essay on mahatma gandhi biography

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Mahatma Gandhi

By: Editors

Updated: June 6, 2019 | Original: July 30, 2010

Mahatma GandhiIndian statesman and activist Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (1869 - 1948), circa 1940. (Photo by Dinodia Photos/Getty Images)

Revered the world over for his nonviolent philosophy of passive resistance, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was known to his many followers as Mahatma, or “the great-souled one.” He began his activism as an Indian immigrant in South Africa in the early 1900s, and in the years following World War I became the leading figure in India’s struggle to gain independence from Great Britain. Known for his ascetic lifestyle–he often dressed only in a loincloth and shawl–and devout Hindu faith, Gandhi was imprisoned several times during his pursuit of non-cooperation, and undertook a number of hunger strikes to protest the oppression of India’s poorest classes, among other injustices. After Partition in 1947, he continued to work toward peace between Hindus and Muslims. Gandhi was shot to death in Delhi in January 1948 by a Hindu fundamentalist.

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born on October 2, 1869, at Porbandar, in the present-day Indian state of Gujarat. His father was the dewan (chief minister) of Porbandar; his deeply religious mother was a devoted practitioner of Vaishnavism (worship of the Hindu god Vishnu), influenced by Jainism, an ascetic religion governed by tenets of self-discipline and nonviolence. At the age of 19, Mohandas left home to study law in London at the Inner Temple, one of the city’s four law colleges. Upon returning to India in mid-1891, he set up a law practice in Bombay, but met with little success. He soon accepted a position with an Indian firm that sent him to its office in South Africa. Along with his wife, Kasturbai, and their children, Gandhi remained in South Africa for nearly 20 years.

Did you know? In the famous Salt March of April-May 1930, thousands of Indians followed Gandhi from Ahmadabad to the Arabian Sea. The march resulted in the arrest of nearly 60,000 people, including Gandhi himself.

Gandhi was appalled by the discrimination he experienced as an Indian immigrant in South Africa. When a European magistrate in Durban asked him to take off his turban, he refused and left the courtroom. On a train voyage to Pretoria, he was thrown out of a first-class railway compartment and beaten up by a white stagecoach driver after refusing to give up his seat for a European passenger. That train journey served as a turning point for Gandhi, and he soon began developing and teaching the concept of satyagraha (“truth and firmness”), or passive resistance, as a way of non-cooperation with authorities.

The Birth of Passive Resistance

In 1906, after the Transvaal government passed an ordinance regarding the registration of its Indian population, Gandhi led a campaign of civil disobedience that would last for the next eight years. During its final phase in 1913, hundreds of Indians living in South Africa, including women, went to jail, and thousands of striking Indian miners were imprisoned, flogged and even shot. Finally, under pressure from the British and Indian governments, the government of South Africa accepted a compromise negotiated by Gandhi and General Jan Christian Smuts, which included important concessions such as the recognition of Indian marriages and the abolition of the existing poll tax for Indians.

In July 1914, Gandhi left South Africa to return to India. He supported the British war effort in World War I but remained critical of colonial authorities for measures he felt were unjust. In 1919, Gandhi launched an organized campaign of passive resistance in response to Parliament’s passage of the Rowlatt Acts, which gave colonial authorities emergency powers to suppress subversive activities. He backed off after violence broke out–including the massacre by British-led soldiers of some 400 Indians attending a meeting at Amritsar–but only temporarily, and by 1920 he was the most visible figure in the movement for Indian independence.

Leader of a Movement

As part of his nonviolent non-cooperation campaign for home rule, Gandhi stressed the importance of economic independence for India. He particularly advocated the manufacture of khaddar, or homespun cloth, in order to replace imported textiles from Britain. Gandhi’s eloquence and embrace of an ascetic lifestyle based on prayer, fasting and meditation earned him the reverence of his followers, who called him Mahatma (Sanskrit for “the great-souled one”). Invested with all the authority of the Indian National Congress (INC or Congress Party), Gandhi turned the independence movement into a massive organization, leading boycotts of British manufacturers and institutions representing British influence in India, including legislatures and schools.

After sporadic violence broke out, Gandhi announced the end of the resistance movement, to the dismay of his followers. British authorities arrested Gandhi in March 1922 and tried him for sedition; he was sentenced to six years in prison but was released in 1924 after undergoing an operation for appendicitis. He refrained from active participation in politics for the next several years, but in 1930 launched a new civil disobedience campaign against the colonial government’s tax on salt, which greatly affected Indian’s poorest citizens.

A Divided Movement

In 1931, after British authorities made some concessions, Gandhi again called off the resistance movement and agreed to represent the Congress Party at the Round Table Conference in London. Meanwhile, some of his party colleagues–particularly Mohammed Ali Jinnah, a leading voice for India’s Muslim minority–grew frustrated with Gandhi’s methods, and what they saw as a lack of concrete gains. Arrested upon his return by a newly aggressive colonial government, Gandhi began a series of hunger strikes in protest of the treatment of India’s so-called “untouchables” (the poorer classes), whom he renamed Harijans, or “children of God.” The fasting caused an uproar among his followers and resulted in swift reforms by the Hindu community and the government.

In 1934, Gandhi announced his retirement from politics in, as well as his resignation from the Congress Party, in order to concentrate his efforts on working within rural communities. Drawn back into the political fray by the outbreak of World War II , Gandhi again took control of the INC, demanding a British withdrawal from India in return for Indian cooperation with the war effort. Instead, British forces imprisoned the entire Congress leadership, bringing Anglo-Indian relations to a new low point.

Partition and Death of Gandhi

After the Labor Party took power in Britain in 1947, negotiations over Indian home rule began between the British, the Congress Party and the Muslim League (now led by Jinnah). Later that year, Britain granted India its independence but split the country into two dominions: India and Pakistan. Gandhi strongly opposed Partition, but he agreed to it in hopes that after independence Hindus and Muslims could achieve peace internally. Amid the massive riots that followed Partition, Gandhi urged Hindus and Muslims to live peacefully together, and undertook a hunger strike until riots in Calcutta ceased.

In January 1948, Gandhi carried out yet another fast, this time to bring about peace in the city of Delhi. On January 30, 12 days after that fast ended, Gandhi was on his way to an evening prayer meeting in Delhi when he was shot to death by Nathuram Godse, a Hindu fanatic enraged by Mahatma’s efforts to negotiate with Jinnah and other Muslims. The next day, roughly 1 million people followed the procession as Gandhi’s body was carried in state through the streets of the city and cremated on the banks of the holy Jumna River.

salt march, 1930, indians, gandhi, ahmadabad, arabian sea, british salt taxes

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Essay on Mahatma Gandhi – Contributions and Legacy of Mahatma Gandhi

500+ words essay on mahatma gandhi.

Essay on Mahatma Gandhi – Mahatma Gandhi was a great patriotic Indian, if not the greatest. He was a man of an unbelievably great personality. He certainly does not need anyone like me praising him. Furthermore, his efforts for Indian independence are unparalleled. Most noteworthy, there would have been a significant delay in independence without him. Consequently, the British because of his pressure left India in 1947. In this essay on Mahatma Gandhi, we will see his contribution and legacy.

Essay on Mahatma Gandhi

Contributions of Mahatma Gandhi

First of all, Mahatma Gandhi was a notable public figure. His role in social and political reform was instrumental. Above all, he rid the society of these social evils. Hence, many oppressed people felt great relief because of his efforts. Gandhi became a famous international figure because of these efforts. Furthermore, he became the topic of discussion in many international media outlets.

Mahatma Gandhi made significant contributions to environmental sustainability. Most noteworthy, he said that each person should consume according to his needs. The main question that he raised was “How much should a person consume?”. Gandhi certainly put forward this question.

Furthermore, this model of sustainability by Gandhi holds huge relevance in current India. This is because currently, India has a very high population . There has been the promotion of renewable energy and small-scale irrigation systems. This was due to Gandhiji’s campaigns against excessive industrial development.

Mahatma Gandhi’s philosophy of non-violence is probably his most important contribution. This philosophy of non-violence is known as Ahimsa. Most noteworthy, Gandhiji’s aim was to seek independence without violence. He decided to quit the Non-cooperation movement after the Chauri-Chaura incident . This was due to the violence at the Chauri Chaura incident. Consequently, many became upset at this decision. However, Gandhi was relentless in his philosophy of Ahimsa.

Secularism is yet another contribution of Gandhi. His belief was that no religion should have a monopoly on the truth. Mahatma Gandhi certainly encouraged friendship between different religions.

Get the huge list of more than 500 Essay Topics and Ideas

Legacy of Mahatma Gandhi

Mahatma Gandhi has influenced many international leaders around the world. His struggle certainly became an inspiration for leaders. Such leaders are Martin Luther King Jr., James Beve, and James Lawson. Furthermore, Gandhi influenced Nelson Mandela for his freedom struggle. Also, Lanza del Vasto came to India to live with Gandhi.

essay on mahatma gandhi biography

The awards given to Mahatma Gandhi are too many to discuss. Probably only a few nations remain which have not awarded Mahatma Gandhi.

In conclusion, Mahatma Gandhi was one of the greatest political icons ever. Most noteworthy, Indians revere by describing him as the “father of the nation”. His name will certainly remain immortal for all generations.

Essay Topics on Famous Leaders

  • Mahatma Gandhi
  • APJ Abdul Kalam
  • Jawaharlal Nehru
  • Swami Vivekananda
  • Mother Teresa
  • Rabindranath Tagore
  • Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
  • Subhash Chandra Bose
  • Abraham Lincoln
  • Martin Luther King

FAQs on Mahatma Gandhi

Q.1 Why Mahatma Gandhi decided to stop Non-cooperation movement?

A.1 Mahatma Gandhi decided to stop the Non-cooperation movement. This was due to the infamous Chauri-Chaura incident. There was significant violence at this incident. Furthermore, Gandhiji was strictly against any kind of violence.

Q.2 Name any two leaders influenced by Mahatma Gandhi?

A.2 Two leaders influenced by Mahatma Gandhi are Martin Luther King Jr and Nelson Mandela.

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Essay on mahatma gandhi: biography of mahatma gandhi | 800+ words.

essay on mahatma gandhi biography

Mahatma Gandhi, one of the most influential figures of the 20th century, is widely regarded as the Father of the Nation in India. He was a freedom fighter, political leader, and spiritual teacher who dedicated his life to nonviolent resistance and social justice. In this essay on Mahatma Gandhi biography in English, we will explore his life, legacy, and achievements. From his humble beginnings in Porbandar, Gujarat, to his leadership in India's independence movement, Gandhi's teachings and philosophy have had a profound impact on social and political movements around the world. This essay will delve into his life's work and highlight the enduring legacy of this remarkable individual.

In this article, we have shared 800+ words essay on mahatama gandhi, including all the birth, childhood, marriage and education of Mahatma Gandhi.

Essay On Mahatma Gandhi

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi is also known as Mahatma Gandhi is considered to be the father of this country. In the fight for independence against British rule, he was the leader of the nationalist movement. He was an Indian lawyer, political ethicist, anti-colonial nationalist, writer, and a kind-hearted person.

Birth and Childhood

Mahatma Gandhi was born on October 2, the year 1869 in a place named Porbandar, Gujrat in northwest India. He was born in a Hindu Modh family. His father Karamchand Gandhi was a political figure and also the chief minister of Porbandar. His mother named Putlibai Gandhi was the fourth wife of his father, previous wives died during childbirth. Gandhi was born in a vaishya family that's why from an early age of life he learned a lot of things such as non-injury to living beings, tolerance and vegetarianism.

In May 1883, he was 13 years old when he got married to a girl named Kasturba Makhanji, who was also 13 years old, this marriage was arranged by their parents. They together had four sons, Harilal (1888), Manilal (1892), Ramdas (1897), Devdas (1900).

In this essay on Mahatma Gandhi, let's know about Mahatma Gandhi's education Porbandar did not have enough chance of education, all the children in school used to write in dust with their fingers. However, he was lucky that his father became the chief minister of another city named Rajkot. He was average in education. At the age of 13, he lost a year at school due to marriage. He was not a shining student in the classroom or playground, but he always obeyed the given order by elders.

That's why like other kids he did not go through all the teenage life. He wanted to eat meat but never did because of their parent's beliefs. In the year of 1887, Gandhi passed the matriculation examination from the University of Bombay and joined a college in Bhavnagar named Samaldas College. It was clear for him by then that if he has to maintain his family tradition and become a high office working person in the state of Gujarat, he would have to become a barrister.

At the age of 18, he was offered to continue his studies in London and he was not very happy at Samaldas College so he accepted the offer and sailed to London in September 1888. After reaching London, He was having difficulty understanding the culture and understanding the English language. Some days after arrival he joined a Law college named Inner Temple which was one of the four London law colleges.

The transformation of changing life from a city to India studying in a college in England was not easy for him but he took his study very seriously and started to brush up his English and Latin. His vegetarianism became a very problematic subject for him as everyone around him as eating meat and he started to feel embarrassed.

Some of his new friends in London said some of the things like not eating meat will make him weak physically and mentally. But eventually, he found a vegetarian restaurant and a book that helped him understand the reason to become a vegetarian. From childhood, he wanted to eat meat himself but never did because of his parents but now in London, he was convinced that he finally embraced vegetarianism and never again thought of eating meat.

After some time he became an active member of the society called London vegetarian society and started to attend all the conferences and journals. In England not only Gandhi met Food faddists but also met some men and women who had vast knowledge about Bhagavad-Gita, Bible, Mahabharata, etc. From them, he learned a lot about Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity and many others.

Many people he met were rebels not supporting the Victorian establishment from these people Gandhi slowly absorbed politics, personality, and more importantly ideas. He passed his study from England and became a Barrister but there was some painful news was waiting for him back at home in India. In January 1891 Gandhi's mother died while Gandhi was still in London.

He came back to India in July 1891 and started to begin the legal career but he lost his very first case in India. He soon realized that the legal profession was heavily overcrowded and he changed his path. He then was offered to be a teacher in Bombay high school but he turned it down and returned to Rajkot. With the dream of living a good life, he started to draft petitions for litigants which soon ended with the dissatisfaction of a local British officer.

Fortunately in the year 1893, he got an offer to go to Natal, South Africa and work there in an Indian firm for 1 year as it was a contract basis.

Civil Right Movement in Africa

South Africa was waiting with a lot of challenges and opportunities for him. From there he started to grow a new leaf. In South Africa 2 of his four sons were born. He had to face many difficulties there too. Once he as advocating for his client and he had to flee from the court because he was so nervous, he wasn't able to talk properly. But the bigger problem was waiting for him, as he had to face racial discrimination in South Africa.

In the journey from Durban to Pretoria, he faced a lot from, being asked to take off the turban in a court to travel on a car footboard to make room for European passenger but he refused. He was beaten by a taxi driver and thrown out of a first-class compartment but these instances made him strong and gave him the strength to fight for justice.

He started to educate others about their rights and duties. When he learned about a bill to deprive Indians of the right to vote, it was that time when others begged him to take up the fight on behalf of them. Eventually at the age of 25 in July 1894 he became a proficient political campaigner.

He drafted petitions and got them signed by hundreds of compatriots. He was not able to stop the bill but succeeded in drawing the attention of the public in Natal, England, and India. He then built many societies in Durban. He planted the seed, spirit of solidarity in the Indian community.

Very well known newspapers of that time such as The Times of London and The Statesman and Englishman of Calcutta were writing about him from this his success could be measured. He began to wear white Indian dhoti in this time-period which later became his trademark. He started a non-violent protest against tax also known as "Satyagraha" where he led a march with more than 2000 people and later he was arrested and for nine-month he was in prison.

His contribution to India's Freedom struggle and Achievements

Back in India, in the year of 1919, the British started to arrest and imprison anyone they suspect of sedition that's when Gandhi stood up and started non-violent disobedience. Gandhi's goal about Indian's independence got cleared after a tragic incident when more than 20000 protesters were getting open fired by the British army in the city of Amritsar.

400 people were killed and 1000 injured. He started the mass boycotts of British goods and institutions and told everyone to stop working for the British. In 1992 he was again got arrested and got a 6-year prison sentence. In 1930 he started the salt march and a very well known campaign of walking 390km to the Arabian Sea shores.

The salt act protesters around 60,000 including Gandhi were imprisoned. At the time of World War II, Gandhi started his campaign if Quit India to banish British rule from the country, he was again arrested and sent to prison with many other well-known leaders of Indian Congress. He met King George V on behalf of the Indian National Congress, but there was not that much progress.

After the End of the war, Britain's government was changed and this time progress was made they were willing to discuss independence for India but a tragic event followed by it partition of the country into India and Pakistan. In 1947 India gained independence. In the year of 1948, a Hindu extremist killed Gandhi. In this essay on Mahatma Gandhi, learn about the contributions made by Mahatma Gandhi!

What he was famous for?

He was known for his silent protest, disobedience campaign in India, Satyagraha, and passive resistance. His death made India mourn for 13 days, His birthday 2nd October is celebrated as a national holiday in India.

Why he was called Mahatma?

The title Mahatma means "great- soul". It is a title that was given to him by Rabindranath Tagore but he thinks he is not worthy of this title so he never accepted it.

Books dedicated to him or written by him

He was a writer from an early age, he liked writing books and there are many books written by him. Some of the most famous of them is Autobiography of Gandhi, The Essential Gandhi, Hind Swaraj and other writings, the words of Gandhi, Satyagraha in South Africa, and many more.

Many writers have written about Mahatma Gandhi some of them are Great Soul by Joseph Lelyveld, Gandhi Before India by Ramachandra Guha, The Good Boatman by Rajmohan Gandhi, Gandhi: Prisoner of hope by Judith M. Brown, etc.

While writing an essay on mahatma gandhi you can include books dedicated to him or his autobiographies.

Mahatma Gandhi Struggled very much from his early life but regardless of all the suffering, he made his way. And he is a very important part of our history of independence. We hope we have covered all the detail in this essay on Mahatma Gandhi for you to write a perfect essay!

Short Essay On Mahatma Gandhi Biography In English 

Mahatma Gandhi, also known as Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, was a prominent Indian leader who played a pivotal role in India's struggle for independence. This essay on Mahatma Gandhi biography in English will explore his life, legacy, and achievements.

Gandhi was born on October 2, 1869, in Porbandar, Gujarat. After studying law in London, he moved to South Africa, where he fought against discrimination faced by the Indian community. His experiences in South Africa would later shape his philosophy of nonviolent resistance or Satyagraha.

Returning to India in 1915, Gandhi became a prominent leader in India's independence movement. He advocated for nonviolent resistance and civil disobedience against British colonial rule. His leadership and vision played a crucial role in India's eventual independence in 1947.

Gandhi's teachings have had a profound impact on social and political movements around the world. His message of nonviolent resistance has inspired many leaders, including Martin Luther King Jr. and Nelson Mandela. He was a spiritual leader who believed in the power of love and compassion to bring about social change.

In addition to his political achievements, Gandhi was also an advocate for social justice and equality. He fought against caste discrimination, championed the rights of women, and promoted communal harmony.

In conclusion, Mahatma Gandhi was a remarkable individual whose life and teachings continue to inspire people around the world. His philosophy of nonviolent resistance, his leadership in India's independence movement, and his advocacy for social justice and equality make him a true hero of our time. This essay on Mahatma Gandhi biography in English is a testament to his enduring legacy.

Read More- APJ Abdul Kalam Essay | Biography | 800+ Words

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Biography of Mahatma Gandhi

Mahatma Gandhi was a freedom fighter, a nationalist, a visionary and mass leader. His followers cut across the demographic divisions of caste, religion or culture. They came and still are from different classes of society, from poor to the affluent. Every word of Gandhiji was followed devotedly as a command by millions of Indians. His biography isn’t only a biography but also a rule book of morality and conduct, teaching us how to deal with adversities in the strongest way possible, yet at the same time clinging to our principles.

Facts about Mahatma Gandhi

Full Name: Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi

Date of Birth : October 2, 1869

Place of Birth : Porbandar, British India (now Gujarat)

Date of Death : January 30, 1948 (aged 78)

Place of Death : Delhi, India

Cause of Death : Assassination by Nathuram Godse

Professions : Lawyer, politician, freedom activist, writer

Religion : Hindu

Spouse : Kasturba Gandhi (m: 1883; died: 1944)

Children : Harilal Gandhi (1888-1948), Manilal Gandhi (1892-1956), Ramdas Gandhi (1897-1969) and Devdas Gandhi (1900-1957)

Father : Karamchand Uttamchand Gandhi (1822-1885)

Mother : Putlibai Gandhi (1839-1891)

Schooling : Primary School in Rajkot

Law Degree : From University College London (1888-1891)

In South Africa : As a Civil Rights Activist (1893-1914)

Indian Independence Struggle : 1915-1947

Political Party : Indian National Congress

Childhood, Early Life and Adolescent

Gandhiji was born on 2 nd October 1869 at Porbandar Gujarat in a Gujarati modh baniya family. He was the youngest of the four children of Karamchand Gandhi and Putlibai. Though his father was the Diwan of Porbandar, Gandhi’s weren’t rich, yet they ate and lived well.

As a child Gandhi is known to a restless kid, who wouldn’t spare an opportunity to play or roam around. He wasn’t easy to be found at home and often was playing outside.

As Gandhiji aged he started manifesting his principles and values in the influence of his devotedly religious mother. As an adolescent Gandhiji avoided bad company and spend most of his time either playing with his kin or reading books.

Gandhiji’s elementary education up to matriculation was completed in a school at Rajkot. At school he was a shy student who didn’t interact much with other students. He was also average in studies and had no interest in sports and other activities. After school, he would directly rush to home to eat meal and play.

Gandhi enrolled for Higher Education in Samaldas College in January 1888, Bhavnagar but dropped out a session later as he couldn’t understand the lectures.

On the advice of a family friend Gandhiji made up his mind to pursue law at London. Initially facing resistance from his mother, Gandhiji somehow managed to convince her and set sail for London on 4 th October 1888.

He completed his law degree from the University College London, and return to India in 1891 at the age of 22.

His Principles, Practices, Religion and Beliefs

Truth and non-violence were the two fundamental principles of Gandhiji’s life and his philosophy. He was also deeply religious and a staunch Hindu, in his own words.

Gandhiji’s religious beliefs stem from his mother’s life and her everyday conduct. She would never ever take a meal before completing her ritualistic prayer. She was the one who introduced Gandhiji to one of Hindu’s revered epics – Bhagavad Gita.

He had said on many occasions that when in distress and confusion he refers to a relevant verse of Bhagavad Gita and instantly found relief. The influence of his religiously pious mother has helped Gandhiji to delve into religion and understand it.

His religious beliefs also marked the foundation of his philosophy of truth and non violence, which he started practicing as a civil rights activist in South Africa. Gandhiji was wise enough to realize that the opponents are formidable and an act of violence will be dealt with double blow, leading to fatal consequences.

Therefore, Gandhiji used non violent protests to fight against injustice. This way the enemy wouldn’t be offended and will gradually concede to the demands.

Three Years of His Life in London

While studying law in London, Gandhi was as shy as he was in India and usually would only limit himself to lectures. Understanding the fact that audacity is essential for his career as a lawyer, he joined public speaking group in London.

In London, Gandhi stuck to the promise he made to his mother and abstained from consuming liquor and consuming meat. During initial days he remained constantly hungry until he found a suitable vegetarian restaurant.

He joined London Vegetarian Society under the President ship of Arnold Hills. Gandhi also joined the Theosophical society and read Bhagavad Gita for the society.

Gandhi left London in June 1981 when he was called for the Bar in India.

His Struggle in South Africa

Circumstances that Gandhiji faced in South Africa played a critical role in setting the path for his struggle in South Africa as well as later in India and transforming him into the world leader as we see him today.

He was called to South Africa to work as a lawyer for an Indian merchant there. Upon his arrival he had hands on experience of the oppression faced by the Indian community there. He was thrown out of a train’s first class compartment despite having a valid ticket, just because he was an Indian. He could have stopped his South African journey then and there, but he rather chose to fight against the oppression. Gandhiji’s first non violent, non cooperation movement was in South Africa.

During his struggle in South Africa, Gandhi had limited himself towards fighting for the rights of Indian community there. He kept native black Africans initially out of his political agenda; though, later he went on to provide them medical aid during war with the British Empire.

His Struggle for Indian Independence/Indian Independence Movements

Gandhiji came back to India in 1915 and remained politically active until his assassination on 30 th January 1948. Gandhiji’s principles that he applied into the Independence Movement had already proven their mettle in South Africa.

His struggle for Civil Rights in Africa had made him a popular figure in India and Britain as well; therefore, he was readily accepted as a leader by Indian political clout and the masses.

Gandhi’s political conduct was quite different from other politicians. He wouldn’t spare any chance to criticize them for misuse of power or for other immoral acts. For him, morality came before to any political gain.

Role of Mahatma Gandhi in Indian National Movements for Independence

He spearheaded many movements and undergo fast unto death three times in his lifetime. A bulleted list of all the independence movements of Mahatma Gandhi is listed below.

  • Champaran Satyagraha
  • Kheda Agitation
  • Khilafat Movement
  • Non co-operation Movement
  • Salt Satyagraha (Salt March)
  • Quit India Movement
  • Civil Disobedience
  • Boycott Mission

His movements initially were against the oppressive policies of the British Empire. He rallied from villages to villages throughout the length and breadth of the country to understand the real condition of farmers and poor Indians. He wanted to know the exact effects of unjust taxation and other laws on the Indian marginalized sections.

His Followers and International Influence

Due to his huge mass appeal Gandhi was instantly recognized and respected in Indian political circles. He was at the centre stage of national politics and presided over all the meetings of Indian National Congress. Despite of being closely linked to Congress, his image was more like a nonpolitical social reformer. Some of the influential political followers of Mahatma Gandhi were – Pt. Nehru, J. B. Kriplani, Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel, Abdul Ghaffar Khan, Jai Prakash Narayan, Maulana Abdul Kalam Ajad, Dr. Rajendra Prasad, Kamla Devi Chattopadhyay, J. C. Kumarappa, Meera Ben, Mridula Sarabhai, and C Rajgopalachari).

Awards in His Life

No number of awards can equate Gandhiji’s contribution in the Indian freedom struggle. Awards are too small in comparison to his personality and leadership qualities. Some of the most acclaimed awards and honor received by Gandhiji are listed below-

  • Time Magazine Man of the Year in 1930.
  • Doctorate level academic degree in Law by the Nagpur University in 1937.
  • In 2011 named by the Time magazine among the top 25 political icons of all times.
  • Inducted into the vegetarian hall of fame by the North American Vegetarian Society in 1995.

Gandhi was also nominated for Nobel Peace Prize in 1948, but was assassinated before the name could be finalized.

Assassination of Mahatma Gandhi

The assassination of Mahatma Gandhi was carried out by Nathuram Godse on 30 th January 1948 at Birla House, New Delhi.

Gandhi was heading for his evening prayer flanked by his female caretakers on both side and surrounded by followers. Evening prayers were a routine for Gandhiji and he would perform it in presence of hundreds of disciples.

But that evening the prayer was never delivered. While on his way to the dais Gandhi at around 5:17 P.M. Gandhi was stopped by Godse, who pretended to bend down for touching Gandhi’s feet. Gandhiji was a highly respected figure and he was accustomed to this respectful gesture.

One of the nieces of Gandhiji accompanying him is known to have told Nathuram – “Brother, Bapu (Mahatma Gandhi) is getting late”. It was at the end of her sentence, that Nathuram pushed her away and pumped three bullets in chest of Mahatma Gandhi with his Beretta M1934 pistol. He was immediately apprehended by the policemen present there and taken into custody.

Gandhiji was taken to a bedroom in Birla House where he died 20 to 30 minutes later.

Mahatma Gandhi’s Legacy

Mahatma Gandhi had left an infinite legacy in terms of principles, methods and the values he professed. Thousands of streets in India and some even in foreign countries are named after him. Almost every city in India has at least one statue of Gandhiji at a road crossing or a public park. But, he can do without all his statues and the streets named after him; such big is the legacy of principles and morality that he left behind.

Speaking of the legacy of Mahatma Gandhi, there are two of its main constituents – truth and non violence. No one else could have better explained truth and non violence, through his/her deeds as Gandhiji did it. His whole life was nothing but the application of these two basic foundation blocks of humanity.

He left behind a legacy that would inspire millions for ages to come and continue providing strength to the weak and suppressed.

Current Impact of Bapu in India and Abroad

Mahatma Gandhi is still a highly revered figure in India, yet not all of his principles are practiced either by the people or the political parties.

His policy of economic liberation through villages by making them self sustainable, was deserted in a rush to modernization. His principles of non violence became irrelevant over time with external threats and a need to safeguard the nation with larger military power.

Though, time to time his views on communal harmony and casteism are presented in order to promote peace and unity.

An image of Gandhiji also appears on currency notes of all the denominations. His birthday on 2 nd October is celebrated as a national holiday with much enthusiasm.

At least three temples in India are dedicated to Mahatma Gandhi – one at Sambalpur in Orissa, another in Chikmagalur in Karnataka and the third and last in Nalgonda District, Telangana.

Gandhiji is also a highly revered figure in South Africa and he is credited to spark the protests that finally culminated in the black’s right to vote.

There are also Gandhiji’s statues at prominent locations in Brazil, Spain and United Kingdom.

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was the greatest leader ever born in India or in the world. So great was his command over his countrymen that millions gathered in just a matter of hours on his one call. He knew the religions, cultures, people and the land of his country much better than any of his political counterparts. He was indeed an epitome of morality and always stuck to his principles of truth and non-violence, come what may. His teachings and principles have led us to freedom and still show us the way to live in harmony and be progressive. Gandhiji and his legacy will remain deeply engraved in Indian culture and into every Indian’s heart.

More about Mahatma Gandhi:

Philosophy of Mahatma Gandhi

Gandhi’s Views on Environment and Its Protection

Life of Mahatma Gandhi from Childhood to Adolescent

How Mahatma Gandhi is Still Alive among us

Why Mahatma Gandhi was not Awarded Bharat Ratna or Nobel?

Struggle of mahatma gandhi in south africa.

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  • Mahatma Gandhi Biography and Political Career


Biography of Mahatma Gandhi (Father of Nation)

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi , more popularly known as Mahatma Gandhi . His birth place was in the small city of Porbandar in Gujarat (October 2, 1869 - January 30, 1948). Mahatma Gandhi's father's name was Karamchand Gandhi, and his mother's name was Putlibai Gandhi. He was a politician, social activist, Indian lawyer, and writer who became the prominent Leader of the nationwide surge movement against the British rule of India. He came to be known as the Father of The Nation. October 2, 2023, marks Gandhi Ji’s 154th birth anniversary , celebrated worldwide as International Day of Non-Violence, and Gandhi Jayanti in India.

Gandhi Ji was a living embodiment of non-violent protests (Satyagraha) to achieve independence from the British Empire's clutches and thereby achieve political and social progress. Gandhi Ji is considered ‘The Great Soul’ or ‘ The Mahatma ’ in the eyes of millions of his followers worldwide. His fame spread throughout the world during his lifetime and only increased after his demise. Mahatma Gandhi , thus, is the most renowned person on earth.

Education of Mahatma Gandhi

Mahatma Gandhi's education was a major factor in his development into one of the finest persons in history. Although he attended a primary school in Porbandar and received awards and scholarships there, his approach to his education was ordinary. Gandhi joined Samaldas College in Bhavnagar after passing his matriculation exams at the University of Bombay in 1887.

Gandhiji's father insisted he become a lawyer even though he intended to be a docto. During those days, England was the centre of knowledge, and he had to leave Smaladas College to pursue his father's desire. He was adamant about travelling to England despite his mother's objections and his limited financial resources.

Finally, he left for England in September 1888, where he joined Inner Temple, one of the four London Law Schools. In 1890, he also took the matriculation exam at the University of London.

When he was in London, he took his studies seriously and joined a public speaking practice group. This helped him get over his nervousness so he could practise law. Gandhi had always been passionate about assisting impoverished and marginalised people.

Mahatma Gandhi During His Youth

Gandhi was the youngest child of his father's fourth wife. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was the dewan Chief Minister of Porbandar, the then capital of a small municipality in western India (now Gujarat state) under the British constituency.

Gandhi's mother, Putlibai, was a pious religious woman.Mohandas grew up in Vaishnavism, a practice followed by the worship of the Hindu god Vishnu, along with a strong presence of Jainism, which has a strong sense of non-violence.Therefore, he took up the practice of Ahimsa (non-violence towards all living beings), fasting for self-purification, vegetarianism, and mutual tolerance between the sanctions of various castes and colours.

His adolescence was probably no stormier than most children of his age and class. Not until the age of 18 had Gandhi read a single newspaper. Neither as a budding barrister in India nor as a student in England nor had he shown much interest in politics. Indeed, he was overwhelmed by terrifying stage fright each time he stood up to read a speech at a social gathering or to defend a client in court.

In London, Gandhiji's vegetarianism missionary was a noteworthy occurrence. He became a member of the executive committee in joined the London Vegetarian Society. He also participated in several conferences and published papers in its journal. Gandhi met prominent Socialists, Fabians, and Theosophists like Edward Carpenter, George Bernard Shaw, and Annie Besant while dining at vegetarian restaurants in England.

Political Career of Mahatma Gandhi

When we talk about Mahatma Gandhi’s political career, in July 1894, when he was barely 25, he blossomed overnight into a proficient campaigner . He drafted several petitions to the British government and the Natal Legislature signed by hundreds of his compatriots. He could not prevent the passage of the bill but succeeded in drawing the attention of the public and the press in Natal, India, and England to the Natal Indian's problems.

He still was persuaded to settle down in Durban to practice law and thus organised the Indian community. The Natal Indian Congress was founded in 1894, and he became the unwearying secretary. He infused a solidarity spirit in the heterogeneous Indian community through that standard political organisation. He gave ample statements to the Government, Legislature, and media regarding Indian Grievances.

Finally, he got exposed to the discrimination based on his colour and race, which was pre-dominant against the Indian subjects of Queen Victoria in one of her colonies, South Africa.

Mahatma Gandhi spent almost 21 years in South Africa. But during that time, there was a lot of discrimination because of skin colour. Even on the train, he could not sit with white European people. But he refused to do so, got beaten up, and had to sit on the floor. So he decided to fight against these injustices, and finally succeeded after a lot of struggle.

It was proof of his success as a publicist that such vital newspapers as The Statesman, Englishman of Calcutta (now Kolkata) and The Times of London editorially commented on the Natal Indians' grievances.

In 1896, Gandhi returned to India to fetch his wife, Kasturba (or Kasturbai), their two oldest children, and amass support for the Indians overseas. He met the prominent leaders and persuaded them to address the public meetings in the centre of the country's principal cities.

Unfortunately for him, some of his activities reached Natal and provoked its European population. Joseph Chamberlain, the colonial secretary in the British Cabinet, urged Natal's government to bring the guilty men to proper jurisdiction, but Gandhi refused to prosecute his assailants. He said he believed the court of law would not be used to satisfy someone's vendetta.

Political Teacher of Mahatma Gandhi

Gopal Krishna Gokhale was one of the prominent political teachers and mentors of Mahatma Gandhi. Gokhale, a renowned Indian nationalist leader, played a significant role in shaping Gandhi's political ideology and approach to leadership. He emphasized the importance of nonviolence, constitutional methods, and constructive work in achieving social and political change. Gandhi referred to Gokhale as his political guru and credited him with influencing many of his principles and strategies in the Indian freedom struggle. Gokhale's teachings and guidance had a profound impact on Gandhi's development as a leader and advocate for India's independence.

Death of Mahatma Gandhi

Mahatma Gandhi's death was a tragic event and brought clouds of sorrow to millions of people. On the 29th of January, a man named Nathuram Godse came to Delhi with an automatic pistol. About 5 pm in the afternoon of the next day, he went to the Gardens of Birla house, and suddenly, a man from the crowd came out and bowed before him.

Then Godse fired three bullets at his chest and stomach, who was Mahatma Gandhi. Gandhi was in such a posture that he to the ground. During his death, he uttered: “Ram! Ram!” Although someone could have called the doctor in this critical situation during that time, no one thought of that, and Gandhiji died within half an hour.

How Shaheed Day is Celebrated at Gandhiji’s Samadhi (Raj Ghat)?

As Gandhiji died on January 30, the government of India declared this day as ‘Shaheed Diwas’.

On this day, the President, the Vice-President, the Prime Minister, and the Defence Minister every year gather at the Samadhi of Mahatma Gandhi at the Raj Ghat memorial in Delhi to pay tribute to Indian martyrs and Mahatma Gandhi, followed by a two-minute silence.

On this day, many schools host events where students perform plays and sing patriotic songs. Martyrs' Day is also observed on March 23 to honour the lives and sacrifices of Sukhdev Thapar, Shivaram Rajguru, and Bhagat Singh.

Gandhi believed it was his duty to defend India's rights. Mahatma Gandhi had a significant role in attaining India's independence from the British. He had an impact on many individuals and locations outside India. Gandhi also influenced Martin Luther King, and as a result, African-Americans now have equal rights. Peacefully winning India's independence, he altered the course of history worldwide.


FAQs on Mahatma Gandhi Biography and Political Career

1. What was people's reaction after Nathuram Godse killed Mahatma Gandhi?

When Nathuram Godse killed Mahatma Gandhi, people shouted to kill Nathuram. After killing Mahatma Gandhi, Nathuram Godse tried to kill himself but could not do so since the police seized his weapons and took him to jail. After that, Gandhiji's body was laid in the garden with a white cloth covered on his face. All the lights were turned off in honour of him. Then on the radio, honourable Prime minister Pandit Nehru Ji declared sadly that the Nation's Father was no more.

2. How vegetarianism impacted Mahatma Gandhi’s time in London?

During the three years he spent in England, he was in a great dilemma with personal and moral issues rather than academic ambitions.

The sudden transition from Porbandar's half-rural atmosphere to London's cosmopolitan life was not an easy task for him. And he struggled powerfully and painfully to adapt himself to Western food, dress, and etiquette, and he felt awkward.

His vegetarianism became a continual source of embarrassment and was like a curse to him; his friends warned him that it would disrupt his studies, health, and well-being. Fortunately, he came across a vegetarian restaurant and a book providing a well-defined defence of vegetarianism.

His missionary zeal for vegetarianism helped draw the pitifully shy youth out of his shell and gave him a new and robust personality. He also became a member of the London Vegetarian Society executive committee, contributing articles to its journal and attending conferences.

3. Who was the first person to write a biography of Mahatma Gandhi (Father of The Nation)?

Christian missionary Joseph Doke had written the first biography of Bapu. The best part is that Gandhiji had still not acquired the status of Mahatma when this biography was written.

4. Who was Gandhiji’s favorite writer?

Gandhiji’s favorite writer was Leo Tolstoy.

5. What is Mahatma Gandhi’s date of birth?

Mahatma Gandhi's date of birth is October 2, 1869. We celebrate every year on October 2nd as Mahatma Gandhi Jayanti.

6. Which are the famous Mahatma Gandhi books?

Mahatma Gandhi authored several influential books and writings that have left a lasting impact on the world. Some of his famous books include:


Hind Swaraj or Indian Home Rule

Satyagraha in South Africa

Young India

The Essential Gandhi

These books reflect Gandhi's deep commitment to nonviolence, truth, and social justice, making them essential reads for those interested in his life and principles.

Mahatma Gandhi: What One Should Know Essay

The book, The Essential Gandhi, covers essential things about Mahatma Gandhi that one should know. It contains quotes from the writings of Gandhi that talks about his life, work and his convictions.

The author presents Gandhi’s stand on issues like spirituality, suffering, poverty, politics, non-violence, and civic disobedience among others. Gandhi’s biographer, Luis Fischer, did this by collecting pierces of Gandhi’s work with some explanatory head notes on each of these works.

The book shows Gandhi from his early life and talks about him in two parts: first, as the man; second, as the Mahatma himself. Gandhi married his wife at an early age of thirteen years and went to Britain to study law. When he finished and went back to India, Gandhi did poorly in his work as a lawyer.

A group of Indian Muslims hired him to serve as a lawyer of their community in South Africa. It is here that Gandhi started undergoing transformation. The author says that “Gandhi was a self made man and the transformation began in South Africa … His was a remarkable case of second birth in one lifetime” (Gandhi, pg. 32).

Gandhi went through various forms of prejudice, harassment and beating but he held onto what he was convinced of as right. He also expressed his concerns and made known to people what he knew was right. He witnessed and experienced instances of racism and prejudice in his place of work, travel and even in his residency.

While in South Africa, he learnt that the Indian merchants did not practice justice in their business deals. Gandhi believed that this was not true. He called a meeting of all Indians in the city of Pretoria on arrival where he presented his first public speech. In reaction to the beliefs and actions of the merchants, Gandhi said, “I strongly contested this position in my speech and awakened the merchants to a sense of duty” (Gandhi, pg. 33).

The book also shows that Gandhi had compassion and determination. When a mob attacked him, he did not sue them, even though he had all the right to do so. He had compassion on this mob and was determined to let them learn their wrongs.

Gandhi stated that he was sorry due to the Mob’s ignorance and narrowness. He argued that he was sure these people were convinced that what they were doing was right and he had “no reason therefore to be angry with them” (Gandhi, pg. 44).

The book also addresses the issue of non-violence. Gandhi was a man of anger and he learnt, through biter experience, that trying to solve issues through violence out of anger was not good and sometimes could not bear fruit. He said that, “anger controlled can be transmuted into a power which can move the world” (Gandhi, pg. xii). Gandhi believed that it was not possible to change the convictions of a person by use of violence.

He learnt this through his wife who resisted his constant verbal and physical abuses to force her to do what was against her convictions. Through this knowledge, he suggested that people could not force governments to change their policies through violence and power politics.

This conviction also helped him to lead the people of India to resist the rule of the British by use of non-violence means. Through his message of nonviolence, Gandhi advised all people to embrace truth and oneness and seek this truth in other ways apart from violence.

Together with nonviolence, courage and truth were important political principles of Gandhi. He called these principles Satyagraba. He learnt and practiced these principles throughout his life.

When he came back to India, Gandhi applied these principles and led other Indians in applying them to exert civil disobedience against the British and thus gain their independence. According to him, national independence alone was not enough to give a person peace and prosperity.

The Essential Gandhi also brings out the issue of religion and shows how Gandhi viewed its various forms. He did not despise any religion. He gave a deep discussion of many forms of religion and their defects. His view on religion helped him try to unite the Indian people who were being divided along religious lines.

This book also addresses other issues and ideas, which Gandhi not only believed but advocated for and encouraged people to embrace. The author argues that Gandhi believed that untouchability was evil against humanity. Even though this was the case, his view on humanity made him to live together with those the society considered as untouchables.

He also argues that Gandhi’s claim of British citizenship shows that his move towards forming a movement to lead India to independence was not out of sheer patriotism. He valued humanity and considered it his responsibility to protect both camps of the British and the Indians.

He said, “I felt that if I demanded rights as a British citizen, it was also my duty, as such, to participate in the defense of the British Empire” (Gandhi). Thus, what drove Gandhi to seek freedom for the Indians was not the desire for political supremacy or patriotism, but it was for humanity.

Works Cited

Gandhi, Mahatma. The Essential Gandhi: An Anthology of His Writings on His Life, Work, and Ideas. New York: Random House Inc., 2002. Print.

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Mahatma Gandhi – Biography, Movements, Literary Works

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Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was a renowned freedom activist and a powerful political leader. He played an important role in India’s struggle for Independence against the British rule of India through non-violent means which ultimately led to Indian independence. He was also known as Father of India, Bapu (endearment for father), and Mahatma (Great Soul). He also improved the lives of India’s poor people and depressed classes. His ideology of truth and non-violence influenced many including Martin Luther and Nelson Mandela. His professions include lawyer (studied law at London, 1888), politician, activist, and writer.

essay on mahatma gandhi biography

This topic of “Mahatma Gandhi – Biography, Movements, Literary Works” is important from the perspective of the UPSC IAS Examination , which falls under General Studies Portion.

Early Life of Mahatma Gandhi:

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born October 2, 1869, in Porbandar, India, to Karamchand Gandhi and Putlibai. At age 13, he married Kasturba Kapadia as part of an arranged marriage. She bore four sons and supported Gandhi’s endeavors until her 1944 death.

In September 1888 at age 18, Gandhi left India alone to study law in London. Gandhi also adopted vegetarianism and joined the London Vegetarian Society , whose intellectual crowd introduced Gandhi to authors Henry David Thoreau and Leo Tolstoy. He was also deeply influenced by the stories of Shravana & Harishchandra, Bhagavad Gita, and Thirukkural (ancient Tamil literature) as they reflected the importance of truth. These books’ concepts set the foundation for his later beliefs.

Gandhi passed the bar on June 10, 1891, and returned to India. For two years, he attempted to practice law but lacked the knowledge of Indian law and the self-confidence necessary to be a trial lawyer. Instead, he took on a year-long case in South Africa.

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Contributions of Mahatma Gandhi:

Gandhi’s movement in south africa:.

  • 1893: Gandhi went to South Africa to work as a lawyer. There he had first-hand experience of racial discrimination when he was thrown out of the first-class compartment of the train despite holding the first-class ticket because it was reserved for white people only and no Indian or black was allowed to travel in the first class. This incident had a serious effect on him. He also observed that this type of incident was quite common against his fellow Indians. Therefore, he decided to protest against racial discrimination in South Africa.
  • 1894: Gandhi agrees to extend his stay in South Africa, and helps to establish the Natal Indian Congress . He assumes a prominent and vocal role in the local campaign for Indian rights.
  • 1899: Gandhi forms the Indian Ambulance Corp to provide relief support for British soldiers during the South African War (formerly the Anglo-Boer War).
  • 1901: Goes to India to attend a session of the Indian National Congress. He returns to South Africa the following year.
  • 1902: Gandhi establishes law offices in Johannesburg.
  • 1903: Gandhi begins printing the newspaper, Indian Opinion (later titled Opinion ), in Johannesburg.
  • 1904: Gandhi established The communal Phoenix settlement . Meets Herman Kallenbach (Architect & Gandhi’s associate).
  • 1906: Gandhi gave birth to the idea of Satyagraha . He chaired a meeting in Johannesburg, in which the Indian community was called upon to resist new anti-Asiatic laws through acts of civil disobedience.
  • 1908: Gandhi is arrested for not carrying a passbook. After he was released, he led thousands of Indians in burning their passbooks and registration papers at Johannesburg.
  • 1910: Gandhi and Kallenbach established Tolstoy Farm on the outskirts of Johannesburg. It becomes Gandhi’s base in South Africa.
  • 1913: After the Searle Judgement (under which marriages conducted under Indian law were declared invalid), many Indian women join the Satyagraha.
  • 1914: Suspends Satyagraha, in return for the abolition of taxes, recognition of Indian marriages, and the freedom of movement of Indians.
  • Movement in South Africa transformed Gandhi into a new person and it played an important role in the evolution of Satyagraha which was used in upcoming freedom struggles in India.

Gandhi’s Movement in India:

  • 1915: Gandhi returned to India and joined the Indian National Congress with Gopal Krishna Gokhale as his mentor.
  • 1916: He established the Sabarmati Ashram at Ahmedabad so that his followers could learn and practice the truth and non-violence.
  • 1917: Champaran satyagraha –  marks Mahatma Gandhi’s first successful application of his method of ‘satyagraha’ in India. The indigo cultivators of Champaran, Bihar were greatly exploited by the planters who were largely European. The cultivators were bound by law to grow indigo on 3/20 th (the tinkathia system) of the total area of their land and sell it to the planters at the price fixed by the latter. As a result of this system, the poor peasants were greatly distressed and approached Gandhi in order to lead their struggle against the planters. Gandhi accepted their request but was banned from entering the district by district authority orders. In protest, Gandhi did satyagraha. As a result of his campaign, an enquiry was conducted into the conditions of the peasants. This went a long way in giving the indigo cultivators some relief.
  • Ahmedabad Mill Strike : In February 1918, there was a conflict between mill owners and workers of the Gujrat Mill. Gandhiji organised satyagraha in favour of cotton mill workers in 1918 at Ahmedabad. It was one of the formative events in the political career of Mahatma Gandhi. 
  • Kheda Satyagraha of 1918: Gandhi organised this movement to support peasants of the Kheda district, Gujarat. The people of Kheda were unable to pay the high taxes levied by the British due to crop failure and a plague epidemic.
  • Young India was a weekly paper or journal in English started by Mahatma Gandhi. It was published from 1919 to 1931. Through this work, he desired to popularise India’s demand for self-government or Swaraj. He used Young India to spread his unique ideology and thoughts regarding the use of nonviolence in organising movements and to urge readers to consider, organise, and plan for India’s eventual independence from Britain. 
  • Navajivan (a new life) was weekly newspaper published by Gandhi, in Gujarati , from 1919 to 1931, from Ahmedabad.
  • 1920-22: Non-Cooperation Movement – Gandhi launched this mass movement which involved participation from the nationalists as well as the public.  Factors that led to the formation of this movement were the oppressive policies of Britishers such as the Rowlatt Act and the Jallianwala Bagh incident in Amritsar. The campaign involves Indians revoking their cooperation from the British government, with the aim of inducing the British to grant self-governance (swaraj). The British government arrested Gandhi and sentenced him to six years in jail for sedition. Gandhi withdrew the non-cooperation movement after the Chauri-Chaura Incident . After the non-cooperation movement ended, Gandhi withdrew from the political platform and focused on his social reform work.
  • 1929: Navajivan Trust  is a  publishing house  based in  Ahmedabad ,  India . It was founded by  Mahatma Gandhi in 1929  and has published more than 800 titles in  English ,  Gujarati ,  H i ndi and other languages to date. The objective of Navajivan Trust was to propagate peaceful means for the attainment of  Hind Swaraj  (Swaraj for India).
  • 1930: Civil Disobedience Movement – The Simon Commission came to India in 1928. It was to look into the functions of the constitutional system in India. As there was no Indian member in it, it was boycotted by all political parties in the country. Later, in 1929, the Congress under the leadership of Nehru declared ‘Poorna Swaraj’ as its main goal. As nationalist feelings began to rise, Gandhi sent a letter containing eleven demands to Lord Irwin in 1930 asking him to accept it. When he refused, Gandhi launched the Civil Disobedience Movement. Civil disobedience implies the active, professed refusal of a citizen to obey certain laws, orders, and demands of a government. In the year 1930, Gandhi started this movement (Dandi) by violating the salt law. The movement was discontinued following the Gandhi Irwin Pact of 1931 .
  • Communal Award – Ramsay Macdonald announced communal award due to repeated failure of communities to decide on the proportion of representation. The award provided for a separate electorate for depressed classes. Gandhi condemned this award as it was based on Britishers’ Divide and Rule Policy and it will destroy Hinduism. He led a fast unto death which ultimately resulted in Poona Pact between Congress and depressed classes headed by B.R. Ambedkar . Poona pact provides for reservation of depressed classes in Hindu joint electorate.
  • As a result of the communal awards and Poona pact, Gandhi dedicated himself to the upliftment of depressed classes and untouchables. Gandhi founded Harijan Sevak Sangh (All India Anti-Untouchability League) in 1932. He also started a journal named Harijan which means “People of God”.
  • 1934 : Gandhi resigned from the Congress party membership as he did not agree with the party’s position on different issues.
  • 1936: Gandhi returned to active politics in 1936 with the Lucknow session of Congress where Jawaharlal Nehru was the president.
  • 1938 : Gandhi and  Subhash Chandra Bose ’s principles clashed during the Tripuri session which led to the Tripuri crisis in the Indian National Congress.
  • 1942: Quit India Movement – The Quit India Movement was launched by Mahatma Gandhi on 8 August 1942 at the Bombay session of the All India Congress Committee (AICC). Also known as the Bharat Chhodo Andolan , this movement was a mass civil disobedience that took place in the country. Gandhi demanded that the British must leave India immediately or face dire consequences. As a part of this movement, a call for mass agitation was followed by violence that took over the country after which Indian National Congress leaders were arrested. The main reason for the Quit India Movement to begin was because the Britishers were planning to drag the country into World War II without consent to fight on behalf of the United Kingdom (UK). During that time, more than 87,000 Indian soldiers were martyred in World War II including people from Pakistan, Nepal, and Bangladesh. Also, the Cripps Mission which was led by Sir Stafford Cripps, a member of the War Cabinet in March 1942, made an attempt to secure India’s cooperation in World War II. Following this, Cripps was sent to India to discuss and support the British Government’s Draft Declaration with Indian leaders. Moreover, the declaration also granted India Dominion Status after the war. To which, Congress denied discussing any terms unless given total freedom.
  • 1947: India wins independence. Gandhi fasts as penance for inter-communal violence following the partition of India and Pakistan.

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Gandhian Ideologies:

Gandhi developed a set of religious and social ideas first during his period in South Africa from 1893 to 1914 and later in India. He developed these ideologies from various inspirational sources including Bhagavad Geeta, Jainism, Buddhism, Bible, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Tolstoy (His book The Kingdom of God is within you had a deep influence on Gandhi), John Ruskin (Gandhi paraphrased his book Unto the Last as Sarvodaya ), among others. These ideologies have been further developed by later Gandhians most notably, in India by Vinoba Bhave and Jayaprakash Narayan , outside of India by Martin Luther King Jr., Nelson Mandela, and others. Major Gandhian ideologies are as follows.

Truth and Non-Violence: 

  • They are the twin cardinal principles of Gandhian thoughts.
  • Relative truth of truthfulness in word and deed.
  • Absolute truth – the ultimate reality. This ultimate truth is God (as God is also Truth). Morality – the moral laws and code – its basis.
  • Nonviolence is Active love, that is, the polar opposite of violence, in every sense. Nonviolence or love is regarded as the highest law of humankind.


  • It is a method of securing rights through nonviolent action, that is, through personal suffering rather than inflicting injury on others.
  • It means the exercise of the purest soul-force against all injustice, oppression, and exploitation.
  • The origin of Satyagraha can be found in the Upanishads, and the teachings of Buddha, Mahavira, and other greats including Tolstoy and Ruskin.
  • The term Sarvodaya means ‘Universal Uplift’ or ‘Progress of All’.
  • It was first coined by Gandhiji as the title of his translation of John Ruskin’s book on political economy, Unto the Last .
  • Although the word swaraj means self-rule, Gandhiji gave it the content of an integral revolution that encompasses all spheres of life.
  • The sum total of the swaraj (self-rule) of individuals.
  • Freedom for the meanest of his countrymen. 
  • Much more than freedom from all restraints, it is self-rule and self-restraint and could be equated with moksha or salvation.
  • He envisaged Ram Rajya where the swaraj is achieved for the people by the people.
  • The word swadeshi is a conjunction of two Sanskrit words – ‘Swa’ means self or own and ‘desh’ means country. So Swadesh literally means one’s own country. But it can be loosely translated in most contexts as self-sufficiency.
  • It is the focus on acting within one’s own community, both politically and economically.
  • It is the interdependence of Community and Self-sufficiency.
  • Gandhi believed this would lead to independence (swaraj) as the British control of India was rooted in control of her indigenous industries.
  • Swadeshi was represented by the charkha or the spinning wheel, The “center of the solar system” of Mahatma Gandhi’s constructive program.


  • It is a socio-economic philosophy propounded by Gandhiji.
  • It provides a means by which the wealthy people would be the trustees of Trusts that looked after the welfare of the people in general.
  • Gandhi believed that Education needs to be a lifelong experience.
  • He developed a scheme on education named Nayee Taleem.
  • He gave priority to vocational education, the idea of ‘earn & learn’, and the learnings like social forestry, nursing, home science, handicrafts, etc.

Death of Gandhi:

On 30th January 1948, Gandhi was on his way to address a prayer meeting in the Birla House New Delhi when a Hindu fanatic named Nathuram Godse fired three bullets into his chest from close range killing him instantly.

Legacy of Gandhi:

Gandhi always held on to non-violence and simple living throughout his life, in his principles, practices, and beliefs. He influenced several great leaders and the country respectfully addresses him as the father of the nation or Bapu. Rabindranath Tagore is said to have given the title of Mahatma to Gandhi. It was Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose who first addressed him as the Father of the Nation. Many great world leaders like Nelson Mandela followed Gandhiji’s teachings and way of life. Therefore, his impact on the world is still very high.

Literary Works of Gandhi:

  • Hind Swarajya (1909),
  • Indian Home Rule (1910),
  • Sermon on the Sea (1924 – the American edition of Hind Swaraj),
  • Dakshina Africana Satyagrahano Itihasa / Satyagraha in South Africa (1924-25),
  • Satyana Prayogo Athava Atmakatha / An Autobiography: The Story of My Experiments With Truth (1924-25),
  • Mangalaprabhata (1930),
  • India’s Case for Swaraj (1931),
  • Songs from Prison: Translations of Indian Lyrics Made in Jail (1934),
  • The Indian States’ Problem (1941),
  • The Good life (1943),
  • Gandhi Against Fascism (1944),
  • From Yeravda Mandir: Ashram Observances (1945),
  • Conquest of Self (1946),
  • Women and Social Injustice (1947),
  • Self-restraint v. Self-Indulgence (1947),
  • Gandhigrams (1947). 

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Essay on Mahatma Gandhi [100, 150, 200, 300, 500 Words]

Essay on Mahatma Gandhi in English: In this article, you are going to read short and long essays on Mahatma Gandhi in English (100, 150, 200-250, 300, and 500 words). This article will be also helpful for you If you are looking for a speech on Mahatma Gandhi or Paragraph on Mahatma Gandhi in English. We’ve written this article for students of all classes (nursery to class 12). So, let’s get started.

Table of Contents

Short Essay on Mahatma Gandhi 100 Words

Mahatma Gandhi was one of the greatest leaders of our country. He was born in Porbandar, India, on October 2, 1869. His father Karamchand Gandhi was the Dewan and his mother Putlibai was a pious lady. Gandhiji went to England to become a barrister. In 1893 he went to South Africa and worked for the rights of our people.

He returned to India in 1915 and joined the freedom struggle. He started many political movements like Non-cooperation movement, Salt Satyagraha, Quit India Movement to fight against the British. Gandhiji worked for the ending of the caste system and the establishment of Hindu-Muslim unity. He was killed by Nathuram Godse On January 30, 1948.

Essay on Mahatma Gandhi in English

Mahatma Gandhi Essay in English 150 Words

Mahatma Gandhi was a great leader. His full name was Mohandas and Gandhi. He was born on October 2, 1869 at Porbandar. His father was a Diwan. He was an average student. He went to England and returned as a barrister.

In South Africa, Gandhiji saw the bad condition of the Indians. There he raised his voice against it and organised a movement.

In India, he started the non-cooperation and Satyagraha movements to fight against the British Government. He went to jail many times. He wanted Hindu-Muslim unity. In 1947, he got freedom for us.

Gandhiji was a great social reformer. He worked for Dalits and lower-class people. He lived a very simple life. He wanted peace. He believed in Ahimsa.

On January 30, 1948, he was shot dead. We call him ‘Bapu’ out of love and respect. He is the Father of the Nation.

Mahatma Gandhi Essay in English

Also Read: 10 Lines on Mahatma Gandhi

Essay on Mahatma Gandhi 200-250 Words

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, popularly known as Mahatma Gandhi was an Indian lawyer, freedom activist, and politician. Gandhiji was born on October 2, 1869 at Porbandar, Gujarat. His father Karamchand Gandhi was the Chief Minister (diwan) of Porbandar state. His mother Putlibai was a religious woman.

He went to England to study law at the age of 18 years. After his return to India, he started a practice as a lawyer in the Bombay High Court. He went to South Africa and started practicing law. There he protested against the injustice and harsh treatment of the white people towards the native Africans and Indians.

He returned to India in 1915 and started to take interest in politics. Mahatma Gandhi used the ideals of truth and non-violence as weapons to fight against British colonial rule. He worked for the upliftment of Harijans. He fought against untouchability and worked for Hindu-Muslim unity.

Through his freedom movements like Non-cooperation movement, Khilafat movement, and civil disobedience movement he fought for freedom against the British imperialists. 1942, he launched the Quit India movement to end the British rule. At last, India got freedom in 1947 at his initiative.

People affectionately call him ‘Bapu’ and the ‘Father of the Nation’. He was shot dead in 1948 by the Hindu fanatic Nathuram Godse.  Gandhiji’s life is a true inspiration for all of us.

Essay on Mahatma Gandhi

Mahatma Gandhi Essay in English 300 Words

Mahatma Gandhi was born at Porbandar in Gujarat on 2nd October, 1869. His father was the Diwan of the State. His name was Karam Chand Gandhi. Mahatma Gandhi’s full name was Mohan Das Karamchand Gandhi. His mother’s name was Putali Bai. Mahatma Gandhi went to school first at Porbandar then at Rajkot. Even as a child, Mahatma never told a lie. He passed his Matric examination at the age of 18.

Mohan Das was married to Kasturba at the age of thirteen. Mahatma Gandhi was sent to England to study law and became a Barrister. He lived a very simple life even in England. After getting his law degree, he returned to India.

Mr. Gandhi started his law practice. He went to South Africa in the course of a law suit. He saw the condition of the Indians living there. They were treated very badly by the white men. They were not allowed to travel in 1st class on the trains, also not allowed to enter certain localities, clubs, and so on. Once when Gandhiji was travelling in the 1st class compartment of the train, he was beaten and thrown out of the train. Then Mahatma decided to unite all Indians and started the Non-violence and Satyagrah Movement. In no time, the Movement picked up.

Mahatma Gandhi returned to India and joined Indian National Congress. He started the Non-violence, Non-cooperation Movements here also. He travelled all over India, especially the rural India to see the conditions of the poor.

Mahatma Gandhi started Satyagrah Movement to oppose the Rowlatt Act and there was the shoot-out at Jalian-Wala-Bagh. The Act was drawn after many people were killed. He then started the Salt Satyagraha and Quit India Movements. And finally, Gandhiji won freedom for us. India became free on 15th August, 1947. He is called as “Father of the Nation”. Unfortunately, Gandhiji was shot on 30 January 1948 by a Hindu extremist Nathuram Godse.

Also Read: Gandhi Jayanti Speech 10 Lines

Mahatma Gandhi Essay in English 500 Words


Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, popularly known as Mahatma Gandhi was a politician, social activist, writer, and leader of the Indian national movement. He is a figure known all over the world. His name is a household word in India, rather, in all the world round. His creed of non-violence has placed him on the same par with Buddha, Sri Chaitanya, and Jesus Christ.

Family & Education:

Mahatma Gandhi was born in the small town of Porbandar in the Kathiwad state on October 2, 1869. His father Karamchand Gandhi was the prime minister of Rajkot State and his mother Putlibai was a pious lady. Her influence shaped the future life of Mahatma Gandhi.

He was sent to school at a very early age, but he was not a very bright student. After his Matriculation Examination, he went to England to study law and returned home as a barrister. He began to practice law in Bombay but he was not very successful.

Life in South Africa:

In 1893 Gandhiji went to South Africa in connection with a case. He found his own countrymen treated with contempt by the whites. Gandhiji started satyagraha against this color hated. It was a non-violent protest, yet hundreds were beaten up and thousands were sent to jail. But Gandhiji did not buzz an inch from his faith in truth and non-violence and at last, he succeeded in his mission. He was awarded the title of Mahatma.

Fight for India’s Independence:

In 1915 Gandhiji came back to India after twenty long years in South Africa. He joined the Indian National congress and championed the cause of India’s freedom movement. He asked people to unite for the cause of freedom. He used the weapons of truth and non-violence to fight against the mighty British.

The horrible massacre at Jalianwalabag in Punjab touched him and he resolved to face the brute force of the British Government with moral force. In 1920 he launched the Non-cooperation movement to oppose British rule in India.

He led the famous Dandi March on 12th March 1930. This march was meant to break the salt law. And as a result of this, the British rule in India had already started shaking and he had to go to London for a Round Table Conference in 1931. But this Conference proved abortive and the country was about to give a death blow to the foreign rule.

In 1942 Gandhiji launched his final bout for freedom. He started the ‘Quit India’ movement. At last, the British Government had to quit India in 1947, and India was declared a free country on August 15, 1947.

Social Works:

Mahatma Gandhi was a social activist who fought against the evils of society. He found the Satyagraha Ashram on the banks of the Sabarmati river in Gujarat. He preached against untouchability and worked for Hindu-Muslim unity. He fought tirelessly for the rights of Harijans.


Mahatma Gandhi, the father of the nation was a generous, god-loving, and peace-loving person. But unfortunately, he was assassinated by Nathuram Godse on 30th January 1948 at the age of 78. To commemorate Gandhiji’s birth anniversary Gandhi Jayanti is celebrated every year on October 2. Gandhiji’s teachings and ideologies will continue to enlighten and encourage us in the future.

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Essay on Biography of Mahatma Gandhi 100, 150, 200, 300 & 400 Words

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Essay on Biography of Mahatma Gandhi 100 Words

Mahatma Gandhi was a great leader who lived during the 19th and 20th centuries. Born on October 2, 1869, in Porbandar, India, he became one of the most influential figures in the fight for Indian independence from British rule.

Gandhi believed in non-violence and led many peaceful protests and movements, such as the Salt March and the Quit India Movement. He inspired millions of Indians to follow his path of non-violent resistance.

Throughout his life, Gandhi fought against discrimination, poverty, and injustice. He promoted harmony among different religious and ethnic groups and worked towards a unified India.

His teachings of non-violence, truthfulness, and self-restraint continue to inspire people all over the world. Mahatma Gandhi’s legacy is a timeless reminder of the power of peaceful resistance in the face of adversity.

Essay on the Biography of Mahatma Gandhi 150 Words

Mahatma Gandhi was a great leader who played a significant role in India’s fight for independence. Born on October 2, 1869, in Porbandar, Gujarat, he grew up in a humble family. Gandhi believed in the power of non-violence and fought against injustice using peaceful ways.

He studied law in London and later became a lawyer. After facing discrimination in South Africa, he started to fight for the rights of Indians there. Gandhi returned to India and played a crucial role in India’s freedom struggle against British rule.

Known for his principles of truth, non-violence, and simplicity, Gandhi inspired millions of people. He led various movements like the Civil Disobedience, the Salt March, and the Quit India movement. Gandhi’s life and teachings continue to inspire people around the world.

In conclusion, Mahatma Gandhi’s life embodies the spirit of peaceful struggle and justice. His ideas of non-violence and truth continue to inspire generations to work for a better world. Gandhi’s role in India’s struggle for independence is a true example of dedication, perseverance, and leadership.

Essay on the Biography of Mahatma Gandhi 200 Words

Mahatma Gandhi, also known as Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, was a remarkable leader who played a significant role in India’s fight for independence. Born on October 2, 1869, in Porbandar, Gujarat, Gandhi grew up in a middle-class family.

Gandhi’s life was filled with acts of nonviolence and civil disobedience, which he employed to fight against British rule in India. His peaceful protests, such as the Salt March and the Quit India Movement, inspired millions of Indians to join the freedom struggle.

Gandhi’s philosophy of nonviolence, or Ahimsa, was his guiding principle. He believed in resolving conflicts through peaceful means, which made him a symbol of peace and equality worldwide. His teachings emphasized the importance of truth, simplicity, and self-discipline.

Furthermore, Gandhi advocated for the rights of the oppressed and marginalized communities, including the Dalits, or untouchables. He worked tirelessly to eradicate social evils like untouchability and caste discrimination.

Unfortunately, this great leader’s life was cut short when he was assassinated on January 30, 1948. However, his legacy lives on, and his principles continue to inspire people around the globe.

In conclusion, Mahatma Gandhi’s life was an extraordinary journey of courage, perseverance, and nonviolence. He will forever be remembered as one of the most influential leaders in the world, who dedicated his life to achieving freedom and justice for his country.

Essay on the Biography of Mahatma Gandhi 300 Words

The remarkable life of mahatma gandhi.

Mahatma Gandhi, also known as Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, was a great leader who fought for India’s independence from British rule. His life and teachings continue to inspire people around the world. In this essay, we will explore the extraordinary biography of Mahatma Gandhi and understand why he is considered a persuasive figure in history.

Born on October 2, 1869, in Porbandar, Gujarat, Gandhi was raised in a simple and peaceful environment. Throughout his life, he emphasized the values of truth, non-violence, and justice. Gandhi’s commitment to these principles formed the foundation of his philosophy, known as Satyagraha, or “the force of truth.”

At the forefront of India’s struggle for independence, Gandhi employed non-violent civil disobedience as a powerful tool to overthrow British rule. By boycotting British goods, leading peaceful protests, and engaging in hunger strikes, he inspired millions to join the struggle for freedom.

Moreover, Gandhi’s efforts were not limited to politics alone. He devoted himself to uplifting the poor, promoting education, and women’s rights, and fighting against social injustices such as untouchability. He believed that true independence could only be achieved by eradicating poverty and inequality.


In conclusion, Mahatma Gandhi’s biography is a constant source of inspiration for all ages. He proved that persistent, peaceful efforts can achieve significant change. Through his teachings of truth and non-violence, he advocated for a world free from discrimination and violence. Gandhi’s principles should guide us in our lives, reminding us to stand up for justice and equality, uphold non-violence, and strive to make a positive impact on society. Let us remember the incredible life of Mahatma Gandhi and continue to learn from his persuasive example.

Essay on Biography of Mahatma Gandhi 400 Words

Mahatma Gandhi, also known as Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, was a great leader and freedom fighter in India. He was born on October 2, 1869, in Porbandar, Gujarat. Mahatma Gandhi played a significant role in India’s struggle for independence from British rule. His principles of non-violence and truth inspire millions of people around the world.

Gandhi’s early life was filled with valuable experiences that shaped his character. He came from a modest family and was raised with strong moral values. As a child, he was honest, diligent, and respectful. At the age of 19, he moved to London to study law. This experience exposed him to different cultures and ideas, shaping his perspective on life.

However, it was in South Africa where Gandhi began his journey as a social and political activist. He fought against the racial discrimination faced by Indians living there. Gandhi strongly believed in fighting injustice through non-violent means. This later became his guiding principle in India’s struggle for independence.

Upon his return to India, Gandhi quickly rose to prominence as a leader. He saw the hardships faced by the common people and was determined to make a difference. His leadership during various campaigns, including the famous Salt March and the Non-Cooperation Movement, gave hope to countless Indians.

Gandhi’s teachings emphasized the importance of truth, non-violence, and simplicity. His words “Be the change you wish to see in the world” continue to inspire people to this day. He practiced what he preached and lived a simple life, wearing traditional Indian clothes and spinning his own clothes. This became an example for others to live a meaningful and simple life.

Mahatma Gandhi’s impact on India and the world was immense. He led India to independence from British rule through peaceful means. His advocacy for non-violence as a powerful weapon against injustice continues to be relevant in today’s world. His efforts also inspired other great leaders like Martin Luther King Jr. and Nelson Mandela.

In conclusion, Mahatma Gandhi’s biography is an inspiring tale of courage, resilience, and determination. Through his non-violent approach, he showed the world the power of truth and compassion. His principles still resonate with people of all ages, making him a timeless figure in history. Mahatma Gandhi’s legacy will forever be remembered as the man who brought freedom to India and inspired the nation.

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500+ Words Essay on Mahatma Gandhi in English

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Mahatma Gandhi was one of the most important freedom fighters who played a major role in India’s freedom struggle. His ideologies of ahimsa and satyagraha brought the Mighty British Empire on its keens, ultimately making India an independent country. His efforts to make India an independent and self-reliant country earned him the title of ‘The Father of Nation’. Every year, we celebrate his birthday on 2nd October as Gandhi Jayanti, where we recall his ideas of ahimsa, women empowerment, satyagraha, etc.

Essay on Mahatma Gandhi is a popular academic topic, assigned to students. To score better marks in an essay on Mahatma Gandhi, you must cover all dimensions of his life; his early life, profession, ideals, national movements, etc. On this page, we will provide you with an essay on Mahatma Gandhi in 500 words.

Essay on Mahatma Gandhi in 500 Words

‘Mahatma Gandhi was born on 2nd October 1869 in Porbandar, Gujarat. His real name was ‘Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. At 18, Gandhi sailed from Bombay to London, where he attended the University College, London. Gandhi also had the intention of becoming a Barrister, so he enrolled at the Inns of Court School of Law in Inner Temple. In London, Gandhi joined a public speaking group to enhance his communication and English speaking skills.

Civil Rights in South Africa

At the age of 22, Gandhi completed his law degree and left for India. The next year, a Muslim merchant in Katiawar contacted Gandhi, to solve a legal problem in their sipping business in Johannesburg, South Africa. Gandhi spent 23 years of his life in South Africa, where he initially protected the interest of the Muslim merchant and then against skin color discrimination.

Gandhi was not allowed to sit with the European passengers, and if he resisted, he was beaten, kicked into a gutter, and thrown off a running train. Gandhi found this very humiliating and could not understand how people felt honoured by such inhuman practices. In South Africa, Gandhi fought for the voting rights of the Indians and Africans. He helped establish a political organization, the Natal Indian Congress. He prepared a legal brief in 1895 to seek voting rights for Indians. To gain the support of Africans, Gandhi, along with his colleagues, helped the Africans as nurses by opposing racism.

It was in South Africa where Gandhi established his newspaper, named Indian Opinion to share his ideas with the African Indian Community. In 1910, In 1910, he established an idealistic community named Tolstoy Farm near Johannesburg. It was these developments which helped the black South Africans to gain voting rights and Mahatma Gandhi was declared a National Hero.’

Return to India

‘On 9th January 1915, Mahatma Gandhi returned to India from South Africa. Before his arrival, he already become a nationalist figure. Upon his arrival in India, Gandhi took a nationwide tour, where he witnessed chaos and disorder everywhere. He declared Gopa Krishna Gokhale as his Political Guru.

Mahatma Gandhi started his nationalist moments with the Champaran Satyagraha in 1917, the Kheda Satyagraha and the Ahmedabad Mill Strike in 1918. Then came the Khilafat Movement, where he tried to unite the Hindus and Muslims.

Gandhi, in his book ‘Hind Swaraj’, wrote that the British rule in India was the result of Indian cooperation. He said that if the Indian masses refused to co-operate, the British rule would come to an end and India would become a free and independent nation. Therefore, he launched the Non-Cooperation Movement in 1920. After this movement, India was sentenced to 6 years of imprisonment.

Other important movements by Gandhiji were the Civil Disobedience and the Quit India Movement. Gandhi believed in religious pluralism. It was his and his fellow India’s undying efforts which led to India’s independence on 15th August 1947.’

‘Gandhiji’s ideas of nonviolence, peaceful satyagraha, self-reliance, simple living and religious tolerance earned him fame not only in India but from other countries also. His ideals inspired the American Civil Rights Movement in the 1950s and 60s. His ideals have inspired the whole world to live in peace.’

10 Lines on Mahatma Gandhi

Here are 10 lines on Mahatma Gandhi. Students can add them to their essays on Mahatma Gandhi or similar writing topics.

1. Mahatma Gandhi’s birth anniversary is annually celebrated as Gandhi Jayanti on 2nd October.

2. Mahatma Gandhi was an important Indian freedom fighter.

3. He promoted the principle of nonviolence, or ‘ahimsa,’ as a powerful force for change.

4. Gandhi’s philosophy of ‘satyagraha’ emphasized the transformative power of truth and moral courage.

5. Mahatma Gandhi was a lawyer by profession.

6. Gandhi believed in economic self-reliance, encouraging the use of local products and cottage industries.

7. His life reflected a commitment to simple living and a rejection of materialism.

8. Religious tolerance was a core value for Gandhi, who championed the unity of all faiths.

9. Gandhi favoured the decentralization of political and economic power for community empowerment.

10. Gandhiji believed that education can help in character building and moral development.

10 Popular Quotes to Add in Essay on Mahatma Gandhi

Here are 10 popular quotes by Mahatma Gandhi.

1. ‘Be the change that you wish to see in the world.’

2. ‘The best way to find yourself is to lose yourself in the service of others.’

3. ‘You must be the change you want to see in the world.’

4. ‘An eye for an eye only ends up making the whole world blind.’

5. ‘The weak can never forgive. Forgiveness is the attribute of the strong.’

6. ‘Live as if you were to die tomorrow. Learn as if you were to live forever.’

7. ‘Happiness is when what you think, what you say, and what you do are in harmony.’

8. ‘First, they ignore you, then they laugh at you, then they fight you, then you win.’

9. ‘Freedom is not worth having if it does not include the freedom to make mistakes.’

10. ‘The greatness of a nation and its moral progress can be judged by the way its animals are treated.’

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Essay on Mahatma Gandhi- FAQs

What is the short essay on mahatma gandhi.

‘Mahatma Gandhi was born on 2nd October 1869 in Porbandar, Gujarat. His real name was ‘Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. He was one of the most influencial figure of the 20th century and his contributions made India an independent country. Mahatma Gandhi was known for his ideals and peaceful philosophies, such as non-violence, religious tolerance, self-reliant, etc. He led various nationalised movements, like the Champaran Satyagraha, Non Cooperation Movement, Civil Disoobedience and Quit India Movements.

What are some popular quotes by Mahatma Gandhi?

Some of the popular quotes by Gandhiji are: ‘Be the change that you wish to see in the world.’ ‘The best way to find yourself is to lose yourself in the service of others.’ ‘You must be the change you want to see in the world.’ ‘An eye for an eye only ends up making the whole world blind.’ ‘The weak can never forgive. Forgiveness is the attribute of the strong.’ ‘Live as if you were to die tomorrow. Learn as if you were to live forever.’

What do you know about Mahatma Gandhi’s 10 important points?

Gandhiji was a peace lover. He believed in religious tolerance. He wanted to unite all religions and castes of India. He was a lawyer by profession. His efforts led to India’s independence. Gandhi believed in economic self-reliance, encouraging the use of local products and cottage industries. His life reflected a commitment to simple living and a rejection of materialism. Religious tolerance was a core value for Gandhi, who championed the unity of all faiths.

What are the names of books written by Mahatma Gandhi?

Some of the books written by Mahatma Gandhi are: The Story of My Experiments With Truth, Hind Swaraj or Indian Home, The Words of Gandhi, India of My Dreams, etc.

When did Mahatma Gandhi arrive in India from South Africa?

Mahatma Gandhi arrived in India from South Africa on 9th January 1915. 9th January is also celebrated as Pravasi Bharatiya Diwas every year.

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Essay On Mahatma Gandhi In 1000+ Words

Essay On Mahatma Gandhi

Essay On Mahatma Gandhi

Hello, My Dear Friends, Jai Hind , In this Essay on Mahatma Gandhi we will read about his journey from Mohandas to Mahatma Gandhi in detail. So…

Let’s Start…

Gandhi Ji was born in Porbandar (Gujarat), on 2 Oct 1869. He was the son of Putli Bai and Karamchand Gandhi.

The father of Mahatma Gandhi became the Deewaans of the state. he gets services mainly from Porbandar and Rajkot. at this time, Gandhi Ji got married to Kasturba.

In 1888, Gandhi Ji goes to London and follows the Anglicised approach.

In 1889, Eventually, Gandhi Ji studies towards religion. it is also known as the enlightenment phase of Mahatma Gandhi’s life.

In 1891, he completes his education and comes back to India and practiced in the High court. he does a lot of struggle but finally, they don’t get any case, so he shifts from Bombay to Rajkot.

The first time, In 1893 Gandhiji was gone to South Africa. he was called by Gujarati businessman Dada Abdullah to settle some issues as a lawyer.

In South Africa, Gandhi landed in a place called Durban. Durban is a port of Africa.

On 7th June 1893, during traveling from the train the incident of racism Gandhiji takes place in South Africa.

In 1894, the Natal Indian Congress was the first body that was established by Gandhi Ji. And he was the first Indian Person who enrolled at the African supreme court.

In 1896, he come back to Rajkot and published “The Green Pamphlet” which shows the conditions of the Indian Community in South Africa.

In 1897, Gandhi Ji sails back to South Africa and participate in the Boer war (between French and British).

In 1899, he has established the ambulance corps and he was also awarded by medal by the British.

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In 1901 Gandhiji sails back to India. In Dec of this year, he attends the congress Calcutta session and raises Indian issues in South Africa.

In 1902, he come in contact with Gopal Krishna Gokhale. Gokhale was also known as the political guru of Mahatma Gandhi.

during this time he was called back to South Africa, due to the anti-Asiatic act(It is a form of ID Card which is required to carry by the Indian community).

In 1903, he established a transversal British India association in South Africa and started to publish a newspaper called Indian opinion.

In 1904, Mahatma Gandhi read john Ruskin’s book called Unto this last.

And he established phoenix Indian Settlement and also published an article called a guide to health.

In 1905, when the participation of Bengal took place then mahatma Gandhi criticized Lord Curzon as a part of Indian opinion(Newspaper). And said Curzon was wrong, the Bengali people had the right to the determination whether they want to divide or not.

In 1906, this phase is known as the transformation phase of Mahatma Gandhi. since now he is disinterested in worldly possessions and adopts the Brahmacharya vow and decides that He will protest the British by passive resistance oath.

During 1907-1908, he writes a series of 8 articles in Gujarati on “ethical religion”. at this time ‘Satyagrah’ was used instead of ‘Passive resistance’.

In 1909, Gandhiji sails to England, in this time Gandhiji writes to ‘Tolstoy’ on passive resistance and Tolstoy personally replied to Mahatma Gandhi on the basis of this reply Gandhiji established ‘Tolstoy Farm’. It says that it was the

ashram system was established by Gandhi when they came back to India.

The period of (1911-14) is very much important because Gandhi Ji started so many ‘Satyagraha.

In 1912, Gopal Krishna Gokhale visits south Africa with mahatma Gandhi and at this time. Gandhi Ji gives up the western dress.

During 1913-14, two main Satyagrah is started by Mahatma Gandhi.

one of them is against the supreme court judgment in South Africa. the supreme court of South Africa says that any marriage which is not according to the Christian rituals is nullifying.

and the second one is that Gandhiji starts satyagraha against poll taX (3 pounds) indentured laborers and also protest against inter-state migration.

In Jan 1915 Gandhi reaches Indian and this day is called India Pravasi Bhartiya is celebrated every two years.

In May 1915, Gandhi Ji makes Asharam on Ahmedabad, and later it was shifted to Sabarmati (1917).

During (1915-16) Gandhi visits the whole of India called ‘Bharat Darshan’.

In april 1917, he started Champaran satyagrah.

In 1918, Gandhiji started Champaran Satyagraha(mill worker) and Kheda Satyagraha (peasant).

On 6 April 1919, he started Rowlett satyagraha, the Rowlett Satyagrah is also known as ‘Himalayan Blunder.

The massacre of Jallianwala bagh happened on 13 April 1919.

In 1920, he started the khilafat movement. during this period, Gandhiji established Gujarat Vidyapeeth.

In 1921, Bal Gangadhar Tilak was dead at the time of the Non-cooperation movement. Gandhiji formed a fund called Tilak Swaraj Fund.

During the Non-Cooperation movement, Gandhiji visits Madurai (Tamilnadu) and discards their full clothes.

In 1922, the Chauri-Chaura incident take place in Gorakhpur(UP), Gandhiji was arrested and sent to jail(Yerwada) Pune, for six years.

In 1924, Gandhiji was released from jail due to ill health. during this period Gandhiji was the president of the congress at the Belgaum session (1924).

In 1925, Gandhiji started published its 2nd newspaper called ‘Young India’ in which he talked about 7 sins. at this time he also established the All India Spinners Association.

In 1928, he encouraged Anti Simon Protest.

In 1929, during the Lahore session of congress gives slogans of Purna swaraj.

On 12th March 1930, Gandhiji started salt satyagraha and on 6th April 1930, he has broken the salt law.

In March 1931, the meeting held between Gandhiji and viceroy Irwin in Delhi called the Gandhi-Irwin pact. it is also known as the Delhi pact.

In Sep-Nov 1931, Gandhiji attend second round table conference

In Jan 1932, the civil disobedience movement (2.0) start due to communal awards. for its Gandhiji fasting in jail. later on, the pact between Gandhiji and Bhimrao Ambedkar was called Poona Pact.

In 1936, Gandhiji settle the Sevagram ashram in central India (Wardha).

In 1939, Gandhiji fasts in Rajkot against their own princely state.

In 1940-42, Gandhiji criticized Cripps’s mission said that it is a post-dated cheque.

On 8th-9th Aug 1942, he started Quit India Movement.

The leader of the Indian National Army (INA) Subashchandra Bose addressed Mahatma Gandhi as a ‘Bapu’ on the radio.

And the title of ‘Mahatma’ was given by Rabindranath Tagore to Gandhiji.

In Aug 1942, Gandhiji writes ‘around me is utter darkness.

During this period the riots in the whole of India become increases mainly in Bengal.

In Sep 1947, Gandhiji against fasting in Calcutta, and the riots become stopped because of his appeal. it is also known as the ‘Calcutta Miracle’.

On 12th Jan 1948, Fasting leads to the establishment of the Central Peace Committee called peace pledge.

On 20 January(10 days before his death) a person named Madan Lal throws a Bomb on Gandhiji During prayer at Birlahouse.

On 30th June 1948, in the morning Gandhiji said that Congress renamed Congress Seva Sangh. But, Unfortunately at evening prayer, he was assassinated on way…. by Nathuram Godse.

Later on, the thought of Nathuram Godse was published as a book called ‘May it Please Your Honour’.

At last, Nathuram Godse was hanged at Ambala jail.

If you have any queries regarding the Essay on Mahatma Gandhi , so please mention it in the comment section.

Finally, Thanks For Reading “ Essay On Mahatma Gandhi “.

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