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International Baccalaureate (IB)


IB students around the globe fear writing the Extended Essay, but it doesn't have to be a source of stress! In this article, I'll get you excited about writing your Extended Essay and provide you with the resources you need to get an A on it.

If you're reading this article, I'm going to assume you're an IB student getting ready to write your Extended Essay. If you're looking at this as a potential future IB student, I recommend reading our introductory IB articles first, including our guide to what the IB program is and our full coverage of the IB curriculum .

IB Extended Essay: Why Should You Trust My Advice?

I myself am a recipient of an IB Diploma, and I happened to receive an A on my IB Extended Essay. Don't believe me? The proof is in the IBO pudding:


If you're confused by what this report means, EE is short for Extended Essay , and English A1 is the subject that my Extended Essay topic coordinated with. In layman's terms, my IB Diploma was graded in May 2010, I wrote my Extended Essay in the English A1 category, and I received an A grade on it.

What Is the Extended Essay in the IB Diploma Programme?

The IB Extended Essay, or EE , is a mini-thesis you write under the supervision of an IB advisor (an IB teacher at your school), which counts toward your IB Diploma (learn more about the major IB Diploma requirements in our guide) . I will explain exactly how the EE affects your Diploma later in this article.

For the Extended Essay, you will choose a research question as a topic, conduct the research independently, then write an essay on your findings . The essay itself is a long one—although there's a cap of 4,000 words, most successful essays get very close to this limit.

Keep in mind that the IB requires this essay to be a "formal piece of academic writing," meaning you'll have to do outside research and cite additional sources.

The IB Extended Essay must include the following:

  • A title page
  • Contents page
  • Introduction
  • Body of the essay
  • References and bibliography

Additionally, your research topic must fall into one of the six approved DP categories , or IB subject groups, which are as follows:

  • Group 1: Studies in Language and Literature
  • Group 2: Language Acquisition
  • Group 3: Individuals and Societies
  • Group 4: Sciences
  • Group 5: Mathematics
  • Group 6: The Arts

Once you figure out your category and have identified a potential research topic, it's time to pick your advisor, who is normally an IB teacher at your school (though you can also find one online ). This person will help direct your research, and they'll conduct the reflection sessions you'll have to do as part of your Extended Essay.

As of 2018, the IB requires a "reflection process" as part of your EE supervision process. To fulfill this requirement, you have to meet at least three times with your supervisor in what the IB calls "reflection sessions." These meetings are not only mandatory but are also part of the formal assessment of the EE and your research methods.

According to the IB, the purpose of these meetings is to "provide an opportunity for students to reflect on their engagement with the research process." Basically, these meetings give your supervisor the opportunity to offer feedback, push you to think differently, and encourage you to evaluate your research process.

The final reflection session is called the viva voce, and it's a short 10- to 15-minute interview between you and your advisor. This happens at the very end of the EE process, and it's designed to help your advisor write their report, which factors into your EE grade.

Here are the topics covered in your viva voce :

  • A check on plagiarism and malpractice
  • Your reflection on your project's successes and difficulties
  • Your reflection on what you've learned during the EE process

Your completed Extended Essay, along with your supervisor's report, will then be sent to the IB to be graded. We'll cover the assessment criteria in just a moment.


We'll help you learn how to have those "lightbulb" moments...even on test day!  

What Should You Write About in Your IB Extended Essay?

You can technically write about anything, so long as it falls within one of the approved categories listed above.

It's best to choose a topic that matches one of the IB courses , (such as Theatre, Film, Spanish, French, Math, Biology, etc.), which shouldn't be difficult because there are so many class subjects.

Here is a range of sample topics with the attached extended essay:

  • Biology: The Effect of Age and Gender on the Photoreceptor Cells in the Human Retina
  • Chemistry: How Does Reflux Time Affect the Yield and Purity of Ethyl Aminobenzoate (Benzocaine), and How Effective is Recrystallisation as a Purification Technique for This Compound?
  • English: An Exploration of Jane Austen's Use of the Outdoors in Emma
  • Geography: The Effect of Location on the Educational Attainment of Indigenous Secondary Students in Queensland, Australia
  • Math: Alhazen's Billiard Problem
  • Visual Arts: Can Luc Tuymans Be Classified as a Political Painter?

You can see from how varied the topics are that you have a lot of freedom when it comes to picking a topic . So how do you pick when the options are limitless?


How to Write a Stellar IB Extended Essay: 6 Essential Tips

Below are six key tips to keep in mind as you work on your Extended Essay for the IB DP. Follow these and you're sure to get an A!

#1: Write About Something You Enjoy

You can't expect to write a compelling essay if you're not a fan of the topic on which you're writing. For example, I just love British theatre and ended up writing my Extended Essay on a revolution in post-WWII British theatre. (Yes, I'm definitely a #TheatreNerd.)

I really encourage anyone who pursues an IB Diploma to take the Extended Essay seriously. I was fortunate enough to receive a full-tuition merit scholarship to USC's School of Dramatic Arts program. In my interview for the scholarship, I spoke passionately about my Extended Essay; thus, I genuinely think my Extended Essay helped me get my scholarship.

But how do you find a topic you're passionate about? Start by thinking about which classes you enjoy the most and why . Do you like math classes because you like to solve problems? Or do you enjoy English because you like to analyze literary texts?

Keep in mind that there's no right or wrong answer when it comes to choosing your Extended Essay topic. You're not more likely to get high marks because you're writing about science, just like you're not doomed to failure because you've chosen to tackle the social sciences. The quality of what you produce—not the field you choose to research within—will determine your grade.

Once you've figured out your category, you should brainstorm more specific topics by putting pen to paper . What was your favorite chapter you learned in that class? Was it astrophysics or mechanics? What did you like about that specific chapter? Is there something you want to learn more about? I recommend spending a few hours on this type of brainstorming.

One last note: if you're truly stumped on what to research, pick a topic that will help you in your future major or career . That way you can use your Extended Essay as a talking point in your college essays (and it will prepare you for your studies to come too!).

#2: Select a Topic That Is Neither Too Broad nor Too Narrow

There's a fine line between broad and narrow. You need to write about something specific, but not so specific that you can't write 4,000 words on it.

You can't write about WWII because that would be a book's worth of material. You also don't want to write about what type of soup prisoners of war received behind enemy lines, because you probably won’t be able to come up with 4,000 words of material about it. However, you could possibly write about how the conditions in German POW camps—and the rations provided—were directly affected by the Nazis' successes and failures on the front, including the use of captured factories and prison labor in Eastern Europe to increase production. WWII military history might be a little overdone, but you get my point.

If you're really stuck trying to pinpoint a not-too-broad-or-too-narrow topic, I suggest trying to brainstorm a topic that uses a comparison. Once you begin looking through the list of sample essays below, you'll notice that many use comparisons to formulate their main arguments.

I also used a comparison in my EE, contrasting Harold Pinter's Party Time with John Osborne's Look Back in Anger in order to show a transition in British theatre. Topics with comparisons of two to three plays, books, and so on tend to be the sweet spot. You can analyze each item and then compare them with one another after doing some in-depth analysis of each individually. The ways these items compare and contrast will end up forming the thesis of your essay!

When choosing a comparative topic, the key is that the comparison should be significant. I compared two plays to illustrate the transition in British theatre, but you could compare the ways different regional dialects affect people's job prospects or how different temperatures may or may not affect the mating patterns of lightning bugs. The point here is that comparisons not only help you limit your topic, but they also help you build your argument.

Comparisons are not the only way to get a grade-A EE, though. If after brainstorming, you pick a non-comparison-based topic and are still unsure whether your topic is too broad or narrow, spend about 30 minutes doing some basic research and see how much material is out there.

If there are more than 1,000 books, articles, or documentaries out there on that exact topic, it may be too broad. But if there are only two books that have any connection to your topic, it may be too narrow. If you're still unsure, ask your advisor—it's what they're there for! Speaking of advisors...


Don't get stuck with a narrow topic!

#3: Choose an Advisor Who Is Familiar With Your Topic

If you're not certain of who you would like to be your advisor, create a list of your top three choices. Next, write down the pros and cons of each possibility (I know this sounds tedious, but it really helps!).

For example, Mr. Green is my favorite teacher and we get along really well, but he teaches English. For my EE, I want to conduct an experiment that compares the efficiency of American electric cars with foreign electric cars.

I had Ms. White a year ago. She teaches physics and enjoyed having me in her class. Unlike Mr. Green, Ms. White could help me design my experiment.

Based on my topic and what I need from my advisor, Ms. White would be a better fit for me than would Mr. Green (even though I like him a lot).

The moral of my story is this: do not just ask your favorite teacher to be your advisor . They might be a hindrance to you if they teach another subject. For example, I would not recommend asking your biology teacher to guide you in writing an English literature-based EE.

There can, of course, be exceptions to this rule. If you have a teacher who's passionate and knowledgeable about your topic (as my English teacher was about my theatre topic), you could ask that instructor. Consider all your options before you do this. There was no theatre teacher at my high school, so I couldn't find a theatre-specific advisor, but I chose the next best thing.

Before you approach a teacher to serve as your advisor, check with your high school to see what requirements they have for this process. Some IB high schools require your IB Extended Essay advisor to sign an Agreement Form , for instance.

Make sure that you ask your IB coordinator whether there is any required paperwork to fill out. If your school needs a specific form signed, bring it with you when you ask your teacher to be your EE advisor.

#4: Pick an Advisor Who Will Push You to Be Your Best

Some teachers might just take on students because they have to and aren't very passionate about reading drafts, only giving you minimal feedback. Choose a teacher who will take the time to read several drafts of your essay and give you extensive notes. I would not have gotten my A without being pushed to make my Extended Essay draft better.

Ask a teacher that you have experience with through class or an extracurricular activity. Do not ask a teacher that you have absolutely no connection to. If a teacher already knows you, that means they already know your strengths and weaknesses, so they know what to look for, where you need to improve, and how to encourage your best work.

Also, don't forget that your supervisor's assessment is part of your overall EE score . If you're meeting with someone who pushes you to do better—and you actually take their advice—they'll have more impressive things to say about you than a supervisor who doesn't know you well and isn't heavily involved in your research process.

Be aware that the IB only allows advisors to make suggestions and give constructive criticism. Your teacher cannot actually help you write your EE. The IB recommends that the supervisor spends approximately two to three hours in total with the candidate discussing the EE.

#5: Make Sure Your Essay Has a Clear Structure and Flow

The IB likes structure. Your EE needs a clear introduction (which should be one to two double-spaced pages), research question/focus (i.e., what you're investigating), a body, and a conclusion (about one double-spaced page). An essay with unclear organization will be graded poorly.

The body of your EE should make up the bulk of the essay. It should be about eight to 18 pages long (again, depending on your topic). Your body can be split into multiple parts. For example, if you were doing a comparison, you might have one third of your body as Novel A Analysis, another third as Novel B Analysis, and the final third as your comparison of Novels A and B.

If you're conducting an experiment or analyzing data, such as in this EE , your EE body should have a clear structure that aligns with the scientific method ; you should state the research question, discuss your method, present the data, analyze the data, explain any uncertainties, and draw a conclusion and/or evaluate the success of the experiment.

#6: Start Writing Sooner Rather Than Later!

You will not be able to crank out a 4,000-word essay in just a week and get an A on it. You'll be reading many, many articles (and, depending on your topic, possibly books and plays as well!). As such, it's imperative that you start your research as soon as possible.

Each school has a slightly different deadline for the Extended Essay. Some schools want them as soon as November of your senior year; others will take them as late as February. Your school will tell you what your deadline is. If they haven't mentioned it by February of your junior year, ask your IB coordinator about it.

Some high schools will provide you with a timeline of when you need to come up with a topic, when you need to meet with your advisor, and when certain drafts are due. Not all schools do this. Ask your IB coordinator if you are unsure whether you are on a specific timeline.

Below is my recommended EE timeline. While it's earlier than most schools, it'll save you a ton of heartache (trust me, I remember how hard this process was!):

  • January/February of Junior Year: Come up with your final research topic (or at least your top three options).
  • February of Junior Year: Approach a teacher about being your EE advisor. If they decline, keep asking others until you find one. See my notes above on how to pick an EE advisor.
  • April/May of Junior Year: Submit an outline of your EE and a bibliography of potential research sources (I recommend at least seven to 10) to your EE advisor. Meet with your EE advisor to discuss your outline.
  • Summer Between Junior and Senior Year: Complete your first full draft over the summer between your junior and senior year. I know, I know—no one wants to work during the summer, but trust me—this will save you so much stress come fall when you are busy with college applications and other internal assessments for your IB classes. You will want to have this first full draft done because you will want to complete a couple of draft cycles as you likely won't be able to get everything you want to say into 4,000 articulate words on the first attempt. Try to get this first draft into the best possible shape so you don't have to work on too many revisions during the school year on top of your homework, college applications, and extracurriculars.
  • August/September of Senior Year: Turn in your first draft of your EE to your advisor and receive feedback. Work on incorporating their feedback into your essay. If they have a lot of suggestions for improvement, ask if they will read one more draft before the final draft.
  • September/October of Senior Year: Submit the second draft of your EE to your advisor (if necessary) and look at their feedback. Work on creating the best possible final draft.
  • November-February of Senior Year: Schedule your viva voce. Submit two copies of your final draft to your school to be sent off to the IB. You likely will not get your grade until after you graduate.

Remember that in the middle of these milestones, you'll need to schedule two other reflection sessions with your advisor . (Your teachers will actually take notes on these sessions on a form like this one , which then gets submitted to the IB.)

I recommend doing them when you get feedback on your drafts, but these meetings will ultimately be up to your supervisor. Just don't forget to do them!


The early bird DOES get the worm!

How Is the IB Extended Essay Graded?

Extended Essays are graded by examiners appointed by the IB on a scale of 0 to 34 . You'll be graded on five criteria, each with its own set of points. You can learn more about how EE scoring works by reading the IB guide to extended essays .

  • Criterion A: Focus and Method (6 points maximum)
  • Criterion B: Knowledge and Understanding (6 points maximum)
  • Criterion C: Critical Thinking (12 points maximum)
  • Criterion D: Presentation (4 points maximum)
  • Criterion E: Engagement (6 points maximum)

How well you do on each of these criteria will determine the final letter grade you get for your EE. You must earn at least a D to be eligible to receive your IB Diploma.

Although each criterion has a point value, the IB explicitly states that graders are not converting point totals into grades; instead, they're using qualitative grade descriptors to determine the final grade of your Extended Essay . Grade descriptors are on pages 102-103 of this document .

Here's a rough estimate of how these different point values translate to letter grades based on previous scoring methods for the EE. This is just an estimate —you should read and understand the grade descriptors so you know exactly what the scorers are looking for.

Here is the breakdown of EE scores (from the May 2021 bulletin):

How Does the Extended Essay Grade Affect Your IB Diploma?

The Extended Essay grade is combined with your TOK (Theory of Knowledge) grade to determine how many points you get toward your IB Diploma.

To learn about Theory of Knowledge or how many points you need to receive an IB Diploma, read our complete guide to the IB program and our guide to the IB Diploma requirements .

This diagram shows how the two scores are combined to determine how many points you receive for your IB diploma (3 being the most, 0 being the least). In order to get your IB Diploma, you have to earn 24 points across both categories (the TOK and EE). The highest score anyone can earn is 45 points.


Let's say you get an A on your EE and a B on TOK. You will get 3 points toward your Diploma. As of 2014, a student who scores an E on either the extended essay or TOK essay will not be eligible to receive an IB Diploma .

Prior to the class of 2010, a Diploma candidate could receive a failing grade in either the Extended Essay or Theory of Knowledge and still be awarded a Diploma, but this is no longer true.

Figuring out how you're assessed can be a little tricky. Luckily, the IB breaks everything down here in this document . (The assessment information begins on page 219.)

40+ Sample Extended Essays for the IB Diploma Programme

In case you want a little more guidance on how to get an A on your EE, here are over 40 excellent (grade A) sample extended essays for your reading pleasure. Essays are grouped by IB subject.

  • Business Management 1
  • Chemistry 1
  • Chemistry 2
  • Chemistry 3
  • Chemistry 4
  • Chemistry 5
  • Chemistry 6
  • Chemistry 7
  • Computer Science 1
  • Economics 1
  • Design Technology 1
  • Design Technology 2
  • Environmental Systems and Societies 1
  • Geography 1
  • Geography 2
  • Geography 3
  • Geography 4
  • Geography 5
  • Geography 6
  • Literature and Performance 1
  • Mathematics 1
  • Mathematics 2
  • Mathematics 3
  • Mathematics 4
  • Mathematics 5
  • Philosophy 1
  • Philosophy 2
  • Philosophy 3
  • Philosophy 4
  • Philosophy 5
  • Psychology 1
  • Psychology 2
  • Psychology 3
  • Psychology 4
  • Psychology 5
  • Social and Cultural Anthropology 1
  • Social and Cultural Anthropology 2
  • Social and Cultural Anthropology 3
  • Sports, Exercise and Health Science 1
  • Sports, Exercise and Health Science 2
  • Visual Arts 1
  • Visual Arts 2
  • Visual Arts 3
  • Visual Arts 4
  • Visual Arts 5
  • World Religion 1
  • World Religion 2
  • World Religion 3


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Extended essay

The extended essay is an independent, self-directed piece of research, finishing with a 4,000-word paper.

One component of the International Baccalaureate® (IB) Diploma Programme (DP) core, the extended essay is mandatory for all students.

Read about the extended essay  in greater detail.

You can also read about how the IB sets deadlines for the extended essay , find examples of extended essay titles from previous DP students and learn about the world studies extended essay .

Learn more about the extended essay in a DP workshop for teachers . 

DP subject briefs

Find out about what each subject offers within the Diploma Programme (DP).

Our DP subject briefs—for both standard and higher level—contain information about core requirements, aims and assessment.

  • Explore the DP subject briefs


extended essay sources

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Extended Essay (IB): Finding and selecting sources

  • The Inquiry Process
  • EE Seminar 1
  • EE Seminar 2
  • IT Workshop 1
  • EE Investigation Days
  • EE Writing Days
  • Choosing a subject and topic
  • Developing a line of inquiry
  • Finding and selecting sources
  • Working with ideas
  • Expressing your ideas
  • Using ManageBac
  • Supervisor resources
  • Who can help?


extended essay sources

There is a huge range of resources available to you, and your most important task at this stage will be filtering these sources and using your time as efficiently as possible.

Start by looking exploring our Recommended Resources - Upper School guide to see which resources we particularly recommend for your subject. Then spend some time having a look around to see what is available, and talk to your supervisor or another subject specialist about the list of keywords you are building if you are having trouble.

If you still cannot find what you are looking for, come and have a chat with the Library staff and we would be happy to help you. 

If you need help with refining your Research Question, have a look at the previous tab on Developing a Line of Inquiry .

If you need help with making effective notes from your sources, have a look at the next tab on Working with Ideas .

Choosing which type(s) of resource to use

We have a wide range of books and subscription databases available - and you have the vast resources of the internet at your fingertips, so where should you start? Different resources are useful for different purposes.

Begin by looking at the home tab and the tab for your EE subject on our Recommended resources - Upper School guide .

Recommended resources guide

Effective search strategies

One of the most important features of any search strategy is the key words and phrases you use - computers aren't mind-readers although some internet search engines are very good at 'guessing', subscription databases and the library catalogue are less so. This can actually be helpful as you have more control over the results you get in a database than on the internet, but when you are used to internet search engines it can also be a challenge.

This keywording tool (that you may have begun to use in the Developing a Line of Inquiry tab ) will help you to develop an effective search strategy, and will also help you to discuss that with your supervisor and the Library staff if you need any help. Don't forget to check the second page of the document for useful hints and tips on how to use it.

Keyword Record document

There are many websites with excellent tutorials on Boolean searching (searching using AND, OR and NOT) if you want more advice. For example, this one from MIT Libraries:

extended essay sources

Search for books using our Library catalogue .

  • Think about using different search terms. The results depend on your terms being used in the title, as a keyword or in the abstract. Use the keywording resource above to record your search terms as you work.
  • Look at the classification numbers of any promising results. Other books at these classification numbers will be on a similar subject. Go and look at the other books on the shelves at these classmarks. You are very likely to come across other books on your topic that weren’t picked up by your search.

If you really cannot find any books relevant to your topic, please speak to a member of library staff or use the link on this page to email the relevant Librarian for advice.We might be able to identify books to buy or to borrow from another library. Similarly, if you come across a reference to a book that looks particularly useful that we do not have, let us know and we can try and get hold of it for you.

Library Catalogue Logo

  • Searching the Library catalogue tutorial (Upper School)

Subscription databases

The Library subscribes to a number of Subscription Databases which you can then use for free. These are high-quality sources of articles and images for academic research. You can either filter the list above by subject, or the Recommended resources - Upper School guide gives you detailed guidance as to which are particularly suitable for your subject.

Note that there are different links (given in the document above) for using some databases in school or at home, and passwords are provided where necessary from home.

Internet searching

Please visit the  Recommended resources - Upper School guide for advice on how to search the internet effectively for academic sources.

The following is a comment from the IB on using 'online encyclopaedias' such as Wikipedia (from The IB Extended Essay Guide: The Research and Writing Process: Academic Honesty ):

extended essay sources

Note that, while you might use a tool such as this as a starting point for general background information and to help you locate other, more reputable sources, during the Connect stage of your research, you should not be citing it in your final piece of work.

Evaluating sources

Whether you are using print or online resources, you need to consider whether you think they are suitable for your inquiry and why. Consider the:

  • Currency: How important is the age of the resources you use? This will matter more in some subjects than others.
  • Relevance: Does it address your core question?
  • Accuracy: How do you know it is accurate? Have you checked it against other sources?
  • Authority: Who wrote it? What qualifies them to write in this area?
  • Purpose: Why has it been written? To sell you something? To convince you of a point of view? Or is it academically neutral?

The resource below can be used for CRAAP testing, and is particularly useful for websites.

  • CRAAP Testing rubric
  • CRAAP Testing example

Primary vs secondary data

In some EE subjects it is compulsory to process raw data of some sort. This may be:

  • PRIMARY DATA which you have collected yourself, for example through experiments, questionnaires and surveys, interviews or observations.
  • SECONDARY DATA which someone else has collected (through methods like those above) and you have found, for example in a published study or paper, or from a database or website. For example, if you wanted statistics collected by the UK governement on a wide variety of social and economic issues, you might look at the Office for National Statistics website.

Whichever sort of data you have, it is very important to think about and comment on how it was collected and how that may affect your results. A tool like the CRAAP test is just as useful for data as it is for other types of source, paying particular attention to study/experiment design and sampling.

PRIMARY DATA: Questionnaires

A well-designed questionnaire can be an excellent way to collect relatively large amounts of primary data fairly quickly. A poorly designed one is a waste of everyone's time and can cause a lot of stress when you try to analyse the results and realise that the questionnaire did not work as intended.

In the interactive lesson (NearPod) below , Mr Foster leads you through how to design an effective questionnaire, and gives you lots of tips and advice. This lesson should take you about 10-15 minutes to complete.

Questionnaire Design Nearpod

  • If you have a specific question either about Microsoft Forms or questionnaires in general, or are stuck, do contact Mrs F ear , Mr Foster or your supervisor.

extended essay sources

Settings to check before sharing your Form...

Before sharing your Form, make sure you check the settings (click on the three dots at the top right of the Forms screen).

extended essay sources

  • Is that just people from within the school, or does it include people outside? The default is that only people within Oakham School can respond, so if you are sending it outside the school you need to select "Anyone can respond" . If you are sending a questionnaire to people outside Oakham School, please ask your supervisor to have a look first, both to confirm that it is suitable and that they are happy for you to send it to the people on your list.
  • If it is internal, do you need to know respondents' names? Usually it is better to leave a questionnaire anonymous if you can. [External questionnaires cannot record respondents' names].
  • You will generally want to tick the "one response per person" box to stop people completing the questionnaire multiple times (unless you have asked them to for some reason - e.g. a fitness diary they complete every week. In that case you would probably want to record their names so that you can match their responses from different weeks).
  • Do you want to add a start and end date? If you do, be careful not to make the window too small or you may not get many responses.
  • Do you want to be notified by email every time someone fills the Form in?

Investigative Journal

An excellent way to keep track of your investigation. Use one page per source and don't forget to insert a citation at the top of the page. If you choose not to use it, think about what you will use instead.

This is an ideal tool for using in your Researcher's Reflection Space .

extended essay sources

Annotated bibliography

extended essay sources

This resource will help you to keep track of all the different sources you find. Once you start working with each source in more detail, you will also need a tool like the Investigative Journal to organise your notes.

MInimum information to gather for citing and referencing later

It is so frustrating when you are under pressure to write up your work and you suddenly realise you can't find all the information you need to reference a source! Ideally you would gather all the information you need as you go along, but what is the minimum you need to gather to make sure that you can reconstruct the reference at the end?

  • For books: Title, author, publisher, date and place of publication and the page number of any useful quotes . There are no shortcuts here!
  • For websites: full URL and date accessed. However, if you think the site is likely to change then gather all the referencing info at the start
  • For online articles (from a database), make sure you have the permalink if you are offered it, and the date you accessed the article. The title of the article and the database you accessed it from should be enough to locate it again if there is a problem with the link later. Don't rely on a URL - for some databases this will just take you back to the home page.
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The Extended Essay Step-By-Step Guide 3: The Research

extended essay sources

The Easter Break is nearly upon us. Ten years ago this might have been a cue to eat more chocolate than you can handle. But if you’re in DP1 of the IB that small thing called the Extended Essay will be hovering on the horizon. You know that you should think about it over the break, but whether you do or not might depend on how much Netflix you have to catch up on. To start the research or not to start?

Extended Essay Research Starting

If you read our first post  in this step-by-step guide, on choosing an Extended Essay topic, you’ll know that we think you should definitely start as soon as you can.

So what do I mean by research? I’m talking about the intense stuff. The in-depth exploration that will inform your essay, and which you will be able to use later on in your Bibliography. Good research is the key to making everything easy for you during the writing stage. If you’ve done the research properly, then the essay structure, the case study, or the experiment will practically plan itself.

But how do you do the research so that it is as effective as possible without taking over your entire Easter break?

1. Know WHAT you’ll need

Read the Extended Essay Guide for your subject (yes I am going to recommend that in every part of this guide, so you may as well do it now!). For all subjects it will tell you whether you need primary research, secondary data, or a combination. Work out whether ‘research’ for you means gathering data compiled by someone else, creating your own data, reading other people’s opinions, or digging out hard facts. Depending on what your subject and topic is, your research might be the crux of your entire essay, or it might simply give you ideas to enhance your own thoughts.

Use the Guide to define the limits of your research. Your Extended Essay has to focus on your chosen subject as defined by the IBO (and World Studies has its own definition and requirements). That means you must define your subject in the same way, e.g. “Biology is the science that deals with living organisms and life processes”. Use this to work out where your research should take you. And don’t waste time doing research that takes you into another subject area, E.g. Medicine.

Work out how recent your research needs to be. Again, this is a way to save time! Economics, for example, shouldn’t be historical. That means your information needs to be recent! Equally research in the Sciences goes out of date very quickly so stick within the last couple decades, and newer is better! (as long as it’s reliable… I’ll get onto that). For Literature and History, it’s less important that your sources are new, although it’s easier than you might think to quote what sounds like a very insightful idea only to realise it was first written in the 1920s!

Essay Old Quote

Exercise 1: Read the guidelines for your subject and write down what kind of research you’ll be doing. Is it Primary or Secondary? Will you conduct your own experiment or use data from someone else’s? Are you looking for factual information or theories? What window of time do you want your research to have come from? 2013-2016, or 1980-2016? Write it down now because later you can check your progress against this to make sure you’re staying on track.

2. Know WHERE you’ll find it

For the Extended Essay you’ll need to go beyond Google and beyond the shelves of your library. A good Extended Essay Bibliography should be a varied pick and mix selection* of online and off-line sources, modern dates, and obscure and established publications. Remember those 40 hours the IB recommends you spend on your Extended Essay? Your Bibliography is proof that you have been working hard!

But how do you get all those sources? Ask your teachers. If you don’t have a supervisor yet, I can guarantee you that your librarian knows more about what you have access to than you realise. Find out what subscriptions your school has, both online and off. If your library doesn’t have a book in stock it might be able to order a book in for you. Find this out.

For Science, it’s vital that your research is up to date. That means your material will probably come from journals, (reliable) websites, and studies by other scientists. Consider approaching universities and other academics who may be able to point you in the right direction.

On the other hand for something such as Literature your primary research should mean reading your chosen texts, whether they are novels, plays or poems. Consider supplementing this with other first-hand materials such as journal entries, letters or essays by the author or their contemporaries. Finally secondary research encompasses the ideas of other academics, although the Guide states that these should not replace your own analysis and ideas.

It’s not too hard to work out whether a source is reliable or not. Most of the time it’s common sense; can you name the author? Do they have experience in what they’re talking about or might they know less than you? It’s okay to use sources that may have a bias or might be ignorant of one thing or another, but the key is to be aware of this and make it clear in your essay that you are aware of it.

extended essay sources

Here are some good online places to go for information:

Google Scholar : Basically Google except that it will show you only the academic resources related to your search: articles, essays and legal documents. In other words, all of the stuff here should be fair game to put in a Bibliography.

Google Books : Free books! Lots of them! And the best part is you don’t have to admit you used Google; for all the examiner knows you dug through the dusty shelves of a library yourself. Even for books which only have a preview this is useful to work out if a hard copy of the book would be useful to you.

JSTOR : If your school has a subscription to this, use it! A database of hundreds of academic journals which make for great background research. However be aware it doesn’t include the latest research, so make sure what you find here will stick within the dates you defined earlier on.

Public Library of Science (PLOS) : An open access online library of scientific literature. Includes science-related journals. A website full of poetry, short stories and novels of almost every ‘classic’ author whose work is out of copyright. When it comes to referencing later, it will probably look better to go and dig out a hard copy of the work purely for reference purposes, but this is handy for initial browsing.

Wikipedia : Didn’t think I’d put this on here, did you? This is obviously not good as a source in itself, however if you scroll to the bottom of most Wikipedia pages you’ll often find a pretty comprehensive list of sources that are directly relevant to the topic and which you could use as a starting point for your own research.

Exercise 2: Make a list of the resources you think will be useful for your essay, and which you know you have access to. And remember that different search engines are useful for different subjects.

3. Know HOW you’ll get it

Believe it or not, research requires research. It won’t happen by accident and takes careful planning in order to get the most out of the sources that you use.

After you know where you might find useful sources, do some initial digging to find out what’s out there that will be specifically useful for your chosen topic. As I mentioned, Wikipedia could be a starting place for this. Or you might need to do a quick search through the database of your school and local libraries and place orders for books. Whatever you do, keep a list of everything you find that might be useful to you, and use it as a checklist. You won’t have time to read it all at once.

Plan out your research time in blocks to make sure that it happens. And think about what you can do in different places. It goes without saying that you’ll be able to do your online research at home, but think about what articles you could download to read when you don’t have internet. If you take a book out of a library you will be able to read that when you don’t have a laptop in front of you.

Finally, think about when the research will be most useful to you. Is there information you need to know before you undertake a lab investigation? What about data that will make more sense after you’ve done some initial reading? Thinking about all of these things will make sure that your research is as effective as it can be.

Exercise 3: Make a plan of attack (also known as a schedule) for what you’re going to do in what order, and how long it will take. Fo r example (this one is for English A):

extended essay sources

4. Keep track of everything!

You’ll need a reference for anything you use that you didn’t pluck out of your own head. This applies to:

  • Ideas and Summaries

By ideas and summaries I mean any theory or idea that is not common knowledge. So you don’t need to reference the fact the spinach is green but you might need to reference what green food colouring is made of.

There is no set referencing system that you need to use in your Extended Essay, but you do get marked on how you use it. So make sure that whatever you choose, you use it consistently. Ask your supervisor which one they would recommend, and it’s useful at this stage to have a skim of what information you need to keep track of as you go along. Guides for the different systems are easily accessible online on websites like this one:

Anytime you read something that might be useful, make a note of all the information you’ll need to include in a Bibliography later. That will usually include the author name, title, the publisher, the year and place it was published, and the page numbers.

Keep track of your research by extracting the key material onto your own document. Whether that means copy and pasting the vital quotes, summarising the idea or saving an image you might want to use, make it as accessible for yourself as possible! Don’t just keep a document of links to articles you found interesting! When you want to plan your essay I promise you that you won’t remember what it says. This:

Is much less useful than this:

“When beginning Mrs Dalloway, Woolf intended to write “six or seven” grouped short texts” p. 143, Wild Outbursts of Freedom: Reading Virginia Woolf’s Short Fiction , Nena Skrbic (2004), Praeger Publishers, Westport, CT

Exercise 4 : decide how you will organise your research:

  • Create a EE research folder on your laptop and create blank documents inside it, labelled depending on what you might need, e.g. journal articles, primary research, hard copy books.
  • Assign a physical EE folder for any handwritten notes that you make, whether in a library or just out and about.
  • Choose your referencing system.

Got that? Okay… I think you’re ready!

Read Part 4: The Question

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Extended Essay: Writing & Citing

  • Getting started
  • Organizational tools
  • NoodleTools
  • In-text citations
  • Image sources and labelling (including graphs, charts, and other visuals)
  • Reflecting on the process
  • Criterion C: Critical thinking
  • Ethics of AI
  • Timeline 2025 Cohort

Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography for the Extended Essay

Early in the Extended Essay process, are required to submit an annotated bibliography summarizing and evaluating five sources . For each source you need to provide full bibliographic information (a compete MLA8 citation), and write a detailed annotation (paragraph) demonstrating your understanding of the source and its relevance to your larger research project. To structure your annotations, choose one of the following models:

OPCVL (best for History, Economics and Business & Management):

  • The origin of the source. ( Who wrote it? Who published it? When? Where?)
  • The purpose of the source, particularly relevant for primary sources . (Who is the intended audience of the source? What are they meant to get from it)
  • A summary of the content of the source
  • The value of the source for your research ( How does this source help you to explore your research question? How might you use it in your final paper?)
  • The limitations of the source. ( What questions does this source raise? What perspective does the source take? Does the information contrast with other sources? Does it present a balanced view?) 

Purdue Online Writing Lab guidelines (available here ):

  • Summarize the main argument or the main ideas in the source. What is it about?
  • Assess the reliability of the source. Who wrote it? Is it current, relevant, authoritative, accurate and what is the author’s purpose?
  • Reflect on the usefulness of this source to your extended essay. How will you use it to help you answer your research question? Where does it fit or how does it compare to other sources you’ve used? How has it changed or expanded your thinking? Does it raise new questions for your research?
  • Annotated Bibliography sample Visit this OWL Purdue site to see an example of an MLA-formatted annotated bibliography written at a university level. You do not, necessarily, include this much detail for each of the three categories (summarize, assess and reflect).
  • Annotated Bibliography sample in Google Docs This link takes you to a Google Doc template you can make a copy of and make your own.

MLA formatting quotations

The following is taken directly from the Purdue Online Writing Lab :


To indicate short quotations (four typed lines or fewer of prose or three lines of verse) in your text, enclose the quotation within double quotation marks. Provide the author and specific page number (in the case of verse, provide line numbers) in the in-text citation, and include a complete reference on the Works Cited page. Punctuation marks such as periods, commas, and semicolons should appear after the parenthetical citation.

Question marks and exclamation points should appear within the quotation marks if they are a part of the quoted passage, but after the parenthetical citation if they are a part of your text.

For example, when quoting short passages of prose, use the following examples:

According to some, dreams express "profound aspects of personality" (Foulkes 184), though others disagree.

According to Foulkes's study, dreams may express "profound aspects of personality" (184).

Is it possible that dreams may express "profound aspects of personality" (Foulkes 184)?


For quotations that are more than four lines of prose or three lines of verse, place quotations in a free-standing block of text and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, with the entire quote indented  1/2   inch  from the left margin while maintaining double-spacing. Your parenthetical citation should come  after the closing punctuation mark . When quoting verse, maintain original line breaks. (You should maintain double-spacing throughout your essay.)

For example, when citing more than four lines of prose, use the following examples:

Nelly Dean treats Heathcliff poorly and dehumanizes him throughout her narration: 

They entirely refused to have it in bed with them, or even in their room, and I had no more sense, so, I put it on the landing of the stairs, hoping it would be gone on the morrow. By chance, or else attracted by hearing his voice, it crept to Mr. Earnshaw's door, and there he found it on quitting his chamber. Inquiries were made as to how it got there; I was obliged to confess, and in recompense for my cowardice and inhumanity was sent out of the house. (Bronte 78)

Strategies for Essay Writing from the Harvard Writing Center

The Harvard Writing Center has "concise advice on some fundamental elements of academic writing." You can find advice on each stage of the writing process on their site.

During the later stages of writing, you should take the time to visit the entries Ending the Essay: Conclusions , Revising the Draft , and Editing the Essay Part 1 , and Part 2 .

Online sources for documenting sources

  • NoodleTools You can use NoodleTools to keep track of your sources and to create your Works Cited very easily and correctly formatted.

Use the citation tool in Google

Citing sources originally written in Chinese, Korean, Japanese, Russian or Mongolian

Hao, Chunwen 郝春文.  Tang houqi wudai Songchu Dunhuang sengni de shehui shenghuo  唐后期五代宋初敦煌僧尼的社会生活 [The social existence of monks and nuns in Dunhuang during the late Tang, Five Dynasties and early Song]. Zhongguo shehui kexue chubanshe, 1998.

Journal article

Kondō, Shigekazu 近藤成一.  " Yēru Daigaku Shozō Harima no Kuni Ōbe no Shō Kankei Monjo ni tsuite" イェール大学所蔵播磨国大部庄関係文書について [On Harima no Kuni Ōbe no Shō Kankei Monjo at Yale University Collection]. Tōkyō:  Tokyō Daigaku Shiryō Hensanjo  Kenkyū  Kiyō 23   (March 2013) : 1-22. 

Newspaper article

Joo, Yong-jung 주용중, and Chung, Woo-sang 정우상. “Miseo gwangubyeong bal-saeng-hamyeon suip jungdan” 美서 광우병 발생하면 수입 중단 [Will Suspend the Import if Mad Cow Disease Attacks in the United States].  Chosun Ilbo  朝鮮日報 8 May, 2008: A1.

Database article

Beijing Airusheng shuzihua jishu yanjiu zhongxin 北京爱如生数字化技术研究中心.  Zhongguo jiben guji ku  中国基本古籍库 [Database of Chinese Classic Ancient Books], [include the URL]. Accessed [date].

Note: formatting should adhere to MLA requirements with the first line flush with the left margin and the second and subsequent lines indented. I was unable to replicate that formatting here.

MLA Checklist

  • MLA Checklist Use this checklist to ensure you have met all of the formatting and citation expectations.

Videos to support your understanding of MLA requirements

Useful links for MLA formatting

  • In-text citiations (Purdue OWL) This source details the correct formatting for a wide variety of types of texts and offers examples of both paraphrasing and quoting directly.
  • MLA Formatting Quotations (Purdue OWL) Use this page to help you learn/review formatting for shorter and longer quotations.
  • MLA Sample Works Cited Page (Purdue OWL) This page provides an example of a Works Cited page in MLA 2016 format.
  • MLA Sample Paper (Purdue OWL) This resource contains a sample MLA paper that adheres to the 2016 updates. NOTE: The EE has very specific cover page requirements. Your EE should omit your name in the header and omit your name, your teacher's name, course and date on page 1.

Essay resources at the ISU Library

Cover Art

  • They Say / I Say sentence frames

Cover Art

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Extended Essay: Formatting your EE


  • Finding a Topic
  • Subject Guidance & Proposal Forms
  • Sources of Information
  • Formatting your EE
  • Reflections
  • IB Resources for Students
  • Citations and Referencing - IB REQUIREMENTS
  • In-Text Citations
  • Further information on Citations Styles


All final submissions must be made in pdf format to these 4 places:, google classroom, emailed to your supervisor, formal presentation basics.

extended essay sources

All essays must follow this format:

  • Standard Margins (1-inch or 2.5 cm margins)
  • 12-point, readable font (Arial is recommended)
  • Double-spaced
  • Page Numbers start on the Table of Contents 
  • No Candidate or School name  is to appear anywhere in the document
  • Title of the Essay
  • Research Question
  • Subject for which the Essay is registered
  • Category - If a Language A or B Essay
  • Theme & 2 Subjects utilized - If a World Studies Essay
  • Contents Page
  • annotated illustrations and tables
  • formulas and calculations
  • parenthetical or numbered
  • footnotes or endnotes
  • Bibliography
  • The RPPF Form
  • The Research and Writing Process: Word Counts
  • The Research and Writing Process: Footnotes and Endnotes

Table of Contents

  • Labelled "Table of Contents" in 12-point, readable font (Arial is recommended)
  • Headings and subheadings within the body of the essay may be included

References and Bibliography

  • Topic, purpose and focus of the research clearly identified and explained
  • Research Question bolded within the introduction and phrased as on the title page
  • Methodology of research and insight into the line of argument

Body of the Essay

The body of the essay must:

  • Examiners will not read appendices, endnotes or footnotes, so all essential elements to your argument must be included in the body of the essay
  • Include headings and sub-headings as appropriate to the subject 

Your conclusion must be:

  • A Summative conclusion based on the information presented in the body of the essay
  • A Conclusion linked directly to the research question
  • Notes of limitations and unresolved questions (as appropriate) can be included

Your References and Bibliography must follow this format:

  • Cross-referenced: each reference in the essay is ticked off in the bibliography to ensure all references are included and no extraneous references exist
  • All tables, charts, diagrams, illustrations etc. must be clearly labelled and referenced in the body of the essay
  • References are presented alphabetically 
  • Use hanging indents for all entries
  • Include Date Accessed or Retrieved for websites (as outlined on the IB Requirements page)
  • Remove all hyperlinks
  • The Research and Writing Process: Tables
  • The Research and Writing Process: Illustrations

Appendices should only be used if required by the subject discipline:

  • Appendices titled
  • Headings labeled
  • Included in the Table of Contents
  • Reliance on external resources such as DVDs, music, specimen materials etc. is not permitted
  • The Research and Writing Process: Reliance on External Materials
  • The Research and Writing Process: Specimen Materials
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  • Support Sites

Extended Essay Support Site

Evaluating sources.

As you research your Extended Essay, you will explore a range of primary and secondary sources . It's good to collect a lot of sources. But like so many things in life, what you exclude from your essay is just as important as what you include. Filtering, organising and evaluating sources are essential steps in doing research. So what constitutes a valuable source? Below are two methods to help you determine what to include and exclude from your essay. 

CRAP sources

This popular method for evaluating source comes with a snappy acronym and many variations on it. In brief in asks you to look at these 4 aspects of any source: 

C urrency: How up to date is your source? R elevance*: How relevant and is your source to your research question ? A cademic authority: Is there a sense of expertise? P urpose and bias: What is the aim of the source?

*Note: The 'R' in the CRAP method traditionally stands for 'reliability', which arguably overlaps with 'authority'. 'Relevance' plays an equally important role, especially in relation to the Extended Essay.

Examiners will study bibliographies to see if they pass the CRAP test. Click on the slides below to see how several bibliographical entries have been annotated using the CRAP method by an experienced IB workshop leader, John Royce . Try annotating a few sources from your bibliography, using this method. 


7 critical questions to evaluate a source

To evaluate a source is to ask several critical questions of it. These questions are essentially variations of the CRAP method above, with more detail. You can substitue the word 'text' for 'source' if that is more appropriate for the context of your research.

Why am I reading this text?

What do I hope to gain by reading this text?

What type of text is this?

What kind of audience is targeted by this text?

How could this text be classified? Prose?Fiction? Instruction? Expository?

Where is the text published?

What are the aims of the author?

What is the author's purpose?

Is it to inform, persuade or entertain?

How as the author approached the topic?

What is being claimed?

What is the author's stance on a topic?

What values are expressed?

How clear are the author's claims?

How consistent are the author's claims with other people's claims?

What concepts are key to understanding this text?

How do the author's ideas fit into a conceptual framework for this topic?

How are various phenomena explained?

What can I take away from this text?

What questions, illustrations or diagrams can be used to support my own arguments or ideas?

What is the value of this text?

How important is this text to me and to others?

How does this contribute to its field or subject area?

How does it compare to other texts I've read?

Evaluating your sources critically can help you earn marks on Criterion C: Critical thinking. In fact you are assessed on your ability to 'evaluate the research'. This is to say that you should call into question both your methods, sources and arguments and other people's methods, sources and arguments.


Extended Essay: Structure of the Extended Essay

  • Before You Start
  • Business Management
  • Language and Literature
  • Visual Arts
  • World Studies
  • Developing a Research Question
  • Structure of the Extended Essay
  • Writing the Essay
  • Citations/Sources/Academic Honesty
  • Timelines and Materials
  • Example Research Questions
  • Supervisors

extended essay sources

Elements To Be Included

  • Table of Contents
  • Introduction
  • Body of the essay
  • References/Bibliography

Not sure yet but something should be here

The Extended Essay Step by Step Guide 5: Structure and Planning When it comes to writing a brilliant first draft of your Extended Essay, or any essay, I fully believe that a solid structure is one of the surest guarantees of success there is. It's the skeleton of the essay that makes it into a fully formed being instead of a pile of jelly.

What's the Difference Between the Topic, Title, and Research Question?

extended essay sources

  • The  topic  of the extended essay is the subject, issue or theme that you are investigating within a specific DP subject or world studies area of study. The topic, which develops during the initial thinking about the EE, should later be reflected in the wording of the title.
  • be short, descriptive and succinct
  • not be phrased as a question
  • use key words that connect with the topic and the DP subject or world studies area of study
  • attract the interest of the reader.
  • be clear and focused
  • provide a path through which you can undertake achievable research
  • use key words that connect with the topic, the title, and the DP subject or world studies area of study
  • support the development of an argument.

Presentation Requirements

Title Page (i tems that should be included in the title page):

  • Title of the essay
  • Research question
  • Subject for which the essay is registered (and category if necessary)

Times New Roman 12 pt. font 

Double spaced

Pages numbered after the title page

Bibliography/work cited

Table of contents

No more than 4000 words

Assessment of the EE - Advice for Students

Use this list to help you think about the assessment criteria and whether you have addressed the expectations within your essay. You do not need to address all of the questions posed, but they do provide some guidance in terms of what to consider.

Criterion A:  Focus and Method

What It Means: This criterion focuses on the topic, the research question and the methodology. It assesses the explanation of the focus of the research (this includes the topic and the research question), how the research will be undertaken, and how the focus is maintained throughout the essay.

Questions to ask:

• Does this essay meet the requirements for the subject for which you are registering it? • Is your research question stated as a question?

• Have you explained how your research question relates to the subject that you selected for the extended essay?

• Have you given an insight into why your area of study is important?

• Is your research question feasible within the scope of the task? Could your research question be “answered” or it is too vague?

• Did you refer to your research question throughout the essay (not only in the introduction and conclusion)? • Did you explain why you selected your methodology?

• Are there other possible methods that could be used or applied to answer your research question? How might this change the direction of your research?

• If you stated a particular methodology in the introduction of your essay, or specific sources, have you used them?

• Are there any references listed in the bibliography that were not directly cited in the text?

Criterion B: Knowledge and understanding

What It Means: This criterion assesses the extent to which the research relates to the subject area/discipline used to explore the research question; or in the case of the world studies extended essay, the issue addressed and the two disciplinary perspectives applied; and additionally, the way in which this knowledge and understanding is demonstrated through the use of appropriate terminology and concepts.

• Have you explained how your research question relates to a specific subject you selected for the extended essay?

• Have you used relevant terminology and concepts throughout your essay as they relate to your particular area of research?

• Is it clear that the sources you are using are relevant and appropriate to your research question?

• Do you have a range of sources, or have you only relied on one particular type, for example internet sources?

• Is there a reason why you might not have a range? Is this justified?

Criterion C: Critical Thinking

What It Means: This criterion assesses the extent to which critical thinking skills have been used to analyze and evaluate the research undertaken.

• Have you made links between your results and data collected and your research question?

• If you included data or information that is not directly related to your research question have you explained its importance?

• Are your conclusions supported by your data?

• If you found unexpected information or data have you discussed its importance?

• Have you provided a critical evaluation of the methods you selected?

• Have you considered the reliability of your sources (peer-reviewed journals, internet, and so on)?

• Have you mentioned and evaluated the significance of possible errors that may have occurred in your research?

• Are all your suggestions of errors or improvements relevant?

• Have you evaluated your research question?

• Have you compared your results or findings with any other sources?

• Is there an argument that is clear and easy to follow and directly linked to answering your research question, and which is supported by evidence? Are there other possible methods that could be used or applied to answer your research question? How might this change the direction of your research?

Criterion D: Presentation

What It Means: This criterion assesses the extent to which the presentation follows the standard format expected for academic writing and the extent to which this aids effective communication.

• Have you read and understood the presentation requirements of the extended essay?

• Have you chosen a font that will be easy for examiners to read onscreen?

• Is your essay double-spaced and size 12 font? • Are the title and research question mentioned on the cover page?

• Are all pages numbered?

• Have you prepared a correct table of contents?

• Do the page numbers in the table of contents match the page numbers in the text?

• Is your essay subdivided into correct sub-sections, if this is applicable to the subject?

• Are all figures and tables properly numbered and labelled?

• Does your bibliography contain only the sources cited in the text?

• Did you use the same reference system throughout the essay?

• Does the essay have less than 4,000 words?

• Is all the material presented in the appendices relevant and necessary?

• Have you proofread the text for spelling or grammar errors?

Criterion E: Engagement

What It Means:  This criterion assesses the student’s engagement with their research focus and the research process. It will be applied by the examiner at the end of the assessment of the essay, after considering the student’s RPPF (Reflections on planning and progress form).

• Have you demonstrated your engagement with your research topic and the research process?

• Have you highlighted challenges you faced and how you overcame them?

• Will the examiner get a sense of your intellectual and skills development?

• Will the examiner get a sense of your creativity and intellectual initiative?

• Will the examiner get a sense of how you responded to actions and ideas in the research process?

  • << Previous: Research
  • Next: Writing the Essay >>
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Extended Essay: Step 7 - Citing

  • Introduction to the EE
  • Step 1 - Choose a subject
  • World Studies
  • Step 3 - The Researchers Reflection Space
  • Identify Sources
  • Tools for Note Taking
  • Video Guides
  • Step 5 - Creating Research Questions
  • Step 6 - Outlines and Plans
  • Step 7 - Citing
  • Criteria E - 3 Reflections
  • Know Your Criteria
  • Criteria D - Check your Formatting
  • 4000 words final hand in

Not Rocket Science But Just as Precise

To keep things simple at cis we use mla - for all extended essays..., ...except psychology that uses apa ., miss miller the skill builder, an introduction to citation - watch this ..

How to create an Annotated Bibliography.

Referencing online material

References to online materials should include the title of the extract used as well as the website address, the date it was accessed and, if possible, the author.

In other words,  all electronic sources must be date stamped by including the date the student accessed the resource  (for example, accessed 12 March 2016). Caution should be exercised with information found on websites that do not give references or that cannot be cross-checked against other sources. The more important a particular point is to the essay, the more the quality of its source needs to be evaluated.

Creating an annotated Bibliography - vidguide

16 - what is an annotated bibliography from Joshua Vossler on Vimeo .

Useful, if you cannot find how to write the annotation in Noodletools

Referencing Articles from Databases

JStor, Researchgate, Epsco 

Yes.... . you must be getting articles from these databases. The first thing an examiner looks at is your works cited page. Only having internet sites listed immediately puts you down at the C grade and less level. 

Get articles and cite them properly - DO NOT CITE THE DATABASE cite the article!!

They often have something like this to help you..

extended essay sources



A  bibliography  is an alphabetical list of every source used to research and write the essay. Sources that are not cited in the body of the essay but were important in informing the approach taken should be cited in the introduction or in an acknowledgment. The bibliography  must  list only those sources cited.

A  citation  is a shorthand method of making a reference in the body of an essay, either as an in-text citation or footnote/endnote.  This must then be linked to the full reference at the end of the essay in the bibliography.  A citation provides the reader with accurate references so that he or she can locate the source easily. How sources are cited varies with the particular referencing style that has been chosen. It is important to emphasize that there must be consistency of method when citing sources.


A r eference  is a way of indicating to the reader, in an orderly form, where information has been obtained. A reference provides all the information needed to find the source material.  References must be cited because:

  • they acknowledge the sources used
  • they enable the reader to consult the work and verify the data that has been presented. 

References must be given whenever someone else’s work is quoted or summarized. References can come from many different sources, including books, magazines, journals, newspapers, emails, internet sites and interviews. 

There are a number of different styles available for use when writing research papers; whatever style is chosen, it must be applied consistently and in line with the IB’s minimum requirements.  The style should be applied in both the final draft of the essay and in the initial research stages of taking notes.  This is good practice, not only for producing a high-quality final product, but also for reducing the opportunities and temptation to plagiarize. 

The IB’s minimum requirements include:

  • name of author
  • date of publication
  • title of source
  • page numbers (print sources only)
  • date of access (electronic sources only)

Any references to interviews should state the name of the interviewer, the name of the interviewee, the date and the place of the interview. 

Two Really Useful Documents to read

For more detailed information on styles for citations and referencing please refer to:

  • Effective Citing and Referencing (IBO)  - This is an IB document so needs to be read.
  • The Writing Centre - Acknowledging, Paraphrasing and Quoting

What does an Annotated Bibliography look like?

There are different ways this can be done.

extended essay sources

Source: Ashley Maxwell, "How to create annotated bibliographies with Noodletools", Youtube, Apr 26 2016,

Another way also recommended by the IB is to utilise the following format - Samples shown from different subject areas.

Annotated Bibliography vs. Literature Review from UCF Libraries on Vimeo .

Noodle Tools

extended essay sources

Use NoodleTools for your citations!

  • NoodleTools Login Login to access tools for note-taking, outlining, and citation
  • NoodleTools Quick Guide for Students This guide covers the following topics: (1) How to create a new account; (2) How to start a new project and a source list; (3) How to create notecards; (4) How to share a project with your teacher; and (5) How to set up a project collaboration with your classmates.
  • NoodleTools Help Desk Find tutorials to help with all aspects of using NoodleTools, or submit a help request ticket.
  • NoodleTools Quick Guide for Librarians & Teachers This guide covers the following topics: (1) How to create a new account; (2) How to create a new project and add sources and notecards; and (3) How to set up a project inbox to receive student work and provide feedback.

Skills training - when to cite?

Have a go at these 3 modules from Monash University. It is entitled Demystifying Citation.

It will take 30 minutes. Do it and help yourself.


extended essay sources

Citing work that you have Translated

For many of you English is your second language. It is certainly permissable to obtain information from journals and other sources that are in your own language - however, how do you cite this effectively. The following extract is taken from the IB EE forum and was in response to the EE supervisor in the Concordia school in Thailand asking about using Thai language sources. 

It is certainly  permissible to use sources which are not in the language of the essay, but translation into the target language is required , one cannot assume that the reader understands the original language.

It is  usual to quote the original as well as presenting the translation.   [Do not put quotation marks around your translation, just around the original]

Umberto Eco argues ("in Mouse or rat?") that direct translation may lose meaning, paraphrase or use of different idioms may be required to get the ideas across. Paul Bellos ("Is that a fish in your ear?") makes a similar argument - direct translation may confound meaning... Direct translation may not be ideal - meaning and understanding are preferred - so, not to worry that your student with her good Spanish cannot present a direct translation.

What  must be made clear is that the translations are those of the student;  these are her understandings. Readers can make of that what they will - and if unsure, are presented with the original - they can seek another translation.  A note in the acknowledgements and/or in the introduction to the effect that all translations are those of the writer is ... essential.

In response to the question about the  Bibliography/Works cited, my preference would be to list the source in its original Thai version, but perhaps with the English in brackets, to help the examiner.

Your bibliography will have the entries in Thai characters first in the document. Any in-text citation to Thai sources will be in (Thai characters [English translation]).

Citation in Thai [English translation]

Works Cited Example:

Wongpunya, Thanakorn. “โรงงานยาสูบรวยแค่ไหน และเอาเงินไปทำอะไรบ้าง.”  [How rich is the Thailand Tobacco Monopoly and where does the money go?] (candidate translation). The Standard, The Standard, 30 Aug. 2018,

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  • Next: Criteria E - 3 Reflections >>
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Extended Essay Resources: Home

  • Research Video Tutorials
  • Video Tutorials
  • In-text Citations
  • Finding and Citing Images
  • Plagiarism VS. Documentation
  • MiniLessons
  • Human Rights News
  • Peace & Conflict News
  • Primary Sources
  • Introductory Resources
  • Narrowing Your Topic
  • Subject Resources

Destiny Catalog

  Search the DESTINY Catalog!

Research Databases

  • Click for database USERNAMES and PASSWORDS You must be logged into your account to access the above password document.

extended essay sources

The Best Research Plan

1. Read broadly to build background knowledge about your SUBJECT (video search, general web search, encyclopedias, IB textbooks).

2. Formulate a FOCUSED research question.

3. Gather information that addresses your research question (survey, interview, journal articles, etc.)

4. Write your essay. 

ALWAYS be able to answer these questions about your topic:

What is your paper about?

What is your thesis? Your argument? Your point?

So what? Why is it important? 

Now what? Given the research you've done, what action should happen?

Topic Finders

Browse through these resources to go from a general topic of interests down to a specific area of focus.

  • Global Issues in Context Topic Finder A visual search drilling down to areas of focus.
  • Global Resources in Context Browse Issues A list of global issues and topics you may want to explore.
  • JSTOR Browse by subjects.
  • Literary Themes and Topics An interesting list of possible themes to explore if you are considering an EE in English.
  • Literature Themes A Huge List of Common Themes in Literature. Not everything is here, but it's a place to start.
  • Pew Research Group A detailed listing of Pew Research Center polling and demographic topics and subjects
  • Points of View Database Lists of debatable topics with academic sources of information. AISR library password required. Please find the password in the Research Databases box.
  • This is not a suitable source of information, but it could be a place to browse for a topic of interest. You can also mine the articles for links to more academic sources.
  • Student Resources in Context Browse Topics Lists a variety of topics which may spark your interest.
  • Student Resources in Context Topic Finder A visual search drilling down to potential areas of focus.
  • World Economic Forum Strategic Intelligence Explore and monitor the issues and forces driving transformational change across economies, industries, and global issues. This is a visual search using categories and then drilling down to open resources about specific topics. You must sign up for a free account.

General Reference

  • Teen Health and Wellness
  • Smithsonian Encyclopedia
  • Encyclopedia of Earth
  • Literature, reference, and verse
  • Artcyclopedia
  • Sweet Search Biographies
  • Who2 Biographies

extended essay sources

  • World Fact Book
  • Encyclopedia of Life
  • Visual Dictionary Online
  • Encyclopedia of Math
  • SoftSchools Timelines

IB Extended Essay Resources

  • 2019 IB Extended Essay Guide The offical guide from the IB. It contains information on overall requirements, subject-specific requirements, tips for conducting research, and assessment information. IMPORTANT!
  • Subject-specific resources Click here to see exemplars and other useful links for resources to your subject area.
  • 2019 Exemplars Student sample extended essays, corresponding marks and comments from senior examiners.
  • IB Extended Essay Homepage Official IB website for Extended Essay resources.

Statistics Websites

  • 19 Places to Find Free Data Sets for Data Science Projects More sites to find data sets.
  • Google Data Sets A data set search powered by Google.
  • Knoema Knoema is the most comprehensive source of global decision-making data in the world. Our tools allow individuals and organizations to discover, visualize, model, and present their data and the world’s data to facilitate better decisions and better outcomes.
  • The Observatory of Economic Complexity The Observatory of Economic Complexity is a tool that allows users to quickly compose a visual narrative about countries and the products they exchange. It was Alexander Simoes' Master Thesis in Media Arts and Sciences at the MIT Media Lab.
  • Pew Research Center Datasets Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the issues, attitudes and trends shaping the world. We conduct public opinion polling, demographic research, content analysis and other data-driven social science research. We do not take policy positions.
  • Statista Statista Research & Analysis is a combined provider of market research as well as research and analysis services. We help corporate customers collect and prepare market, customer and competitive information.
  • Statistics Sweden Our main task is to supply users and customers with statistics for decision making, debate and research. We do this mainly through assignments from the government and other government agencies.
  • United Nations Statistics Division The United Nations Statistics Division is committed to the advancement of the global statistical system. We compile and disseminate global statistical information, develop standards and norms for statistical activities, and support countries' efforts to strengthen their national statistical systems.
  • Next: Research Video Tutorials >>
  • Last Updated: Aug 15, 2023 3:34 PM
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Extended Essay: Conducting Primary Research

  • Extended Essay- The Basics
  • Step 1. Choose a Subject
  • Step 2. Educate yourself!
  • Using Brainstorming and Mind Maps
  • Identify Keywords
  • Do Background Reading
  • Define Your Topic
  • Conduct Research in a Specific Discipline
  • Step 5. Draft a Research Question
  • Step 6. Create a Timeline
  • Find Articles
  • Find Primary Sources
  • Get Help from Experts
  • Search Engines, Repositories, & Directories
  • Databases and Websites by Subject Area
  • Create an Annotated Bibliography
  • Advice (and Warnings) from the IB
  • Chicago Citation Syle
  • MLA Works Cited & In-Text Citations
  • Step 9. Set Deadlines for Yourself
  • Step 10. Plan a structure for your essay
  • Evaluate & Select: the CRAAP Test
  • Conducting Secondary Research
  • Conducting Primary Research
  • Formal vs. Informal Writing
  • Presentation Requirements
  • Evaluating Your Work

Primary Research - a Definition

Primary research is the collecting of original data.

Not all subjects permit the use of primary methods as part of the research process for the EE, so it is important to carefully check your subject guidelines before starting.

On this page, you can find information on:

Primary Research - What is Its Purpose? Primary Research - Preparation Before You Begin Quantitative vs. Qualitative Research Research Methods Considerations for Primary Research Ways That Primary Research Can Fail Video Tutorials

Primary Research - Purpose

Scientist using microscope - Britannica ImageQuest

After the literature review or secondary research is completed, you must analyze your findings and: 

  • determine to what extent they answer your research question
  • find agreement between authors
  • find disagreement, where the evidence reveals differences in points of view or findings.

At this point you may decide to investigate further by carrying out your own primary research , in other words by collecting your own data . 

You will have to choose a method or methods that are appropriate to the research question and commonly used in the particular Diploma Programme subject. NOTE:  although the method may be appropriate for the subject, in the instance of the EE it may not be permitted, so check the subject guide!

Possible data collection methods include:

  • experiments 
  • investigations 
  • interviews 

The details of how the data was collected are crucial to the validity of any argument based on the findings. You must put in the main body of your essay the details of any primary research you carry out. These include: 

  • the methods used
  • the persons involved
  • how and why these were selected
  • the relevant results
  • any limitations and biases that may have influenced the results

Primary Research - Preparation Before You Begin

Students must follow the accepted process for carrying out their chosen method of research—how the data is recorded, analysed and presented. Otherwise, their data will have little value. 

Students need to plan carefully how to carry out their research. In most cases, there will be only one opportunity to collect primary data from a particular source. 

It is extremely important that students approach their research in an ethical and legal manner. See: 

extended essay sources

Quantitative vs. Qualitative Research

Double pan balance,weighing one mole of pre-1987 (100% copper) pennies - Britannica ImageQuest

Quantitative research  follows a well-defined process that yields data that can be analyzed statistically.  For example:

  • outcomes from experiments
  • data collected from surveys where responses involve closed or multiple-choice responses

Qualitative research  collects information that may reflect opinions or personal perspectives on a particular situation. The data that is collected gives an overall impression and generally cannot be analyzed statistically.  For example:

  • responses in interviews
  • open-ended questions in surveys

Videos: Primary Data, Conducting Surveys, Primary Research Methods

B2Bwhiteboard. What is primary data? 3 January 2012. YouTube, Accessed January 2017. 

Learn how to conduct an online survey. Topics include: Developing research questions; designing a good questionnaire; choosing the right online survey tool (Google Forms, Sosci Survey, Survey Monkey).

Ebster, Claus. How to conduct an online survey. 5 August 2014. YouTube, Accessed January 2017. 

​This video from Ivory Research provides information on the top 3 primary research methods for graduate students writing a dissertation - including questionnaires, interviews and focus groups: how to collect research and use it for maximum effectiveness.

IvoryResearch. Dissertation tutorial: Top 3 primary research methods. 12 August 2013. YouTube., Accessed May 2015.

Research Methods

Plant growth experiment - Britannica ImageQuest

Experiments can be conducted and their data collected using systematic methods and well-defined processes. For example:

  • using the scientific method in conducting science experiments
  • simulating an experiment on using mobile phone technology to determine the location of a person. 

Experiments usually involve quantitative processes to collect and analyze the resulting data. 


Types of investigation include:

  • photographs
  • historical documents
  • company policies
  • original art.

Investigations of original source material can reveal whether a particular situation exists or to what extent it does. Investigations can also extract and analyze data from original sources to demonstrate that a particular outcome does occur. 

'Interview', 2007, by John Holcroft - Britannica ImageQuest

Interviews can be with one person or a small group, also called a focus group.  Face-to-face interviews have the advantage of allowing the interviewer to ask follow-up questions during the interview.  

  • ​ face-to-face
  • by online chat
  • developing questions related to the research question and the findings from secondary research 
  • doing a trial or test of the questions before the actual interview
  • deciding on the best methodology for conducting and recording the interview
  • making the purpose and use of the data collected well known in advance
  • in some cases, providing the interviewee with the questions in advance
  • assuring the anonymity of the interviewee if requested

Question design 

Questions should be designed to elicit the responses required to help answer the overall research question. 

Recording the interview 

Another consideration is how to record the response. You must ask the permission of the interviewee if you wish to use any audio-visual equipment during an interview.  Please note that electronic submissions are not acceptable, and so an example of a transcript will need to be attached in the appendix. Refer to the section of this guide on appendices for further information. 

Surveys can be carried out:   

  • using a printed form distributed to a defined group of people under controlled conditions

The researcher is better able to control who is responding to the questions when using paper surveys than online. 

Successful surveys require:

  • knowing from the secondary research what areas need to be investigated
  • forming well-stated questions that yield data that can be analyzed
  • ttesting the questions before conducting the survey—this is called a pilot study
  • assuring anonymity as requested by the participants
  • conducting the survey and collecting the data in a well-defined manner

Quantitative vs qualitative data 

To collect quantitative data the survey must ask closed or multiple-choice questions. These: 

  • have a limited number of responses or
  • have scale choices or
  • require the respondent to prioritize items

To collect qualitative data , the survey must ask open-ended questions, which allow the respondents to write their own answer. 

Sample size and selection 

When collecting data from groups of people, you must make certain that:

  • the sample is large enough to generate meaningful data
  • it is clear how and why she or he selected the participants

Considerations for Primary Research

Whichever method is used, your primary research must be well structured and collect data relating to people, events or objects. 

The data collected must be:

  • measurable or observable

Questions for you to consider are:

  • What do you want to find out from your primary research?
  • How will this relate to the findings from your secondary research?
  • How will the data collected relate to the research question you have posed?
  • What is the best method to collect relevant and reliable data and from where?
  • Are there any ethical or legal considerations to using a primary method that must be taken into account? 

The analysis of primary research includes:

  • the analysis of the data collected
  • the connections you will make between the different sources of information used—for example, your secondary and primary research

You time should be spent researching:

  • what the different primary data collection methods are
  • how to use the different methods to obtain reliable results
  • how to use the results as evidence to support your essay’s argument.

Ways That Primary Research Can Fail

A badly designed or implemented experiment or investigation will lead to flawed results . The following list indicates some ways that primary research can fail. 

  • The survey sample is too small or badly controlled so you cannot reach any conclusions relevant to the research question. 
  • The survey/interview questions do not take proper account of the secondary research findings or the research question, and so do not lead to relevant conclusions. 
  • using a recording device without the interviewee being aware that the interview was being recorded 
  • taking photos in prohibited areas
  • downloading copyrighted music to demonstrate how it is done.
  • A student has used a research method that is not permitted or not appropriate for the subject in which they are submitting their EE.
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  • Next: Writing Your Essay >>
  • Last Updated: Feb 2, 2024 1:39 PM
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  1. Extended Essay: Step 7. Identify Sources

    An annotated bibliography provides a concise summary of each source and some assessment of its value and relevance. Adapted from "The research and writing process; Academic honesty, Using online encyclopedias and other similar information websites", from Extended Essay Guide, International Baccalaureate Organization, 2016.

  2. The Complete IB Extended Essay Guide: Examples, Topics, and Ideas

    Conclusion. References and bibliography. Additionally, your research topic must fall into one of the six approved DP categories, or IB subject groups, which are as follows: Group 1: Studies in Language and Literature. Group 2: Language Acquisition. Group 3: Individuals and Societies. Group 4: Sciences.

  3. PDF A Student Guide To Writing the Extended Essay

    The extended essay contributes to the overall diploma score through the award of points in conjunction with theory of knowledge. A maximum of three points are awarded according to a student's combined ... Submit one research question, a properly formatted works cited list of the sources you found that pertain to that question, and one ...

  4. Identify Sources

    Accessing sources: technology literacy—using electronic sources. Using the internet as a resource for finding information is more and more commonplace, and it is a tremendous resource. However, it must be used critically and with care. One important thing to be aware of is that unlike resources found in a library in printed form, those found ...

  5. Extended essay

    The extended essay is an independent, self-directed piece of research, finishing with a 4,000-word paper. One component of the International Baccalaureate® (IB) Diploma Programme (DP) core, the extended essay is mandatory for all students. Read about the extended essay in greater detail. You can also read about how the IB sets deadlines for ...

  6. Extended Essay (IB): Finding and selecting sources

    Finding and selecting sources. There is a huge range of resources available to you, and your most important task at this stage will be filtering these sources and using your time as efficiently as possible. ... The following is a comment from the IB on using 'online encyclopaedias' such as Wikipedia (from The IB Extended Essay Guide: The ...

  7. The Extended Essay Step-By-Step Guide: The Research

    For the Extended Essay you'll need to go beyond Google and beyond the shelves of your library. A good Extended Essay Bibliography should be a varied pick and mix selection* of online and off-line sources, modern dates, and obscure and established publications. Remember those 40 hours the IB recommends you spend on your Extended Essay?

  8. Extended Essay: Find Primary Sources

    Extended Essay: Find Primary Sources. A guide to the research and writing process required for students completing the IB Extended Essay. Step 1. Choose a Subject. Step 2. Educate yourself! Step 3. Researcher's Reflection Space (RRS) Step 4.

  9. LibGuides: Extended Essay: Language and Literature

    Language and Literature Sources. Even students doing primary research will still need to reference secondary sources. These may include established literary interpretations or criticisms, biographical and/or historical information. ... An extended essay in language and literature gives students an opportunity to do independent research into a ...

  10. PDF A Student Guide To Writing the Extended Essay

    Extended Essay instructor at Richard Montgomery High School, Ms. Hoover, Magnet Coordinator, and other Richard Montgomery ToK teachers and staff; most recent updates were made in 2009. ... Sources of background information like general encyclopedias, subject-specific encyclopedias or

  11. PDF Extended essay guide

    Researching and writing the extended essay It is recommended that teachers advise their students about researching and writing the extended essay as follows. The research process When researching the extended essay, students should do the following. 1. Choose the approved Diploma Programme subject for the extended essay. • Read the assessment ...

  12. Writing & Citing

    Annotated Bibliography for the Extended Essay. Early in the Extended Essay process, are required to submit an annotated bibliography summarizing and evaluating five sources.For each source you need to provide full bibliographic information (a compete MLA8 citation), and write a detailed annotation (paragraph) demonstrating your understanding of the source and its relevance to your larger ...

  13. Extended Essay Resources: Primary Sources

    These sources are one or more steps removed from the event. Secondary sources may have pictures, quotes or graphics of primary sources in them. Some types of seconday sources include: PUBLICATIONS: Textbooks, magazine articles, histories, criticisms, commentaries, encyclopedias ; Examples of secondary sources include:

  14. LibGuides: Extended Essay: Formatting your EE

    All essays must follow this format: Labelled "Table of Contents" in 12-point, readable font (Arial is recommended) Headings and page numbers for required components of the essay include: Introduction. Body of the essay: Headings and subheadings within the body of the essay may be included. Conclusion.

  15. Extended essay: Evaluating sources

    Evaluating sources. As you research your Extended Essay, you will explore a range of primary and secondary sources. It's good to collect a lot of sources. But like so many things in life, what you exclude from your essay is just as important as what you include. Filtering, organising and evaluating sources are essential steps in doing research.

  16. LibGuides: Extended Essay: Structure of the Extended Essay

    The topic of the extended essay is the subject, issue or theme that you are investigating within a specific DP subject or world studies area of study. The topic, which develops during the initial thinking about the EE, should later be reflected in the wording of the title. The title of the EE is a clear, summative statement that specifically ...

  17. Extended Essay: Step 12. Do the Research

    Twelve-step Plan for Researching the Extended Essay - Step 12. 12. Carry out the research. The material collected should be assembled in a logical order, linked to the structure of the essay and clearly focused on the research question posed. Only then will you know that you have enough evidence for each stage of the argument so that you can ...

  18. Extended Essay: MLA Works Cited & In-Text Citations

    In-text citations: Author-page style. MLA format follows the author-page method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the page number (s) from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page. The author's name may appear either in the ...

  19. LibGuides: Extended Essay: Step 7

    A citation is a shorthand method of making a reference in the body of an essay, either as an in-text citation or footnote/endnote. This must then be linked to the full reference at the end of the essay in the bibliography. A citation provides the reader with accurate references so that he or she can locate the source easily.

  20. AIS-R LibGuides: Extended Essay Resources: Home

    Health Source This link opens in a new window This database is the richest collection of consumer health information available to libraries worldwide, providing information on many health topics including the medical sciences, food sciences and nutrition, childcare, sports medicine and general health. Health Source: Consumer Edition provides ...

  21. Extended Essay: Conducting Primary Research

    surveys. The details of how the data was collected are crucial to the validity of any argument based on the findings. You must put in the main body of your essay the details of any primary research you carry out. These include: the methods used. the persons involved. how and why these were selected. the relevant results.