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APA Footnotes | Format & Examples

Published on June 7, 2022 by Eoghan Ryan . Revised on January 17, 2024.

To cite sources in APA Style , you must use APA in-text citations , not notes.

However, you can use footnotes in APA to:

  • Give additional information
  • Provide copyright attribution

Footnotes can appear at the bottom of relevant pages, or they can be grouped together and placed on a separate page at the end of the text.

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Table of contents

Formatting footnotes in apa, content footnotes, copyright footnotes, frequently asked questions about apa footnotes.

Footnotes use superscript numbers and should appear in consecutive order. Footnote numbers typically appear at the end of a sentence or clause, after the period or other punctuation.

However, there are exceptions:

  • If a footnote relates to text in parentheses, the footnote number should also appear inside the parentheses.
  • If the footnote relates to material offset by a dash , the footnote number should come before the dash, rather than after.

Don’t repeat footnotes. If you need to refer to an earlier note again, write “see Footnote 3” or similar in the text or in parentheses.

Footnotes can appear either at the bottom of the relevant page, or at the end of the paper on a separate footnotes page. You can choose which approach to use.

Footnotes at the bottom of the page

You can use your word processor to automatically insert footnotes at the bottom of the page. This will ensure that each superscript number in the text corresponds to the correct footnote. It will also separate them from the main text.

Footnotes at the bottom of a page should be single-spaced.

There should be a single space between the superscript number and the footnote text.

Footnotes at the bottom of the page

Footnotes page at the end of the paper

When placing footnotes at the end of a text in APA, place them on a separate footnotes page, after the reference page .

Footnotes page at the end of the paper

The title of the page, “Footnotes,” should be centered and bold.

Indent the first line of each footnote and place a single space between the superscript number and the footnote text. Like most text in an APA format paper, footnotes at the end of the text should be double-spaced.

Footnotes should be presented in the order their numbers appear in the text.

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example of research paper with footnotes

You can use content footnotes in APA to provide additional information to readers. For example, you might clarify a specific point or direct the reader to sources that contain more detail on a related topic.

As APA doesn’t encourage the use of footnotes, you should keep these notes as brief as possible. They should not exceed one paragraph. You can consider including longer material in an APA appendix instead.

If you include copyright material that exceeds fair use guidelines (like an extended passage from a book, or test or scale items), you may need to obtain permission from the copyright holder. You can use footnotes in APA to acknowledge this permission.

If you receive permission to reproduce an image or infographic, include this copyright note in the relevant caption, not in a footnote.

APA Style requires you to use APA in-text citations , not footnotes, to cite sources .

However, you can use APA footnotes sparingly for two purposes:

  • Giving additional information
  • Providing copyright attribution

APA footnotes use superscript numbers and should appear in numerical order. You can place footnotes at the bottom of the relevant pages, or on a separate footnotes page at the end:

  • For footnotes at the bottom of the page, you can use your word processor to automatically insert footnotes .
  • For footnotes at the end of the text in APA, place them on a separate page entitled “Footnotes,” after the r eference page . Indent the first line of each footnote, and double-space them.

For both approaches, place a space between the superscript number and the footnote text.

To insert a footnote automatically in a Word document:

  • Click on the point in the text where the footnote should appear
  • Select the “References” tab at the top and then click on “Insert Footnote”
  • Type the text you want into the footnote that appears at the bottom of the page

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How to Use Footnotes in Research Papers

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  • An Introduction to Punctuation
  • Ph.D., Rhetoric and English, University of Georgia
  • M.A., Modern English and American Literature, University of Leicester
  • B.A., English, State University of New York

A footnote is a reference, explanation, or comment 1 placed below the main text on a printed page. Footnotes are identified in the text by a numeral  or a  symbol .  

In research papers and reports , footnotes commonly acknowledge the sources of facts and quotations that appear in the text.

" Footnotes are the mark of a scholar," says Bryan A. Garner. "Overabundant, overflowing footnotes are the mark of an insecure scholar — often one who gets lost in the byways of analysis and who wants to show off" ( Garner's Modern American Usage , 2009).

Examples and Observations

  • " Footnotes: vices . In a work containing many long footnotes, it may be difficult to fit them onto the pages they pertain to, especially in an illustrated work."
  • " Content footnotes  supplement or simplify substantive information in the text; they should not include complicated, irrelevant, or nonessential information..." " Copyright permission footnotes  acknowledge the source of lengthy quotations, scale and test items, and figures and tables that have been reprinted or adapted."
  • Content Footnotes "What, after all, is a content footnote but material that one is either too lazy to integrate into the text or too reverent to discard? Reading a piece of prose that constantly dissolves into extended footnotes is profoundly disheartening. Hence my rule of thumb for footnotes is exactly the same as that for  parentheses . One should regard them as symbols of failure. I hardly need to add that in this vale of tears failure is sometimes unavoidable."
  • Footnote Forms All notes have the same general form: 1. Adrian Johns. The Nature of the Book: Print and Knowledge in the Making (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998), 623. If you cite the same text again, you can shorten subsequent notes: 5. Johns. Nature of the Book , 384-85.
  • The Disadvantages of Footnotes "More than one recent critic has pointed out that footnotes interrupt a narrative . References detract from the illusion of veracity and immediacy . . . . (Noel Coward made the same point more memorably when he remarked that having to read a footnote resembles having to go downstairs to answer the door while in the midst of making love.)"
  • Belloc on Footnotes "[L]et a man put his foot-notes in very small print indeed at the end of a volume, and, if necessary, let him give specimens rather than a complete list. For instance, let a man who writes history as it should be written — with all the physical details in evidence, the weather, the dress, colors, everything — write on for the pleasure of his reader and not for his critic. But let him take sections here and there, and in an appendix show the critic how it is being done. Let him keep his notes and challenge criticism. I think he will be secure. He will not be secure from the anger of those who cannot write clearly, let alone vividly, and who have never in their lives been able to resurrect the past, but he will be secure from their destructive effect."
  • The Lighter Side of Footnotes "A footnote is like running downstairs to answer the doorbell on your wedding night."

1 "The footnote has figured prominently in the fictions of such leading contemporary novelists as Nicholson Baker 2 , David Foster Wallace 3 , and Dave Eggers. These writers have largely revived the digressive function of the footnote." (L. Douglas and A. George, Sense and Nonsensibility: Lampoons of Learning and Literature . Simon and Schuster, 2004)

2 "[T]he great scholarly or anecdotal footnotes of Lecky, Gibbon, or Boswell, written by the author of the book himself to supplement, or even correct over several later editions, what he says in the primary text, are reassurances that the pursuit of truth doesn't have clear outer boundaries: it doesn't end with the book; restatement and self-disagreement and the enveloping sea of referenced authorities all continue. Footnotes are the finer-suckered surfaces that allow tentacular paragraphs to hold fast to the wider reality of the library." (Nicholson Baker, The Mezzanine . Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1988)

3 "One of the odd pleasures in reading the work of the late David Foster Wallace is the opportunity to escape from the main text to explore epic footnotes , always rendered at the bottoms of pages in thickets of tiny type." (Roy Peter Clark, The Glamour of Grammar . Little, Brown, 2010)

  • Hilaire Belloc,  On , 1923
  • Chicago Manual of Style , University of Chicago Press, 2003
  • Anthony Grafton,  The Footnote: A Curious History . Harvard University Press, 1999.
  • Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , 6th ed., 2010.
  • Paul Robinson, "The Philosophy of Punctuation."  Opera, Sex, and Other Vital Matters . University of Chicago Press, 2002.
  • Kate Turabian,  A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations , 7th ed. University of Chicago Press, 2007 .
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Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper

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Endnote Note citing a particular source or making a brief explanatory comment placed at the end of a research paper and arranged sequentially in relation to where the reference appears in the paper.

Footnote Note citing a particular source or making a brief explanatory comment placed at the bottom of a page corresponding to the item cited in the corresponding text above.

Fiske, Robert Hartwell. To the Point: A Dictionary of Concise Writing . New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 2014.

Structure and Writing Style

Advantages of Using Endnotes

  • Endnotes are less distracting to the reader and allows the narrative to flow better.
  • Endnotes don't clutter up the page.
  • As a separate section of a research paper, endnotes allow the reader to read and contemplate all the notes at once.

Disadvantages of Using Endnotes

  • If you want to look at the text of a particular endnote, you have to flip to the end of the research paper to find the information.
  • Depending on how they are created [i.e., continuous numbering or numbers that start over for each chapter], you may have to remember the chapter number as well as the endnote number in order to find the correct one.
  • Endnotes may carry a negative connotation much like the proverbial "fine print" or hidden disclaimers in advertising. A reader may believe you are trying to hide something by burying it in a hard-to-find endnote.

Advantages of Using Footnotes

  • Readers interested in identifying the source or note can quickly glance down the page to find what they are looking for.
  • It allows the reader to immediately link the footnote to the subject of the text without having to take the time to find the note at the back of the paper.
  • Footnotes are automatically included when printing off specific pages.

Disadvantages of Using Footnotes

  • Footnotes can clutter up the page and, thus, negatively impact the overall look of the page.
  • If there are multiple columns, charts, or tables below only a small segment of text that includes a footnote, then you must decide where the footnotes should appear.
  • If the footnotes are lengthy, there's a risk they could dominate the page, although this issue is considered acceptable in legal scholarship.
  • Adding lengthy footnotes after the paper has been completed can alter the page where other sources are located [i.e., a long footnote can push text to the next page].
  • It is more difficult learning how to insert footnotes using your word processing program than simply adding endnotes at the end of your paper.

Things to keep in mind when considering using either endnotes or footnotes in your research paper :

1.    Footnotes are numbered consecutively throughout a research paper, except for those notes accompanying special material (e.g., figures, tables, charts, etc.). Numbering of footnotes are "superscript"--Arabic numbers typed slightly above the line of text. Do not include periods, parentheses, or slashes. They can follow all punctuation marks except dashes. In general, to avoid interrupting the continuity of the text, footnote numbers are placed at the end of the sentence, clause, or phrase containing the quoted or paraphrased material. 2.    Depending on the writing style used in your class, endnotes may take the place of a list of resources cited in your paper or they may represent non-bibliographic items, such as comments or observations, followed by a separate list of references to the sources you cited and arranged alphabetically by the author's last name. If you are unsure about how to use endnotes, consult with your professor. 3.    In general, the use of footnotes in most academic writing is now considered a bit outdated and has been replaced by endnotes, which are much easier to place in your paper, even with the advent of word processing programs. However, some disciplines, such as law and history, still predominantly utilize footnotes. Consult with your professor about which form to use and always remember that, whichever style of citation you choose, apply it consistently throughout your paper.

NOTE:   Always think critically about the information you place in a footnote or endnote. Ask yourself, is this supplementary or tangential information that would otherwise disrupt the narrative flow of the text or is this essential information that I should integrate into the main text? If you are not sure, it's better to work it into the text. Too many notes implies a disorganized paper.

Cermak, Bonni and Jennifer Troxell. A Guide to Footnotes and Endnotes for NASA History Authors . NASA History Program. History Division; Hale, Ali. Should You Use Footnotes or Endnotes? DailyWritingTips.com; Tables, Appendices, Footnotes and Endnotes. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University; Lunsford, Andrea A. and Robert Connors. The St. Martin's Handbook . New York: St. Martin's Press, 1989; Saller, Carol. “Endnotes or Footnotes? Some Considerations.” The Chronicle of Higher Education 58 (January 6, 2012): http://chronicle.com/blogs/linguafranca/2012/01/06/endnotes-or-footnotes-some-considerations/.

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What Are They

Footnotes are short numbered notes that are placed at the bottom of the page in an essay or article. They are used for a variety of reasons including, citing materials, providing notes on a source or topic, and to acknowledge copyright status. 

Although you will find footnotes in many journal articles, they are not typically required in APA or MLA formatted essays. They are most heavily used when applying the CMOS style. 

For information on footnotes in the  Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association  see section 2.13 "Footnotes.". For information on using footnotes with MLA see the " Using Notes in MLA Style " article from the MLA Style Center .  For information on footnotes in  The Chicago Manual of Style  see Chapter 14 "Notes and Bibliography."

Using Google Docs:

  • Cómo incorporar notas al calce en Google Docs Vea éste video en español.

Using Microsoft Word:

  • Cómo incorporar notas al calce en Microsoft Word Vea éste video en español.
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To cite this LibGuide use the following templates:

APA : Northern Essex Community College Library. (Date updated). Title of page . Title of LibGuide. URL

MLA : Northern Essex Community College Library. "Title of Page." Title of LibGuide, Date updated, URL.

example of research paper with footnotes

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A Guide to Writing Research Papers with Footnotes

Footnotes are an integral part of research papers. They provide the reader with additional information about a particular point or source in order to support and back up your arguments. When utilized effectively, footnotes can be used to add depth and perspective to an academic paper. This guide will provide readers with a detailed overview on how to write research papers using footnotes, as well as tips on best practices for utilizing them most effectively within their work.

I. Introduction to Research Papers and Footnotes

Ii. understanding the purpose of footnotes in writing a research paper, iii. different types of sources used for citing evidence in a research paper with footnotes, iv. how to structure and format your document for writing with footnotes, v. using software tools to automate the insertion of citation references into your work, vi. tips on avoiding common mistakes when creating citations through the use of footnoting, vii. conclusion: best practices for successful integration of reference notation in a scholarly manuscript.

Research Papers and Footnotes The objective of a research paper is to critically analyze the sources that are cited in order to provide an informed, scholarly opinion. A key component of research papers involves including footnotes as citations for the information used within the paper. In essence, this approach allows readers to access more detailed and varied information related to topics being discussed in-depth within a text.

A footnote should always include the author’s name or abbreviation (e.g., JW), date published (in parentheses) followed by page number(s) where content was found (e.g., John Wilson 2020: 23). As these details can be cumbersome when working with multiple works from different authors at once, it is highly recommended that researchers use reference management software such as Zotero or Endnote for their writing needs. These applications allow users store citation data quickly and accurately across many mediums – particularly helpful if your research spans several decades!

Additionally, while most modern day styles have shifted towards parenthetical citations instead of traditional footnotes; certain disciplines still require students cite texts exclusively through the latter method – making them an essential skill set even in today’s digital world!

When writing a research paper, footnotes are an important tool for providing additional information to the reader. Footnotes can be used in several ways: to provide evidence and backup arguments, expand on ideas or concepts from sources without overly disrupting the flow of your own work, and support definitions with reputable references.

  • Evidence & Backup Arguments – Footnotes can be used as primary source material when crafting a well-researched argument. This is especially helpful when making bold statements or introducing controversial topics. Supporting these assertions with reliable facts and data helps build credibility among readers.

For example , if you’re writing a research paper about gun control laws in the United States, citing credible studies within footnotes will help substantiate any claims made regarding their effects on crime rates.

  • Expanding Ideas & Concepts – Writing long stretches of text about various topics discussed in other works can often lead to excess redundancy that leaves readers bored or confused. If there’s an idea or concept discussed by another author that needs further elaboration but is too lengthy for inclusion into your original piece then it should instead be referred to using a footnote.

For instance , while discussing chemical reaction pathways related to photosynthesis you could use one sentence containing all relevant details followed by “[insert Author Name] discusses this mechanism at length [see footnote xyz].” By directing readers’ attention towards previously established knowledge via footnotes they’ll not only avoid confusion but also gain insight into different perspectives presented elsewhere.

Primary Sources are documents or other materials which provide the first-hand information about an event, time period, person, etc. These can be in different forms such as letters, newspaper articles and reports from organizations or government institutions. In a research paper with footnotes these primary sources should always be included to support any claims made within the paper. Examples of Primary Sources:

  • Book published by an author during their lifetime
  • Speeches given by historical figures

Secondary Sources , on the other hand, refer to material that is derived from analysis of primary sources. This could include books written about events based off evidence found in primary source documents or magazine/newspaper pieces discussing current issues supported through facts originating from original source material. Examples of Secondary Sources:

  • Biographies written after someone’s death

Creating Footnotes The use of footnotes in a research paper provides an additional source for the reader to refer to and look up citations. They are also a great way of providing supplementary information that does not necessarily fit into the body of your essay, yet is still relevant or important enough to be included. To create effective footnotes, you must first identify what type of footnote you want to include in your writing; whether it’s factual-based (e.g., citing sources), analytical (commenting on certain aspects) or personal opinion-related (expressing opinions). Depending on these factors, you can structure the contents accordingly.

Structuring & Formatting Your Document with Footnotes Once identified which type(s) will best suit your purpose, you should then move onto formatting them correctly within the document itself: add superscript numbers after any direct quotes used from sources as well as at other places where appropriate throughout your writing; cite bibliographical details related to cited resources below each respective number; separate facts and analysis by using subheadings before further discussing each concept in detail; avoid excessively long paragraphs so readers can easily locate pertinent points discussed through concise phrasing – if needed break them down into bullet point lists etc.; choose fonts consistent with those adopted for main text such as Times New Roman size 12 with 1/2 inch indentation. In summary, following the right format while creating footnotes helps make more sense out of complex texts making it easier both for writers and their intended audiences alike.

In the age of digital technology, software tools have become invaluable for automating tedious tasks. While writing an academic paper, one often has to cite a large number of references. This can take up a lot of time and cause considerable headaches if done manually. Fortunately, there are now various software solutions available that can automate the insertion of citation references into your work.

One such program is Referencer – a web-based tool designed specifically to save authors from having to painstakingly insert citations in their research papers by hand. 1 All you need do is enter your source material into its database and it will generate bibliographies according to whatever style you desire (e.g., APA or MLA). Furthermore, citing sources becomes as easy as clicking on entries in the ‘Cite’ menu when typing out your document 2 . For instance: To create footnotes for websites Referencer automatically generates HTML tags.

  • “With Referencer’s click-and -cite feature enabled… inserting new cites takes only seconds.” (Langridge et al., 2016)

Apart from automated reference generation other features include realtime collaboration between coauthors as well as compatibility with most common Word processor programs. 3 .This allows team members working on different machines no matter where they are located around the world share documents without difficulty so they may continue editing them jointly . Indeed this type of convenience comes at no additional cost making Referencer ideal for university students collaborating on projects together!

Developing a Systematic Approach: To ensure accuracy and reliability when creating citations, it is recommended to develop a systematic approach. Start by establishing which style guide will be used for the paper (e.g., MLA, APA). This should then be followed consistently throughout the document. As an additional measure of quality control, check any newly-developed citations against existing ones from reliable sources such as published research papers.

Exploring Automation Options: Footnoting can also be automated through tools like Microsoft Word’s “References” tab or websites like EasyBib and Zotero that generate bibliographies in various formats with minimal input required on your part. Although these technologies offer significant convenience benefits compared to manual formatting techniques, they may not always yield accurate results since citation styles continue to evolve over time; therefore periodic review of generated documents is highly recommended.

Conclusion: Best Practices for Successful Integration Of Reference Notation In A Scholarly Manuscript

Having an effective reference notation system is essential to successful academic writing. It not only helps readers understand the flow of information, but also serves as a means of verification and validation by which authors can back up their claims with reliable evidence from credible sources. While there are numerous systems available for referencing material in scholarly manuscripts, this article has discussed some best practices that should be considered when selecting one.

For instance, adhering to proper guidelines set forth by publication style guides ensures consistency throughout a paper’s text and citation sections. Additionally, it is important that writers make use of high quality databases like JSTOR or EBSCOhost when looking up citations; these provide access to respected peer-reviewed research papers complete with footnotes [1] . Finally, if possible it would be beneficial to have other editors double check references before submitting an article; they may catch any errors overlooked during the initial review process. By considering these points while integrating reference notation into scholarly manuscripts researchers can improve overall accuracy and enhance reader comprehension.

[1] Hinchliffe LJ., What Are Footnotes? Journal Of Documentation 59 (3): 363–384

At the end of this article, we have gained an understanding of how to properly format and compose a research paper with footnotes. In addition to acquiring knowledge about citation styles, readers now know how these notes can be used for further exploring into particular topics or providing additional evidence and support for one’s argument. Moreover, readers understand that there is more than one style when it comes to citing sources which necessitates critical thinking in order to determine which would be most suitable depending on the context. This guide has provided sufficient information so that learners can take away something valuable from their experience in writing research papers with footnotes; thus equipping them with important skills they will carry over into future assignments.

Turabian Footnote/Endnote Style

Table of Contents: Books E-books Journal Articles (Print) Journal Articles (Online) Magazine Articles (Print) Magazine Articles (Online) Newspaper Articles Review Articles Websites For More Help

The examples in this guide are meant to introduce you to the basics of citing sources using Kate Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (seventh edition) .  Kate Turabian created her first "manual" in 1937 as a means of simplifying for students The Chicago Manual of Style ; the seventh edition of Turabian is based on the 15th edition of the Chicago Manual . For types of resources not covered in this guide (e.g., government documents, manuscript collections, video recordings) and for further detail and examples, please consult the websites listed at the end of this guide, the handbook itself or a reference librarian .

Whenever you refer to or use another's words, facts or ideas in your paper, you are required to cite the source. Traditionally, disciplines in the humanities (art, history, music, religion, theology) require the use of bibliographic footnotes or endnotes in conjunction with a bibliography to cite sources used in research papers and dissertations. For the parenthetical reference (author-date) system (commonly used in the sciences and social sciences), please refer to the separate guide Turabian Parenthetical/Reference List Style . It is best to consult with your professor to determine the preferred citation style.

Indicate notes in the text of your paper by using consecutive superscript numbers (as demonstrated below). The actual note is indented and can occur either as a footnote at the bottom of the page or as an endnote at the end of the paper. To create notes, type the note number followed by a period on the same line as the note itself. This method should always be used for endnotes; it is the preferred method for footnotes. However, superscript numbers are acceptable for footnotes, and many word processing programs can generate footnotes with superscript numbers for you.

When citing books, the following are elements you may need to include in your bibliographic citation for your first footnote or endnote and in your bibliography, in this order:

1. Author or editor; 2. Title; 3. Compiler, translator or editor (if an editor is listed in addition to an author); 4. Edition; 5. Name of series, including volume or number used; 6. Place of publication, publisher and date of publication; 7. Page numbers of citation (for footnote or endnote).

Books with One Author or Corporate Author

Author: Charles Hullmandel experimented with lithographic techniques throughout the early nineteenth century, patenting the "lithotint" process in 1840. 1

Editor: Human beings are the sources of "all international politics"; even though the holders of political power may change, this remains the same. 1

Corporate Author: Children of Central and Eastern Europe have not escaped the nutritional ramifications of iron deficiency, a worldwide problem. 1

First footnote:

1 Michael Twyman, Lithography 1800-1850 (London: Oxford University Press, 1970), 145-146.

1 Valerie M. Hudson, ed., Culture and Foreign Policy (Boulder: L. Rienner Publishers, 1997), 5.

1 UNICEF, Generation in Jeopardy: Children in Central and Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union , edited by Alexander Zouev (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1999), 44.

Note the different treatment of an editor's name depending on whether the editor takes the place of an author (second example) or is listed in addition to the author (third example). 

Subsequent footnotes:

       Method A: Include the author or editor's last name, the title (or an abbreviated title) and the page number cited.

2 Twyman, Lithography 1800-1850, 50.

2 Hudson, ed., Culture and Foreign Policy, 10.

2 UNICEF, Generation in Jeopardy, 48.

       Method B: Include only the author or editor's last name and the page number, leaving out the title.  

2 Twyman, 50.

2 Hudson, ed., 10.

2 UNICEF, 48.

Use Method A if you need to cite more than one reference by the same author.

1. Michael Twyman, Lithography 1800-1850  (London: Oxford University Press, 1970), 145-146.

Ibid., short for ibidem, means "in the same place."  Use ibid. if you cite the same page of the same work in succession without a different reference intervening.  If you need to cite a different page of the same work, include the page number.  For example:   2 Ibid., 50.

Bibliography:

Hudson, Valerie, N., ed. Culture and Foreign Policy . Boulder: L. Rienner Publishers, 1997.

Twyman, Michael. Lithography 1800-1850 . London: Oxford University Press, 1970.

UNICEF.  Generation in Jeopardy: Children in Central and Eastern Europe and the             Former Soviet Union . Edited by Alexander Zouev. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1999.

Books with Two or More Authors or Editors

1 Russell Keat and John Urry, Social Theory as Science, 2d ed. (London: Routledge and K. Paul, 1982), 196.

1 Toyoma Hitomi, "The Era of Dandy Beauties," in Queer Voices from Japan: First-Person Narratives from Japan's Sexual Minorities,  eds. Mark J. McLelland, Katsuhiko Suganuma, and James Welker ( Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2007), 157.

For references with more than three authors, cite the first named author followed by "et al." Cite all the authors in the bibliography.

1 Leonard B. Meyer, et al., The Concept of Style , ed. Berel Lang (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1979), 56.

2 Keat and Urry, Social Theory as Science , 200.

2 Meyer, et al., The Concept of Style , 90.

Keat, Russell, and John Urry. Social Theory as Science , 2d. ed. London: Routledge and K. Paul, 1982.

Hitomi, Toyoma. "The Era of Dandy Beauties." In Queer Voices from Japan: First-Person Narratives from Japan's Sexual Minorities,  edited by Mark J. McLelland, Katsuhiko Suganuma, and James Welker, 153-165.   Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2007.

Meyer, Leonard B., Kendall Walton, Albert Hofstadter, Svetlana Alpers, George Kubler, Richard Wolheim, Monroe Beardsley, Seymour Chatman, Ann Banfield, and Hayden White. The Concept of Style . Edited by Berel Lang.  Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1979.  

Electronic Books

Follow the guidelines for print books, above, but include the collection (if there is one), URL and the date you accessed the material.

1 John Rae, Statement of Some New Principles on the Subject of Political Economy (Boston: Hillard, Gray and Company, 1834), in The Making of the Modern World,   http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/MOME?af=RN&ae=U104874605&srchtp=a&ste=14  (accessed June 22, 2009).  

2 Rae, Statement of Some New Principles on the Subject of Political Economy .

Rae, John.  Statement of Some New Principles on the Subject of Political Economy. Boston: Hillard, Gray and Company, 1834. In The Making of the Modern World,   http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/MOME?af=RN&ae=U104874605&srchtp=a&ste=14  (accessed June 22, 2009).  

PERIODICAL ARTICLES

For periodical (magazine, journal, newspaper, etc.) articles, include some or all of the following elements in your first footnote or endnote and in your bibliography, in this order:

1. Author; 2. Article title; 3. Periodical title; 4. Volume or Issue number (or both); 5. Publication date; 6. Page numbers.

For online periodicals   , add: 7. URL and date of access; or 8. Database name, URL and date of access. (If available, include database publisher and city of publication.)

For an article available in more than one format (print, online, etc.), cite whichever version you used.

Journal Articles (Print)

1 Lawrence Freedman, "The Changing Roles of Military Conflict," Survival 40, no. 4 (1998): 52.

Here you are citing page 52.  In the bibliography (see below) you would include the full page range: 39-56.

If a journal has continuous pagination within a volume, you do not need to include the issue number:

1 John T. Kirby, "Aristotle on Metaphor," American Journal of Philology 118 (1997): 520.

Subsequent footnotes :

2 Freedman, "The Changing Roles of Military Conflict," 49.   

2 Kirby, "Aristotle on Metaphor," 545.

Freedman, Lawrence. "The Changing Roles of Military Conflict."   Survival 40, no. 4 (1998): 39-56.

Kirby, John T. "Aristotle on Metaphor."  American Journal of Philology 118 (1997): 517-554.  

Journal Articles (Online)

Cite as above, but include the URL and the date of access of the article.

On the Free Web

1 Molly Shea, "Hacking Nostalgia: Super Mario Clouds," Gnovis 9, no. 2 (Spring 2009), http://gnovisjournal.org/journal/hacking-nostalgia-super-mario-clouds  (accessed June 25, 2009).

Through a Subscription Database

1 John T. Kirby, "Aristotle on Metaphor," American Journal of Philology 118, no. 4 (Winter 1997): 524, http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/american_journal_of_philology/v118/118.4.kirby.html  (accessed June 25, 2009).

1 Michael Moon, et al., "Queers in (Single-Family) Space," Assemblage 24 (August 1994): 32, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3171189  (accessed June 25, 2009).

Subsequent Footnotes:

2 Shea, "Hacking Nostalgia."

2 Kirby, "Aristotle on Metaphor," 527. 

2 Moon, "Queers in (Single-Family) Space," 34. 

Shea, Molly. "Hacking Nostalgia: Super Mario Clouds," Gnovis 9, no. 2 (Spring 2009), http://gnovisjournal.org/journal/hacking-nostalgia-super-mario-clouds  (accessed June 25, 2009).

Kirby, John T. "Aristotle on Metaphor," American Journal of Philology 118, no. 4 (Winter 1997): 524, http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/american_journal_of_philology/v118/118.4.kirby.html  (accessed June 25, 2009).

Moon, Michael, Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick, Benjamin Gianni, and Scott Weir. "Queers in (Single-Family) Space." Assemblage 24 (August 1994): 30-7, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3171189  (accessed June 25, 2009).

Magazine Articles (Print)

Monthly or Bimonthly

           1 Paul Goldberger, "Machines for Living: The Architectonic Allure of the Automobile," Architectural Digest, October 1996, 82.

1 Steven Levy and Brad Stone, "Silicon Valley Reboots," Newsweek , March 25, 2002, 45.

          2 Goldberger, "Machines for Living," 82.

          2 Levy and Stone, "Silicon Valley Reboots," 46.

Goldberger, Paul.  "Machines for Living: The Architectonic Allure of the Automobile." Architectural Digest, October 1996.

Levy, Steven, and Brad Stone. "Silicon Valley Reboots." Newsweek , March 25, 2002.

Magazine Articles (Online)

Follow the guidelines for print magazine articles, adding the URL and date accessed.

1 Bill Wyman, "Tony Soprano's Female Trouble," Salon.com, May 19, 2001, http://www.salon.com/2001/05/19/sopranos_final/ (accessed February 13, 2017).

1 Sasha Frere-Jones, "Hip-Hop President." New Yorker , November 24, 2008, http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=35324426&site=ehost-live (accessed June 26, 2009).

Wyman, Bill. "Tony Soprano's Female Trouble." Salon.com, May 19, 2001, http://www.salon.com/2001/05/19/sopranos_final/ (accessed February 13, 2017).

Frere-Jones, Sasha. "Hip-Hop President." New Yorker , November 24, 2008. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=35324426&site=ehost-live (accessed June 26, 2009).

Newspaper Articles

In most cases, you will cite newspaper articles only in notes, not in your bibliography. Follow the general pattern for citing magazine articles, although you may omit page numbers.

        1 Eric Pianin, "Use of Arsenic in Wood Products to End," Washington Post , February 13, 2002, final edition.

        1 Eric Pianin, "Use of Arsenic in Wood Products to End," Washington Post , February 13, 2002, final edition, in LexisNexis Academic (accessed June 27, 2009).

Note: In the example above, there was no stable URL for the article in LexisNexis, so the name of the database was given rather than a URL.

Review Articles

Follow the pattern below for review articles in any kind of periodical.

1 Alanna Nash, "Hit 'Em With a Lizard," review of Basket Case, by Carl Hiassen, New York Times , February 3, 2002, http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=105338185&sid=2&Fmt=6&clientId=5604&RQT=309&VName=PQD (accessed June 26, 2009).  

1 David Denby, "Killing Joke," review of No Country for Old Men , directed by Ethan and Joel Coen,  New Yorker, February 25, 2008, 72-73, http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=fah&AN=30033248&site=ehost-live (accessed June 26, 2009). 

Second footnote:

2 Nash, "Hit 'Em With a Lizard."

2 Denby, "Killing Joke."

In most cases, you will be citing something smaller than an entire website. If you are citing an article from a website, for example, follow the guidelines for articles above. You can usually refer to an entire website in running text without including it in your reference list, e.g.: "According to its website, the Financial Accounting Standards Board requires ...".

If you need to cite an entire website in your bibliography, include some or all of the following elements, in this order:

1. Author or editor of the website (if known) 2. Title of the website 3. URL 4. Date of access

Financial Accounting Standards Board .  http://www.fasb.org  (accessed April 29, 2009).

FOR MORE HELP

Following are links to sites that have additional information and further examples:

Turabian Quick Guide (University of Chicago Press)

Chicago Manual of Style Online

RefWorks Once you have created an account, go to Tools/Preview Output Style to see examples of Turabian style.

Purdue's Online Writing Lab (OWL) Excellent source for research, writing and citation tips.

Citing Sources Duke University's guide to citing sources. The site offers comparison citation tables with examples from APA , Chicago , MLA and Turabian for both print and electronic works.

How to Cite Electronic Sources From the Library of Congress. Provides MLA and Turabian examples of citing formats like films, photographs, maps and recorded sound that are accessed electronically.

Uncle Sam: Brief Guide to Citing Government Publications The examples in this excellent guide from the University of Memphis are based on the Chicago Manual of Style and Kate Turabian's Manual .

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example of research paper with footnotes

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How to Write Footnotes

Information on how to write footnotes and endnotes. Footnotes, a type of citation format, are most often used for history and philosophy papers. As such, scientists rarely encounter it, but it is still useful to know how to follow the practice.

This article is a part of the guide:

  • Outline Examples
  • Example of a Paper
  • Write a Hypothesis
  • Introduction

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  • 1 Write a Research Paper
  • 2 Writing a Paper
  • 3.1 Write an Outline
  • 3.2 Outline Examples
  • 4.1 Thesis Statement
  • 4.2 Write a Hypothesis
  • 5.2 Abstract
  • 5.3 Introduction
  • 5.4 Methods
  • 5.5 Results
  • 5.6 Discussion
  • 5.7 Conclusion
  • 5.8 Bibliography
  • 6.1 Table of Contents
  • 6.2 Acknowledgements
  • 6.3 Appendix
  • 7.1 In Text Citations
  • 7.2 Footnotes
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  • 7.4 Example of a Paper
  • 7.5 Example of a Paper 2
  • 7.6.1 Citations
  • 7.7.1 Writing Style
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  • 8.1.1 Sham Peer Review
  • 8.1.2 Advantages
  • 8.1.3 Disadvantages
  • 8.2 Publication Bias
  • 8.3.1 Journal Rejection
  • 9.1 Article Writing
  • 9.2 Ideas for Topics

Many biology journals, for example, prefer footnotes because they allow annotation of the in-text citation on the same page.

Whilst footnotes are a little more cumbersome than the 'author/date' system, they are useful where sources require elaboration and short explanatory notes.

example of research paper with footnotes

What is a Footnote

The footnote takes the form of a superscripted number, just after a paraphrased piece of information. Subsequently, a cross-reference to this number is inserted at the bottom of the same page.

In fact, for dissertations and theses, many writers use footnotes to keep track of their citations , adding a short note of what exactly each one adds to the paper.

Once the paper is complete, the writer converts them to endnotes at the end or every chapter, or even removes them all together, and uses a standard APA or MLA bibliography instead.

example of research paper with footnotes

Automatically Inserting Footnotes

The reason that footnotes are still popular in some fields is that most word processing programs now include a function that makes it very easy to include footnotes in any paper.

In Microsoft Word, clicking Insert > Reference > Footnote allows you to insert footnotes automatically, and automatically numbers them. This function is so useful, that even if you cut and paste, and swap information around, it automatically adjusts the footnotes.

This is why it is an excellent resource for keeping track of your sources during the course of a research paper .

How to Write Footnotes - Protocols

If you are using footnotes, the common convention is to insert a full citation, including author, year and the title of the book, followed by the page number. Afterwards, the surname of the author and the page number is sufficient.

Older journals often use the word ibid, to show that a footnote uses the same source as the previous one, but this has become much rarer.

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Martyn Shuttleworth (Nov 21, 2009). How to Write Footnotes. Retrieved Feb 26, 2024 from Explorable.com: https://explorable.com/how-to-write-footnotes

You Are Allowed To Copy The Text

The text in this article is licensed under the Creative Commons-License Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) .

This means you're free to copy, share and adapt any parts (or all) of the text in the article, as long as you give appropriate credit and provide a link/reference to this page.

That is it. You don't need our permission to copy the article; just include a link/reference back to this page. You can use it freely (with some kind of link), and we're also okay with people reprinting in publications like books, blogs, newsletters, course-material, papers, wikipedia and presentations (with clear attribution).

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Turabian Style Guide: Sample Papers in Turabian

  • Turabian (& Chicago)
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  • Research Tools This link opens in a new window

Sample Turabian Papers

  • Turabian Style paper (Austin Peay State University) from Austin Peay State University, Academic Support Center
  • "Turabian Tutor" (Tennessee Temple University) Tennessee Temple University, Turabian-style paper
  • Intro to Chicago-Turabian Style (paper) (University of North Alabama) University of North Alabama, turabian-style paper
  • Sample Turabian Bibliography from Carpenter Library, UNF

Turabian formatting in Word

Turabian title page in Word

Simple Formatting Guidelines

  • Paper size - 8.5 inch x 11 inch
  • 1 inch on all four edges of the page
  • Typeface/Font size
  • Easily read; preferably serifed, ex. Times New Roman
  • 12-point is accepted size
  • Spacing/Indentation  
  • Double-space text with exceptions that are single-spaced:
  • Block quotations
  • Table elements, ex. titles and figure captions
  • Appendices' lists
  • Footnotes/endnotes are single-spaced but separated by a space between each item.
  • Items in a bibliography/reference list are single-spaced but each item is separated by a space.
  • Do not number the title page.
  • Start arabic numbers (at 1) on first page of paper that is not considered front matter (front matter = title page).
  • Place page numbers consistently in same location throughout paper: 
  • Options for page numbers include: centered in footer OR right-hand of footer OR centered in header OR right-hand of header
  •    Title Page elements
  • Center all elements
  • Use consistent typeface and font size
  • font size can increase slightly for title elements
  • preferred format is boldface for title
  • Employ Headline Capitalization with All Elements  (first letter of each noun/pronoun is capitalized) ( definition of Headline Style Capitalization)
  • Title is placed approx. 1/3 down the page. A subtitle follow the main title with a colon and starts on a new line.
  • Two-thirds down the page, your name, any title page information provided by your professor, and the date should be included.
  • Body of Paper (Text)
  • Includes 
  • Introduction
  • Quotations, including block quotations, should follow Turabian's standard formatting rules.
  • Text Formatting
  • Be consistent throughout body of paper with typeface, font size, and other formatting elements.
  • Make sure text is aligned left.
  • Do not add color in the text (hyperlinked text will automatically become blue; this is unavoidable).
  • Block quotations should be set apart by blank space above and below and, internally, should be single-spaced. 
  • Back Matter elements
  • Notes (endnotes section) ( http://writing.wisc.edu/Handbook/DocChicago_Notes_Formatting.html )
  • Bibliography OR References OR Works Cited (your choice as to heading)
  • Center page titles
  • Font size can increase slightly for title elements.
  • Preferred format is  boldface  for  title
  • Leave two blank spaces between heading and first endnote/work referenced.
  • Notes section
  • Use standard paragraph indentations for each endnote.
  • Single-space each endnote and separate each by a blank space.
  • Use standard-size numbers with periods to enumerate your endnote list.
  • Bibliography/References/Works Cited section
  • Use hanging indentations for works referenced (first line is not indented; second and remaining lines are indented standard tab of five spaces)
  • This section is typically arranged alphabetically by author, then alphabetically by title if you list multiple works by one author. 

All information comes from 

Turabian, Kate L.  A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations :  Chicago Style for Students & Researchers . 8th ed. Chicago:    University of Chicago Press, 2013. 

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This resource contains the Notes and Bibliography (NB) sample paper for the Chicago Manual of Style 17 th edition. To download the sample paper, click this link .

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  2. Apa footnote format

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  4. Mla Style Footnotes And Bibliography

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COMMENTS

  1. APA Footnotes

    Example: Footnote in APA The findings of the study are consistent with other research. 1 However, there are exceptions: If a footnote relates to text in parentheses, the footnote number should also appear inside the parentheses. If the footnote relates to material offset by a dash, the footnote number should come before the dash, rather than after.

  2. Footnotes & Appendices

    Footnotes Footnotes are supplementary details printed at the bottom of the page pertaining to a paper's content or copyright information. This supporting text can be utilized in any type of APA paper to support the body paragraphs. Cite your source automatically in APA Cite Using citation machines responsibly

  3. How to Use Footnotes in Research Papers

    All notes have the same general form: 1. Adrian Johns. The Nature of the Book: Print and Knowledge in the Making (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998), 623. If you cite the same text again, you can shorten subsequent notes: 5. Johns. Nature of the Book, 384-85. The Disadvantages of Footnotes

  4. APA Sample Paper

    Crucially, citation practices do not differ between the two styles of paper. However, for your convenience, we have provided two versions of our APA 7 sample paper below: one in student style and one in professional style. Note: For accessibility purposes, we have used "Track Changes" to make comments along the margins of these samples. Those ...

  5. MLA Endnotes and Footnotes

    The following are some examples: Cite your source automatically in MLA Cite Using citation machines responsibly Powered by 1. See Blackmur, especially chapters 3 and 4, for an insightful analysis of this trend. 2.

  6. Footnotes or Endnotes?

    Things to keep in mind when considering using either endnotes or footnotes in your research paper:. 1. Footnotes are numbered consecutively throughout a research paper, except for those notes accompanying special material (e.g., figures, tables, charts, etc.). Numbering of footnotes are "superscript"--Arabic numbers typed slightly above the line of text.

  7. Footnotes

    For information on footnotes in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association see section 2.13 "Footnotes.". For information on using footnotes with MLA see the "Using Notes in MLA Style" article from the MLA Style Center. For information on footnotes in The Chicago Manual of Style see Chapter 14 "Notes and Bibliography."

  8. A Guide to Writing Research Papers with Footnotes

    For example, if you're writing a research paper about gun control laws in the United States, citing credible studies within footnotes will help substantiate any claims made regarding their effects on crime rates.

  9. Footnotes in APA With Format Tips and Examples

    Footnotes in APA With Format Tips and Examples By Adrienne Mathewson Certified Librarian In APA Format 3 Min read Generally, using footnotes is associated with Chicago notes-biblio style. Even so, other styles do use them sometimes. With APA 7 style, you should use footnotes only when you absolutely must. Ask your instructor for clarification.

  10. Footnote Examples and Format Tips

    Sample Footnote #1 Text within the research paper: It is well known that patients who suffer from Crohn's and Colitis can have many debilitating symptoms.¹ Footnote: ¹See the CCFA.org website for more information about the symptoms that Crohn's and Colitis patients may experience. Sample Footnote #2 Text within the research paper:

  11. Turabian Footnote/Endnote Style

    The examples in this guide are meant to introduce you to the basics of citing sources using Kate Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (seventh edition) .

  12. How to Write Footnotes: Rules and Examples

    How to Write Footnotes: Rules and Examples Matt Ellis Updated on December 29, 2022 Students Footnotes are small notations at the bottom of a page that provide additional information or cite the source of a passage in the page's text.

  13. How to Write Footnotes in Research Papers

    Many biology journals, for example, prefer footnotes because they allow annotation of the in-text citation on the same page. Whilst footnotes are a little more cumbersome than the 'author/date' system, they are useful where sources require elaboration and short explanatory notes. What is a Footnote

  14. Footnotes and Endnotes

    Summary: APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual ...

  15. PDF SAMPLE CHICAGO STYLE PAPER

    There are two types of notes that can be used in a Chicago Style paper: footnotes or endnotes.

  16. PDF sample paper with footnotes

    1824. Since then, Egyptologists have seen, generation by generation, the likes of Mariette, Lepsius, Petrie, Breasted, ern&, Habachi, and all of their respective contemporaries who have contributed their researches and understanding to the study of ancient Egypt. Now recent years have seen the torch of enquiry pass to a new generation of scholars.

  17. Turabian Style Guide: Sample Papers in Turabian

    Footnotes/endnotes are single-spaced but separated by a space between each item. Items in a bibliography/reference list are single-spaced but each item is separated by a space. Pagination; Do not number the title page. Start arabic numbers (at 1) on first page of paper that is not considered front matter (front matter = title page).

  18. CMOS NB Sample Paper

    Purdue OWL Research and Citation Chicago Style CMOS Formatting and Style Guide CMOS NB Sample Paper CMOS NB Sample Paper This resource contains the Notes and Bibliography (NB) sample paper for the Chicago Manual of Style 17 th edition. To download the sample paper, click this link. Cite your source automatically in Chicago style Cite

  19. PDF A Sample Paper for the Purpose of Correct Formatting In Notes

    paper itself, except Times New Roman 10-pt. font for all footnote content. 8 Turabian, A Manual for Writers , 164-66. 9 For example, Turabian does not specify a font size or style, although all ...