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Science and technology has a major role to play in modern life of mankind. It has shown miracles in the world from the days of communications with pigeons, the time has ripen where the information floats. Scientists and technologists have made many achievements in recent past. We have developed methods of communication, calculation, transportation and other domestic appliances. Among all these achievements computer has its own place. The invention of the computer is the result of constant and laborious efforts of the scientists and all this credit goes to Charles Babbage. The first automatic electronic computer was made in Pennsylvania in 1946 and known as ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator). Since then it has changed the pattern of doing work easily and quickly. It has also revolutionized the whole world.
The computers vary tremendously in size, from laptop and desktop models to huge machines occupying an entire room or even more, but they all contain the same components which came under the heading of hardware and software. Hardware is the term given to all the machines that make up a computer and the collection of machines is called a computer configuration. Software refers to the programmes that instruct the machine.
There are two basic types of computers—digital and analog. Both types are highly complex systems of electrical circuits to carry out complicated calculations or to solve difficult problems. The hybrid is a third type which consists of a combination of the other two. The digital computer is basically a counting machine. A small digital computer is able to multiply, divide, substract and add, all at high speed, which are electrically powered and operated by hand like typewriters. Larger digital computer receive data or information on punched-card or magnetic tape. This data is read by the unit called the reader, which converts it into a form useable by computer. The analog computers are specially designed to deal with particular problems such as guiding Moon rockets.
Today the computer permeates the whole world of work, in homes, in factories, in schools, in hospitals, in offices, in hotels etc. because it is an enormously flexible tool that can be used in a wide variety of ways; depending on needs and available resources. The computers are effective in individualizing education, in simplifying the extensive record keeping. Therefore familiarity with the computer is considered a strong vocational advantage and saleable skill. The computers are here to stay in the modern world and the more we understand them, the better will be the days ahead of us. For with their help and one's skills, the present can be utilised to predict what is sure to come and be well prepared to meet the challenge.
Today the computer makes us aware of an earthquake, an accident in air or water. Weather forecasts are done by computers. The use of computer is expanding day by day. It collects its data and selects correct answers. It can do figure work on a large scale. All the big concerns and government offices use computers for their pay rolls and other figure work. The Indian railways and air traffic departments have computerised their function in various divisions. All the big and developed countries use computer to solve their climatic, industrial and commercial problems. Many countries control the traffic with the help of computers.
Today even class room teaching is being done through computers in many schools.
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লাচিত বৰফুকন ৰচনা | Lachit Borphukan Essay in Assamese
লাচিত বৰফুকন – অসম বুৰঞ্জীৰ পাত লুটিয়াই চালেই দেখা পোৱা লাচিত বৰফুকন হ’ল এক অপৰাজেয় ব্যক্তিত্ব,সাহস আৰু সংগ্ৰামৰ এক প্ৰতীক তথা সত্বা। এক কথাত লাচিত বৰফুকন হ’ল অসমীয়া জাতিৰ আৱেগ, অসমীয়াৰ স্বাভিমান। আজিও প্ৰতিজন অসমীয়াৰ মনত লাচিত বৰফুকনৰ সাহস, নেতৃত্বৰ দুৰদৰ্শীতাই শিহৰণৰ সৃষ্টি কৰে। লাচিত বৰফুকনক বাদ দি অসমীয়া জাতিটোৰ সাহস আৰু বীৰত্বৰ কথা কল্পনাই কৰিব নোৱাৰি। লাচিত বৰফুকনৰ দৃঢ়, নি:স্বাৰ্থ আৰু দুৰদৰ্শী নেতৃত্বই সোঁৱৰাই থাকে অসমীয়া জাতিৰ প্ৰৱল পৰাক্ৰমৰ কথা।
জন্মৰ ইতিবৃত্ত: লাচিত বৰফুকন
Table of Contents
ছশ বছৰীয়া ইতিহাস বিজড়িত পৰাক্ৰমী জাতি আহোম সকলৰ এটা বিখ্যাত ফৈদ লুখুৰাখন ফৈদৰ লান-ফিমা বংশৰ ব্যক্তি হ’ল লাচিত বৰফুকন। উল্লেখ্য যে সাত ৰাজ সামৰি এক ৰাজ কৰা চাওলুং চুকাফাৰ লগতে অসমলৈ আহিছিল লাচিত বৰফুকনৰ পূৰ্বপুৰুষ।
লাচিত বৰফুকন হ’ল আহোম ৰাজ্যৰ প্ৰথমজন বৰবৰুৱা তথা পাইক প্ৰথাৰ প্ৰৱৰ্তক মোমাই তামুলী বৰবৰুৱাৰ ঔৰষজাত সন্তান। তেওঁৰ জন্ম সম্পৰ্কে সঠিক তথ্য পোৱা নাযায় যদিও তেওঁৰ জন্ম ১৬২২ চনৰ ২৪ নৱেম্বৰ তাৰিখে আহোম ৰাজধানী গড়গাঁৱৰ ওচৰে-পাজৰে হৈছিল বুলি কোৱা হয়।
প্ৰাৰম্ভিক শিক্ষা: লাচিত বৰফুকন
শিশু অৱস্থাৰ পৰাই সততা, কৰ্তব্যনিষ্ঠা, নিয়মানুৱৰ্তিতা স্পষ্টবাদিতা আদি গুণৰ অধিকাৰী লাচিত বৰফুকনে নিজৰ বাসগৃহতেই আৰম্ভ কৰিছিল প্ৰাৰম্ভিক শিক্ষা। ৰাজপৰিয়ালত জন্ম গ্ৰহণ কৰাৰ সূত্ৰেই সামৰিক আৰু অসামৰিক দুয়োবিধ শিক্ষাই আয়ত্ত কৰিছিল লাচিত বৰফুকনে। উল্লেখ্য যে লাচিত বৰফুকনক উপযুক্ত শিক্ষাৰে দিক্ষিত কৰি তুলিবলৈ তেওঁৰ পিতৃয়ে ঘৰুৱা শিক্ষক নিয়োগ কৰি হিন্দু ধৰ্মনীতি, অৰ্থশাস্ত্ৰ আদিৰ বিষয়ত শিক্ষা প্ৰদান কৰিছিল। ইয়াৰ ওপৰিও তেওঁ পিতৃ মোমাই তামুলী বৰবৰুৱা আহোম ৰাজ্যৰ বৰবৰুৱা পদত অধিষ্ঠিত থকাৰ বাবেই সেই সময়ত আলোচিত হোৱা বিভিন্ন আলোচনা সমূহৰ পৰা লাচিত বৰফুকনে ৰাজনৈতিক, কূটনৈতিক, অৰ্থনৈতিক, সামাজিক আদি বিষয় সন্দৰ্ভত জ্ঞান অৰ্জন কৰিবলৈ সক্ষম হৈছিল।
Read Also: Biography of Lachit Borphukan in English
আহোম ৰাজসভাত প্ৰৱেশৰ ইতিবৃত্ত: লাচিত বৰফুকন
আহোম ৰাজ্যৰ ৰাজনীতিত লাচিত বৰফুকনে প্ৰৱেশ কৰিছিল ৰাজমন্ত্ৰী ডাঙৰীয়াৰ “হাঁচতিধৰা তামুলী”ৰ পদত নিযুক্তি লাভ কৰি। ব্যক্তিগত সহায়কৰ পৰ্যায়ৰ এই পদটোৰ দায়িত্ব গ্ৰহন কৰি পৰৱৰ্তী সময়ত লাচিত বৰফুকনে নিজৰ অধ্যাৱসায়, সাহস তথা কষ্টৰ ফলতহে আহোম ৰাজ্যৰ বৰফুকন তথা প্ৰধান সেনাপতিৰ পদত অধিষ্ঠিত হৈছিল।
“হাঁচতিধৰা তামুলী” হিচাপে দায়িত্ব পালন কৰাৰ পিছত লাচিত বৰফুকন নিযুক্ত পাইছিল ঘোঁৰাবৰুৱাৰ পদত। ঘোঁৰাবৰুৱাৰ পদত কাৰ্যনিৰ্বাহ কৰি থাকোঁতে লাচিত বৰফুকনে ঘোঁৰাসমূহ সঠিক ভাৱে তত্ত্বাৱধান কৰাৰ লগতে বহু কেইটা দুৰ্দান্ত ঘোঁৰা বশ কৰি নিজৰ প্ৰতিভা আৰু সাহসিকতাৰ পৰিচয় দাঙি ধৰিছিল।
ঘোঁৰাবৰুৱাৰ পদত সুকলমে দায়িত্ব সম্পন্ন কৰাৰ বাবে পৰৱৰ্তী সময়ত আহোম ৰজাই লাচিত বৰফুকনক দুলীয়া বৰুৱা পদবীত নিযুক্তি দিছিল। ইয়াৰ পৰৱৰ্তী সময়ত লাচিত বৰফুকনে নিযুক্তি লাভ কৰিছিল শিমলুগুৰিয়া খেলৰ প্ৰধান বিষয়া শিমলুগুৰিয়া ফুকনৰ পদবীত। শিমলুগুৰিয়া ফুকন হিচাপে দায়িত্ব সম্পন্ন কৰা লাচিত বৰফুকনে পৰৱৰ্তী সময়ত নিযুক্তি লাভ কৰিছিল দোলাকাষৰীয়া বৰুৱা হিচাপে। দোলাকাষৰীয়া বৰুৱা হিচাপে নিযুক্তি লাভ কৰা লাচিত বৰফুকনৰ কাম আছিল ৰজা দোলাত যাওঁতে ৰজাৰ পালি-পহৰীয়া (চাওদাং) সকলক নিয়ন্ত্ৰণ কৰা।
আহোম ৰাজ্যৰ প্ৰধান সেনাপতি আৰু বৰফুকন হিচাপে দায়িত্ব গ্ৰহন
লাচিত বৰফুকন দোলাকাষৰীয়া বৰুৱা পদত অধিষ্ঠিত হৈ থাকোঁতে স্বৰ্গদেউ চক্ৰধ্বজ সিংহই লাচিত বৰফুকনৰ দক্ষতাৰ উমান পাইছিল। যাৰ বাবে চক্ৰধ্বজ সিংহই লাচিত বৰফুকনৰ নিৰ্ভীকতা, সাহসীকতা আৰু আত্মমর্যাদাবােধৰ প্রমাণ চাই মর্যাদা অনুসৰি আনুষ্ঠানিকভাৱে আহোম ৰাজ্যৰ প্ৰধান সেনাপতি আৰু বৰফুকন পদত অধিষ্ঠিত হ’ল। গুৰুত্বপূৰ্ণ কথা যে, পিতৃ মোমাই তামুলী বৰবৰুৱা আহোম ৰাজ্যৰ প্ৰথমজন বৰবৰুৱা তথা পাইক প্ৰথাৰ প্ৰৱৰ্তক হিচাপে লাচিত বৰফুকনে আহোম ৰাজসভাত গুৰুত্বপূৰ্ণ পদত অধিষ্ঠিত হোৱাৰ বিপৰীতে “হাঁচতিধৰা তামুলী”ৰ পদত নিযুক্ত হোৱাৰ পৰা আহোম ৰাজ্যৰ প্ৰধান সেনাপতি আৰু বৰফুকন পদত নিযুক্ত হোৱালৈকে এই দীঘলীয়া সময়চোৱাই লাচিত বৰফুকনৰ একাগ্ৰতা, কৰ্মস্পৃহা, কৰ্তব্যনিষ্ঠা, সাহসক প্ৰতিফলিত কৰে।
সেনাপতিৰ দায়িত্ব গ্ৰহন কৰি লাচিত বৰফুকনে দেশৰ সৈন্য সকলক সংগঠিত কৰাৰ ক্ষেত্ৰত গুৰুত্ব আৰোপ কৰিছিল। ইয়াৰ পৰৱৰ্তী সময়ত ১৬৬৭ খ্ৰীষ্টাব্দত লাচিত বৰফুকনে নেতৃত্ব লৈ গুৱাহাটী উদ্ধাৰৰ প্ৰচেষ্টা চলায় মোগল সকলক আক্ৰমণ কৰে। গুৰুত্বপূৰ্ণ কথা যে এই আক্ৰমণত ব্ৰহ্মপুত্ৰৰ উত্তৰপাৰ আৰু দক্ষিণপাৰ দুয়োপাৰেই আহোম সৈন্যই বিজয়ধ্বজা উৰুৱাই আৰু আহোম সৈন্যই ইটাখুলি আৰু গুৱাহাটী দুৰ্গ অধিকাৰ কৰে ১৬৬৭ খ্ৰীষ্টাব্দৰ ২ নৱেম্বৰৰ দিনা মাজনিশা। গুৰুত্বপূৰ্ণ কথা যে এই আক্ৰমণত বহু সংখ্যক মোগল সৈন্যই প্ৰাণ আহুতি দিয়ে অন্যহাতে মিৰজুমলাই ১৬৬২ খ্ৰীষ্টাব্দত বন্দী কৰি নিয়া ভালেমান অসমীয়া সৈন্যক লাচিত বৰফুকনে উদ্ধাৰ কৰিবলৈ সক্ষম হয়।
আলাবৈ ৰণৰ ভুমিকা: লাচিত বৰফুকন
কিন্তু ১৬৬৯ খ্ৰীষ্টাব্দৰ ফেব্ৰুৱাৰীত অসম আক্ৰমণ কৰিবলৈ ৰামসিংহৰ নেতৃত্বত মোগল সৈন্যবাহিনী অসমলৈ আগমন ঘটে। গুৰুত্বপূৰ্ণ কথা যে মোগল সকলৰ লগত ৰণত পাৰিবলৈ সেই সময়ত আহোম সেনাৰ সম্পূৰ্ণ ৰূপে প্ৰস্তুত হোৱা নাছিল যদিও লাচিত বৰফুকনে বুদ্ধিৰে সম্ভাব্য বিপদৰ সন্মুখীন হ’বলৈ প্ৰস্তুত হৈছিল। ১৯৬৯ খ্ৰীষ্টাব্দত সংঘটিত হৈছিল আহোম আৰু মোগল সকলৰ মাজত আলাবৈ ৰণ। উল্লেখ্য যে এই যুদ্ধত একেদিনাই আহোমৰ দহ হাজাৰ সৈন্যই প্ৰাণ আহুতি দিছিল। এই জটিল সময়ত লাচিত বৰফুকন ক্ষণিকৰ বাবে বিচলিত হ’লেও ভাগৰি পৰা নাছিল।
Read Also: অসমৰ প্ৰাকৃতিক তথা বনজ সম্পদ ৰচনা | Natural and Forest Resources of Assam Essay in Assamese
যুগান্তকাৰী শৰাইঘাট ৰণ
গুৰুত্বপূৰ্ণ কথা যে অসম আক্ৰমণ কৰিবলৈ মোগল সম্ৰাট ঔৰেংগজেৱে সেনাপতি ৰাম সিংহৰ নেতৃত্বত অসম আক্ৰমণ কৰিবলৈ ১৮,০০০ অশ্বাৰোহী, ৩০,০০০ পদাতিক আৰু ১৫,০০০ কাড়ী সৈন্য প্ৰেৰণ কৰিছিল। অন্যহাতে আহোম সেনাপতি লাচিত বৰফুকনে ৰামসিংহক ভেটা দিবলৈ শৰাইঘাটৰ চাৰিওকাষে কোঠ নিৰ্মাণ কৰিছিল। এটা ৰাতিৰ ভিতৰত গড় সম্পূৰ্ন কৰাৰ দায়িত্ব মোমাইয়েকক দিছিল। একাংশ ব্যক্তিৰ কথিত তথ্য অনুসৰি লাচিত বৰফুকনৰ মোমায়েকে নিজৰ কৰ্তব্যত অৱহেলা কৰিছিল যাৰ বাবে মাজনিশালৈ গড় নিৰ্মাণৰ আধা কামো শেষ হোৱা নাছিল। দেশৰ সংকটৰ সময়ত কৰ্তব্যত অৱহেলা কৰাৰ বাবে লাচিত বৰফুকনে দেশতকৈ মোমাই ডাঙৰ নহয় বুলি মোমায়েকক শিৰচ্ছেদ কৰাৰ কথা প্ৰচলিত আছে। অন্যহাতে আন একাংশ ব্যক্তিৰ মতে কৰ্তব্যত অৱহেলা কৰা বাবে লাচিত বৰফুকনে মৌমাই অৰ্থাৎ গড় নিৰ্মাণ কৰা অভিযন্তাকহে হত্যা কৰিছিল বুলি অভিহিত কৰিছে।
গুৰুত্বপূৰ্ণ কথা যে আলাবৈ ৰণত মোগল সেনা জয় লাভ কৰাৰ পিছত পুনৰ আহোম সৈন্যক চূড়ান্ত আক্ৰমণ কৰিবলৈ ঔৰংজেৱৰৰ নিৰ্দেশত ৰামসিংহ সাজু হৈছিল। কিন্তু দুৰ্ভাগ্যবশতঃ আহোম সেনাপতি লাচিত বৰফুকনৰ স্বাস্থ্য সেই সময়ত সুস্থিৰ নাছিল, ৰোগাক্ৰান্ত হৈ আছিল লাচিত বৰফুকন। তথাপিও দেশৰ স্বাৰ্থত ৰোগীয়া শৰীৰেই মোগলৰ মুখা মুখি হ’বলৈ সাজু হৈছিল লাচিত বৰফুকন।১৬৭১খ্ৰী:ৰ ৰ্মাচ মাহত শৰাইঘাটত মোগল আৰু আহোম সেনাৰ সন্মুখ সমৰত লিপ্ত হৈছিল। গুৰুত্বপূৰ্ণ কথা যে এই ইতিহাস প্ৰসিদ্ধ শৰাইঘাটৰ যুদ্ধত আক্ৰমণকাৰী মোগল সেনাই সম্পূণভাৱে পৰাজয় বৰণ কৰে।
লাচিত বৰফুকনৰ নেতৃত্ব বহন কৰা এই শৰাইঘাট যুদ্ধ হ’ল অসমৰ ইতিহাসৰ সোণালী আখৰেৰে জিলিকা যুগান্তকাৰী ঘটনা। মহা পৰাক্ৰমী মোগল শক্তিক পৰাভূত কৰা লাচিত বৰফুকন নেতৃত্বই অসমীবাসীৰ শৌৰ্য-বীৰ্য তথা সন্মান বিশেষভাৱে বৃদ্ধি কৰাত গুৰুত্বপূৰ্ণ ভূমিকা পালন কৰিলে। নৰীয়া শৰীৰে তথচ বুদ্ধিমত্তাৰ উদাহৰণ দাঙি ধৰি লাচিত বৰফুকনে যিদৰে মোগল সৈন্যৰ সৈতে সন্মুখ সমৰত লিপ্ত হ’ল সেইয়া অতি প্ৰশংসনীয়। গুৰুত্বপূৰ্ণ কথা যে ৰণনীতিগত ক্ষেত্ৰত ব্যাপক ইন্ধন যোগাই লাচিত বৰফুকনে প্ৰথম বাৰৰ বাবে গেৰিলা যুদ্ধ পদ্ধতিৰ প্ৰৱৰ্তন কৰিছিল।
অসমীয়াৰ স্বাভিমানৰ প্ৰতীক লাচিত বৰফুকন / লাচিত দিৱস উদযাপনৰ কাৰণ
একেটা ৰাতিতে গড় বান্ধি নৰিয়া গাৰে হেংদাং লৈ মোগলক খেদি পঠিয়াবলৈ সমৰ্থ হোৱা লাচিত বৰফুকন সত্বাটোৱে আজিও প্ৰতিজন অসমীয়াৰ প্ৰাণত শিহৰণ জগাই তোলে। গুৰুত্বপূৰ্ণ কথা যে সমগ্ৰ ভাৰততে মোগলৰ আধিপত্য চলি থকাৰ সময়তে লাচিত বৰফুকনৰ সবল নেতৃত্বই বিশাল আৰু শক্তিশালী মোগল সৈন্যবাহিনীক পৰাভূত কৰিবলৈ সক্ষম হৈছিল। বুদ্ধিমত্তা, সাহস পৰাক্ৰমৰ জৰিয়তে শৰাইঘাট যুদ্ধত জয় লাভ কৰা আহোম সেনাপতি লাচিত বৰফুকনৰ জন্ম দিনটো প্ৰতি বছৰে উদযাপন কৰা হয় লাচিত দিৱস হিচাপে।
ইহলীলা সম্বৰণ: লাচিত বৰফুকন
অসীম বীৰত্ব আৰু সাহস প্ৰদৰ্শন কৰি শৰাইঘাট যুদ্ধত জয়লাভ কৰা লাচিত বৰফুকনে তীৰকঁপে হোৱা জ্বৰৰ প্ৰকোপত মৃত্যুক সাৱটি লয় শৰাইঘাট যুদ্ধৰ কিছুদিনৰ পিছতেই। ১৬৭২ খ্ৰীষ্টাব্দত মৃত্যুক সাৱটি লোৱা বীৰজনক যোৰহাটৰ হোলোঙাপাৰত মৈদাম দিয়া হয়।
সামৰণি – লাচিত বৰফুকন
অসম তথা অসমীয়াৰ বাবে এটা চিৰসেউজ সত্বা হ’ল লাচিত বৰফুকন। লাচিত বৰফুকনৰ দৰে বীৰৰ ইতিহাসেৰে সমৃদ্ধ অসমীয়া জাতি। অসমীয়াৰ আৱেগ, বিবেক সকলো অধিকাৰ কৰি থকা লাচিত বৰফুকনৰ বীৰত্ব হ’ল সমগ্ৰ জাতিৰ বাবে আদৰ্শ তথা অনুপ্ৰেৰণাৰ উৎস। লাচিত বৰফুকনৰ দৃঢ়,নি:স্বাৰ্থ,দুৰদৰ্শী ব্যক্তিৰ নেতৃত্বই অসমীয়া সমাজত যুগান্তকাৰী পৰিৱৰ্তনৰ সূচনা কৰিছিল। অসমীয়া জাতি জীয়াই থকালৈকে লাচিত বৰফুকনৰ জাতীয়তাবোধ, দেশপ্ৰেম সদায় অসমীয়াৰ তেজত প্ৰবাহিত হৈ ৰ’ব।
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An abstractive text summarization using deep learning in Assamese
- Original Research
- Published: 15 May 2023
- Volume 15 , pages 2365–2372, ( 2023 )
- Pritom Jyoti Goutom ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-7682-823X 1 ,
- Nomi Baruah 1 na1 &
- Paramananda Sonowal 1 na1
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Abstractive text summarization with long short-term memory (LSTM) is a prominent strategy in natural language processing that tries to construct a compact and coherent summary of a given text by learning the semantic representation of the input text. In this study, we provide a seq2seq-based LSTM network model with attention to the encoder–decoder to construct a short sequence of words containing coherent and human-like created summaries, including crucial information from the original text. We obtained a dataset from Asomiya Pratidin, an Assamese online news website, including around 10,000 Assamese text articles and related human-written summaries. Our primary objective is to create an abstractive summarizer in Assamese while minimizing train loss. We reduced train loss to 0.3032 and produced fluent summaries during our study.
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Nomi Baruah and Paramananda Sonowal contributed equally to this work.
Authors and Affiliations
Dibrugarh University, Dibrugarh, Assam, 785664, India
Pritom Jyoti Goutom, Nomi Baruah & Paramananda Sonowal
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Goutom, P.J., Baruah, N. & Sonowal, P. An abstractive text summarization using deep learning in Assamese. Int. j. inf. tecnol. 15 , 2365–2372 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s41870-023-01279-7
Received : 04 November 2022
Accepted : 02 May 2023
Published : 15 May 2023
Issue Date : June 2023
DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/s41870-023-01279-7
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Can i download science stream old papers.
Yes. HS Science Question Papers for 2nd Year students are given here. The science stream has all the subjects included.
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HS Exam Commerce Question Papers are available in PDF formats here. You can download or view it in the google drive folder as per your need.
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Learning English: Phonological Problems for Assamese Medium Learners
Assamese is the medium of instruction in the Assamese medium schools of Assam. The learners’ first language is basically Assamese. They learn the English language from their primary level stage of their formal education. However, a very little exposure of English in almost all the skills of the language has been clearly noticed at this level. Hence, a good number of errors have been sustained by Assamese medium learners as a result of interference from their mother tongue while speaking English. Both English and Assamese belong to the common Indo-European language family. This makes us feel that some features are bound to be common to both the languages. Yet, because of the fact that there is a gap of thousands of years after the separation of Sanskrit (from which Assamese descended) and primitive Germanic (from which English descended), some features of differences are also bound to happen. Though both the languages belong to the same Indo-European family, they developed differentl...
International Education and Research Journal
The English pronunciation of the students of Assamese medium school is comparatively poor and the students hesitate to speak out aloud English words. This study will try to find out the causes and the remedial measures for the problems. The paucity of adequate trained English teachers in the Assamese Medium schools of Assam is of the prime causes of the students' poor English pronunciation. poor English pronunciation. Here, we will find out the phonetics issues of relating the English pronunciation of Assamese spoken students. The purpose of my study is to determine the most commonly mispronounced words by Assamese EFL learners and the estimated reasons for the errors.
English as an International Language
Dr arpita goswami
The Sylheti Bangla, a variety of Bangla language is primarily spoken in the Sylhet District of Bangladesh, Barak Valley of Assam, Tripura, especially in North Tripura. The systematic perusal of English spoken by Sylheti Bangla speakers demonstrates that it carries a huge difference with English (RP) especially with respect to pronunciation, syllable structure, stress, intonation. The disparities between Sylheti English and English (RP) are because of a number of divergent variances between Sylheti Bangla and English which often makes the acquisition of English an arduous job for the Sylheti speakers. The errors committed by Sylheti speakers during their speaking in English can be attributed to the interference of the rule of the mother tongue in learning the second language. This interference can be of phonological, morphological and sentence structure. However, the domain of this paper is exclusive to phonological interference of L1 on L2 through the contrastive analysis of the phonological aspects of Sylheti Bangla and English (RP). This paper intends to improve the status of English teaching-learning process compared to contemporary practices. Thus, it aspires to contribute to the theory of second language acquisition with a particular focus on learning English by Sylheti speakers.
Dr. Hemanga Dutta
Arup Kumar Nath
Pronunciation is the most challenging aspect of the Indian speakers when communicating in English. In the context of many Indian language class rooms, grammar and vocabulary are given due importance but there is no conscious effort on practicing pronunciation. Poor pronunciation not only leads to misunderstanding but also creates negative impression and confusion. Learners with bad pronunciation are judged as lack of knowledge, incompetent and they will be misunderstood. There are several factors that influence pronunciation such as native language interference, amount of exposure, phonetic ability, cultural and educational back ground and motivation. Of all the influences the influence of native language is the most inhibiting and inherent factor that manifest in the form of mis pronunciation. When we learn English in childhood we learn to speak English fluently without mother tongue influence. When we learn English in later stage, we are unlikely to attain native like English accent. The first section of the paper emphasizes the importance of pronunciation with reference to some research and reviews. The second section analyses various reasons for mother tongue influence in English communication and how to overcome the problem.
Abstract This dissertation establishes the pattern of prominence in Assamese and Assamese English. It shows for the first time that Assamese exemplifies a left–to–right trochaic system with an iterative binary rhythm. However, this rhythmic profile is disturbed by the occurrence of closed syllables deemed to be heavy.
The present study aims to look into the problems faced by Burushaski speakers while learning English. The study particularly focuses on the English consonants that are not found in Burushaski language and also on the role of native language in learning these consonants. The study proves that five English consonant phonemes; the post-0 2 9 2 alveolar voiced fricative / /, the dental voiceless fricative /θ/, the dental voiced fricative /ð/, the labio-dental voiceless fricative /f/, the labiodentals voiced fricative / v/ are problematic for Burushaski speakers, and are replaced with possible resembled Burushaski sounds / 0 2 9 2 0 3 2 A 0 3 2 A
Indian Journal of Language and Linguistics
This paper includes a detailed discussion on the intelligibility of the speakers of four regional dialects of the Indo-Aryan language of Assamese. Prior research on Assamese dialects mostly being confined to examining structural variation lends this study relevance and urgency. The dialects of Standard Assamese, Central Assamese, Kamrupi, and Goalparia, covering three varieties each, were considered for the study. Using a functional intelligibility testing approach, the rate of overall intelligibility as well as of inter- and intra-dialectal mutual intelligibility of the dialects were determined. 24 speakers (1 male and 1 female from each variety) were asked to record ‘texts’— words, sentences, and connected speech in their native varieties of Assamese. 11 listeners from each variety (132 in total) were then tested on their comprehension of texts from non-native varieties. Thereafter, their rates of comprehension were used to determine the rates of mutual intelligibility between spe...
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Essay on assamese language (1811 words).
Essay on Assamese Language!
Literary forms developed in the Assamese language by the 13th century though the language can be traced back to the ninth-tenth century AD—to the Charyapadas, where the earliest elements of the language can be seen. The Charyapadas are Buddhist songs composed in the 8th-12th centuries.
Hema Saraswati could be called the first poet in Assamese with his Prahladacharita. Under King Indranarayana (ruled 1350-1365) of Kamatapur, the two poets Haribara Vipra and Kaviratna Saraswati composed Asvamedha Parva and Jayadratha Vadha respectively.
Assam is known as the state of Ekasarana Dharma. Srimanta Shankardeva and Madhabdev wrote Kirtan Ghosa, Dasham, Ankia Nat, Gunamala, Namghosa, which are among the most popular books in Assam.
The Borgeet written by both Shankardeva and Madhabdev is known as the soul song of Assam. The great saint-poet Sankaradeva composed lyrics as well as a number of one-act plays in leavened Assamese prose interspersed with songs. They are known as Ankiya Nats. Rudra Kandali translated Drona Parva of the Mahabharata into Assamese.
The most well-known poet of the Pre-Vaishnavite sub-period was Madhav Kandali, who rendered Valmiki’s Ramayana into Assamese verse (Kotha Ramayana) in the 14th century. Assamese prose was given a definite shape by Bhagavata who translated the Bhagavata and the Gita into Assamese.
Modern Assamese prose emerged from buranjis. From the 17th to the 19th century, prose chronicles (buranji) were written in Ahom courts. These chronicles broke away from the style of the religious writers. The language is essentially modern except for some slight alterations in grammar and spelling.
The modern Assamese period began with the publication of the Bible in Assamese prose by the American Baptist missionaries in 1819. The missionaries established the first printing press in Sibsagar (1836) and started using the local Asamiya dialect for writing purposes. In 1846, they started a monthly periodical called Arunodoi and, in 1848, Nathan Brown published the first book on Assamese grammar.
It gave a strong impetus towards reintroducing Assamese as the official language in Assam. The missionaries published the first Assamese-English Dictionary compiled by M. Bronson in 1867. The British imposed Bengali in 1836 in Assam. Due to a sustained campaign, Assamese was reinstated in 1873 as the state language.
It was in the nineteenth century that new developments, indeed, a renaissance, took place in Assamese literature. The pioneers in the movement were Chandrakumar Agarwalla, Lakshminath Bezbarua and Hemachandra Goswami. They founded the monthly Jonaki that introduced the short story form.
The names of Padmanath Gohain Barua and Rajnikanth Bordoloi, author of the first Assamese novel Mirijiyori, are associated with the development of the modern novel in Assamese.
Lakshminath Bezbarua made a significant contribution to the development of the short story in Assamese. Jyoti Prasad Agarwalla, Birinchi Kumar Barua, Hem Barua, Atul Chandra Hazarika, Nalini Bala Devi, Navakanta Barua, Mamoni Raisom Goswami, Bhabendra Nath Saikia, Saurav Kumar Saliha are modern Assamese literary writers of note.
Hemchandra Barua’s (1835-96) most important work was his Hemkosh, an Anglo-Assamese dictionary published posthumously in 1900. Barua’s Articles in Arunodoi, his dictionaries, and his grammatical texts sought to replace the simplified Assamese used by missionaries with a version closer to Sanskrit patterns of speech and to strengthen the use of Assamese by native speakers.
Among these were Asamiya Vyakaran (1873), Asamiya Lorar Vyakaran (1892), and Pathsalia Abhidan (1892). His literature, too, reveals a concern for social reform. Gunabhiram Barua’s Ram-Navami (1858) is seen as the first modern Assamese play.
He was also the first Assamese biographer (Anandaram Dhekiyal Phookanar Jivan Sarit in 1880). Barua contributed to the development of the literary essay.
The Jonaki era is also known as the age of Romanticism in Assamese literature. Assamese writers of this period looked to the Romantics rather than their contemporary Victorians. The central theme changed from devotion to God to devotion to the world, its beauties, man as a reflection of the supernatural, and man’s pursuit of joy and beauty.
The Asom Sahitya Sabha was formed in 1917. The Sahitya Sabha facilitated the exchange of ideas, popularised Assamese literature, art, and culture, and provided a forum for literary debate and discussion through its conventions, journals, and publications.
Jonaki, first published on February 9, 1889, by Chandrakumar Agarwalla, was the journal of the Asamiya Bhashar Unnati Sadhini Sabha; later Jonaki editors were Lakshminath Bezbarua and Hemchandra Goswami.
The three writers dominated the literature of this period. Notable among the early twentieth century poets who first published in Jonaki were Raghunath Choudhari; Bholanath Das; and Anandachandra Agarwala whose Jilikoni was published in 1920.
Other poets of note were Ambikagiri Raichoudhuri (Tumi)-, Jatindranath Duara; Parvati Prasad Baruva; and Jyotiprasad Agarwala who defined an important aspect of Assamese literature—its function in popular culture.
Among prose writers of the nineteenth century are Benudhar Rajkhowa; Surya Kumar Bhuyan who established the art of the biography with his Anandaram Barua; Rajanikanta Bordoloi who produced an impressive four-volume saga of the final days of the Ahom dynasty and the romantic novel Miri Jiyori (1895), one of the most enduring romances in Assamese literature.
The modern dramatic works had more literary, than theatrical, value. The first dramatic work of this period was Lakshminath Bezbarua’s Litikai. His other dramas were historical ones: Chakradhwaj Singha and Joymati Kunwari. Benudhar Rajkhowa’s plays are satirical and often farcical. His plays are Kali Yuga, Tini Ghaini, Asikshit Ghaini, and Sorar Sristi. Bishnu Rabha represented indigenous Assam in his prose, poetry, and drama.
Among women writers of Assam, mention must be made of Padmavati Devi Phookanani who’s Sudharmar Upakhyan in 1884 ‘can be considered the second novel by an Assamese writer. Swarnalata Baruah, Dharmeswari Devi Baruani, Jamuneswari Khatoniyar, and Nalinibala Devi made their mark in the twentieth century. Nalinibala Devi’s works cover the range of any major writer.
In the first half of the twentieth century, the decade of the 1940s is considered the Jayanti era, taking its name from the quarterly Jayanti, first published on January 2, 1938. Jayanti saw the establishment of a new form of literature. If Jonaki took literature from the devotional to the Romantic, Jayanti moved it to the realistic.
Jayanti was not the only journal to follow Jonaki and Baheen; among other important journals were Abahon, Surabhi, and Ramdhenu. Even in the 1940s, Assamese literature was dependent on journals, for there had never been a strong print culture or publishing industry in Assam that could issue independent works from manuscript.
The poetry published in Jayanti had writers challenging the established norms of a society based on caste and class distinctions. Their poetry reflects a disillusionment and cynicism arising from a realisation that a free India did not imply freedom and equality. Amulya Barua (1922-46) was the foremost poet of this generation. Then there were Keshav Mahanta (Suror Koiphiyot), Amulya Barua and Hem Barua (Guwahati-1944), which described the wartime difficulties and political and ideological struggles.
Said Abdul Malik’s collection of short stories, Parashmoni, was published in 1946. Birendra Kumar Bhattacharya’s short stories focused on social, rather than interpersonal, subjects. The Assamese novel at this time was still the traditional, plot- driven novel, but its subjects and plots were no longer those of the traditional romances.
Birinchi Kumar Barua or Bina Barua’s works Jivanor Batot and Seuji Pator Kahini depict the gradual disappearance of a rural, natural lifestyle. Other notable novelists of this period were Kaliram Medhi, Bhabananda Datta and Prafulla Dutta Goswami (Shesh Kot and Kesa Pator Kapani). Dutta Goswami’s novels were the first to reveal modern structure and language in the Assamese novel form.
The drama of this period can be divided into the mythological, the historical, and the social. Modern Assamese drama was established in the 1940s by Jyotiprasad Agarwalla. The Nagaon Natya Samiti’s Piyoli Phookan (1948), Prabin Phookan’s Lachit Borphookan (1946) and Maniram Dewan (1948), dramatised the historical and personal events surrounding well-known personalities of Assam’s history.
Surendranath Saikia wrote mythological plays, like Kama (1947) and Lakshman (1949). It was the social drama that gained popularity and importance, especially as emphasised by Jyotiprasad Agarwala (Lobhita in 1942).
Assamese literature today includes a wide range of poetry, novels, short stories, dramas, and sub-genres such as folklore, science fiction, children’s literature, biographies and translations.
Modern poetry reveals personal reflections and focuses on the immediate and shifting trends of modern life (urban life), settings. Navakanta Barua, Nilamoni Phookan, Nirmalprabha Bordoloi, and Hiren Bhattacharya, Samir Tanti, whose works includes Yudha Bumir Kabita (1985) and Shokakol Upatyaka (1990) and has a poetic vision that reflects on Third World conditions, Bhabe Barua and Hiren Datta are among the noteworthy modern post-independence poets. Bhupen Hazarika’s songs and poetry have covered a wide range of subjects, from the intensely personal to the extremely political.
Another contemporary novelist whose subjects are often political is Homen Borgohain. Notable modern novelists include writers such as Nirupama Borgohain, Nilima Dutta, and Mamoni Raisom Goswami. Lakshminandan Borah focuses on ordinary life especially rural life (Ganga Silonir Pakhi, Nishar Purobi, and Matit Meghor Sanh).
Jogesh Das comments on the restrictive nature of our society, especially concerning women (Jonakir Jui in 1959 and Nirupai, Nirupai in 1963). Debendranath Acharya in his novels Kalpurush (1967), Anya Jog Anya Purush (1971), and Jangam (published 1982), was the first to write in the surrealistic mode. Rong Bong Terang’s novel Rongmilir Hanhi (1981) brought Karbi society to mainstream literature.
Shilabhadra experimented with form and subject in Madhupur (1971), Tarangini (1971), Godhuli (1981) and Anusandhan (1987). Short story writer and playwright Bhabendranath Saikia’s (1932) novel Antarip (1986) is extraordinarily progressive in its feminism.
Other contemporary fiction writers include Chandra Prasad Saikia, Medini Choudhuri, Arunachali writer Lummer Dai, Troilokyanath Goswami, Sneha Devi, Hiren Gohain, and Govindaprasad Sharma.
Modern Assamese drama, too, displays social analysis and structural experimentation. Translations of Western plays, such as those of Shakespeare and Ibsen, are an important aspect of modern Assamese drama.
An important form that has developed in present-day Assamese drama is the one-act play. The formation of the Asom Natya Sanmilan in 1959 and its regular one-act play competitions have helped in the development of this form.
Notable one-act plays are Durgeswar Borthakur’s Nirodesh; Prabin Phookan’s Tritaranga; Bhabendranath Saikia’s Putola-Nas; and Bhupen Hazarika’s Era Bator Sur. The subjects of modern drama range from the historical to the contemporaneous. A significant number of modern plays also revive traditional folk and classical forms.
In 1917, the Oxom Xahityo Xobha was established as a guardian of Assamese society, as a forum for the development of Assamese language and literature. The first president of the Xobha was Padmanath Gohain Baruah.
Writers of the post- independent period include Syed Abdul Malik, Jogesh Das and Birendra Kumar Bhattacharya (who received the Jnanpith Award of 1979 for his novel Mrutunjaya). Among the contemporary writers are Arupa Kalita Patangia, Monikuntala Bhattacharya, Mousumi Kondoli, Monalisa Saikia and Amritjyoti Mahanta.
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Essay on Computer and its Uses for School Students and Children
500+ words essay on computer.
In this essay on computer, we are going to discuss some useful things about computers. The modern-day computer has become an important part of our daily life. Also, their usage has increased much fold during the last decade. Nowadays, they use the computer in every office whether private or government. Mankind is using computers for over many decades now. Also, they are used in many fields like agriculture, designing, machinery making, defense and many more. Above all, they have revolutionized the whole world.
History of Computers
It is very difficult to find the exact origin of computers. But according to some experts computer exists at the time of world war-II. Also, at that time they were used for keeping data. But, it was for only government use and not for public use. Above all, in the beginning, the computer was a very large and heavy machine.
Working of a Computer
The computer runs on a three-step cycle namely input, process, and output. Also, the computer follows this cycle in every process it was asked to do. In simple words, the process can be explained in this way. The data which we feed into the computer is input, the work CPU do is process and the result which the computer give is output.
Components and Types of Computer
The simple computer basically consists of CPU, monitor, mouse, and keyboard . Also, there are hundreds of other computer parts that can be attached to it. These other parts include a printer, laser pen, scanner , etc.
The computer is categorized into many different types like supercomputers, mainframes, personal computers (desktop), PDAs, laptop, etc. The mobile phone is also a type of computer because it fulfills all the criteria of being a computer.
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Uses of Computer in Various Fields
As the usage of computer increased it became a necessity for almost every field to use computers for their operations. Also, they have made working and sorting things easier. Below we are mentioning some of the important fields that use a computer in their daily operation.
They use computers to diagnose diseases, run tests and for finding the cure for deadly diseases . Also, they are able to find a cure for many diseases because of computers.
Whether it’s scientific research, space research or any social research computers help in all of them. Also, due to them, we are able to keep a check on the environment , space, and society. Space research helped us to explore the galaxies. While scientific research has helped us to locate resources and various other useful resources from the earth.
For any country, his defence is most important for the safety and security of its people. Also, computer in this field helps the country’s security agencies to detect a threat which can be harmful in the future. Above all the defense industry use them to keep surveillance on our enemy.
Threats from a Computer
Computers have become a necessity also, they have become a threat too. This is due to hackers who steal your private data and leak them on internet. Also, anyone can access this data. Apart from that, there are other threats like viruses, spams, bug and many other problems.
The computer is a very important machine that has become a useful part of our life. Also, the computers have twin-faces on one side it’s a boon and on the other side, it’s a bane. Its uses completely depend upon you. Apart from that, a day in the future will come when human civilization won’t be able to survive without computers as we depend on them too much. Till now it is a great discovery of mankind that has helped in saving thousands and millions of lives.
Frequently Asked Questions on Computer
Q.1 What is a computer?
A.1 A computer is an electronic device or machine that makes our work easier. Also, they help us in many ways.
Q.2 Mention various fields where computers are used?
A.2 Computers are majorly used in defense, medicine, and for research purposes.
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