: Inter-communal relationships facilitate cultural exchange, allowing communities to learn from one another’s traditions, customs, and practices. This promotes cultural diversity, appreciation, and inclusivity, which are essential for community development and nation-building. (ii) Social Integration: Inter-communal relationships encourage social integration by bringing people from different communities together. This creates mutual understanding, tolerance, and empathy among individuals, leading to harmonious coexistence and collective progress. (iii) Knowledge Sharing: Inter-communal relationships create opportunities for the sharing of knowledge, experiences, and expertise. Communities can learn from each other’s successes, challenges, and innovative approaches to address common issues such as healthcare, education, infrastructure, and agriculture. (iv) Economic Cooperation: Collaborative economic initiatives between communities foster growth and development. Inter-communal trade, investment, and entrepreneurship create job opportunities, boost local economies, and contribute to poverty reduction and increased standard of living. (v) Infrastructure Development: Inter-communal relationships can lead to joint efforts in infrastructure development. Communities can pool resources, share costs, and work together to build roads, bridges, schools, hospitals, and other essential facilities that benefit multiple communities. (vi) Conflict Resolution: Inter-communal relationships provide a platform for peaceful dialogue and conflict resolution. By promoting dialogue, understanding, and mediation, communities can resolve conflicts, reduce tensions, and prevent violence, fostering stability and development. (vii) Environmental Conservation: Collaborative efforts among communities promote environmental conservation. Sharing knowledge and resources enables communities to address environmental challenges, protect natural resources, and implement sustainable practices for the benefit of all. (viii) Political Engagement: Inter-communal relationships encourage active participation in political processes. When communities engage in dialogue and collaboration, they can collectively address issues, advocate for their needs, and influence policies that promote community development and social justice.


(i) National Drug Law Enforcement Agency

(ii) National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) (iii) Nigeria Police Force (NPF) (iv) Nigerian Customs Service (NCS) (v) Department of State Services (DSS) (vi) Nigerian Security and Civil Defence Corps


(i) Failure to follow medical advice can lead to the progression or worsening of the underlying medical condition.

(ii) Non-adherence can render the prescribed treatment ineffective, leading to inadequate symptom control or disease management.

(iii) Ignoring medical advice can increase the risk of complications and secondary infections. This can prolong the recovery process, worsen symptoms, and even lead to life-threatening situations.

(iv) Non-adherence to preventive measures, such as vaccination or isolation protocols for contagious diseases, can facilitate the spread of infections within the community.

(v) Non-adherence can lead to prolonged illness or the need for more intensive medical interventions, which can result in increased healthcare costs for individuals and society as a whole.

(vi) Inappropriate use or premature discontinuation of antibiotics can contribute to the development of antibiotic resistance.

(vii) When patients consistently disregard medical advice, it can reduce trust in healthcare professionals and the healthcare system overall.

(viii) Non-adherence to public health recommendations, such as social distancing or wearing masks during a pandemic, can undermine efforts to control the spread of diseases.

(i)Violence and Criminal Activities: Cultism often involves the use of violence, intimidation, and criminal activities such as robbery, kidnapping, drug trafficking, and extortion.

(ii)Loss of Lives and Property: Cult clashes and rivalries can result in frequent clashes between different groups, leading to loss of lives and destruction of property.

(iii)Breakdown of Law and Order: Cultism

undermines the rule of law by creating a

parallel system of authority and justice. (iv)Social Instability: Cult activities can disrupt

social harmony and stability within


(v)Cult Recruitment and Exploitation: Cults often employ deceptive tactics to recruit vulnerable individuals, particularly young people.

(vi)Erosion of Ethical Values: Cults often

(vii)Academic Disruption: Cultism frequently infiltrates educational institutions, leading to the disruption of academic activities.

(i)High levels of poverty, unemployment, and inequality create an environment where vulnerable individuals are more likely to be recruited into cults.

(ii)Inadequate resources, corruption, and a lack of proper training and coordination among law enforcement agencies can hamper their ability to effectively combat cult activities.

(iii)One significant hindrance to eradicating cultism in Nigeria is the lack of effective law

(PICK ANY FIVE) (i) Policy Development and Implementation: Public servants play a crucial role in developing policies and strategies to address societal issues and achieve national goals. They research, analyze, and make recommendations to policymakers, and then implement approved policies, monitoring their progress and making adjustments as needed.

(ii) Service Delivery: Public servants are responsible for delivering public services to citizens. This includes providing healthcare, education, transportation, infrastructure development, social welfare programs, and more. They work to ensure these services are accessible, efficient, and of high quality.

(iii) Regulation and Compliance: Public servants enforce regulations and ensure compliance with laws and standards. They oversee sectors such as finance, commerce, health, and the environment, developing and implementing regulations, conducting inspections, and taking enforcement actions when necessary.

(iv) Budgeting and Financial Management: Public servants are involved in the formulation and execution of government budgets. They prepare budget proposals, allocate funds to different sectors, monitor expenditures, and ensure financial accountability and transparency.

(v) Human Resource Management: Public servants are responsible for managing the government’s workforce. They recruit, hire, train, and evaluate employees, promote merit-based appointments, and develop policies for staff welfare, performance management, and career advancement.

(vi) Public Engagement and Communication: Public servants engage with the public, communicating government policies, programs, and initiatives.

They facilitate citizen participation, gather feedback, address concerns, and promote transparency and accountability.

(vii) Diplomacy and International Relations: Public servants represent Nigeria in diplomatic and international affairs. They participate in negotiations, promote trade and economic cooperation, manage consular services, and work towards regional and global partnerships.

(viii) Research and Development: Public servants conduct research and analysis to inform policymaking and improve service delivery. They generate data, evaluate existing programs, identify emerging trends, and propose innovative solutions to address societal challenges.

(ix) Crisis and Disaster Management: Public servants play a vital role in managing crises and disasters. They develop contingency plans, coordinate emergency response efforts, provide relief and support to affected communities, and facilitate recovery and reconstruction.

(x) Monitoring and Evaluation: Public servants monitor and evaluate the performance and impact of government programs and policies. They assess their effectiveness, efficiency, and outcomes, and make recommendations for improvement.

(9a) (PICK ANY ONE) The executive arm of government in Nigeria is one of the three branches of government, alongside the legislative and judicial branches. The executive arm of government in Nigeria plays a crucial role in governance, policy implementation, and the administration of the country. Its primary function is to execute laws, provide effective leadership, and ensure the well-being and progress of the nation and its citizens. It comprises of the Police, Arm Forces and different ministries and parastatals. The President of Nigeria is the head of state and the head of government.

The executive arm of government in Nigeria is one of the three branches of government. It is responsible for implementing and executing laws, policies, and programs that govern the country. The President of Nigeria is the head of the executive branch, and the office is held by the individual elected through a national election. It comprises of the Police, Arm Forces and different ministries and parastatals.

(9b) (PICK ANY SIX) (i) Implementation of Laws: The executive branch is responsible for implementing and enforcing laws passed by the legislature.

(ii) Protection of Civil Liberties: The executive branch is responsible for safeguarding the civil liberties and rights of citizens. (iii) Executive Leadership: The executive arm provides leadership and direction to the government.

(iv) Checks and Balances: The executive branch acts as a check and balance on other branches of government.

(v) International Relations: The executive arm represents the country in international affairs and diplomatic relations.

(vi) Crisis Management and National Security: The executive branch is responsible for managing crises and ensuring national security.

(vii) Accountability to the Legislature and the People: The executive branch is accountable to the legislature and ultimately to the people


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So if you are seriously in need of these WAEC questions as well as the answers, then you don’t have to worry because we have all your problems solved from all angles.

The questions below are not exactly 2023 WAEC Civic Education questions and answers but likely WAEC Civic Education repeated questions and answers and past questions. These questions are for practice.

1. When there is a dispute in a community, members should A. be indifferent to the issue. B. cooperate with others. C. leave the community entirely. D. be resolute to their cause.

2. Community development projects can best be achieved if the people are A. cooperative. B. religious. C. optimistic. D. knowledgeable 3. Which of the following is a major problem of the Nigerian Civil Service? A. Neutrality B. Red tapism C. Impartiality D. Anonymity 4. The civic obligation of a citizen includes A. political socialization. B. political participation. C. engaging in family planning. D. engaging in business ventures. 5. The following are goals of citizenship education except A. preparing learners for leadership. B. developing appropriate attitude in the learners. C. creating job opportunities. D. providing social amenities. 6. HIV/AIDS is spread mainly through A. indiscriminate sexual intercourse. B. kissing and hugging. C. sharing toiletries with victims. D. handshake with victims. 7. People living with HIV/AIDS could be assisted by A. isolating them. B. showing them love. C. blaming them. D. avoiding them. 8. Which of the following does not promote national consciousness? A. Respect for the symbols and identities of the country B. Promotion of people’s culture and tradition C. Appropriate use of the mass media D. Inappropriate use of state property 9. Modern countries adopt rule of law in order to make A. lawyers independent. B. the law supreme. C. the judiciary part of legislature. D. laws in parliament. 10. The habit of obeying traffic regulations helps the individual to A. report late at work. B. avoid an unnecessary accident. C. be lazy at work. D. use the unauthorized route. 11. Which of the following roles should a responsible parent perform? A. Sending the children to hawk on the street B. Instilling in children appropriate values and attitude C. Encouraging early marriage D. Showing favour to a particular child 12. A challenge facing the protection of human rights in Nigeria is A. absence of public complaints commission. B. failure of leaders to promote rule of law. C. independence of the judiciary. D. press freedom

If you have any questions about WAEC Civic Education 2023 , kindly drop your question in the comment box and we shall attend to you as soon as possible.

Last Updated on May 26, 2023 by Admin

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Please sir i need maths theory this morning

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NECO GCE 2023 CIVIC EDUCATION ( ESSAY & OBJ) ANSWERS – EXAMKING.NET ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• CLICK HERE TO GET ALL FREE ANSWERS ON YOUR PHONE DIRECT ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• CLICK HERE TO JOIN OUR WHATSAPP CHANNEL FOR ALL 2023 GCE ANSWERS FOR FREE ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• CLICK HERE TO JOIN OUR TELEGRAM CHANNEL FOR ALL 2023 GCE ANSWERS FOR FREE ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• CIVIC EDUCATION-OBJ 1-10: CEECEECABA 11-20: BBCCCCACED 21-30: CACAACCDCE 31-40: AEECDAACCC 41-50: EBEBCBBCAC 51-60: ABEEEDCCEB Solved by Completed!!! ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• CIVIC EDUCATION-ESSAY-ANSWERS (1a) Community services are activities or projects carried out by individuals or groups within a community to help and support others. These services are usually voluntary and aim to address various needs in the community, such as social, educational, environmental, or cultural.

(1b) (i) Community Clean-up Campaigns: Organizing regular clean-up events where community members come together to pick up litter, beautify public spaces, and promote cleanliness and environmental awareness.

(ii) Skill Development Workshops: Hosting workshops and training sessions to empower community members with valuable skills such as computer literacy, financial management, entrepreneurship, or vocational training. This helps individuals enhance their employability and overall well-being.

(iii) Community Sports Programs: Creating sports programs that provide opportunities for people of all ages to participate in various sports activities. This promotes physical fitness, teamwork, and community engagement.

(iv) Community Arts and Culture Festivals: Organizing festivals that celebrate the diverse arts, music, and cultural traditions of the community. These events foster a sense of pride, unity, and appreciation for cultural heritage. •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

(3a) Leadership is the ability to guide and inspire a group of individuals towards a common goal or vision. It involves taking charge, making decisions, and providing direction to achieve desired outcomes.

(3b) (i) Effective Communication: A good leader is able to communicate clearly and effectively with their team, conveying their vision, expectations, and providing guidance. They listen actively and encourage open dialogue.

(ii) Decision-Making Skills: A good leader possesses strong decision-making skills. They gather information, analyze options, and make informed decisions for the benefit of the team and organization. They are confident in their choices and take responsibility for the outcomes.

(iii) Empathy and Emotional Intelligence: A good leader shows empathy towards their team members, understanding their needs, concerns, and perspectives. They have emotional intelligence, which helps them manage relationships, resolve conflicts, and create a harmonious work environment.

(iv) Integrity and Accountability: A good leader leads with integrity, demonstrating honesty, trustworthiness, and ethical behavior. They take responsibility for their actions and decisions, holding themselves accountable. They lead by example and earn the respect and trust of their team. •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

(7a) drug is any substance (with the exception of food and water) which, when taken into the body, alters the body’s function either physically or psychologically. In other words drug is administered to use in the diagnosis, cure, relief, treatment, or prevention of disease or intended to affect the structure or function of the body.

(7b) (i) Economic burden: Drug abuse has a significant impact on society’s economy. It leads to increased healthcare costs, loss of productivity in the workforce due to addiction and absenteeism, and increased crime rates, resulting in additional costs for law enforcement and the justice system.

(ii) Crime: Drug abuse contributes to higher crime rates in society as addicts may resort to theft, violence, and other illegal activities to obtain money to support their addiction and cause violence to the society.

(iii) Healthcare burden: Drug abuse places a strain on healthcare systems. Substance abuse-related illnesses, injuries, and overdoses require medical intervention, leading to increased hospital admissions, emergency room visits, and healthcare expenditures. The society as a whole bears the cost of these healthcare services.

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civic education essay 2023

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An Open Comparative Study of the Effectiveness and Incomparable Study of the Immunogenicity and Safety of the Vaccine (CoviVac) for Adults Aged 60 Years and Older

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SARS-CoV-2 infection • A case of established COVID-19 disease confirmed by PCR and/or ELISA in the last 6 months.

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  • Serious post-vaccination reaction (temperature above 40 C, hyperemia or edema more than 8 cm in diameter) or complication (collapse or shock-like condition that developed within 48 hours after vaccination; convulsions, accompanied or not accompanied by a feverish state) to any previous vaccination.
  • Burdened allergic history (anaphylactic shock, Quincke's edema, polymorphic exudative eczema, serum sickness in the anamnesis, hypersensitivity or allergic reactions to the introduction of any vaccines in the anamnesis, known allergic reactions to vaccine components, etc.).
  • Guillain-Barre syndrome (acute polyradiculitis) in the anamnesis.
  • The axillary temperature at the time of vaccination is more than 37.0 ° C.
  • Acute infectious diseases (recovery earlier than 4 weeks before vaccination) according to anamnesis.
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  • Any confirmed or suspected immunosuppressive or immunodeficiency condition in the anamnesis.
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Russian floating nuclear power plant set for first refuel

The new Russian nuclear power plant, named Akademik Lomonosov, is the only floating one of its kind in the world.

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civic education essay 2023

Nuclear fuel has been delivered to the world’s first floating nuclear power plant, which is located in Pevek in the Chukotka region of north-east Russia. The plant, named Akademik Lomonosov, supplies heat and power to the town and is based on two KLT-40S reactors generating 35MW each.

The fuel was delivered to the site by TVEL, Rosatom’s fuel division, via the Northern Sea Route and manufactured by TVEL’s Elektrostal Machine-Building Plant in the Moscow region.

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According to TVEL, unlike land-based reactors that require replacement of a proportion of their fuel rods every 12–18 months, “the refuelling takes place once every few years and incudes unloading of the entire reactor core and loading of fresh fuel into the reactor”. As such, there can be up to three and a half years between refuelling.

Akademik Lomonosov first became operational in December 2019. At the time the reactor was seen as a pilot project for a future fleet of floating nuclear power plants and onshore installations based on Russian-made small modular reactors. Due to their functionality, they are intended for deployment in disparate areas of Russia’s north and far-east. The operable reactor was named after 18 th century Russian scientist Mikhail Lomonosov , who was the first native Russian to be appointed to the Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg in 1742.

The plant is 144m long and 30m wide. It supplies electricity to the town of Pevek, which has a population of around 4,000, but could potentially supply a city of up to 100,000 people. Rosatom is currently constructing four floating power units, which it plans to export.

In June, Andrey Nikipelov, Rosatom’s deputy director-general for mechanical engineering and industrial solutions, said : “In addition to environmental friendliness and stable operation, floating nuclear power units are able to provide energy independence – both from the main power grids and, in a broader sense, protection from the volatility of energy markets… floating power units have great commercial potential both in Russia and abroad.”

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civic education essay 2023


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