discursive essay on protection of biodiversity

Biodiversity 101: Why it matters and how to protect it

  • May 21, 2020

The Earth is undergoing a mass extinction that could see up to a million species disappear in the coming decades – and humans are contributing heavily to this.

The numbers are staggering: the population sizes of vertebrate species, which include mammals, reptiles, birds and fish, dropped by around half between 1970 and 2010 . A quarter of mammals, 40 percent of amphibians, and 30 percent of sharks and rays are currently endangered .

During the 20th century, extinction rates were about 100 times higher than they would have been without humans significantly altering most of the planet’s surface .

What does this loss of biodiversity mean for the future of the planet and its inhabitants – and what can we do about it? The first step is understanding the basics, unraveled in easy-to-digest terms here in this explainer:

What is biodiversity?

How is biodiversity measured, what are the benefits of biodiversity, what are the main threats to biodiversity, how can we protect biodiversity.

Rhinerrhiza divitiflora, also known as the Raspy Root Orchid. cskk, Flickr

Coined by biologists in the 1980s as a contraction of biological diversity , the term usually refers to the variety of life on Earth as a whole . The U.N. Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) breaks it down as follows :

“Biological diversity” means the variability among living organisms from all sources including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part.

But the CBD makes it clear that measuring biodiversity is no simple feat:

This includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems.

Let’s start with biodiversity between species, or species diversity . Arguably the simplest measure is ‘species richness’ – a count of how many species live in a community.

But species richness does not consider the relative abundance of each species, or its importance to an ecosystem or landscape, or its value to people. As such, biologists have invented diversity indices, such as the Simpson index and the Shannon index , to take these factors into account.

When talking about biodiversity loss, we often focus on losses in species diversity, as it is crucial to maintain the balance of ecosystems, nutritional value of food, and enhance resilience of ecosystems and landscapes to the threats of climate change and other risks like weeds and pests.

Yet genetic diversity – the characteristics of a species’ genetic makeup – is equally important, as it ensures resilience to change and stressors on a more individual level.

Consider the following analogy: in investing, a diversified portfolio minimizes risk and usually provides the most reliable returns. Likewise, genetic diversity protects a species from being wiped out by an external shock like a natural disaster or disease outbreak.

At the largest scale is the concept of ecosystem diversity , which measures how many different ecosystems exist within a geographical area or wider landscape. The more ecosystems exist within a landscape, the more resilient that landscape is, and the more services it has to offer its inhabitants. 

These include wetlands , which contain over 40 percent of the value of the world’s ecosystems ; peatlands , which store a third of the planet’s soil carbon; and lesser-known tropical forests such as monsoon and karst forests , which are among our best natural defenses against climate change.

You might have also heard of ‘biodiversity hotspots.’ These are landscapes with exceptionally high concentrations of biodiversity. 43 percent of bird, mammal, reptile and amphibian species are only found in areas that make up just 2.4 percent of the Earth’s surface .

Why is biodiversity important?

Healthy and functional ecosystems play a crucial role in sustaining human livelihoods through providing necessities and benefits such as food, water, energy sources and carbon sequestration, known as ‘ecosystem services.’

One study estimates that each year, the goods and services provided by the planet’s ecosystems contribute over USD 100 trillion to the global economy , more than double the world’s gross domestic product (GDP). But much debate remains over how to factor in non-monetary values, such as natural beauty, regulating functions, and providing homes for humans and animals.

Underpinning ecosystem services are genetic diversity and biodiversity. Genetic diversity supports agriculture by building resilience and protecting against environmental stresses such as pests, crop diseases and natural disasters . This provides a source of income and safeguards the food security of much of the world’s poor.

Biodiversity also plays a role in some ‘ nature-based solutions ’ to climate change and problems caused by changes in the environment. These solutions could provide up to a third of the carbon emissions reductions needed to meet the Paris Agreement goals .

Including biodiversity in nature-based solutions, though, must be a conscious choice. Tree planting , for instance, can come in the form of monocultures (planting just a single species in a landscape) or agroforestry, which mixes species of agricultural crops and trees in a single landscape to enhance the sustainability of both.

While each of these cases offers a different set of financial and environmental benefits, most experts will sing the praises of nature-based solutions that take into account biodiversity over those that don’t.

And, let us not forget: the planet’s various ecosystems and landscapes also hold considerable intrinsic value to humans, whether for their recreational opportunities, their cultural importance to Indigenous communities , or their contributions to physical and mental health . Without biodiversity, these values will be lost.

A pool of Spoonbills. Craig ONeal, Flickr

In a seminal report published last year, the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) identified five direct drivers of biodiversity loss: changes in land and sea use, overexploitation, climate change, pollution, and invasive species.

These five drivers, it argues , are in turn driven by increasing demand for natural resources, as well as governance structures that prioritize economic growth over conservation and restoration.

Land and sea use

The most widespread form of land-use change has been the expansion of agriculture : according to the IPBES report, over a third of the Earth’s land surface is now used for cropping or livestock, mainly at the expense of forests , wetlands and grasslands.

The tropics , which are home to the highest levels of biodiversity on Earth, are now seeing their ecosystems replaced by cattle ranching in Latin America and plantations in Southeast Asia .

Other key land-use changes include logging, mining and urbanization. Coastal and marine ecosystems have also been significantly affected by activities such as offshore aquaculture, bottom trawling, coastal development and ocean mining .


The IPBES suggests that fishing has had a larger impact on marine ecosystems than any other human activity: 33 percent of marine fish stocks are currently overfished, and 60 percent are being fished to their sustainable limits. Poaching and hunting , too, are driving many mammals to the brink of extinction.

Climate change

Humans have caused the planet to warm by around 1 degree Celsius since pre-industrial times – and biodiversity is already bearing the brunt of that warming. Climate change is reducing the distribution of many species (the geographical area in which they can survive), including almost half of all endangered mammals.

Changes in the ecological balance can also result in species that can beneficial turning into pests and plagues once their natural enemies are reduced or disappear: think locusts, mosquitos, algae.

Many plants and animals are also experiencing disruptions to their phenology , which refers to seasonal life cycle events such as flowering, migration and hibernation.

Mining, agriculture, industry and other pervasive changes in human’s land-use are contributing to air, water and soil pollution. The IPBES notes that coastal waters contain the highest levels of metals and organic pollutants, such as industrial discharge and fertilizers.

Similarly, marine plastic pollution has increased tenfold since 1980, primarily affecting marine turtles, seabirds and marine mammals, as well as humans indirectly through the food chain.

Invasive species

An invasive alien species is a species that has been introduced to a new location and starts to disrupt its new habitat. These species can threaten native biodiversity by out-competing them for resources, and they’re spreading ever more quickly as international travel and trade expands. A recent study found that one-sixth of the Earth’s land surface is highly vulnerable to invasion , including many biodiversity hotspots.

The underwater landscape at Beveridge Reef, Niue. Vlad Sokhin, UNDP

Humanity’s ecological footprint is about 70 percent larger than the planet can sustain – and in the world’s richest countries, that figure is as much as four or five times larger. Given these huge inequalities in both living standards and ecological impact, residents of industrialized nations can – and should – do their part to preserve biodiversity by helping contribute to more sustainable global systems.

At the individual level, that could include reducing air travel, buying organic , eating less red meat, avoiding fast fashion , and turning your backyard into a carbon sink .

At the international and policy level , we need commitments to restore the Earth’s ecosystems , following the examples set by the Everglades and farmers in the African Sahel .

Indigenous and local communities are deep and rich sources of traditional knowledge of how best to care for increasingly fragile landscapes. Technological innovation is a crucial tool too.

And with biodiversity worth more in monetary terms than the entire global economy , there’s a clear business case to be made for investing in restoring the planet .


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discursive essay on protection of biodiversity

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The case against the concept of biodiversity

It’s more controversial than you might think.

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In 2017, an evolutionary biologist named R. Alexander Pyron ignited controversy with a Washington Post commentary titled “We don’t need to save endangered species. Extinction is part of evolution.” He wrote: “Conserving a species we have helped to kill off, but on which we are not directly dependent, serves to discharge our own guilt, but little else.”

Pyron’s take challenged the decades-old idea that biodiversity is a good thing — that humans should strive to preserve all forms of life on Earth and their interconnectedness across ecosystems. It prompted scientist and writer Carl Safina to mount a passionate defense of biodiversity, calling Pyron’s stance “conceptually confused” and containing “jarring assertions.” Safina’s most cutting rebuke was that belittling biodiversity derails environmental conversations. “It’s like answering ‘Black lives matter’ with ‘All lives matter,’” he wrote. “It’s a way of intentionally missing the point.”

Nobel Prize winners co-signed more rebuttals. Professors blogged long meditations on why endangered species need to be saved. There were scientists who had previously questioned a hyperfocus on saving species, to be sure , though none had done so in such a public and broad-sweeping manner as Pyron. Josh Schimel, an ecologist at UC Santa Barbara, wrote : “Remember, you are a scientist — it is not your job to be right. It is your job to be thoughtful, careful, and analytical.” Pyron declined a request for comment for this story.

Ginger Allington, a landscape ecologist and professor at George Washington University who tracks the scientific debate around “biodiversity,” says this scientific back-and-forth reflects increasing conflict about the importance of biodiversity and species loss.

The most common way to measure biodiversity is to count the number of species in a certain place, also known as “species richness.” But critics question the usefulness of this number and argue that the concept has always been fuzzy, even to scientists, akin to a “ new linguistic bottle for the wine of old ideas .”

A handful of scientists want to do away with the term biodiversity altogether — and have been trying to do so since the late 1990s. The concept, they say, is hard to quantify, hard to track globally over time, and actually isn’t an indication of what people commonly picture as a “healthy” ecosystem. (Scientists are generally reluctant to describe ecosystems in terms of “healthy” or “unhealthy,” which are value judgments.)

Last year, the United Nations reported that the world has failed to reach even one of the major biodiversity conservation targets it had set for itself in 2010. In the face of accelerating species and habitat loss, countries are now committing to protecting 30 percent of land and water by 2030. This fall, 193 nations are set to attend the virtual Convention on Biological Diversity to hash out a plan to stop biodiversity loss. (A draft of that plan was published last month.) In the US, the Biden administration has proposed its own game-changing approach to nature conservation . Meanwhile, a coronavirus pandemic that may have begun in animals reminds us that we are fundamentally linked to the animals in these critical habitats.

Against this backdrop, a new generation of scientists is taking up the debate about what to do about “biodiversity” itself — the scientific concept, its popular understanding, and indeed the very word. As Allington told Vox: “There’s just a lot of drama.”

The backstory of biodiversity

Before there was biodiversity, there was BioDiversity. A key moment in the evolution of the word came at the National Forum on BioDiversity, held at the Smithsonian Institution and National Academy of Sciences, in 1986. Speakers included Jared Diamond, who later authored Guns, Germs, and Steel, and the biologist E.O. Wilson, who most recently popularized the idea of protecting half the planet .

Diamond and Wilson — along with seven other white male scientists in attendance — dubbed themselves the “Club of Earth” and held a press conference, telling reporters that biodiversity loss was the second-biggest “threat to civilization.” The first? Thermonuclear war.

Few women scientists or non-Western experts were featured. And not everyone felt comfortable crowning biodiversity as a scientific silver bullet, for that matter. One news report from the time quoted biologist Dan Janzen, who said at the forum that “one shouldn’t use the number of species as the only criterion for earmarking an area for conservation.” Janzen would later call the forum “an explicit political event” and said that the word biodiversity got “punched into that system at that point [in time] deliberately.”

Still, the forum drew 14,000 in-person attendees. Another 10,000 watched a live “teleconference” of key panelists beamed around the world. “BioDiversity: The Videotape,” a campy VHS recording of the teleconference spliced with wildlife footage, sold out. The New York Times, Washington Post, Boston Globe, and Time all covered the event, marking “the first time that biological diversity … had received such a broad public airing,” a December 1986 article in the journal BioScience noted. The forum not only streamlined the term — thanks to a suggestion by biologist Walter Rosen — but brought the buzzword to the forefront, as the growing rate of global species extinctions was given both a name and an urgency. “The biodiversity crisis,” Wilson said at the forum, “is a real crisis.”

Against the odds, the idea of biodiversity spread outside of science and around the world. “I’d compare the market penetration of ‘biodiversity’ to Madonna,” said Stuart Pimm, a conservation biologist at Duke University.

Pimm witnessed the word’s use rise suddenly in the 1980s as a young associate professor. Before then, Pimm had no simple name for the kind of research he was doing — now called conservation biology — and, more problematically, no term for what he was measuring out in the field. And so biodiversity “hit several things simultaneously,” he said. “It’s easy to popularize, it captures people’s imagination, and it’s scientifically credible.”

Three ecologists shaped “biodiversity” into the kind of science that goes mainstream, according to Pimm. Thomas Lovejoy coined the term “biological diversity” in the 1980s. Elliott Norse defined it as the variety of genes, species, and ecosystems in a given area. And Wilson, who initially deemed the contraction biodiversity “too glitzy,” ultimately popularized the word. In 1992, the UN codified the word biodiversity — and Norse’s definition — into the Convention on Biological Diversity, a multilateral treaty.

Biodiversity was thus conceived to capture two notions: a world teeming with wildlife, and the political problem of stopping extinctions. The idea had become “a force” capable of influencing global society, as climate and environmental law expert David Takacs wrote in his 1996 book The Idea of Biodiversity . “It is difficult to distinguish biodiversity, a socially constructed idea, from biodiversity, some concrete phenomena,” Takacs wrote.

But over the years, biodiversity has come to mean many things to different people — from “local species” to “wildness” to “natural balance” to just “a fancy word for nature,” according to a study of public opinion in Scotland . Researcher R.A. Lautenschlager, in a 1997 scientific article titled “ Biodiversity is dead ,” put it more bluntly: “Biodiversity has become so all-inclusive that it has become meaningless.”

“We need to be careful about what we are saying”

A practical question flows from this history: Does saving every species still matter?

Allington has seen colleagues try to address this kind of question publicly, and their answers, she says, tend to get misinterpreted. “We need to be careful about what we are saying,” she said.

To unpack this question in her college courses, Allington — who considers biodiversity to be “multifaceted” — passes out bags of mixed candy to her students, illustrating a key point: “The bags show that not all species play the same role in the ecosystem,” she said. Some species, like oysters, make key contributions to the ecosystem, and their disappearance would threaten all the rest. “The problem is that we still don’t know what functions the majority of species actually provide,” she said.

Scientists in today’s save-all-species debate disagree about where the science ends, and where the subjective idea of right and wrong begins. In this sense, debates about biodiversity may ultimately be debates about ethics, implicit human values , and whose ecological knowledge matters .

“Does every species matter?” asked Mark Vellend, a plant ecologist at University of Sherbrooke in Canada. “You cannot even give an answer unless you say, matter for what ?”

How to measure “goodness”

The late biologist Michael Soulé, the “ father of conservation biology ,” was unequivocal that biodiversity is good — though its goodness, he wrote, “ cannot be tested or proven .”

But in specific places, biodiversity for biodiversity’s sake is not necessarily good . On islands, for example, plant diversity is generally increasing because non-native species are arriving; some rare island plant species may go extinct as a result, but not always . Biodiversity might also be the wrong lens in ecosystems that weren’t diverse to begin with, like boreal forests close to the Arctic, which have low numbers of species that rarely face extinction even in the face of logging.

A colourful aurora over the wind-shaped trees of the boreal sub-Arctic forest at the Churchill Northern Studies Centre, March 18, 2020. Arcturus is rising between the two trees right of centre. This is a single 15-second exposure at f/2 with the Venus O

Many scientists recognize biodiversity as an imperfect yardstick. The total number of species, and how it changes, doesn’t capture all the ways that humans and other forces alter landscapes. “‘More biodiversity’ is not a universal prescription for conservation,” journalist Michelle Nijhuis writes in Beloved Beasts , a history of the conservation movement.

It also doesn’t capture the human experience of nature. A 2013 study — “ Is biodiversity attractive? ” — found that when it comes to outdoor recreation, visitors don’t actually prefer species-rich urban spaces. “Especially during the pandemic people [are] flocking to natural, wild spaces,” said Vellend. “Whether in those spaces there are 1,000 species or 100, to me that’s a pretty small part of the overall story.”

For many people, the on-ramp to nature is not through science. “Their point of entry is aesthetic,” Barry Lopez, the nature writer and Arctic Dreams author, said in a 2001 interview. “It’s not that they don’t know what biodiversity is, but it doesn’t have the pull,” he added. “The door for them lies elsewhere.”

A more measurable dimension of a place’s “goodness” within the human story, some scientists think, is ecosystem function. Forget the number of species, in other words, and focus on what each does for keeping an ecosystem enjoyable and humming, like the life-supporting role of oak trees — which support hundreds of species of caterpillars, a mainstay in most songbird diets — in North American hardwood forests. Using this framework, land managers would focus their conservation efforts on species that appear to play the most crucial role in a given ecosystem. (An 80-page US National Park Service report , called “Resist-Accept-Direct,” recently called for this triage approach.)

Pimm, for his part, thinks this framework is “total bullshit” — and he is not alone in that sentiment. It’s hard to develop a conservation plan around the emerging concept of ecosystem function, according to Pimm, precisely because we still know so little about the role of any given species in a place. “What does one even mean by ecosystem function?” he asked. “It doesn’t have any operational meaning.”

The concept of biodiversity is becoming even more influential in the realm of climate policy: In June, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change published its first-ever joint report with the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services. Yet one of its authors, the Paris-Saclay University ecologist Paul Leadley, said while introducing the report that current on-the-ground approaches to saving species are essentially outdated. “We have to really rethink biodiversity conservation,” he said.

There is a broader movement to expand the meaning of “biodiversity”

So if the idea that saving every species saves the planet is imperfect, should we now abandon biodiversity?

“A concept can’t truly die until it’s got a replacement,” said Vellend. He says that the 1980s version of biodiversity should be seen as a starting point, with plenty of room for improvement. “Until somebody comes up with something better, we’re stuck with it.”

Even R. Alexander Pyron, the author of the explosive Post piece, cautioned against dropping “biodiversity” in a mea culpa he posted on his Facebook page after blowback from his peers. “I succumbed to a temptation to sensationalize parts of my argument,” Pyron wrote.

But others see an opportunity to expand the notion of biodiversity into something more inclusive and more just. Campaigns like #BiodiversityRevisited have created virtual dialogues and in-person workshops where an array of voices discuss ways of breathing new life into “biodiversity.” These discussions have pushed out possible replacement terms, like “ fabric of life ,” that might better capture the full range of life on Earth, from thriving trees to prospering pandas to healthy people.

One starting point might be to broaden the biodiversity concept to include humans, breaking down the barrier between our species and other animals. “My well-educated scientist colleagues will often slip and say ‘mammals and humans.’ Every time, I get a chill down my spine,” said Hopi Hoekstra, an evolutionary biologist and curator at Harvard University’s Museum of Comparative Zoology. Humans are mammals, after all. That even experts make these slips of the tongue “just highlights that there is still something to overcome there,” Hoekstra said.

Conservationists could also gain from a broadened notion of biodiversity that centers Indigenous and traditional knowledge , which has long been diminished by establishment science. Research shows that lands managed by Indigenous people are home to much of the world’s biodiversity, and that biodiversity tends to decline more slowly on those lands.

“Many of these Westernized concepts, we don’t see ourselves in them,” Andrea Reid, a fisheries scientist at University of British Columbia and a citizen of the Nisga’a nation, said. Indigenous concepts of conservation “include people within the system,” said Reid, who monitors diversity in British Columbia’s coldwater streams by counting species in ways that have cultural meaning to Indigenous people.

Reid has been working with Indigenous “knowledge keepers” who will go to a stream and look for certain species of dragonfly — for them, a “cultural indicator” that marks a healthy ecosystem. Other scientists might go to the same place and tally all insect species to measure local species richness. These measures can be used together, Reid says, to assess the overall condition of the stream over time.

This kind of “pluralistic” perspective , as some scientists call it, aligns with what Reid calls “two-eyed seeing” — a way of bringing together Indigenous and Western understandings. “It’s not about throwing something out, or just walking away from ‘biodiversity’ and its metrics,” Reid said. “It’s about enriching our understanding by bringing multiple perspectives to bear.”

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The Royal Society

Royal Society essays explore threats to global biodiversity and case for urgent action

Leading figures in the fields of conservation, economics and sustainable development call for the urgent protection and restoration of global biodiversity in a series of essays  ahead of the United Nations’ biodiversity summit, COP15, in Kunming, China next year.

Commissioned by the Royal Society from experts across the sciences and humanities, these essays are intended to strengthen the evidence base on biodiversity and guide international policymakers ahead of the summit.

Evolution has created millions of species of animals, plants, fungi and microbes which are threatened by human activity and the changes we are causing to Earth’s climate. Their loss jeopardises the systems that provide our food, regulate our climate and buffer against threats like flooding and disease.

The first tranche of essays explains why biodiversity loss is ‘evolutionary suicide’, and looks at how the impacts of human consumption and population growth on the natural world can be mitigated.

“These essays present the case for ambitious steps to reverse biodiversity decline,” said Professor Yadvinder Malhi CBE FRS, Professor of Ecosystem Science, University of Oxford and Chair of the Royal Society’s Biodiversity steering group. 

“For society to flourish, the natural world must thrive. Biodiversity is the inherited biological wealth of the Earth, and has intrinsic value in its own terms. It is also essential for meeting the most basic of human needs - food, water, shelter, clothing, fuel and medicines. It also helps clean pollution from the environment, influences climate and cycles nutrients crucial to life. It is integral to our physical and mental wellbeing and society at large.

“The full suite of essays will explore the context and causes of biodiversity loss, and what needs to be done to reverse this decline. Through these essays and its ongoing policy work, the Royal Society aims to stimulate discussion and a system-wide response to biodiversity loss.”

The first three essays are summarised below:

Emergent and vanishing biodiversity, and evolutionary suicide – Simon A. Levin, James S. McDonnell Distinguished University Professor in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, explores the importance of biodiversity to humanity, and warns us of an imminent ‘evolutionary suicide - in the same way as the spread of cancer cells kills the host and the cancer cells. To prevent this, he emphasises the importance of preserving the variety and robustness of natural ecosystems, within which species co-exist, relate and evolve, and which are at the core of the services we enjoy from nature. As players in a global coordination game, recognising and valuing the priorities of other groups will be vital for effective collective action on biodiversity

Consumption patterns and biodiversity – Jianguo Liu, Center for Systems Integration and Sustainability, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Michigan State University, urges us to rethink our consumption habits to ensure these are less harmful to biodiversity. He offers a new approach which takes into consideration global consumption patterns and associated conservation challenges which arise when the production of goods and services is separated geographically from consumption – dubbed “telecoupling”. Using this approach to trace flows along supply chains and coordinate efforts across systems would make it possible to account for the biodiversity impacts of goods and services - and make those who damage nature liable for the cost.

Demographic trends and policy options – John Bongaarts, Distinguished Scholar, Population Council, states that the effect of population growth on biodiversity is often ignored by policymakers - in part because of its sensitivity and opposition to family planning from different demographics. He outlines two main avenues to address rising global population – through stimulating socio-economic change (for example, through the education of women) or by investing in family planning programmes. In particular, he shows how reproductive health programmes could enable governments in less developed countries (LDCs) to help women avoid unplanned pregnancies. 

The remaining essays are expected to be published early in 2021.

All the Royal Society’s biodiversity work is available at - royalsociety.org/topics-policy/projects/biodiversity

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Protecting global biodiversity

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discursive essay on protection of biodiversity

Credit: United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity

The world’s most prominent biodiversity body will meet this year in Kunming, the capital of the most biodiverse province in China, as the nation hosts the 15th meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (COP15). Contributing to the success of the COP has been development of its global commitments towards collective targets, with China making significant progress on its own conservation efforts, said Elizabeth Maruma Mrema, the executive secretary of the UN Convention on Biological Diversity.

“China has achieved, earlier than scheduled, the Aichi Biodiversity Target number 11 in the conservation of at least 17% of terrestrial areas, as well as meeting other targets in enhancing the protection of biodiversity countrywide,” Mrema pointed out.

discursive essay on protection of biodiversity

In 1992, China was among the first to sign the Biodiversity Convention (CBD), considered to be the key document for supporting global sustainable development. It was opened for signature on 5 June 1992 and came into effect on 29 December 1993. The CBD has three major goals: the conservation of biodiversity; the sustainable use of its components; and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from genetic resources.

The Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), established in 2012 by 94 governments, published the global assessment report in 2019. In this report China was recognized for its historical rice-fish system that maximizes the benefits of scarce land and water resources by “using relatively few chemical inputs, by producing both staples and protein, as well as micronutrients, and by conserving biodiversity”.

At COP15, 196 parties and states are expected to reach a new agreement. There are updated targets to protect natural habitats around the world, ensure international cooperation, and further promote the protection, sustainable use and benefit-sharing of biodiversity — in addition to the existing 400-plus aims.

COP1 was held in 1994 in Nassau, in The Bahamas to agree on guidance for financial mechanisms and a medium-term programme of work. Subsequent COP meetings have covered issues like marine and coastal biological diversity, access to genetic resources, global strategy for wildlife conservation, and tackling invasive species.

There are two major supplementary agreements aligned with the CBD, the Cartagena Protocol (2000) and Nagoya-Kuala Lumpur Supplementary Protocol (2010), which have been ratified to refine the coverage of CBD and keep the targets up to date. The Cartagena Protocol seeks to protect biological diversity from potential risks posed by genetically modified organisms resulting from biotechnology: while the Nagoya Protocol sets out obligations for its signatories to take measures in relation to access to genetic resources and benefit-sharing.

The Convention’s Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020, created in 2010 alongside the Nagoya Protocol, include the Aichi Biodiversity Targets (ABT). These targets are for conservation plans for threatened species, degraded and fragmented ecosystems, and diminishing genetic resources. The 20 Aichi biodiversity targets are broken down into 60 separate elements to monitor overall progress, with a set of supporting mechanisms for implementation such as resource mobilization, capacity building and scientific and technology cooperation.

The fifth edition of the UN’s Global Biodiversity Outlook report, published by the CBD in September 2020, shows progress is patchy. While seven elements of ABT have been achieved and 38 have shown progress, there are still 13 elements that have shown no progress, and two elements for which progress is unknown. Some of the most significant improved elements include identifying and separating invasive alien species, protecting 10% of coastal and marine areas, and 17% of terrestrial and inland water areas.

The need for transformative change is urgent. “Earth’s living systems as a whole are being compromised,” said Mrema, when GBO-5 was released, “The more humanity exploits nature in unsustainable ways and undermines its contributions to people, the more we undermine our own wellbeing, security and prosperity.”

8–29 October ( Nagoya, Aichi Prefecture, Japan )

Developed strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011–2020, including Aichi Biodiversity Targets agreed, with revised biodiversity targets and indicators

The Nagoya Protocol

Adopted on 29 October 2010

Set out obligations for contracting parties in relation to access to genetic resources, benefit-sharing, and compliance

8–19 October ( Hyderabad India )

Focussed on financial issues including targets for implementation of the Strategy for Resource Mobilization. The 33 decisions taken included setting targets to improve baseline information and also an interim target to double biodiversity-related international financial resource flows to developing countries by 2015 and at least maintaining this level until 2020.

6–17 October ( Pyeongchang, Republic of Korea )

Discussions focused on the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity, its implementation and progress towards the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. Presented for consideration were the mid-term evaluation of the initiative, the UN Decade on Biodiversity (2011–2020) and the assessment report of the Global Biodiversity Outlook 4. The meeting adopted the Pyeongchang Road Map.

4–17 December ( Cancun, Mexico )

Integrated the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity in plans and programmes; cross-sector policies with emphasis on agriculture, forestry, fisheries and tourism industries (Cancun Declaration adopted, signed parties committed to incorporate an inclusive economic, social, and cultural approach with full respect for nature and human rights)

17–29 November ( Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt )

Accelerated actions to achieve Aichi Biodiversity Targets, and initiated the process for the development of post-2020 global biodiversity framework

discursive essay on protection of biodiversity

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133 Biodiversity Topics & Examples

🔝 top-10 biodiversity topics for presentation, 🏆 best biodiversity project topics, 💡 most interesting biodiversity assignment topics, 📌 simple & easy biodiversity related topics, 👍 good biodiversity title ideas, ❓ biodiversity research topics.

  • Biodiversity loss.
  • Global biodiversity conservation.
  • The Amazon rainforest.
  • Animal ecology research.
  • Sub Saharan Africa.
  • Marine biodiversity.
  • Threats to ecosystems.
  • Plant ecology.
  • Importance of environmental conservation.
  • Evolution of animal species.
  • Threat to Biodiversity Is Just as Important as Climate Change This paper shall articulate the truth of this statement by demonstrating that threats to biodiversity pose significant threat to the sustainability of human life on earth and are therefore the protection of biodiversity is as […]
  • Essentials of Biodiversity At the same time, the knowledge and a more informed understanding of the whole concept of biodiversity gives us the power to intervene in the event that we are faced by the loss of biodiversity, […]
  • The Impact of Burmese Pythons on Florida’s Native Biodiversity Scientists from the South Florida Natural Resource Center, the Smithsonian institute and the University of Florida have undertaken studies to assess the predation behavior of the Burmese pythons on birds in the area.
  • Biodiversity Hotspots: The Philippines The International Conservation has classified the Philippines as one of the biodiversity hotspots in the world. Additionally, the country is said to be one of the areas that are endangered in the world.
  • When Human Diet Costs Too Much: Biodiversity as the Ultimate Answer to the Global Problems Because of the unreasonable use of the natural resources, environmental pollution and inadequate protection, people have led a number of species to extinction; moreover, due to the increasing rates of consumerist approach towards the food […]
  • Loss of Biodiversity and Extinctions It is estimated that the number of species that have become extinct is greater than the number of species that are currently found on earth.
  • Ecosystems: Biodiversity and Habitat Loss The review of the topic shows that the relationship between urban developmental patterns and the dynamics of ecosystem are concepts that are still not clearly understood in the scholarly world as well as in general.
  • Introduced Species and Biodiversity Rhymer and Simberloff explain that the seriousness of the phenomenon may not be very evident from direct observation of the morphological traits of the species.
  • Measurement of Biodiversity It is the “sum total of all biotic variation from the level of genes to ecosystems” according to Andy Purvus and Andy Hector in their article entitled “Getting the Measure of Diversity” which appeared in […]
  • Biodiversity and Business Risk In conclusion, biodiversity risk affects businesses since the loss of biodiversity leads to: coastal flooding, desertification and food insecurity, all of which have impacts on business organizations.
  • How Biodiversity Is Threatened by Human Activity Most of the marine biodiversity is found in the tropics, especially coral reefs that support the growth of organisms. Overexploitation in the oceans is caused by overfishing and fishing practices that cause destruction of biodiversity.
  • How Human Health Depends on Biodiversity The disturbance of the ecosystem has some effects on the dynamics of vectors and infectious diseases. Change of climate is a contributing factor in the emergence of new species and infectious diseases.
  • Aspects, Importance and Issues of Biodiversity Genetic diversity is a term used to refer to the dissimilitude of organisms of the same species. Species diversity is used to refer to dissimilitude of organisms in a given region.
  • Natural Sciences: Biodiversity and Human Civilisation The author in conjunction with a team of other researchers used a modelling study to illustrate the fact approximately 2 percent of global energy is currently being deployed in the generation of wind and solar […]
  • Biodiversity Benefits for Ecology This variation of species in the ecosystem is a very important concept and factor that indeed is the basis for sustaining life on our planet. Moreover, the most important supporter of life, which is soil […]
  • Marine Biodiversity Conservation and Impure Public Goods The fact that the issue concerning the global marine biodiversity and the effects that impure public goods may possibly have on these rates can lead to the development of a range of externalities that should […]
  • Biodiversity Hotspots: Evaluation and Analysis The region also boasts with the endangered freshwater turtle species, which are under a threat of extinction due to over-harvesting and destroyed habitat.
  • Climate Change’s Negative Impact on Biodiversity This essay’s primary objective is to trace and evaluate the impact of climate change on biological diversity through the lens of transformations in the marine and forest ecosystems and evaluation of the agricultural sector both […]
  • Biodiversity, Its Evolutionary and Genetic Reasons The occurrence of natural selection is hinged on the hypothesis that offspring inherit their characteristics from their parents in the form of genes and that members of any particular population must have some inconsiderable disparity […]
  • Biodiversity, Its Importance and Benefits Apart from that, the paper is going to speculate on the most and least diverse species in the local area. The biodiversity can be measured in terms of the number of different species in the […]
  • Defining and Measuring Biodiversity Biodiversity is measured in terms of attributes that explore the quality of nature; richness and evenness of the living organisms within an ecological niche.
  • Brazilian Amazonia: Biodiversity and Deforestation Secondly, the mayor persuaded the people to stop deforestation to save the Amazon. Additionally, deforestation leads to displacement of indigenous people living in the Amazonia.
  • Biodiversity Markets and Bolsa Floresta Program Environmentalists and scholars of the time led by Lord Monboddo put forward the significance of nature conservation which was followed by implementation of conservation policies in the British Indian forests.
  • Earth’s Biodiversity: Extinction Rates Exaggerated This is because most animals and plants have been projected to be extinct by the end of this century yet the method that is used to forecast this can exaggerate by more than 160%.
  • Urban Plants’ Role in Insects’ Biodiversity The plants provide food, shelter and promote the defensive mechanisms of the insects. The observation was also an instrumental method that was used to assess the behavior and the existence of insects in relation to […]
  • Biodiversity and Animal Population in Micronesia This means that in the future, the people living in Micronesia will have to move to other parts of the world when their homes get submerged in the water.
  • Biodiversity: American Museum of Natural History While staying at the museum, I took a chance to visit the Milstein Family Hall of Ocean Life and the Hall of Reptiles and Amphibians.
  • California’s Coastal Biodiversity Initiative The considered threat to California biodiversity is a relevant topic in the face of climate change. To prevent this outcome, it is necessary to involve the competent authorities and plan a possible mode of operation […]
  • Loss of Biodiversity in the Amazon Ecosystem The growth of the human population and the expansion of global economies have contributed to the significant loss of biodiversity despite the initial belief that the increase of resources can halt the adverse consequences of […]
  • Global Warming: Causes and Impact on Health, Environment and the Biodiversity Global warming is defined in simple terms as the increase in the average temperature of the Earth’s surface including the air and oceans in recent decades and if the causes of global warming are not […]
  • Scientific Taxonomy and Earth’s Biodiversity A duck is a domestic bird that is reared for food in most parts of the world. It is associated with food in the household and is smaller than a bee.
  • Natural Selection and Biodiversity These are featured by the ways in which the inhabiting organisms adapt to them and it is the existence of these organisms on which the ecosystems depend and therefore it is evident that this diversity […]
  • The Importance of Biodiversity in Ecosystem The most urgent problem right now is to maintain the level of biodiversity in this world but it has to begin with a more in-depth understanding of how different species of flora and fauna can […]
  • Biodiversity Hotspots and Environmental Ethics The magnitude of the problem of losing biodiversity hotspots is too great, to the extend of extinction of various species from the face of the earth.
  • Biodiversity: Population Versus Ecosystem Diversity by David Tilman How is the variability of the plant species year to year in the community biomass? What is the rate of the plant productivity in the ecosystem?
  • Ecological Consequences Due to Changes in Biodiversity The author is an ecologist whose main area of interest is in the field of biodiversity and composition of the ecosystem.
  • A Benchmarking Biodiversity Survey of the Inter-Tidal Zone at Goat Island Bay, Leigh Marine Laboratory Within each quadrant, the common species were counted or, in the case of seaweed and moss, proliferation estimated as a percentage of the quadrant occupied.
  • Biodiversity: Importance and Benefits This is due to the fact that man is evolving from the tendency of valuing long term benefits to a tendency of valuing short terms benefits.
  • Biodiversity Conservation: Tropical Rainforest The forest is not a threat to many species and that, therefore, helps in showing that conserving this forest will be of great benefit to many species. The disadvantage of conserving the Mangrove Forest is […]
  • Restoring the Everglades Wetlands: Biodiversity The Act lays out the functions and roles of the Department of Environmental Protection and the South Florida Water Management District in restoration of the Everglades.
  • Habitat Destruction and Biodiversity Extinctions The instance of extinction is by and large regarded as the demise of the very last character of the genus. Habitat obliteration has played a major part in wiping out of species, and it is […]
  • Biodiversity and Food Production This paper will analyze the importance of biodiversity in food production and the implications for human existence. Edible organisms are few as compared to the total number of organisms in the ecosystem.
  • Rewilding Our Cities: Beauty, Biodiversity and the Biophilic Cities Movement What is the source of your news item? The Guardian.
  • National Biodiversity Strategy By this decision, the UN seeks to draw the attention of the world community and the leaders of all countries to the protection and rational use of natural resources.
  • Biodiversity and Dynamics of Mountainous Area Near the House It should be emphasized that the term ecosystem used in this paper is considered a natural community characterized by a constant cycle of energy and resources, the presence of consumers, producers, and decomposers, as well […]
  • Conserving Biodiversity: The Loggerhead Turtle The loggerhead sea turtle is the species of oceanic turtle which is spread all over the world and belongs to the Cheloniidae family.
  • Invasive Processes’ Impact on Ecosystem’s Biodiversity If the invasive ones prove to be more adaptive, this will bring about the oppression of the native species and radical changes in the ecosystem.
  • Biodiversity, Interdependency: Threatened and Endhangered Species In the above table, humans rely on bees to facilitate pollination among food crops and use their honey as food. Concurrently, lichens break down rocks to provide nutrient-rich soil in the relationship.
  • Biology Lab Report: Biodiversity Study of Lichens As a consequence of these results, the variety of foods found in forest flora that include lichens may be linked to varying optimum conditions for establishment and development.
  • Wild Crops and Biodiversity Threats However, out of millions of existing types of wild crop cultures, the vast majority have been abandoned and eradicated, as the agricultural companies placed major emphasis on the breeding of domesticated cultures that are easy […]
  • Biodiversity and the Health of Ecosystems Various opinions are revealed concerning biodiversity, including the human impact, reversal of biodiversity loss, the impact of overpopulation, the future of biodiversity, and the rate of extinction.
  • Coral Reef and Biodiversity in Ecosystems Coral reefs are formed only in the tropical zone of the ocean; the temperature limits their life – are from +18 to +29oS, and at the slightest deviation from the boundaries of the coral die.
  • Biodiversity: Aspects Within the Sphere of Biology Finally, living objects consist of cells, which are the basic units of their function and structure. The viruses’ structure depends on which nucleic acid is included, which denotes that there are DNA and RNA viruses.
  • Cold Water Coral Ecosystems and Their Biodiversity: A Review of Their Economic and Social Value
  • Benchmarking DNA Metabarcoding for Biodiversity-Based Monitoring and Assessment
  • Prospects for Integrating Disturbances, Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning Using Microbial Systems
  • Enterprising Nature: Economics, Markets, and Finance in Global Biodiversity Politics
  • Institutional Economics and the Behaviour of Conservation Organizations: Implications for Biodiversity Conservation
  • Fisheries, Fish Pollution and Biodiversity: Choice Experiments With Fishermen, Traders and Consumers
  • Last Stand: Protected Areas and the Defense of Tropical Biodiversity
  • Hardwiring Green: How Banks Account For Biodiversity Risks and Opportunities
  • Governance Criteria for Effective Transboundary Biodiversity Conservation
  • Marine Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas for Penguins in Antarctica: Targets for Conservation Action
  • Ecological and Economic Assessment of Forests Biodiversity: Formation of Theoretical and Methodological Instruments
  • Environment and Biodiversity Impacts of Organic and Conventional Agriculture
  • Food From the Water: How the Fish Production Revolution Affects Aquatic Biodiversity and Food Security
  • Biodiversity and World Food Security: Nourishing the Planet and Its People
  • Climate Change and Energy Economics: Key Indicators and Approaches to Measuring Biodiversity
  • Conflicts Between Biodiversity and Carbon Sequestration Programs: Economic and Legal Implications
  • Models for Sample Selection Bias in Contingent Valuation: Application to Forest Biodiversity
  • Optimal Land Conversion and Growth With Uncertain Biodiversity Costs
  • Internalizing Global Externalities From Biodiversity: Protected Areas and Multilateral Mechanisms of Transfer
  • Combining Internal and External Motivations in Multi-Actor Governance Arrangements for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services
  • Balancing State and Volunteer Investment in Biodiversity Monitoring for the Implementation of CBD Indicators
  • Differences and Similarities Between Ecological and Economic Models for Biodiversity Conservation
  • Globalization and the Connection of Remote Communities: Household Effects and Their Biodiversity Implications
  • Shaded Coffee and Cocoa – Double Dividend for Biodiversity and Small-Scale Farmers
  • Spatial Priorities for Marine Biodiversity Conservation in the Coral Triangle
  • One World, One Experiment: Addressing the Biodiversity and Economics Conflict
  • Alternative Targets and Economic Efficiency of Selecting Protected Areas for Biodiversity Conservation in Boreal Forest
  • Analysing Multi Level Water and Biodiversity Governance in Their Context
  • Agricultural Biotechnology: Productivity, Biodiversity, and Intellectual Property Rights
  • Renewable Energy and Biodiversity: Implications for Transitioning to a Green Economy
  • Agricultural Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services of Major Farming Systems
  • Integrated Land Use Modelling of Agri-Environmental Measures to Maintain Biodiversity at Landscape Level
  • Changing Business Perceptions Regarding Biodiversity: From Impact Mitigation Towards New Strategies and Practices
  • Forest Biodiversity and Timber Extraction: An Analysis of the Interaction of Market and Non-market Mechanisms
  • Poverty and Biodiversity: Measuring the Overlap of Human Poverty and the Biodiversity Hotspots
  • Protecting Agro-Biodiversity by Promoting Rural Livelihoods
  • Maintaining Biodiversity and Environmental Sustainability
  • Landscape, Legal, and Biodiversity Threats That Windows Pose to Birds: A Review of an Important Conservation Issue
  • Variable Mating Behaviors and the Maintenance of Tropical Biodiversity
  • Species Preservation and Biodiversity Value: A Real Options Approach
  • What Is Being Done to Preserve Biodiversity and Its Hotspots?
  • How Are Argentina and Chile Facing Shared Biodiversity Loss?
  • Are Diverse Ecosystems More Valuable?
  • How Can Biodiversity Loss Be Prevented?
  • Can Payments for Watershed Services Help Save Biodiversity?
  • How Can Business Reduce Impacts on the World’s Biodiversity?
  • Are National Biodiversity Strategies Appropriate for Building Responsibilities for Mainstreaming Biodiversity Across Policy Sectors?
  • How Does Agriculture Effect Biodiversity?
  • Are There Income Effects on Global Willingness to Pay For Biodiversity Conservation?
  • How Does the Economic Risk Aversion Affect Biodiversity?
  • What Are the Threats of Biodiversity?
  • How Has the Increased Usage of Synthetic Pesticides Impacted Biodiversity?
  • What Does Drive Biodiversity Conservation Effort in the Developing World?
  • How Does the Plantation Affect Biodiversity?
  • What Does Drive Long-Run Biodiversity Change?
  • How Does the United Nations Deal With Biodiversity?
  • What Factors Affect Biodiversity?
  • How Are Timber Harvesting and Biodiversity Managed in Uneven-Aged Forests?
  • When Should Biodiversity Tenders Contract on Outcomes?
  • Who Cares About Biodiversity?
  • Why Can Financial Incentives Destroy Economically Valuable Biodiversity in Ethiopia?
  • What Factors Affect an Area’s Biodiversity?
  • In What Ways Is Biodiversity Economically Valuable?
  • Which Human Activities Threaten Biodiversity?
  • How Can Biodiversity Be Protected?
  • In What Ways Is Biodiversity Ecologically Value?
  • In Which Countries Is Biodiversity Economically Valuable?
  • Does Species Diversity Follow Any Patterns?
  • How Is Biodiversity Measured?
  • What Is a Biodiversity Hotspot?
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  • UNESCO's commitment
  • Culture and values
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  • Local, indigenous and scientific knowledge
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  • International governance mechanisms
  • United Nations Decade on Ecosystem Restoration
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  • Ocean Biodiversity Information System

Conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity

Biodiversity is currently being lost at up to 1,000 times the natural rate. Some scientists are now referring to the crisis as the ‘Earth’s sixth mass extinction’, comparable to the last great extinction crisis 65 million years ago. These extinctions are irreversible and pose a serious threat to our health and wellbeing. Designation and management of protected areas is the cornerstone of biodiversity conservation. However, despite an increase in the total number of protected areas in the world, biodiversity continues to decline.

An integrated landscape approach to conservation planning plays a key role in ensuring suitable habitats for species. However, many protected areas are not functioning as effectively as originally intended, due in part to limited resources to maintain these areas and/or enforce relevant legal frameworks. In addition, current protected area networks may need to be re-aligned to account for climate change. Efforts to preserve biodiversity must take into account not only the physical environment, but also social and economic systems that are well connected to biodiversity and ecosystem services. For protected areas to contribute effectively to a secure future for biodiversity, there is a need for measures to enhance the representativeness of networks, and to improve management effectiveness.

  • Growth in protected areas in many countries is helping to maintain options for the future, but sustainable use and management of territory outside protected areas remains a priority.
  • Measures to improve environmental status within conservation areas, combined with landscape-scale approaches, are urgently needed if their efficiency is to be improved.
  • Lack of adequate technical and financial resources and capacity can limit the upscaling of innovative solutions, demonstrating further the need for regional and subregional co-operation.
  • Capacity building is a key factor in the successful avoidance and reduction of land degradation and informed restoration.
  • Capacity development needs should be addressed at three levels: national, provincial and local.
  • There is a need for capacity building to enable sources outside government to inform relevant departments and policies on biodiversity (e.g. through consultancies, academia and think tanks).

Sites, connected landscapes and networks

Conserving biodiversity and promoting sustainable use.

UNESCO works on the conservation of biodiversity and the sustainable use of its components through UNESCO designated sites, including biosphere reserves , World Heritage sites and UNESCO Global Geoparks . In 2018, UNESCO designated sites protected over 10 million km 2 , an area equivalent to the size of China. These conservation instruments have adopted policies and strategies that aim to conserve these sites, while supporting the broader objectives of sustainable development. One such example is the policy on the integration of a sustainable development perspective into the processes of the World Heritage Convention.

UNESCO is also the depository of the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance . Countless species of plants and animals depend on these delicate habitats for survival.

The first comprehensive assessment of species that live within World Heritage sites reveals just how critical they are to preserving the diversity of life on Earth.


The MAB Programme and the World Network of Biosphere Reserves: connecting landscapes and reconciling conservation with development

Biosphere reserves are designated under UNESCO’s Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Programme and promote solutions reconciling the conservation of biodiversity with its sustainable use at local and regional scales.

This dynamic and interactive network of sites works to foster the harmonious integration of people and nature for sustainable development through participatory dialogue, knowledge sharing, poverty reduction, human wellbeing improvements, respect or cultural values and efforts to improve society’s ability to cope with climate change. Progress has been achieved in connecting landscapes and protected areas through biosphere reserves, however further efforts are needed.

  • World Network of Biosphere Reserves (WNBR)
  • BIOsphere and Heritage of Lake Chad (BIOPALT)
  • Women for Bees - a joint Guerlain and UNESCO programme
  • Protecting Great Apes and their habitats
  • Ecosystem restoration for sustainable development in Haiti ( Français | Español )
  • Green Economy in Biosphere Reserves project in Ghana, Nigeria and Tanzania *
  • More activities and projects

and the sustainable use of its components through UNESCO designated sites

Itaipu Biosphere Reserve, Paraguay

Capacity building

Capacity building is needed to provide adequate support to Member States to attain the international biodiversity goals and the SDGs. In some countries, technical, managerial and institutional capacity to define guidelines for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity is inadequate. Additionally, existing institutional and technical capacity is often fragmented and uncoordinated. As new ways of interacting with biodiversity emerge, it is essential that stakeholders are trained and have sufficient capacity to implement new and varied approaches. Further efforts will be needed therefore to facilitate capacity building by fostering learning and leadership skills.

UNESCO is mandated to assist Member States in the design and implementation of national policies on education, culture, science, technology and innovation including biodiversity.

The BIOPALT project: integrated management of ecosystems

More than 30 million people live in the Lake Chad Basin. The site is highly significant in terms of  biodiversity and natural and cultural heritage. The cross-border dimension of the basin also presents opportunities for sub-regional integration. The  BIOsphere and Heritage of Lake Chad (BIOPALT) project focuses on poverty reduction and peace promotion, and aims to strengthen the capacities of the Lake Chad Basin Commission member states to safeguard  and  manage sustainably the water resources, socio-ecosystems and cultural resources of the region.

Women for bees: Women’s empowerment and biodiversity conservation

Women for Bees is a state-of-the-art female beekeeping entrepreneurship programme launched by UNESCO and Guerlain. Implemented in UNESCO designated biosphere reserves around the world with the support of the French training centre, the Observatoire Français d’Apidologie (OFA), the programme has actor, film maker and humanitarian activist Angelina Jolie for a Godmother, helping promote its twin objectives of women’s empowerment and biodiversity conservation.

Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) and capacity development

Capacity development is  present in all areas of IOC ’s work, at the global programme level as well as  within  each of its three sub-commissions and  the IOC-INDIO regional committee. In 2015, IOC adopted its Capacity Development Strategy. IOC is the custodian agency for SDG 14A.

In collaboration with the International Oceanographic Data and Information Exchange (IODE) , IOC has implemented a network of Regional Training Centres under the OceanTeacher Global Academy (OTGA) project, which has seven such centres around the world (Belgium, Colombia, India, Kenya, Malaysia, Mozambique and Senegal). Through its network of centres, OTGA provides a  programme of training courses related to IOC programmes, which contribute to the sustainable management of  oceans and coastal areas worldwide. OTGA has developed an e-Learning  Platform that hosts all training  resources for the training courses and makes them freely available to any interested parties.

Since 2012,  270 scientists from 69 countries have been trained to  manage  marine  biodiversity  data,  publish  data  through the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS) , and perform scientific data analysis for reporting and assessment. Since 1990, IOC West Pacific Regional Training and  Research  Centres  have  trained  more  than  1,000 people in a variety of topics including: 

  • monitoring the ecological impacts of ocean acidification on coral reef ecosystems,
  • harmful algal blooms,
  • traditional and molecular taxonomy,
  • reef health monitoring, and
  • seagrass and mangrove ecology and management.

Most courses take place in a face-to-face classroom environment,  however training can also be conducted online using ICTs and the OceanTeacher e-Learning Platform, thereby increasing the number of people reached.

and peace-building through the promotion of green economy and the valorization of the basin's natural resources

BIOPALT project, capacity building in Niger to produce Balanite oil

Governance and connecting the scales

Governance systems in many countries function as indirect drivers of changes to ecosystems and biodiversity. At present, most policies that address biodiversity are fragmented and target specific. Additionally, the current design of governance, institutions and policies rarely takes into account the diverse values of biodiversity. There are also substantial challenges to the design and implementation of effective transboundary and regional initiatives to halt biodiversity loss, ecosystem degradation, climate change and unsustainable development. Another key challenge to successful policy-making is adequate mobilization of financial resources. Increased funding from both public and private sources, together with innovative financing mechanisms such as ecological fiscal transfers, would help to strengthen institutional capacities.

  • Governance options that harness synergies are the best option for achieving the SDGs.
  • There is a need to develop engagement and actions with diverse stakeholders in governance through regional cooperation and partnerships with the private sector.  
  • Mainstreaming biodiversity into development policies, plans and programmes can improve efforts to achieve both the Aichi Targets and the SDGs.

UNESCO works to engage with new governance schemes at all levels through the LINKS Programme , the MAB Programme , the UNESCO-CBD Joint Programme and integrated management of ecosystems linking local to regional scales.

UNESCO supports the integrated management of ecosystems linking local to regional scales, especially through transboundary biosphere reserves, World Heritage sites and UNESCO Global Geoparks. The governance and management of a biosphere reserve places special emphasis on the crucial role that combined knowledge, learning and capacity building play in creating and sustaining a dynamic and mutually beneficial interactions between the conservation and development objectives at local and regional scales.

A transboundary biosphere reserve is defined by the following elements: a shared ecosystem; a common culture and shared traditions, exchanges and cooperation at local level; the will to manage jointly the territory along the bio-sphere reserve values and principles; a political commitment resulting in an official agreement between governmental authorities of the countries concerned. The transboundary biosphere reserve establishes a coordinating structure representative of various administrations and scientific boards, the authorities in charge of the different areas included the protected areas, the representatives of local communities, private sector, and NGOs. A permanent secretariat and a budget are devoted to its functioning. Focal points for co-operation are designated in each country participating.

Transboundary conservation and cooperation

The Trifinio Fraternidad Transboundary Biosphere Reserve is located between El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras. It is the first transboundary biosphere reserve in Central America and represents a major contribution to the implementation of the Mesoamerican Corridor. It includes key biodiversity areas, such as Montecristo National Park and a variety of forest ecosystems.

Trifinio Fraternidad Transboundary Biosphere Reserve (El Salvador/Guatemala/Honduras)

Trifinio Fraternidad Transboundary Biosphere Reserve (El Salvador/Guatemala/Honduras)

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News from the Columbia Climate School

What You Can Do to Protect Biodiversity

you can help protect biodiversity

Biodiversity —the variety of all living organisms including ecosystems, plants, animals, their habitats and genes—is fundamental to life on Earth. We need biodiversity for its invaluable ecosystem services, providing oxygen, food, clean water, fertile soil, medicines, shelter, protection from storms and floods, a stable climate and recreation. Tragically, today biodiversity is disappearing at 1,000 times the normal rate due to human civilization. Individual species are being obliterated by habitat loss and degradation, invasive species, the spread of pollution and disease, climate change and the over exploitation of resources. And because the human population, which has doubled since 1970, is expected to reach 9 billion by 2050, the biodiversity crisis will only get worse as more people consume more resources.

What can we as individuals do to help slow the loss of biodiversity?  Since consumption of resources is a root cause of biodiversity loss, we can consume less and be more mindful about what we consume. We need to leverage our purchasing power to help protect biodiversity by consuming products that do not harm the environment. Ecolabels enable consumers to determine which products are green, safe, and environmentally sustainable. But because so many ecolabels have sprung up—in 2010, there were 400 different sustainability certifications available around the world—they can be confusing. Here are some of the most reliable and respected ecolabels to look for.

discursive essay on protection of biodiversity

Green Seal – Established in 1989, Green Seal boasts one of the first environmental certification programs. It uses lifecycle based sustainability standards to certify products, services, and companies that protect the environment and human health. All significant environmental and social impacts are considered, from raw materials extraction through manufacturing to use and disposal. Certified products include cleansers, construction materials, paints, paper, paper towels and tissue, food packaging, and hand soaps. Cleaning services, restaurants and hotels are also certified.

discursive essay on protection of biodiversity

Forest Stewardship Council – The FSC promotes the sustainable management of the world’s forests by ensuring that the harvest of forests for timber and non-timber products maintains a forest’s biodiversity, productivity, and ecological processes, and by respecting the rights of and providing incentives to indigenous people to sustain forest resources. In addition to prohibiting the destruction of natural forests, the FSC safeguards endangered species, and bans toxic pesticides and the planting of genetically modified trees. FSC certified products include lumber, paper, printing, packaging, furniture, and other products made from wood.

discursive essay on protection of biodiversity

LEED – The U.S. Green Building Council provides LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) certification for buildings or communities designed and built with environmentally sensitive siting, energy savings, water efficiency, CO2 emissions reduction, sustainable materials, improved indoor environmental quality, innovative technology and strategies, and stewardship of resources. It looks at the building lifecycle from design and construction to operations and maintenance, and substantial retrofits. LEED certification applies to commercial real estate, residential homes, schools and hospitals, and even the design or retrofit of neighborhoods.

discursive essay on protection of biodiversity

Certified Wildlife Friendly – The Wildlife Friendly Enterprise Network promotes wildlife conservation through certifying products that are linked to conservation actions, and that benefit and involve local individuals and communities living with wildlife. Certified products include alpaca garments, essential oils, chili products, rice, eco-fashion, a community market organization, and a conservation program that helps control bushmeat poaching. Each certified entity is tied to conservation efforts for particular species.

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Good article! The Energy Star labeling system is a very good system of identifying household products that are the most energy efficient. It is a shame that these products are tageted by their manufacturers to give them maximum profit margin, which is clearly putting potential customers off from buying them and this results in customers not gaining anything on a supposed return on investment, even after a lengthy time. Kind regards !


Great article! Yes, there are many things we can do to preserve biodiversity and help our planet. One great way is by finding ways to reduce the energy used to heat and cool our homes.

Pearl Jones

I never really paid much attention to the labels or the variety of the labels. I do have a sadden heart regarding the Rain Forest. I breaks my heart to hear how much de-forestation takes place everyday. I just wish there was some other way to encourage people not to do this.

I know there are a lot of organizations like the Rainforest Alliance that are doing all they can to help. We just need people to stay engaged and remain proactive when it comes to this wonderful natural resource that is so important to our planet.

Thank you for posting this article. I am sure this will benefit many of your readers as much as it has me.

Toddler Table Chair

In my area, people still using plastic bags and non-recycle products. If we can’t educate them to reuse and recycle, we still consume more and more resources. Hope they will realized before the global warming become serious.


in my area we are planting fruit

dewatering equipment

Environmental pollution is growing year by year and we are responsible for this. So that, it our duty to control the pollution. We have concern about reuse and recycling of the waste products. We should use Eco friendly and recyclable product.

Tompoo Ngamillah

God work, it heiped me alot in my exams. Big up

Treasured Homes

I think education is at the top with anything like this. People aren’t aware of what biodiversity does to for us, so they just assume it’s a word BUT through effective campaigns via social media the younger generations will engage and they’ll learn far more too about what needs to be done to protect it!

Burcea Mihai

The first thing we must do is do educate our kids and talk to our friends about this problem. We can start using eco friendly cleaning products, food that is from natural farm. Choose the products that are not made with chimicals and other toxic mix for environment.

Michael Mbulu

Biodiversity plays a major role in our lives , but mostly in the lives of rural area,settlers without biodiversity the results are high poverty rate, and dependency, thus it is important for every individual to contribute to help maintain and sustain our biodiversity.

Claudette A Mitchel

What can be done to mitigate Light glare and light trespass that is expanding with newer infill and development? Nocturnal animals are challenged by thoughtless individuals and developers…..

Claris Barbin

I have seen a lot of people in most rural areas wherein I thought they are the ones who preserve the environment better than the ones who live in the Urban.Nevertheless, people in the rural places had been burning lots of plastics in a pit and no one could implement a rule stating how dangerous it could affect in our nature.I am determined to help and encourage these people that instead of burning their trashes there are lots of ways to recycle it and use it for the better and a way to protect our biodiversity.

thats good for the enviroment

Christine Pajes

i can do to protect our biodiversity by being a good and responsible person. I thought in the rural areas they are the ones who takes care the environment than the people in the urban areas. They are burning garbages such as plastics that can affect our ozone layer. If i were them instead of burning wastes, i will think of recycling it to become more useful. And it can be a money for them. I will encourage them that instead of burning it and leave it behind, there is a lot of ways to become more useful like recycle them. And use it for the best and it can be one of the things on how we can protect our biodiversity.


plz share dos and donts to conserve biodiversity

Haly Decano

To protect our biodiversity is to conserve natural resources. Like the urban areas they are the one who take care of their environment. While the rural areas are not taking care of their environment. They burn plastics and they dont recycle garbages. Instead of that doing that we need to consume electricity and recycle garbages so that we can help protect biodiversity. We must use products that can not harm the environment.

Otte Miriam

Also,a stable committee should be set-up that will check some of this companies that are in charge of the things concerning biodiversity. Inorder for them not to use chemicals that are harmful to the environment and contributing to the destruction of biodiversity.

Dwight Smith OnTray

Nice post! It’s really important to teach kids how to care for the environment. We should build up some idea on how both parents and educators can teach kids in a fun way.


i love that you are helping other kids learn about our environment.


if we get rid of to meany forest the animals will die because they have no where to live

cheyeann sewell

if we took over the world how much would animals live in this world

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well us for one because we are mammals which are animals

Ali Al Rubaye

Since there is a rapid growth in the human population. We will just keep on destroying habitats and than there wouldn’t be much biodiversity left.




Yes I agree it’s a good one but I want to know how can technological tools help to prevent or reduce the identified loss of biodiversity?


I agree that there needs to be something do to help our communities and the world not loos biodiversity. I also think that teaching are youth about ways they harm biodiversity and nature is very important.


I pledge to recycle, reuse and make better choices!!


we need more biodiversity because it is the keystone to the planets well being .


We all play a part in protecting biodiversity. Even the little thing can go a long way.


i agree to make the world a better place by recycling

Ayse Hale BUlut

We should stop destroying thousands of species by building apartments in nature. We should stop using unhealthy gas.

east jefferson

The Energy Star labeling system is a very good system of identifying household products that are the most energy efficient. It is a shame that these products are tageted by their manufacturers to give them maximum profit margin, which is clearly putting potential customers off from buying them and this results in customers not gaining anything on a supposed return on investment, even after a lengthy time. Kind regards !

Brooklyn W.

That was a great article! People should start using more recyclable items because all of that trash is sent to the bottom of the ocean.


It is amazing how ecolabels are invented. Before, I didn’t really pay attention to those ecolabels since I didn’t know what are those for. But after reading the article, I realized that it is to protect and maintain our biodiversity. It is really important that we preserve our biodiversity because it is what gives us life. Without it, we won’t be able to live and have these materials that we need to survive.

Daryn W

Well written article!! I really enjoyed the paragraph on rainforest alliance. It saddens me very much that deforestation is such a big and recurring problem. I think we used only used recycled things. Get rid of plastic, and go all recycled paper. I al so think we should stop using trees for paper, and wood products. Dead trees are fine but some people use trees that are alive for their wood, and that needs to stop. They want to take down whole forests of trees, but dont want to take the time to grow one.

kenenisa wogair

I try to not used a lot of technology and used of energy consumption as well as water consumption. Maybe one day when I grow I will make a team that assembles and help protect animals habitat

Charlotte Fleet

I love how you mentioned that a great way to conserve biodiversity is to consume less natural resources. I think that it would also be beneficial to invest in a service that’s main focus is to help improve biodiversity in landscapes. Thank you so much for your article about biodiversity, Renee.

Danayla shazier

1.I can plant more tress

2.Tell others around me why it is important so they will do the same and or help

3.I will give water to the trees

4. I will clean up the surroundings

5.Stop puting pollution and gas everywhere


Our biodiversity is very important and it’s a good thing this blog gives us informative articles. Especially on how we can preserve it. Another great thing about this is we gather information and can be spread by many. This blog is one of the great ways I see to conserve our biodiversity. Lastly, it helps to call out others to be aware about what is happening in our biodiversity.

Henry Okafor

well structured and thought through the post, I believe, this will serve as a great guide to many in identifying with the support for biodiversity conservation.


I love the artical saying that people realize that we are hurting biodiversity and doing something about it

kalen meadows

This an great article to read! I think biodiversity is important because it shows us how we are ruining the land for animals and plants if we could stop knocking down trees and ruining plants and animals homes maybe so many animals wouldn’t be going extinct.

marlin i maturano

great in bringing a incite to how we can better our foods. i shall try not to pollute any grounds at any costs.

Environment lover

Don’t just go on to leave a thumbs down life is beautiful if we did not have it we would not be here so appropriate your surroundings.

guadalupe madrigal

living organisms including ecosystem plant animals thier habitats and genes is fundamental to life and earth we need biodeversity

Destiny A.

I`ve always been connected to the biodiversity and nature and I understand the affects of human to earth but as us people we could keep our biodiversity by doing stuff that might help because biodiversity helps us in ways that we need to survive and we should help them too.

Elijiah W.M

This article is very informative. It has really showed that there are many things that help to try to preserve our planet.


great article

it contains a lot of information!

Samuel Abutal

I agree to feed the animal with organic foods.

Braylen Westmoreland

The Marine Stewardship council is a good organisation because its stopping fish species from dieing out by making a limit to fishing its will help fish and coral reefs from bottom fishing.

Zacary W Clark

Great article

alejandro cardenas

the way we can make a change is by not taking up homes of animals and polluting earth

Beatrice Williams

Good article i love how the author gave multiple points and you backed it up with stats and i agree that we should be more involved in trying to help our planet


Interesting article! One way humans have affected biodiversity is by their population and by the use of land.

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Essay on Conservation of Biodiversity

List of essays on conservation of biodiversity, essay on conservation of biodiversity – short essay for kids (essay 1 – 150 words), essay on conservation of biodiversity – for children (essay 2 – 250 words), essay on conservation of biodiversity (essay 3 – 300 words), essay on conservation of biodiversity – for school students (class 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12) (essay 4 – 400 words), essay on conservation of biodiversity – written in english (essay 5 – 500 words), essay on conservation of biodiversity – introduction, need, ways and conclusion (essay 6 – 600 words), essay on conservation of biodiversity – for college and university students (essay 7 – 750 words), essay on conservation of biodiversity – for competitive exams like ias, ips and upsc (essay 8 – 1000 words).

Conservation of biodiversity is a key factor for the better survival of different species including the human being, in this world. Due to change in climate and surroundings over the last thousands of years, the species which once existed on the earth have now gone extinct.

Hence there has arisen the need for the conservation of biodiversity so that we can prevent the remaining species on the earth from being extinct. In order to provide more information on this, we have prepared long essays for students in order to educate them that why it is important for us to go for the conservation of biodiversity.

Audience: The below given essays are exclusively written for  school students (Class 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 Standard) and college students. Furthermore, those students preparing for competitive exams like IAS, IPS and UPSC can increase their knowledge by reading these essays.

Conservation of biodiversity means protection and preservation of the flora and fauna on the earth. Conservation of biodiversity is essential for the survival of all the species. Optimum conservation of biodiversity means richness of ecosystem and improved quality of life. It also results in well-established food chains in different habitats.

Disastrous growth in the industrial sectors has severely impacted the conservation of biodiversity. The species of both plants and animals are becoming scarce. Clearing land for setting up houses and industries results in deforestation, thus, disturbing the whole ecological balance. The intense level of air, water, and soil pollution have also made things worse.

Serious steps need to be taken in order to support the conservation of biodiversity. Without trees and animals, the biological chain would collapse and cause the extinction of many species. Needless to say, it would endanger the survival of the human race too.


Biodiversity is essential for ecological harmony. There are many types of wildlife that are created by God and there is a purpose behind these varied formations. However, it looks like that human beings own a blind eye that cannot see the necessity of conservation of biodiversity. They are indulging in numerous activities which are resulting in the deterioration of the biodiversity.

What is Biodiversity?

Biodiversity is also recognized as ecological diversity or biological diversity which is the range of different classes of animals, plants, and other living creatures in a specific habitat or inside the world. We should do the conservation of biodiversity because it benefits in preserving the environmental equilibrium on Earth planet. Every single class of flora and creatures possess its individual part in the environmental structure for completing it.

Why there is a necessity for the conservation of Biodiversity?

The necessity for the conservation of biodiversity is usually ignored by the people. The main reason behind this thing is that we think about ourselves only and not about our surroundings and environment. In fact, several species have become vanished up till now and if we did not take any essential step to save them then, more of them will soon become extinct. Fertility of biodiversity is vital for the correct functioning of the earth’s environment.


It will not be possible for us to survive for a longer time on earth if we do not become serious about the conservation of biodiversity and see it declining day by day. We should stop misusing our environment for our personal selfish motives. In fact, we must think about contributing in the direction of conservation of biodiversity.

Conservation of biodiversity has been an issue that should be discussed among every human being living in this world along with the widely gifted species around. The richer the biodiversity in an environment, the healthier will be the species living in them.

Conservation of biodiversity is a key factor for the better survival of different species including the human being, in this world. The now growing technological development has made us ignore the importance of conservation of biodiversity massively. This careless approach towards the issue will cost us our life cycle too.

Biodiversity refers to the whole species of the flora and fauna category that depends on each other for maintaining life. Many animals depend on the other species to balance its diet and to maintain a healthier life. Including human being, every species depend on each other to survive their life cycle, even the plants.

Need for Conservation of Biodiversity:

If conservation of biodiversity is not done effectively then each species will be extinct eventually due to lack of appetite and through hunger. Over the last few decades, this scenario is been a major problem and many unique species have already been extinct. There are species that are still at the verge of extinction as a result of lack of conservation of biodiversity.

If a single species get extinct from the food chain it will affect the species who survive on the former and eventually get on the queue of destruction. The technical development of our world has a major part to play in this lack of conservation of biodiversity.

We, humans, have developed many ways to ease up our lifestyle, but we forget about our co-species and we indirectly destroy their life. Conservation of biodiversity should be taken into account for the smoother food chain balance and thus maintain the whole flora and fauna species. Being selfish, humans forget to restore the ways to enhance the conservation of biodiversity and this view to nature’s gift should be changed.

“Conservation of Biodiversity” refers to safeguarding the variety of flora and fauna living together on Earth. The life cycle of plants and animals living on our planet depends on each other for food and shelter. Unfortunately, in recent times “biodiversity” on Earth and especially in India is declining rapidly. Heavy industrialization and rapid urbanization are the major reasons for the degradation of the ecological system in India. “Conservation of biodiversity” must be our prime concern as it is the need of the hour.

Importance of Conservation of Biodiversity:

India is an ancient civilization where the Vedas and primeval manuscripts define our deep connect to nature. Rapidly increasing industrialization and the urban jungle has threatened the efforts of “conservation of biodiversity”.

The importance of conservation of biodiversity can be seen in the following areas:

The Food Chain:

Varied species of animals and plants serve as a source of food to another animal or living organism hence it is called as a food chain. Deforestation has resulted in scares amount of prey in the jungle because of which carnivorous animals like tigers and leopards attack villages. As one species becomes extinct or immigrates its habitat, the other dependent species experience deficiency in food. So efforts are to be made for the conservation of biodiversity in order to maintain the balance of the food chain.

Daily Needs of Nourishment:

For survival we need healthy food, fresh water to satisfy our nutritional needs. The decline in varieties of plants and animals has resulted in nutritional deficiencies. Rapidly diminishing ground water level in Marathwada region of Maharashtra has generated a grave crisis of drinkable water. Lack of “conservation of biodiversity” has resulted in extinction of natural resources which are the cornerstone of our ecological system. Hence, conservation of biodiversity must be promoted to ensure survival of living beings.

Trees and plants are the source of life on Earth as they inhale carbon dioxide and harmful gases from the air and exhale the life giving oxygen. Deforestation and urbanization have resulted in proliferation of air pollution in India. Atmosphere of New Delhi the capital of our country has become equivalent to a gas chamber of toxic gases. Efforts for planting trees and constructing vertical gardens in cities will empower “Conservation of biodiversity” and help to improve the quality of air in our metro cities.

Farming and Cultivation of Crops:

Cultivation of crops and farming is supported by many insects, earthworms, fungi and bacteria which make the soil fertile and also provide manure. Extinction of these species will surely hamper quality of crop cultivation. National Biodiversity Authority (NBA) of India has provided guidelines which promotes organic and traditional farming techniques to amalgamate “conservation of biodiversity” with the challenges in Agriculture sector in India.

The Constitution of India provides Right to clean air and environment as our fundamental right. “Conservation of Biodiversity” must be our prime motive and concrete steps must be taken in this direction so that we can exercise our fundamental right. We must practise eco-friendly lifestyle to conserve our nature.

Conservation of biodiversity is important in keeping the balance of our environment. There has been a continuous hammering on the ever present need for the conservation of biodiversity due to its extreme importance to the continual survival and existence of mankind, animals, plants and every other living organism on our planet. We need to do more than just emphasising the need to converse and protect biodiversity and the importance of biodiversity, we have to start looking at the various methods we can employ in conserving our biodiversity and start putting the methods into good use.

Methods of Conservation of Biodiversity:

There are many methods we can use in conversing biodiversity; some of these methods are discussed below:

1. Population Control:

A major factor contributing to the rapid decline in biodiversity is the ever increasing population of humans. To meet the many needs of the large human population, a lot of harm is done to nature and this brings imbalance to nature. A few example of activities that bring harm include the cutting down of trees for the construction of new shelters and to create space for settlements, the killing of animals to meet the food requirement of the large population. When the population is greater than usual, the increasing needs of the population leads to a depletion of fauna and flora which ensures a biodiversity decline. If we control the population of humans first and then allow all other animals and plants species to thrive and grow, we are on the path to conserving biodiversity.

2. Pollution Control:

Our planet is under serious attack from pollution and it is causing great harm to it. Global warming as a result of increasing temperature has now become a thing. Climate change, drop in the quality of air and the increase in the quantity of pollution that are on the land and also in the various water bodies are causing a lot of various types and forms of diseases in different plants and animals.

The extinction of several animal and plant species has also been caused by pollution. The changes in climate have become extremely hard for a number of plants and animals to withstand and it makes their survival very difficult. We need to do our best in cutting down and reducing (if possible eliminate) all of the different activities that cause pollution.

3. Wastage Avoidance:

Since most of the products, things or items we use are gotten as raw materials from natural resources, we should do our very best not to waste them. The fuel that our vehicles use, the electricity that we consume, the paper and books we write things on, the clothes and accessories we wear and a whole lot of other things we use are all produced indirectly or directly from natural resources.

We should understand that we aren’t the only ones using these natural resources as they are also important to other species of animals and even plants for their survival. We must try to make use of only what we need and encourage the reuse and recycling of products.

‘Conservation of Biodiversity’ is very much needed in today’s world. The world will function properly only if our ecosystem is well-balanced. Conservation of Biodiversity means healthy environment . With so many new inventions and technologies, humans are creating more harm to themselves by spoiling the environment and causing imbalance in the ecosystem. The impact of doing so cannot be understood unless they face the consequences of it. Our planet Earth can survive only if conservation of biodiversity is given adequate importance that it deserves.

What does Biodiversity Mean?

Biodiversity is what makes the environment. Biodiversity means the diversity in biological system . The Earth has different species of plants, animals, and other living organisms and these together constitute biodiversity. Each species of plants and animals is important and they have been created for a reason. Hence, it is very important that this diversity is maintained as it is. The society that preserves the richness of biodiversity will lead a healthy and happy life and the society that turns blind eye to the damages caused to biodiversity will suffer.

In order to maintain the ecological system, conservation of biodiversity is a must. Everything that man requires is very much available in the outer world but we have no time to see those. Humans compete to prove their intelligence and have ended up in spoiling the naturally available resources. Nature has given everything in abundance but we have exploited most of the things and are trying to recreate everything. If we would have given importance to conserve biodiversity, we could have avoided this tough situation.

Conservation of biodiversity must be given importance for various reasons.

Let us understand some of the essential reasons:

i. Different kinds of fruits, vegetables, leaves, fishes, meats and many other edible things available in the nature is stuffed with different types of nutrients that are very much needed for proper functioning of the human body. When there is a decline in certain types of vegetables or fruits, it means that we are losing those nutrients which is not a good sign and this means we make ourselves nutrient deficient.

ii. Conservation of biodiversity is so stressed upon because it helps in the purification of air . Plants and trees inhale Carbon dioxide and exhale Oxygen. Without Oxygen, human kind cannot survive. By cutting down trees, we are digging a graveyard for ourselves. Plants and trees helps in the purification of air and keeps the atmosphere clean.

iii. During ancient times, there were no medicines for any ailment. Our ancestors purely relied upon the leaves and roots of some plants to cure diseases. There are hundreds of herbs in the universe that has medicinal value and most importantly with no side effects. By not lending ears to the conservation of biodiversity propaganda, we are inviting many new diseases.

Ways to Conserve Biodiversity:

The previous section made it clear that decline in the biodiversity is not a thing to be overlooked at.

To bring back what we lost, conservation of biodiversity is a must and there are many methods to do it:

i. Deforestation is the main reason for the vast decline in the number of plant and animal species. Putting an end to deforestation is the first method for conservation of biodiversity.

ii. Human activities leading to pollution and changes in atmospheric temperature needs to be controlled .

iii. Instead of exploiting the available natural resources, we have to learn to reuse whatever is possible and avoid wasting things.

iv. Spreading awareness is one of the best method that everyone should follow for conservation of biodiversity.

Everything in nature is abundant but that doesn’t mean that we can exploit it or spoil them. The fact that ‘Conservation of biodiversity’ is stressed upon in all important forums will denote the significance and seriousness of it. As the prime users of nature, we all have to contribute for the conservation of biodiversity.

Biodiversity is the natural occurrence of a variety of species which co-exist on our planet earth. It includes distinctive creatures, plants, smaller scale living beings and their qualities, water environments, earthbound, and marine biological communities in which they all are available. Biodiversity is fundamental for our reality and additionally important in its very own right. Biodiversity additionally includes different other vital things and administrations, for example, social, recreational, and things that play an important role in our lives. So why is there a need for the conservation of biodiversity? It is probably because around 95% of the species that once existed on the earth have now gone extinct.

Throughout the years, the exhaustion of biodiversity has been very dynamic. This is occurring because of loss of habitat, over the top abuse of assets, climatic changes, ailments, contamination, poaching of creatures and so on. So as to address this situation, conservation of biodiversity has been a significant cause of concern for the government as well as social organisations.

It must be understood that individuals treasure all advantages from the biodiversity. Thus, they should concentrate on taking appropriate consideration related to the conservation of biodiversity in various structures. It is critical on the grounds that there must be something left for the future age to take a look at. We as people should check the degradation and the annihilation of the natural surroundings, maintaining the biodiversity at its prime dimension.

Goals of Conservation of Biodiversity:

No objective can be achieved if one does not have a proper goal in place. Conservation of Biodiversity has also its own set of goals to be achieved by the government as well as all of us.

The three goals are:

i. Maintenance of life support systems as well as ecological processes

ii. To ensure that the remaining variety of species are preserved.

iii. To ensure that the exploitation of biological systems and species is within the permissible levels.

Measures Undertaken for Conservation of Biodiversity:

The government has on its part undertaken numerous projects in order to save the species which are on the brink of extinction from the earth.

Some of the projects are:

Project Tiger , under the aim of conservation of biodiversity was started as a Central Sector Scheme in 1973 with 9 tiger reserves situated in various natural surroundings in 9 unique states. There are at present 18 Reserves in 13 states. At present tiger, Conservation has been seen in India not just as a push to spare a jeopardized species in any case, with equivalent significance, additionally as a method for conservation of biodiversity to a sizeable extent.

Another popular project for the conservation of biodiversity was the Crocodile Breeding Project which was started in Orissa and afterwards stretched out to a few different states in April 1975 with UNDP help. The primary target was to ensure the three jeopardized types of crocodiles, in particular, Gavialis gangeticus, Crocodylus palustris and the saltwater crocodile, Crocodylus porosus.

Lesser Cats Project was one such conservation of biodiversity project which was started in the year 1976 with the help of WWF in India for the preservation of four types of lesser cats, namely, Felis marmorta Martin, Felis bengalensis Kerr, Felis viverrina Bennet and Felis lemruinki Vigors Horsfield found in Sikkim and Northern parts of West Bengal.

The Manipur Brow-antlered Deer Project was launched in the year 1981 in Manipur to protect the forehead antlered deer (Cerevus eldi) which is very nearly extinct. The natural habitat incorporates 35 sq.km., of sanctuary and park. The number of inhabitants in the deer has expanded from 18 to 27 through this project.

Project Elephant, as a part of conservation of biodiversity was started in the year 1991 to ensure the Asiatic elephant which is likewise a profoundly endangered animal species in view of vast scale poaching.

Project Rhino was started in the year 1987 in Kaziranga Wildlife Sanctuary in Assam to protect the lesser one-horned rhinoceros from extinction. It covers a zone of 430 sq.km.

Himalayan musk deer Project was started in the year 1981 to protect the jeopardized musk deer which is nearing extinction. The project has also yielded good results.

Project Hangul was started in the year 1970 in Kashmir valley to protect the exceptionally jeopardized Kashmir stag (Cerevus elaphus hangul) which is nearing extinction. This project has been successful in increasing the population of this endangered species.

The Way Ahead:

There have been so many initiatives by the government as well as several agencies to save the species which are on the brink of extinction. But, as the citizens of India, it is our utmost duty to follow the laws and regulations related to the natural parks and sanctuaries and help the government achieve its goals. Then only, perhaps we shall be able to achieve better results in the projects for conservation of biodiversity.

Conservation of biodiversity is necessary to maintain Mother Nature. The earth is a beautiful place because of the variety of natural combinations for both living and nonliving elements on the surface of the earth. The aspect of biodiversity makes it even more beautiful because of the existence of different species in the ecosystem. Conservation of biodiversity is one of the goals of saving Mother Earth.

Due to industrialization and a growing population on earth, there have been massive destructions of the ecosystem, including the natural habitat which is vital for the preservation of biodiversity. The destruction of the ecosystem leads to the extinction of some species and the only way to ensure the conservation of biodiversity is by trying to restore the ecosystem and prevent further destruction.

Forest Conservation and Restoration:

Forests provide habitat to many organisms. In conserving biodiversity, forests conservation and restoration is vital. As a result of the growing population on earth, the ecosystem has been really disrupted because of the human needs for shelter and food. Forests have been destroyed through deforestation and animals are deprived of their natural habitat. Apart from forests being a natural habitat for several species, it is also essential for climate regulation. Mother Nature has suffered climate changes recently due to the effects of global warming.

Adverse climatic conditions are not suitable for the survival of some species. Conservation of biodiversity should focus on maintaining a conducive climate for species to thrive in. Well, it is evident that species differ in their abilities to thrive because some survive both extremes of cold and heat while others cannot. Global warming has caused an increase in temperature thus causing some species to have a small chance of survival on the planet. Extinction is the biggest worry when it comes to conservation of biodiversity because once a species become extinct, there is no going back.

Based on all these facts, we realize that forests hold the ecosystem together in a special way and therefore in the quest towards conservation of biodiversity, restoration of forests should be a priority. Forests are restored through reforestation and prevention of further deforestation. Once the forest coverage is restored, global warming will be a thing of the past because the trees in the forest will absorb carbon dioxide, which has been determined to be the major cause of global warming when it accumulates in the atmosphere.

Control of Human Activities:

Living on the earth’s surface is a blessing that we do not seem to appreciate. Humans should realize that there is only one earth and they should contribute to the conservation of biodiversity rather than adding to the destruction of Mother Nature. Human activities majorly contribute to the destruction of the ecosystem in general. Global warming is a current threat in the world, and its effects have been felt widely.

Global warming is as a result of carbon dioxide accumulation in the atmosphere just because of human activities like the combustion of fossil fuels, deforestation and careless waste disposal. Conservation of biodiversity means that we have to start minimizing the harm caused by human activities. Fossil fuels combustion contribute to the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, therefore, causing global warming. Fossil fuels have to be replaced for alternative energy sources like tidal and solar energy, which are not harmful to the ecosystem.

Nuclear energy could be an alternative source of energy, but it is discouraged because of the potential hazards that come along with its use for example bombs and nuclear weapons use. Deforestation results in loss of natural habitat for species and lack of means of survival regarding food. Conservation of biodiversity includes proper management of forests. Waste disposal is vital in both environmental conservation and conservation of biodiversity.

Wastes such as plastic bags and bottles are non-biodegradable, and when disposed of anyhow, they may cause harm to both plants and animals. Sewage treatment that is being directed to water bodies when untreated causes a deleterious effect on aquatic life and can cause the extinction of species in water. We should learn to participate in the conservation of biodiversity by ensuring that we do not interfere with forests, use energy that is environment-friendly and proper disposal of wastes.

Surveys and Mapping in the Ecosystem:

Conservation of biodiversity makes a lot more sense if we actually know what is in the ecosystem. Surveys on the number and types of species on earth is an essential aspect because by having the accurate statistics, it becomes easier to strategize on the conservation of biodiversity. Surveys help us to know the species that are approaching extinction so that we can be able to take care of them well.

Mapping of the forest landmass is part of the survey so that we can know the species together with their natural habitat. It is essential that studies and mapping are accurately done so that the chance of survival of species is not infringed. Through mapping, it is, therefore, possible for the definition of national parks and wildlife forest reserves.

When boundaries are made, and there is minimal interaction between wildlife and humans, poaching and other deleterious human activities will be prevented, and species will remain conserved. It is crucial that we protect all species because the earth is not survivable without plants and animals. The food-chain revolves around species, and it is the hallmark of survival on earth.

In conclusion, conservation of biodiversity is a big deal because survival on earth is determined by biodiversity. It is a collective responsibility, and we as human beings should take charge of protecting Mother Nature because we can do so. It begins with simple things like recycling a plastic bottle to much bigger things like reducing global warming. That is why we should support each other and always work as a team in order to conserve the biodiversity. Life is valuable, and biodiversity is the key to life on earth.

Biodiversity , Conservation of Biodiversity , Environment

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Home — Essay Samples — Environment — Biodiversity — The Importance of Conserving Biodiversity


The Importance of Conserving Biodiversity

  • Categories: Biodiversity Wildlife Conservation

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Published: Oct 31, 2018

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discursive essay on protection of biodiversity

Essay on Biodiversity for Students and Children

500+ words essay on biodiversity.

Essay on Biodiversity – Biodiversity is the presence of different species of plants and animals on the earth. Moreover, it is also called biological diversity as it is related to the variety of species of flora and fauna. Biodiversity plays a major role in maintaining the balance of the earth.

Essay on Biodiversity

Furthermore, everything depends upon the biological diversity of different plants and animals. But due to some reasons, biodiversity is decreasing day by day. If it does not stop then our earth could no longer be a place to live in. Therefore different measures help in increasing the biodiversity of the earth.

Methods to Increase Biodiversity

Building wildlife corridors- This means to build connections between wildlife spaces. In other words, many animals are incapable to cross huge barriers. Therefore they are no able to migrate the barrier and breed. So different engineering techniques can make wildlife corridors. Also, help animals to move from one place to the other.

Set up gardens- Setting up gardens in the houses is the easiest way to increase biodiversity. You can grow different types of plants and animals in the yard or even in the balcony. Further, this would help in increasing the amount of fresh air in the house.

Get the huge list of more than 500 Essay Topics and Ideas

Protected areas- protected areas like wildlife sanctuaries and zoo conserve biodiversity. For instance, they maintain the natural habitat of plants and animals. Furthermore, these places are away from any human civilization. Therefore the ecosystem is well maintained which makes it a perfect breeding ground for flora and fauna. In our country, their various wildlife sanctuaries are build that is today spread over a vast area. Moreover, these areas are the only reason some of the animal species are not getting extinct. Therefore the protected areas should increase all over the globe.

Re-wilding – Re-wilding is necessary to avert the damage that has been taking place over centuries. Furthermore, the meaning of re-wilding is introducing the endangered species in the areas where it is extinct. Over the past years, by various human activities like hunting and cutting down of trees the biodiversity is in danger. So we must take the necessary steps to conserve our wildlife and different species of plants.

Importance of Biodiversity

Biodiversity is extremely important to maintain the ecological system. Most Noteworthy many species of plants and animals are dependent on each other.

Therefore if one of them gets extinct, the others will start getting endangered too. Moreover, it is important for humans too because our survival depends on plants and animals. For instance, the human needs food to survive which we get from plants. If the earth does not give us a favorable environment then we cannot grow any crops. As a result, it will no longer be possible for us to sustain on this planet.

Biodiversity in flora and fauna is the need of the hour. Therefore we should take various countermeasures to stop the reduction of endangering of species. Furthermore, pollution from vehicles should decrease. So that animals can get fresh air to breathe. Moreover, it will also decrease global warming which is the major cause of the extinction of the species.

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10 Ways to Protect and Conserve Biodiversity

discursive essay on protection of biodiversity

Biodiversity is the pillar that allows ecosystems to function and humans to thrive. Without biodiversity in an ecosystem we would not have the many plants and animals we find in our world today, including us. Biodiversity is the “biological diversity in an environment as indicated by numbers of different species of plants and animals.”

This includes the number of different species and genetic variation within the same species . The different plants and animals in an environment work together to maintain balance in the ecosystem [1] .  These interactions create functioning systems that provide food, medicine, and new technologies for us.

Unfortunately, as we have spread across the globe we have disrupted and destroyed many ecosystems by reducing their biodiversity. This damage can be seen in many places, like reduced crop yields in developing countries and the increasing rate of animal extinction .

Why is biodiversity important?

Biodiversity is important for many reasons and they can be generally divided into two categories: the importance for ecosystems and for us .

Biodiversity is what allows ecosystems to work and flourish. Over millions of years many different species of plants and animals have come to live in the same habitats. Over time they balance each other and hold the ecosystem together. When a species is removed (biodiversity is reduced) the ecosystem can lose its balance , causing it to break down.

One iconic example of this is sea otters in kelp forests along the California coast. Sea otters feed on sea urchins and sea urchins feed on kelp. If sea otters are removed sea urchins multiply, eating large portions of the kelp forest, destroying the habitat and eventually leading to the death of other animals that live there. The whole ecosystem falls apart.

Having a large biodiversity protects against a situation like this and makes ecosystems more resilient to change. In short, biodiversity maintains the balance of an ecosystem to keep them functioning and self-regulating.

For us biodiversity provides billions of dollars’ worth of resources, which we call ecosystem services. These services are separated into three types:

  • provisioning services
  • regulating services
  • cultural services

Provisioning services encompass anything relating to the production of renewable resources , like farming or energy production. In farming having a larger biodiversity of crops reduces the risk that they all die from the same weather event or disease. This increases the overall yield and protects the farmer.

Regulating services refers to anything that lessens environmental change. Maintaining biodiversity of tree species in a forest increases the amount of trees that grow there. Having more trees means they absorb more CO2, helping contain climate change.

Cultural services are anything that we get direct value or enjoyment from . This can be any type of outdoor recreation.

Biodiversity has played an important role in creating the planet we live on and continues to help us improve our lives. So, the real value of biodiversity is beyond anything our mind can even imagine.

Various threats to biodiversity

Biodiversity has been continually under threat since the dawn of man. As we expand we remove, change, and use land to serve our purposes. The changes we make often damage natural habitats and reduce their biodiversity.

One of the primary threats to biodiversity is habitat loss . This can be through clear cutting forests, polluting oceans, or anything that alters the natural habitat. We harvest large amounts of natural resources and when this is not done sustainably it has disastrous consequences.

One of the largest causes of habitat destruction is land development. As urbanization has increased over the last 100 years more and more land has been repurposed, destroying the natural habitat, increasing noise, and pollution. When habitats change animals flee the area or die, dramatically reducing the area’s biodiversity [2] .

Climate change goes hand in hand with urbanization and habitat loss. As urbanization has increased, human development has increased, and this has increased consumption of many natural resources.

Climate change alters regional climates, making many species specifically adapted to those regions struggle to survive. Additionally, as the climate changes species will move into new areas, altering the ecosystems already present there.

Finally, with these changes some climates will completely disappear. Glaciers will melt and islands will be covered with water.

A final threat to biodiversity are invasive species . Invasive species are plants or animals that are not naturally found in a region and often come from very far away. These organisms are moved intentionally and unintentionally by us.

Sometimes new animals are brought to an area as pets or they secretly hitch a ride on human transport. Sometimes when invasive species are introduced to an area they are able to thrive because the existing ecosystem is not adapted to their presence.

Invasive species often outcompete native species leading to their extinction. One example of this is the brown tree snake that was accidentally introduced to Guam via aircraft in the 1950’s. Over the last 50 years the brown tree snake is credited with leading to the extinction of 3 bird and 5 reptile species in Guam [3] .

10 ways how we can protect biodiversity

Even though the biodiversity of many habitats has become threatened there are many things we can do to help reduce this danger. These are some of the steps you can take to conserve biodiversity.

#1 Government legislation

Governments have the power to control what is done to the habitats within their country. Legislation that protects natural habitats by outlawing development, harvesting of natural resources, or other human exploitation has a huge impact on maintaining natural biodiversity.

Additionally, laws protecting specific species like the USA’s Endangered Species Act helps protect animals that have already been impacted [4] .

Protecting habitats before they have been altered is the best form on biodiversity conservation and is most successfully implemented by government regulations.

#2 Nature preserves

Nature preserves are a form of government regulation and are often known as National Parks . They protect a region and the organisms that live there from certain forms of development and provide access for people to visit them. This is excellent because it protects the natural habitat and is a place where people can view the ecosystem.

The goal is that over time this helps people have more respect for the natural world and increases pressure on government to further protect other areas.

#3 Reducing amount of invasive species

Invasive species are sometimes introduced to an area on purpose, but also sometimes by accident. To limit the number of invasive species moved by accident planes, ships, and cargo must be thoroughly checked before it is offloaded in a new country.

Additionally, people should not bring new species of animals or plants to an area without consulting ecologists knowledgeable on the region.

#4 Habitat restoration

After an area is damaged by human impacts we can try to return it to its natural state . This means bringing back the plants and animals that are naturally found there. This has been shown to be a promising way of returning biodiversity to a region.

One example of this is the reintroduction of wolves into Yellowstone National Park . When wolves returned to the region they ate more elk and coyote, which increased the prey species of the coyote and let riparian (river bank) areas trampled by elk recover [4] .

These restoration projects can be undertaken by governments, local organizations, or NGOs.

#5 Captive breeding and seed banks

Captive breeding is when animals in captivity (often at zoos) are bred. This is seen as somewhat controversial, as it requires the capture of animals that are often near extinction. On the positive side it provides the opportunity to increase the population of the species , so they can be reintroduced into the wild [4] .

Seed banks are areas where huge varieties of plant seeds are stored. This provides a failsafe if a species goes extinct in nature. The plant can be grown from a saved seed and reintroduced back into its habitat.

This is a very real issue and seed banks have been collecting samples for many years, with some seed banks having over 2 billion seeds stored at a time [8] .

#6 Research

Understanding how species interact within their environment is crucial to protecting them. As humans further understand species interaction we find new and more direct ways to help protect organisms and maintain biodiversity.

One example is the use of wildlife corridors in urbanized areas. By researching many different species we have found that this dramatically increase their populations [9] . It reduces the number of animals that come into direct contact with humans and provides areas for migratory animals to move long distances.

#7 Reduce climate change

As we know, climate change has disastrous consequences for all living things on earth. We use huge amounts of fossil fuels, which directly cause climate change. 

We need to move away from fossil fuels and towards alternative energy sources and natural or sustainable products. Reducing the effects of climate change requires a worldwide effort.

#8 Purchase sustainable products

Many protects are now labeled with ecolabels that state if they are environmentally friendly. Some of the most prominent ecolabels are Energy Star , USDA Organic , and Rainforest Alliance Certified [5] .

Our consumption of natural resources is one of the main reasons for biodiversity loss, so it is our responsibility to consume products that are produced in the most sustainable way possible.

Additionally, when we consume these goods it increases demand for environmentally conscious products pushing more producers to make them.

#9 Sustainable living

Sustainable living is something that we can each choose to do on a daily basis. Whether it be by taking shorter showers, riding a bike to work , or buying ecolabeled products it helps reduce the amount of resources we use.

This is arguably the most important way of protecting biodiversity because everyone can do it, often with only small lifestyle changes. If everyone chose to live sustainably, biodiversity in a variety habitats would improve.

#10 Education

As with most environmental topics, education is one of the keys to success. Educating people about the importance of biodiversity conservation increases public awareness of the issue. As public awareness increases people become more involved and eventually influence their government representatives, pushing for more environmental protection.

Government legislation protecting our natural environments is one of the most effective ways of protecting biodiversity.

The role of science and technology in conserving biodiversity

As our society develops we continually use more resources, which stains natural biodiversity, but development also leads to improved science and technology.

We use science, and specifically ecology, to understand the web of interactions in our biomes. By understanding these interactions scientists are able to pinpoint the key species in ecosystems. This information is used to guide conservation efforts.

It is also used to understand pollution and its cascading effects within an ecosystem. Bio-magnification of toxins in a food chain can cause huge problems for top predators. This is an ever adapting field of science and these two examples are just a few ways to implement the information it uncovers [10] .

Technology is becoming more and more important in conservation biology. Sustainable technologies, like renewable energies, biodegradable packaging, and recycling, help reduce our impact on the environment.

Additionally, technologies like cloning give scientists the ability to bring back species that are already considered extinct.

Biodiversity in natural ecosystems is of the utmost importance. It helps provide the resources and services that we rely on every day. The development and urbanization of humans poses a serious risk for natural biodiversity. 

If nothing is done to reduce these changes, there will be disastrous consequences. There are many things we can do in politics, science, and even in our daily lives to help fix these issues. As humans we need to understand the risks associated with our consuming lifestyles and work hard to fix what is already damaged and prevent future harm.

The time has come for us to unite and save biodiversity.

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  • Biodiversity Essay


Essay on Biodiversity

Biodiversity is a term made up of two words - Bio meaning Life, and Diversity meaning Variety. The term biodiversity refers to the variety of life on Earth. Plants, animals, microbes, and fungi are all examples of living species on the planet.

Types of Biodiversity  

Genetic Biodiversity- Genetic diversity is the variation in genes and genotypes within a species, e.g., every human looks different from the other. 

Species Biodiversity- Species Diversity is the variety of species within a habitat or a region. It is the biodiversity observed within a community.

Ecosystem Biodiversity- Ecological biodiversity refers to the variations in the plant and animal species living together and connected by food chains and food webs.

Importance of Biodiversity 

Biodiversity is an integral part of cultural identity. Human cultures co-evolve with their environment and conservation is a priority for cultural identity. Biodiversity is used for Medicinal purposes.

Many plants and animals are used for medicinal purposes, like vitamins and painkillers. It contributes to climate stability. It helps in controlling the effects of climate change and managing greenhouse gases. 

Biodiversity provides more food resources. It supplies many vital ecosystems, such as creating and maintaining soil quality, controlling pests, and providing habitat for wildlife. Biodiversity has a relationship with Industry. Biological sources provide many Industrial materials including rubber, cotton, leather, food, paper, etc.

There are many economic benefits of Biodiversity. Biodiversity also helps in controlling pollution. Biodiversity helps in forming a healthy ecosystem. Biodiversity also acts as a source of recreation. Along with other factors, biodiversity helps in improving soil quality.

Long Essay on Biodiversity 

There are many economic benefits of Biodiversity. Biodiversity is a source of economic wealth for many regions of the world. Biodiversity facilitates Tourism and the Recreational industry. Natural Reserves and National Parks benefit a lot from it. Forest, wildlife, biosphere reserve, sanctuaries are prime spots for ecotourism, photography, painting, filmmaking, and literary works.

Biodiversity plays a vital role in the maintenance of the gaseous composition of the atmosphere, breakdown of waste material, and removal of pollutants.

Conservation of Biodiversity  

Biodiversity is very important for human existence as all life forms are interlinked with each other and one single disturbance can have multiple effects on another. If we fail to protect our biodiversity, we can endanger our plants, animals, and environment, as well as human life. Therefore, it is necessary to protect our biodiversity at all costs. Conservation of Biodiversity can be done by educating the people to adopt more environment-friendly methods and activities and develop a more harmonious and empathetic nature towards the environment. The involvement and cooperation of communities are very important. The process of continuous protection of Biodiversity is the need of the hour.

The Government of India, along with 155 other nations, has signed the convention of Biodiversity at the Earth Summit to protect it. According to the summit, efforts should be made in preserving endangered species. 

The preservation and proper management methods for wildlife should be made. Food crops, animals, and plants should be preserved. Usage of various food crops should be kept at a minimum. Every country must realize the importance of protecting the ecosystem and safeguarding the habitat. 

The Government of India has launched the Wild Life Protection Act 1972 to protect, preserve, and propagate a variety of species. The Government has also launched a scheme to protect national parks and sanctuaries. There are 12 countries - Mexico, Columbia, Peru, Brasil, Ecuador, Democratic Republic of Congo, Madagascar, India, China, Malaysia, Indonesia, and Australia, in which Mega Diversity Centres are located. These countries are tropical and they possess a large number of the world’s species.

Various hotspots have been made to protect the vegetation. There are various methods for conserving biodiversity. 

If biodiversity conservation is not done efficiently, each species would eventually become extinct due to a lack of appetite and hunger. This scenario has been a big issue for the last few decades, and many unique species have already become extinct. As a result of a lack of biodiversity protection, several species are still on the verge of extinction.


FAQs on Biodiversity Essay

1. What are the three types of Biodiversity?

Biodiversity is referred to as the variability that exists between the living organisms from different sources of nature, such as terrestrial, marine, and other aquatic ecosystems. Biodiversity has three levels, which are genetic, species, and ecosystem diversity. This is also considered as the type of ecosystem.

2. What is Biodiversity and why is it important?

Biodiversity is responsible for boosting the productivity of the ecosystems in which every species, no matter how small, has an important role to play. For example, a greater variety of crops can be obtained from a plant species which is in large numbers. If species diversity is in a greater amount, then it ensures natural sustainability for all life forms.

3. What is the connection between Biodiversity and the Food Chain?

If a single species goes extinct from the food chain, it will have an impact on the species that survive on it, putting them on the verge of extinction.

4. How are human beings affecting biodiversity?

Pollution- Pollution not only affects human beings, but also affects our flora and fauna, and we should control the pollution to conserve our biodiversity.

Population- Population control is a must to maintain a balance in our ecological system. Humans contribute to pollution by bursting crackers and by not following all the traffic rules.

5. How does Deforestation affect biodiversity?

Deforestation- Trees are very important for survival. They help in balancing out the ecosystem. Deforestation leads to the destruction of habitat. Deforestation should be stopped to protect our animals and plants. Deforestation not only removes vegetation that is important for removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, but it also emits greenhouse gases.


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    This damage can be seen in many places, like reduced crop yields in developing countries and the increasing rate of animal extinction. Quick Navigation for 10 Ways to Conserve Biodiversity. 1. Government legislation. 2. Nature preserves. 3.

  22. Biodiversity Essay for Students in English

    Importance of Biodiversity. Biodiversity is an integral part of cultural identity. Human cultures co-evolve with their environment and conservation is a priority for cultural identity. Biodiversity is used for Medicinal purposes. Many plants and animals are used for medicinal purposes, like vitamins and painkillers.