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Dissertations / Theses on the topic 'Financial risk management'

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Laurent, Marie-Paule. "Essays in financial risk management." Doctoral thesis, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, 2003. http://hdl.handle.net/2013/ULB-DIPOT:oai:dipot.ulb.ac.be:2013/211221.

Zhang, Lequn. "Extreme Risk Forecast for Quantitative Financial Risk Management." Thesis, Curtin University, 2022. http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11937/89362.

Gueye, Djibril. "Some contributions to financial risk management." Thesis, Strasbourg, 2021. http://www.theses.fr/2021STRAD027.

Wang, Mulong. "Financial derivatives in corporate risk management." Access restricted to users with UT Austin EID, 2001. http://wwwlib.umi.com/cr/utexas/fullcit?p3036610.

Schaumburg, Julia. "Quantile methods for financial risk management." Doctoral thesis, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Fakultät, 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.18452/16675.

Genin, Adrien. "Asymptotic approaches in financial risk management." Thesis, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2018. http://www.theses.fr/2018USPCC120/document.

Nikoci, Besjana <1989&gt. "Stress Testing for Financial Risk Management." Master's Degree Thesis, Università Ca' Foscari Venezia, 2015. http://hdl.handle.net/10579/6935.

Aas, Roar. "Risk management using derivatives." Thesis, Heriot-Watt University, 1993. http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.262000.

Eriksson, Kristofer. "Risk Measures and Dependence Modeling in Financial Risk Management." Thesis, Umeå universitet, Institutionen för fysik, 2014. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-85185.

Paltalidis, Nikolaos. "Essays on applied financial econometrics and financial networks : reflections on systemic risk, financial stability & tail risk management." Thesis, University of Portsmouth, 2015. https://researchportal.port.ac.uk/portal/en/theses/essays-on-applied-financial-econometrics-and-financial-networks(3534970d-eeba-4748-9812-d18430925664).html.

Černák, Peter. "Risk Management." Master's thesis, Vysoká škola ekonomická v Praze, 2009. http://www.nusl.cz/ntk/nusl-76579.

Zou, Lin. "Essays in financial economics and risk management." Thesis, [College Station, Tex. : Texas A&M University, 2007. http://hdl.handle.net/1969.1/ETD-TAMU-1476.

Graf, Mario. "Financial Risk Management State-of-the-Art /." St. Gallen, 2005. http://www.biblio.unisg.ch/org/biblio/edoc.nsf/wwwDisplayIdentifier/01665710001/$FILE/01665710001.pdf.

Ewers, Robin B. "Enterprise Risk Management in Responsible Financial Reporting." Thesis, Walden University, 2017. http://pqdtopen.proquest.com/#viewpdf?dispub=10637579.

Despite regulatory guidelines, unreliable financial reporting exists in organizations, creating undue financial risk-harm for their stakeholders. Normal accident theory (NAT) identifies factors in highly complex integrated systems that can have unexpected, undetected, and uncorrected system failures. High-reliability organization (HRO) theory constructs promote reliability in complex, integrated systems prone to NAT factors. Enterprise risk management (ERM) integrates NAT factors and HRO constructs under a holistic framework to achieve organizational goals and mitigate the potential for stakeholder risk-harm. Literature on how HRO constructs promote ERM in responsible integrated financial systems has been limited. The purpose of this qualitative, grounded theory study was to use HRO constructs to identify and define the psychological factors involved in the effective ERM of responsible organizational financial reporting. Standardized, open-ended interviews were used to collect inductive data from a purposeful sample of 13 reporting agents stratifying different positions in organizations that have maintained consistent operational success while attenuating stakeholder risk-harm. The data were interpreted via transcription, and subsequent iterative open, axial, and narrative coding. Results showed that elements of culture and leadership found in the HRO construct of disaster foresightedness and mitigation fostered an internal environment of successful enterprise reporting risk management to ethically achieve organizational goals and abate third-party stakeholder risk-harm. The findings will contribute to positive social change by suggesting an approach for organizations to optimize strategic objectives while minimizing stakeholders’ financial risk-harm.

Siyi, Zhou. "Essays on financial and insurance risk management." Thesis, Imperial College London, 2012. http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.586894.

Abbas, Sawsan. "Statistical methodologies for financial market risk management." Thesis, Lancaster University, 2010. http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.547964.

Ben, Hadj Saifeddine. "Essays on risk management and financial stability." Thesis, Paris 1, 2017. http://www.theses.fr/2017PA01E003/document.

Pillay, Levina. "Risk practitioner experiences of enterprise risk management in financial institutions." Diss., University of Pretoria, 2015. http://hdl.handle.net/2263/52296.

Shedden, Jason Patrick. "A qualitative approach to financial risk." Pretoria : [s.n.], 2006. http://upetd.up.ac.za/thesis/available/etd-05092007-152751.

Yao, Rui. "Patterns of financial risk tolerance 1983-2001 /." Columbus, Ohio : Ohio State University, 2003. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc%5Fnum=osu1060624755.

Yang, Xi. "Applying stochastic programming models in financial risk management." Thesis, University of Edinburgh, 2010. http://hdl.handle.net/1842/4068.


Haar, Lawrence. "Business cycles and the management of financial risk." Thesis, University of Surrey, 2000. http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/844543/.

Zabarankin, Michael Yurievich. "Optimization approaches in risk management and financial engineering." [Gainesville, Fla.] : University of Florida, 2003. http://purl.fcla.edu/fcla/etd/UFE0001048.

Hays, Douglas C. "Enterprise risk management solutions a case study /." Monterey, Calif. : Naval Postgraduate School, 2008. http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA483512.

Derrocks, Velda Charmaine. "Risk management." Thesis, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, 2010. http://hdl.handle.net/10948/1480.

Bedendo, Mascia. "Density forecasting in financial risk modelling." Thesis, University of Warwick, 2003. http://wrap.warwick.ac.uk/2661/.

HADJI, MISHEVA BRANKA. "Measuring Financial Risks: The Application of Network Theory in Fintech Risk Management." Doctoral thesis, Università degli studi di Pavia, 2020. http://hdl.handle.net/11571/1344336.

Chen, Hua. "Contingent Claim Pricing with Applications to Financial Risk Management." Digital Archive @ GSU, 2008. http://digitalarchive.gsu.edu/rmi_diss/22.

Baldwin, Sheena. "Extreme value theory : from a financial risk management perspective." Thesis, Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2004. http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/53743.

Yamashita, Mamiko. "Three Essays on Financial Risk Management and Fat Tails." Thesis, Toulouse 1, 2020. http://www.theses.fr/2020TOU10056.

Simonson, Peter Douglas. "Limiting Financial Risk from Catastrophic Events in Project Management." Diss., North Dakota State University, 2020. https://hdl.handle.net/10365/31939.

Madaleno, Mara Teresa da Silva. "Essays on energy derivatives pricing and financial risk management." Doctoral thesis, Universidade de Aveiro, 2011. http://hdl.handle.net/10773/7302.

Yazid, Ahmad Shukri. "Perceptions and practices of financial risk management in Malaysia." Thesis, Glasgow Caledonian University, 2001. http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.364743.

Masie, Desné Rentia. "Mediating markets : financial news media and reputation risk management." Thesis, University of Edinburgh, 2014. http://hdl.handle.net/1842/14196.

Holifield, Suzanne Marie. "Risk management and hedge accounting decisions at financial institutions." Connect to resource, 1995. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view.cgi?acc%5Fnum=osu1267632084.

Awiszus, Kerstin [Verfasser]. "Actuarial and financial risk management in networks / Kerstin Awiszus." Hannover : Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universität Hannover, 2020. http://d-nb.info/1215427298/34.

Vuillemey, Guillaume. "Derivatives markets : from bank risk management to financial stability." Thesis, Paris, Institut d'études politiques, 2015. http://www.theses.fr/2015IEPP0007/document.

Anastasio, Edoardo <1996&gt. "The relationship between financial risk management and shareholders value." Master's Degree Thesis, Università Ca' Foscari Venezia, 2022. http://hdl.handle.net/10579/20812.

Kwok, Ying-kit Tony. "A study on treasury risk control in financial institutions in Hong Kong /." Hong Kong : University of Hong Kong, 1995. http://sunzi.lib.hku.hk/hkuto/record.jsp?B14038912.

Siu, Kin-bong Bonny. "Expected shortfall and value-at-risk under a model with market risk and credit risk." Click to view the E-thesis via HKUTO, 2006. http://sunzi.lib.hku.hk/hkuto/record/B37727473.

Ye, Kang. "Knowledge level modeling for systemic risk management in financial institutions /." access full-text access abstract and table of contents, 2009. http://libweb.cityu.edu.hk/cgi-bin/ezdb/thesis.pl?phd-is-b30082274f.pdf.

Neis, Eric. "Three essays in financial economics." Diss., Restricted to subscribing institutions, 2006. http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1158520261&sid=1&Fmt=2&clientId=1564&RQT=309&VName=PQD.

Weiss, Susan F. "Implications of Executive Succession Upon Financial Risk and Performance." ScholarWorks, 2011. https://scholarworks.waldenu.edu/dissertations/958.

Wang, Letian. "Global supply chain risk management through operational and financial hedges." Thesis, McGill University, 2010. http://digitool.Library.McGill.CA:80/R/?func=dbin-jump-full&object_id=95041.

Seidel, Henry [Verfasser], and Alexander [Akademischer Betreuer] Szimayer. "Essays in Financial Risk Management / Henry Seidel ; Betreuer: Alexander Szimayer." Hamburg : Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Hamburg, 2017. http://d-nb.info/1148650563/34.

Reddy, Harry 1963. "Financial supply chain dynamics : operational risk management and RFID technologies." Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2005. http://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/33729.

Zhu, Yanhui. "Nature and management of financial risk in global stock markets." Thesis, Cardiff University, 2008. http://orca.cf.ac.uk/55720/.

Yousefi, Sepehr. "Credit Risk Management in Absence of Financial and Market Data." Thesis, KTH, Matematisk statistik, 2016. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-188800.

Seidel, Henry Verfasser], and Alexander [Akademischer Betreuer] [Szimayer. "Essays in Financial Risk Management / Henry Seidel ; Betreuer: Alexander Szimayer." Hamburg : Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Hamburg, 2017. http://d-nb.info/1148650563/34.

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Essay - Financial Risk Management

In the academic research we have been involved, at the extent to be rewarded a PhD degree in Financial Engineering including Developmental Finance, Risk Assessments and Financial Analysis, we are to study Financial Risk Management. As a critical discipline in our study programme, we have performed research in the aim of understanding all the insightful points that surround this course. In this light, we have organized our work into a series of chapters full of sections marked by various relevant issues. This implies undestanding the basics of Financial Risk Management through defining key words such as risk, financial risk, Financial Risk Management process, identifying the various components of Financial risks. In this mood, we have extended our reflection to understanding insightful issues of factors influencing major financial risks such as market risk, liquidity risk, operational risk, credit risk as well as business risk. Internal and external challenges surrounding financial risks and Financial risk measurement have also been examined in the angle of seeking ways to improve Financial Risk Management process. As far as risk measurement is concernced, some assessment tools or mathematical methods of financial risk measurement in companies have been presented namely Value at Risk, Rate of growth of real Assets, Equity ratio, Gearing ratio, Debt Equity Ratio, Net Present Value, etc… for quantification and assessment matters. Furthermore, we have attempted to come out with the relationship between Financial Risk Management and the financial industry. From this link, we have examined the various components of risk management theory bearing Financial Risk Management, Financial Risk Management and financial markets performance, Financial Risk Management and the banking industry. Examining Financial Risk Management also requires to take into account the issue of financial crisis through the critical contribution of Financial Risk Management in a preventive way and providing an addressing response in case of financial crisis reality. Before wrappig up our essay, we have found it relevant to identify internal and external Financial Risk Management perspectives. It is at the view of financial institutions as well as providing recommendations related to an effective Financial Risk Management throughout the overall components of a country’s global financial system and investors’ behaviour regarding Financial Risk Management as well. As long as this written essay is concerned, we consider Financial Risk Management as a prominent discipline in the overall financial industry.

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Home » Blog » Dissertation » Topics » Finance » Financial Risk Management » 80 Financial Risk Management Research Topics

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80 Financial Risk Management Research Topics

FacebookXEmailWhatsAppRedditPinterestLinkedInAre you a student embarking on the exciting journey of writing a thesis or dissertation in financial risk management? The world of finance offers a plethora of captivating research topics in financial risk management that can enrich your academic pursuit. Whether you’re an undergraduate, master’s, or doctoral student, selecting the right research topic is crucial […]

Financial Risk Management Topics

Are you a student embarking on the exciting journey of writing a thesis or dissertation in financial risk management? The world of finance offers a plethora of captivating research topics in financial risk management that can enrich your academic pursuit. Whether you’re an undergraduate, master’s, or doctoral student, selecting the right research topic is crucial to ensure a meaningful and insightful study.

Managing financial risks involves identifying, assessing, and mitigating potential risks that could negatively impact an organization’s ability to achieve its financial goals. It goes by different names, such as risk management in finance, financial risk assessment, and financial risk analysis. Analyzing uncertainties in financial markets, investments, and economic conditions is crucial to making informed decisions.

This blog post delves into various research topics that align with financial risk management, providing a springboard for your research journey.

A List Of Potential Research Topics In Financial Risk Management :

  • Systemic risk assessment of interconnected payment and settlement systems.
  • Regulatory compliance and risk management.
  • Macroeconomic indicators and market risk exposure in the UK.
  • Evaluating the effectiveness of financial risk education programs for individual investors.
  • Stress testing resilience of non-bank financial intermediaries in crisis scenarios.
  • Risk management practices of non-financial corporations.
  • Effectiveness of risk models in predicting pandemic-related shocks.
  • Behavioural biases and their influence on risk assessment in peer-to-peer lending platforms.
  • Resilience of risk management frameworks during times of crisis: lessons from historical events.
  • Hedge fund risk management strategies during periods of extreme market turbulence.
  • Exploring behavioural biases in individual investment decisions and portfolio performance.
  • Role of risk culture in shaping risk management practices within financial institutions.
  • Macroprudential policies’ impact on financial stability.
  • Corporate risk disclosure practices and their impact on investor perception.
  • Digitalization and operational risk in banking.
  • Supply chain disruptions and risk management strategies.
  • Impact of environmental regulations on credit risk in industries with high pollution exposure.
  • Early warning models for predicting banking crises.
  • Review of the effectiveness of different risk communication strategies.
  • Critical evaluation of stress testing methodologies in risk management.
  • Risk communication strategies during market turbulence.
  • Analyzing the impact of central bank communication on interest rate risk.
  • Volatility clustering and its implications for options pricing and risk management.
  • Cross-border capital flows and emerging market risks.
  • Cybersecurity breaches and operational risks in financial institutions.
  • Effectiveness of ESG integration in UK risk assessment.
  • Investor sentiment’s influence on market volatility.
  • Government interventions and systemic risk during COVID-19.
  • Covid-19’s unique risk challenges for the UK financial sector.
  • Effectiveness of value at risk (VAR) and expected shortfall (ES) in extreme markets.
  • Risk implications of cross-border mergers and acquisitions in the banking sector.
  • Impact of inflation volatility on financial market risk.
  • Investor behaviour changes and market volatility during the pandemic.
  • Stress testing in the context of pandemic-induced economic uncertainty.
  • Impact of remote work on cybersecurity and data breach risks.
  • Risk strategies of insurance companies for catastrophic events.
  • Integration of fintech innovations in financial risk management for digital finance transformation.
  • Credit risk assessment for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs): current challenges and innovations.
  • Regulatory adaptations in response to pandemic risks.
  • Investigating the impact of machine learning algorithms on credit risk assessment.
  • Risk management strategies in commodity trading firms exposed to supply chain disruptions.
  • Pandemic-driven changes in operational risk management.
  • Default prediction models in changing economic conditions.
  • Basel iii and its impact on global banking risk management: a critique.
  • Operational risk management in the context of digital transformation in banks.
  • Role of fintech innovation in UK’s risk management landscape.
  • Regulatory divergence and cross-border risk management.
  • Effectiveness of risk management strategies for climate change impacts on markets.
  • Basel iii framework and global bank risk management.
  • Assessing stress testing methodologies in predicting systemic risks.
  • Systemic risk assessment models: a comprehensive review.
  • The interplay between credit risk and interest rate risk in bond portfolios.
  • Cyber risk insurance: analyzing the coverage and effectiveness of policies.
  • Role of derivatives in managing interest rate risk for corporate treasuries.
  • Liquidity risk impact on asset pricing and portfolio performance.
  • Brexit’s impact on financial market risk and regulatory frameworks.
  • Risk management implications of the LIBOR transition to alternative reference rates.
  • Exploring the relationship between political uncertainty and financial market risk.
  • Alternative data sources for credit risk assessment.
  • Risk management implications of technological advancements: a survey.
  • Credit risk assessment for emerging market sovereign bonds: a cross-country comparison.
  • Volatility transmission between cryptocurrency markets and traditional assets.
  • Risk management challenges for UK banks in a post-Brexit environment.
  • Market risk and performance of algorithmic trading strategies during market stress.
  • Review of operational risk management practices in fintech companies.
  • Market liquidity risk during and after the pandemic.
  • Enhancing risk mitigation strategies in investment Banking through advanced financial risk management.
  • Behavioural biases in investment decision-making: a literature review.
  • Financial risk implications of UK-EU trade agreements.
  • Role of fintech innovations in operational risk management.
  • Risk implications of central bank digital currencies (CBDCs).
  • Liquidity risk management strategies in the context of evolving market structures.
  • Risk-return trade-off in sustainable investment portfolios.
  • Systemic risk contributions of global systematically important banks (G-SIBs).
  • ESG factors integration in risk assessment: an overview.
  • Resilience of risk management frameworks post-COVID-19.
  • Credit default swaps’ role in credit risk contagion.
  • Analyzing the dynamic relationship between cryptocurrency volatility and financial market risks.
  • Macroeconomic indicators and market risk exposure in emerging economies.
  • Impact of macroeconomic factors on market risk for different asset classes.
  • Sovereign credit risk assessment in emerging economies: challenges and approaches.

As you contemplate your journey into financial risk management research, remember that the right topic will captivate your interest and contribute significantly to the existing body of knowledge. Whether you’re intrigued by market volatility, credit risk, operational risk, or the application of innovative risk management strategies, the world of finance offers a wealth of possibilities for research at every academic level. Choose a topic that resonates with your educational goals, and immerse yourself in exploring knowledge that can potentially shape the future of financial risk management. Your dissertation will not only be a testament to your scholarly prowess but also a valuable contribution to the ever-evolving landscape of finance.

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Financial Risk Management MSc

London, Bloomsbury

Finance is driven by technology. Becoming an expert in both will enable you to thrive in risk management roles in the financial sector. The Financial Risk Management MSc brings together traditional theories in finance, data analytics, quantitative and computational modelling techniques – designed to produce talented practitioners in this field.

UK tuition fees (2024/25)

Overseas tuition fees (2024/25), programme starts, applications accepted.

Applications open

  • Entry requirements

A minimum of an upper second-class UK Bachelor's degree (or an international qualification of an equivalent standard) in a relevant discipline with a strong quantitative component evidenced by good performance in mathematics and statistics examinations. Good performance is defined as scores in these subjects not falling below a UK upper second-class or international equivalent level. There is not an exhaustive list of relevant disciplines, but individuals with a background mathematics, statistics, physics, computer science, engineering, economics, or finance are encouraged to apply.

The English language level for this programme is: Level 2

UCL Pre-Master's and Pre-sessional English courses are for international students who are aiming to study for a postgraduate degree at UCL. The courses will develop your academic English and academic skills required to succeed at postgraduate level.

Further information can be found on our English language requirements page.

This programme is suitable for international students on a Student visa – study must be full-time, face-to-face, starting September.

Equivalent qualifications

Country-specific information, including details of when UCL representatives are visiting your part of the world, can be obtained from the International Students website .

International applicants can find out the equivalent qualification for their country by selecting from the list below. Please note that the equivalency will correspond to the broad UK degree classification stated on this page (e.g. upper second-class). Where a specific overall percentage is required in the UK qualification, the international equivalency will be higher than that stated below. Please contact Graduate Admissions should you require further advice.

About this degree

A distinctive finance programme taught from a computer science perspective, the Financial Risk Management MSc enables you to become an expert in computing, mathematics, and technology to manage and predict financial risk.

You will experience an innovative programme that blends core financial concepts with opportunities to place yourself at the cutting edge of computational techniques and technology, through topics such as machine learning, algorithmic trading and blockchain technologies.

Throughout this programme, you will learn from renowned lecturers who also undertake research or are practitioners in the finance industry. You will gain a core understanding of market risk, credit risk, operational risk, systemic risk, and financial engineering, complemented by topics that range from market microstructure to probability, stochastic processes, and data-driven modelling. As well as this, you will combine knowledge about how the financial system works with computational techniques.

You will undertake a substantial project as the culmination of your programme, bringing opportunities to work with an industry partner on a real-world problem, or to embark on an academic project supervised by one of our leading academics.

This programme gives you key skills to become a professional in financial markets and related technical aspects, while you immerse yourself in London life and the benefits of living in a global financial centre.

Who this course is for

The programme is aimed at students with a first degree in mathematics, finance, economics, physics, or computing who wish to gain the skills necessary to work within quantitative risk management. You will be expected to have established competency in probability, statistics, differential equations and the use of a computer to solve numerical problems.

What this course will give you

UCL is ranked 9th globally in the latest QS World University Rankings (2024) , giving you an exciting opportunity to study at one of the world’s best universities.     

UCL Computer Science is recognised as a world leader in teaching and research. The department was ranked 1st in England and 2nd in the UK for research power in Computer Science and Informatics in the UK's most recent Research Excellence Framework ( REF2021 ). You will learn from leading academic experts at the forefront of computer science innovation.

This finance programme is distinct as it is based in a computer science department. You will learn about how financial systems work, while keeping up with the latest technologies and computational techniques use by the financial sector.

The programme team takes a data-driven approach to our subject, enjoy the challenge and opportunity of entrepreneurial partnerships, and place a high value on our extensive range of industrial collaborations. You will have opportunities to get hands-on experience working on real-world projects with leading industry partners through the Department’s Industry Exchange Network (IXN) .

London is a global financial centre and technology hub, so you will benefit from proximity to top technology and finance companies, entrepreneurial projects and practitioners in central London.

The foundation of your career

Graduates from this programme have pursued careers in the accountancy and financial services sectors. Others have gone into banking and investment, IT, technology and telecoms, publishing, journalism and translation, consultancy, logistics and distribution.

Employers include Credit Suisse, Deutsche Bank, Bloomberg, China Development Bank, Deloitte, Ernst & Young, Google, JP Morgan Chase, Moody’s Analytics, People’s Bank of China, PriceWaterhouseCoopers, Santander, Standard Chartered Bank and Royal Bank of Scotland.


A programme with exceptional relevance in the modern day, you will graduate from the Financial Risk Management MSc with expertise in how financial markets work, and with the mathematical and computational skills required for quantitative roles in the financial industry. This includes handling data, extracting information from data, and developing data driven models – including the know-how to validate and deploy them in international markets.

UCL is proud to support innovation and link our students and research directly to real-world business applications. From internships to solving complex problems with commercial partners, UCL Engineering has a collaborative, innovative spirit at its core.

As a student and later as a graduate, you will have access to a UCL Engineering careers events programme, connecting you with employers and alumni. This programme provides invaluable insight into the reality of different roles, sectors, and current application processes.

Entrepreneurial minds thrive at UCL. For example, UCL’s IDEALondon was the first innovation centre led by a university in London, and incubates companies post-seed to reach technical and business milestones. Our academic and industrial networks provide a safe and supportive environment to grow a company.

Teaching and learning

The programme’s core curriculum is typically delivered through a combination of lectures, tutorials, and lab classes, as well as directed and self-directed learning supported by teaching materials and resources, published through each module’s online virtual learning environment. Each module employs a teaching strategy that aligns with and supports its intended learning outcomes.

You will be assessed through a range of methods across the programme, which will vary depending on any optional or elective module choices. The programme’s core curriculum is typically assessed by methods including coursework, lab work, individual and group projects, class tests, written examinations, oral assessments, and, in all cases, culminating in a final research project/dissertation.

Contact time takes various forms, including lectures, seminars, tutorials, project supervisions, demonstrations, practical classes and workshops, visits, placements, office hours (where staff are available for consultation), email, videoconferencing, or other media, and situations where feedback on assessed work is given (one-to-one or group).

Each module has a credit value that indicates the total notional learning hours a learner will spend to achieve its learning outcomes. One credit is typically considered equal to 10 hours of notional learning, which includes all contact time, self-directed study, and assessment.

The contact time for each of your 15 credit taught modules will typically include 22-30 hours of teaching activity over the term of its delivery, with the balance then comprised of self-directed learning and working on your assessments. You will have ongoing contact with teaching staff via each module’s online discussion forum, which is typically used for discussing and clarifying concepts or assessment matters and will have the opportunity to access additional support via regular office hours with module leaders and programme directors.

Your research project/dissertation module is 60 credits and will include regular contact with your project supervisor(s), who will guide and support you throughout your project. You will dedicate most of your time on this module to carrying out research in connection with your project and writing up your final report.

The MSc Financial Risk Management is a one-year programme.

In term 1, you will study topics that introduce you to the applied mathematical and computational aspects of quantitative finance, probability theory, stochastic processes and their applications, and key concepts and models of asset pricing, portfolio theory, and risk measurement. You will choose from a range of optional topics, which may include numerical methods, market microstructure, operational risk management, financial institutions and markets, and digital finance.

In term 2, you study topics that introduce you to the instruments used to analyse, characterise, validate, parametrise, and model complex financial datasets. You will choose from a range of optional topics, which may include algorithmic trading, applied computational finance, machine learning with applications in finance, networks and systemic risk, quantitative modelling of operational risk and insurance analytics, and blockchain technologies. You will also begin preparation for your final research project/dissertation.

In term 3, you will primarily focus on your final research project/dissertation and any examinations that take place in the main examination period.

Compulsory modules

Optional modules.

Please note that the list of modules given here is indicative. This information is published a long time in advance of enrolment and module content and availability are subject to change. Modules that are in use for the current academic year are linked for further information. Where no link is present, further information is not yet available.

Students undertake modules to the value of 180 credits. Upon successful completion of 180 credits, you will be awarded an MSc in Financial Risk Management.


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Join us for a live online information session to hear from Computer Science staff. We will cover areas such as the general admission process, careers support, and industry links/placements. There will also be an opportunity for you to ask staff and current students any questions you may have. Two sessions will run for this event. These sessions are the same and are repeated to cater to people in different time zones.

Fees and funding

Fees for this course.

The tuition fees shown are for the year indicated above. Fees for subsequent years may increase or otherwise vary. Where the programme is offered on a flexible/modular basis, fees are charged pro-rata to the appropriate full-time Master's fee taken in an academic session. Further information on fee status, fee increases and the fee schedule can be viewed on the UCL Students website: ucl.ac.uk/students/fees .

Additional costs

All full-time students are required to pay a fee deposit of £2,000 for this programme. All part-time students are required to pay a fee deposit of £1,000.

Students will require a modern computer (PC or Mac) with minimum specifications 8GB RAM and 500GB SSD storage. A computer with the stated specifications is estimated to cost £500 or greater.

For more information on additional costs for prospective students please go to our estimated cost of essential expenditure at Accommodation and living costs .

Funding your studies

For a comprehensive list of the funding opportunities available at UCL, including funding relevant to your nationality, please visit the Scholarships and Funding website .

UCL East London Scholarship

Deadline: 20 June 2024 Value: Tuition fees plus £15,700 stipend () Criteria Based on financial need Eligibility: UK

UCL Friends & Alumni Association scholarship for Machine Learning

Deadline: 3 June 2024 Value: $20,000 (1 year) Criteria Based on both academic merit and financial need Eligibility: EU, Overseas

Students are advised to apply as early as possible due to competition for places. Those applying for scholarship funding (particularly overseas applicants) should take note of application deadlines.

There is an application processing fee for this programme of £90 for online applications and £115 for paper applications. Further information can be found at Application fees .

When we assess your application we would like to learn:

  • why you want to study Financial Risk Management at graduate level
  • why you want to study Financial Risk Management at UCL
  • what particularly attracts you to this programme
  • how your academic and professional background meets the demands of this programme
  • what programming experience you have
  • where you would like to go professionally with your degree

Together with essential academic requirements, the personal statement is your opportunity to illustrate whether your reasons for applying to this programme match what the programme will deliver.

Due to competition for places on this programme, no late applications will be considered. Students with visa requirements or applying for scholarships are advised to apply early.

Please note that you may submit applications for a maximum of two graduate programmes (or one application for the Law LLM) in any application cycle.

Choose your programme

Please read the Application Guidance before proceeding with your application.

Year of entry: 2024-2025

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Essay on Financial Management

financial risk management essay

After reading this essay you will learn about:- 1. Introduction to Financial Management 2. Definition of Financial Management 3. Scope 4. Role in a Business 5. Financial Goals and Objectives 6. Functions.

Essay Contents:

  • Essay on the Functions of Financial Management

Essay # 1. Introduction to Financial Management:

A business organisation seek to achieve their objectives by obtaining funds from various sources and then investing them in different types of assets, such as plant, buildings, machin­ery, vehicles etc. Financial management is managing the finances through scientific decision­-making.

For making right decisions, financial management needs to understand financial envi­ronment within which these decisions operate. Financial management will then be able to analyse these financial information’s to predict likely future results and to plan more carefully their proposed course of action.


Financial management is concerned with the acquisition (investment), financing (arranging funds), and management of assets with some overall goal in mind. Invest­ment decisions begin with a determination of the total amount of assets required by the firm and to determine the money value of the same. Assets that cannot be economically justified, may be reduced, eliminated or replaced.

Financing decisions include decisions regarding mix of financing, type of financing em­ployed, dividend policy and method of acquiring funds i.e., getting a short term loan, or a long term lease arrangement, sale of bonds or stock.

Asset management decisions means managing the assets efficiently after their acquisition.

Success of a firm depends on the ability to raise funds, invest in assets and manage wisely.

Essay # 2. Definition of Financial Management:

Financial management is an internal part of overall management and not a staff function of the organization. It is not only restricted to fund raising process but also covers utilization of funds and monitoring its uses. The finance function is concerned with the process of acquiring an efficient utilization of funds of a business system, in order to maximize the value of the enterprise.

Financial management involves the application of principles of general management to the finance function. These functions influence the operations of other crucial functional areas of the enterprise or firm such as marketing production and personnel. Thus the overall survival of the firm is effected by it financial operations.

“The financial management deals with how the corporation obtains the funds and how it uses them.” —Hoagland

“The financial management refers to the application of skills in the manipulation, use and control of funds.” —Mock, Schultz and Schuckectat

Financial management can also be defined as that part of management, which is related mainly with raising or acquiring the funds for the enterprise or firm in the most economical way, utilizing those funds as profitably as possible, for a given risk level, planning the future investment of those funds and controlling the current performance plus future development by adopting budgeting, cost accounting and financial accounting.

Essay # 3. Scope and Functions of Financial Management :

The main objectives of financial management are to arrange the sufficient funds for meeting short term long term requirements of the enterprise. These finances are procured at minimum cost in order to maximize the profitability.

In view of these factors the financial management scope concentrates on the following areas of finance function.

(i) Estimating the Financial Requirements :

The first job of the finance manager of an enterprise is to estimate short term and long term financial requirements of his business. He will prepare a financial plan for present as well as future for this purpose.

The finance required for procuring fixed assets as well as the working capital needs will have to be ascertained. The estimations should be based on sound financial principles so that funds available with the firm are neither inadequate nor excess.

(ii) Determining the Capital Structure :

After estimating the financial requirements, the finance executives have to decide about the composition of capital. The capital structure refers to the type and proportion of different securities for raising funds. After deciding the quantum of funds needed it should be decided which type of securities should be raised.

The finance executives have to determine the relative proportions of owner’s risk capital and borrowed capital along with short term and long term debt equity ratio.

A decision regarding various sources of funds should be linked with the cost of raising funds. A decision about the kind of securities to be employed and the proportion in which these should be utilized is an important decision which affects the short term and long term financial planning of an enterprise.

(iii) Choice of Sources of Finance :

After preparing a capital structure an appropriate source of finance is chosen. Various sources from which finance may be raised include: shareholders’ debenture holders, banks and other financial institutions and public deposits etc. Finance executive has to evaluate each source or method of finance and select the best source keeping in view the various factors.

The need, purpose, objective, cost involved may be the factors affecting the selection of a suitable source of financing, for instance, if the finances are required for short periods then banks, public deposits and financial institutions may be appropriate, and for long term financial requirements, the share capital and debentures may be useful.

(iv) Investment Decisions :

When the funds have been poured then a decision regarding pattern of investment has to be taken. The funds raised are to be intelligently invested in various assets so as to optimize the returns on investment. The funds will have to be used first for the purchase of fixed assets and then an appropriate part will be retained as working capital.

The utilisation of long term funds requires a proper assessment of different alternatives through capital budgeting and opportunity cost analysis. While spending on various assets, management should be guided by three important principles of safety, liquidity and profitability. A balance should be struck even in these principles for the purpose of optimum returns on investment.

(v) Management of Profits :

The utilisation of surpluses or earnings is also an important factor in financial management. A judicious utilisation of earnings is essential for expansion and diversification plans of the enterprise.

A certain amount out of the total profit may be kept as reserve voluntarily, a portion of surplus may be distributed among the ordinary and preference shareholders, yet another portion may be reinvested. The finance executive must take into consideration the merits and demerits of the alternative scheme of utilizing the funds generated from the enterprise’s own earnings.

(vi) Management of Cash Flow :

Cash flow management is also an important task of finance executive. He has to assess the various cash requirements at different times and then make arrangements for cash needed. Cash may be required to (i) make payments to creditors (ii) for purchase of materials (iii) to meet wage bill (iv) to meet everyday expenses.

The cash management should be such that neither there is shortage of it and nor it is idle. Any shortage of cash will damage the credit worthiness of the firm. The idle cash with the enterprise will mean that it is not properly utilized. In order to know the cash requirements during different periods, the management should arrange for the preparation of cash flow statement in advance.

(vii) Implementation of Financial Controls :

An efficient system of financial management needs the use of various control of devices. Financial control devices generally adopted are (i) Return on Investment (ii) Budgetrary Control (iii) Cost control (iv) Break Even analysis (v) Ratio analysis. The use of various control techniques by the Finance Manager will help him in evaluating the performance in different areas and take corrective action whenever needed.

Essay # 4. Role of Financial Management in a Business:

An effective financial management plays a dynamic role in a modern company’s develop­ment.

In earlier days, financial managers were primarily engaged in:

(a) Raising funds, and

(b) Managing the firms cash flow.

But now-a-days with the developments and increasing complexi­ties in the business, responsibility of the financial managers have increased and they are now concerned with the decision-making process involving finance, i.e., capital investment.

Today external factors, like competition, technological change, economic uncertainty, infla­tion problem etc., create financial managers problem more complicated. He must have flexibil­ity to adopt to the changing external environment for the survival of his firm.

Role of Financial Management in a Business

Thus in addition to the job of acquisition, financing and managing the assets, the financial manager is supposed to contribute to the fortunes of the firm and to the optimal growth of the economy as a whole.

He is required to take decisions on:

(i) Investing funds in assets, and

(ii) Obtaining best mix of financing and dividends.

In order to understand the environment in which a finance manager is required to take decision, a sketch indicating business system is given hereunder:

The Financial Management’s main role is therefore to create profit on the capital invested (fixed as well as working capital). Each and every decision related to finance/economy must be optimal. Every business enterprise is set up to earn profit, and no one is interested in taking risk unless he is assured of fair return on the investment. However government organisations have no profit motive but are created to serve the public.

The profit earned by a firm is used for:

(a) Future expansion.

(b) Distributing profit as rewards to owners/shareholders.

Profit earned also serves as an indicator of efficiency and performance of the firm. So as to enable to perform the role of financial management, financial managers must be given proper authority, autonomy, freedom of actions, supporting staff, system for providing necessary information. He should be accountable also for his role.

Essay # 5. Financial Goals and Objectives :

There may be various objectives of a firm, but the goal of a firm is to maximise the wealth of the firm’s owners. Thus we can say that, “the improvement of shareholders value is the one mission that continually guides all corporate decisions and actions” or “the goal of a firm is maximizing the shareholders’ value”. This maximisation of value should be achieved from long term point of view.

The financial goal can be expressed as:

(a) Required profit levels,

(b) Earnings per shares, and

(c) Required rate of return on investment.

For a large firm, where shareholders do not have direct say and the firm is managed by the management, an ordinary shareholder can judge the performance by the market price of the firm’s share. Market price serves as a gauge for business performance, it indicates how well management is doing on behalf of its shareholders.

Management is the agents of the owners or shareholders, and financial management acts for achieving the goal of profit maximization in the shareholders’ best interests.

Social Goals :

While profit maximisation is the primary goal for any business organisation, social respon­sibility is also important for them. In case of Government organisations and public sector organisations, social responsibility is the primary goal and profit is secondary.

Social responsi­bility includes service to the people, protecting the consumer, paying fare wages to the employ­ees, upliftment of the weaker sections, welfare facilities like medical education, environment improvement programmes etc.

Financial Objectives :

In making financial decisions, it is important to set out clear objectives.

Following are the basic financial objectives:

(a) Profit maximisation.

(b) Maximisation of shareholders’ owners’ wealth.

(c) Reduction in cost.

(d) Minimising risks.

(e) Sustained increase in the value of firm

(f) Wealth maximisation.

Essay # 6. Functions of Financial Management :

Financial manager is concerned with the following aspects:

1. Identifying the present strengths and weaknesses of the organisation, and the scope for improvement, by conducting the financial analysis.

2. Planning the financial strategies. This involves the consideration of methods and levels of funds raising, profitability and the financing of expansion plan of the organisation.

3. Arranging the funds when required, in the form needed in the most economical way.

4. Conducting financial appraisal of the possible courses of action. The appraisals are needed in respect of possible take overs and mergers, analysis of capital projects, or alternative methods of funding.

5. Advising about capital structure.

6. Consideration of an appropriate level for drawings by dividends to the owners/ share­holders.

7. Ensuring that assets are controlled and used in an efficient manner.

8. Cash management. Preparation of detailed cash budgets and/or forecast funds flow statement so that future problems can be foreseen and remedial measures taken in advance. These take care of both shortage and excess of cash. Finance managers must find ways of raising more funds needed, or investing excess funds for an appropriate length of time.

9. Finance managers are likely to draw attention on other disciplines also, like account­ing and budgeting.

In order to enable financial managers to perform above functions satisfactorily, he must have good knowledge of accounting, economics, mathematics, statistics, law especially taxa­tion, financial market etc.

The functions of finance thus involve three major decisions the firm must make:

(a) The investment decisions,

(b) The financing decisions, and

(c) The dividend decisions.

Each of these decisions are taken in relation to the objective of the firm, an optimal combi­nation of these three will maximise the value of the firm to its shareholders. Since the decisions are interrelated, their joint impact on the market price of the firm’s stock must be considered.

(a) Investment Decisions:

This is the most important decision. Capital investment, i.e., allocation of capital to investment proposals is the most important aspect, whose benefits are to be realised in future. As future benefits are not known with certainty, the investment proposals involve risk.

These should, therefore, be evaluated in relation to expected return and risk. Considerable attention is paid to determine the appropriate required rate of return on the investment.

In addition to taking capital investment decisions, finance managers are concerned with the management of current assets efficiently in order to maximise profitability relative to the amount of funds tied up in asset. Investment decisions also include the decisions about mergers and acquisition of another company.

(b) Financing Decisions:

Finance manager is required to determine the best financing mix or capital structure. An optimal financing mix is one in which market price per share could be maximised. Financing decision are taken in relation to the overall valuation of the firm.

Various methods of obtaining short, intermediate, and long term financing are also explored, examined, analysed and a decision is taken. While taking financing decisions, the influence of inflammation on financial markets and on the cost of funds to the firm is also considered.

(c) Dividend Decision:

The dividend decision includes the percentage of earnings paid to stockholders in cash dividends, stock dividends and splits, and the repurchase of stock.

To Meet Funds Requirement of a Firm :

Funds requirement is assessed for different purposes, namely for feasibility study of a project, detailed planning of a project, and for operation and expansion of the business.

For feasibility study, only broad estimates are sufficient and are generally obtained from the past experience of the similar works by interpolating the present trends and the condition of the proposed project in comparison to the one whose figures are being adopted. While during detailed plan­ning, estimated requirement is comparatively more realistic, and prepared after going into details more thoroughly.

Here we are discussing the funds requirement for a running business including its long term planning for expansion.

The main function of financial management is to ensure that the firm must have sufficient funds to meet financial obligations when they are needed and to take advantage of investment opportunities. To achieve this objective, a thorough study is conducted about ‘flow of funds’ i.e., statement of funds requirement indicating the amount of fund needed and at what time.

This ‘statement of funds’ is a summary of a firm’s changes in financial position from one period to another. This indicates that how the funds will be used and how it will be financed over specific period of time. This includes the cash as well as non-cash transactions.

Forecast, financial statements are prepared for selected future dates, generally for middle term and long term plans of the firm. Budgets are used for one year, and are prepared only to fulfill the firms’ objectives envisaged in the forecast for that particular year.

These forecast financial statements are based on the sales forecast and future strategies for expanding the business, and includes, forecast income statements, forecast assets, liabilities, shareholders, equity etc.

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financial risk management essay

Invest to build financial resilience and reduce risk

Amid intensifying market disruptions and escalating business volatility, there’s more pressure on Chief Financial Officers (CFOs) and Chief Risk Officers (CROs) to balance multiple interconnected transformations while sustaining company performance, profitability and safety.

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Risk Management Essay


Internal and external environments pose a wide range of risks to an organization. Managers should establish strategies to manage dangers for the business’ long-term survival. This risk management essay tries to analyze how it can be achieved.

The culture of the organization enhances risk management strategies. This can be maintained by inculcating a culture of good values, beliefs, norms and attitudes.

Changes in the global markets today create a huge risk to organizations, and this creates the need to have mechanisms to solve corporate problems professionally. Thus, the importance of risk management is evident as it is a crucial aspect of a business. Proper strategies need to be established to ensure the safety and survival of organizations in the turbulent market environments (Jafari, Rezaeenour, Mazdeh, & Hooshmandi, 2011).

Therefore, risk management entails setting goals and objectives and ensuring that they are achieved in the most effective manner, managing change that is brought about by the introduction of new strategies, and managing cultural and technological diversity, among other tasks. Security measures cover a wide range of activities and aim at establishing better strategies for promoting the success of an organization. By finishing a risk management reflection, this essay will examine the subject in more detail.

Enterprise wide risk management (EWRM)

Enterprise wide risk management involves managing risks and seizing opportunities which help an organization to achieve its objectives. Managing risks as opportunities come is very important in maintaining the success of the organization. Creating value to the shareholders capital is the major bestowed upon the managers of an organization.

This can be achieved by identifying opportunities available in the business environment and seizing them actively to ensure the interest of shareholders is protected. Therefore, EWRM is defined as an approach used to manage enterprises by controlling risks (Gupta, 2011).

It is important to note that organizations are founded on goals and it is the achievement of these goals that differentiates successful organizations from others. There are various risks associated with achieving goals and the management requires to develop strategies to reduce the effect or evaluate the impact such risks have on the organization.

Organizations set goals to be achieved and these goals can only be achieved by proper planning of all resources. Risks are encountered in every situation in an organization and it is important to put clear strategies to deal with risks as they occur to avoid losses (Hepworth, Rooney & Rooney, 2009).

Therefore, it is evident that EWRM is an important aspect that determines how organization succeeds in turbulent market conditions. Managers use risk management as a benchmark to measure the achievement of an organization. An organization that is able to manage all the risk elements successfully acquires better position in the market.

Most successful organizations have ventured in risky businesses and this has created a lot of wealth to the shareholders. Operating in high risk activities requires establishing a strong risk management system to ensure that the organization can not make a lot of losses in case the event of risks occurring (Mbuya, n.d.).

GRC and its relationship with EWRM

Governance, risk and compliance are management tools that comprise of three aspects. First, governance which refers to the process by which the top management team apply to control, plan, organize and direct the resources of an organization to achieve the goals which have been set by the shareholders. It involves making decisions by the top management by using the appropriate information.

Secondly, risk management involves the identification, analysis and response to the risks affecting an organization. To manage risks an organization can control, avoid, accept, or transfer the risks to other parties. Lastly, compliance deals with conforming to all requirements stipulated by the concerned stakeholders (Mohapatra, n.d.).

According to Wilson and Dobson (2008) governance, risk and compliance is related to EWRM in that the management puts measures to regulate the activities of the organization to ensure that all rules and regulations are adhered to. By complying with the rules and regulations of the organization, the management ensures that it avoids the risks of penalties related to legal systems of a country.

The management evaluates the costs related to the implementation of various strategies and this helps solve some problems that may affect the smooth operation of an organization. Compliance enhances the control of risks associated with the implementation of decisions made by the management of an organization (Mather, Kumaraswamy & Latif, 2009).

Therefore, we find out that there is a close relationship between GRC and EWRM because the two interact with each other. However, there are few differences between GRC and EWRM in that GRC deals with how organizations are managed and how the organization benefits when all rules and regulations are adhered to by all stakeholders.

It also explains the relationship between the internal and external environmental elements and how they interact with each other. On the other hand, EWRM is based on risk management at the enterprise level and provides little interaction between the internal and external environments (Mather, Kumaraswamy & Latif, 2009).

Opinion about risk management today

Enterprise wide risk management (EWRM) as an assurance tool is increasingly being mandated; indeed it is embedded as a concept in ISO31000:2009. This statement is a fair comment on the state of play today. Many organizations have realized the importance of managing risks and this has been facilitated by the intensifying number of risks in the market environments today.

To establish better strategy for improving the competitiveness of an organization can only be made possible by managing all the risks that may be associated with the implementation of such strategies (Loras, 2010).

Threats and responses to be offered

There are various threats that managers encounter when maintaining values in an organization. In competitive environment organizations face threats which may hinder accomplishment of the stipulated values.

Some of these threats may be cause by changes in internal and external environmental factors such macro and micro economic variables, legal factors, technological changes, political environments among others (Champoux, 2010).

The response to these threats determines the success of an organization. The management responds by studying the changes in the market conditions as well as other factors that may affect the activities of the organization.

Some examples of the responses that can be offered to these threats are change management, making better decisions, establishing stronger strategies, collaborating with consultants and other measures (Klein, 2011).

Change management is an important aspect that managers need to learn when dealing with threats and responses. Moran and Brightman (2001, pg 111) have defined change management as “the process of continually renewing an organization’s direction, structure, and capabilities to serve the ever-changing needs of external and internal customers.”

Change is the opening through which people or organization focus the future by bringing new systems which create success. Change can be introduced by an individual person or organization or it can be happen by itself. Change brings opportunities for growth and improvement.

The management of an organization should become fast in introducing and implementing change since the world is changing at an alarming speed. Jennings and Haughton (2002) explain that the need for change has been caused by “revolutionary technologies, consolidation, well-funded new competition, unpredictable customers, and a quickening in the pace of change hurled unfamiliar conditions at management.” (P. 212).

Change management focuses on developing future structures of a business to improve the performance as well as introduce new technologies which improve the performance of the organization. The path towards establishing future structures should be well monitored to create a smooth transition for the organization to achieve the desired changes as well as manage risks.

Crisis within the organization create the need for organizational change and the management should be prepared to handle all changes that might be required by the organization. The internal and external business environments are changing at an alarming rate and change management is an essential tool for capturing new developments being introduced.

Competition in the global markets has increased and this is forcing managers to introduce innovation in the management of the systems within an organization in order to catch up with the changes (Luecke, 2003).

Many changes introduced within an organization fail due to poor preparedness as well as management of the entire process. The lack of appropriate frameworks to support the implementation and management of change within an organization are the main causes of failure by many changes introduced by the management (Burnes, 2004).

The nature of organizational change has been assumed for a long period of time by managers and contemporary studies have indicated that strict measures should be introduced to cater for the gap between the success and failure of the changes being introduced by an organization.

According to Edmonstone (1995) “many of the change processes over the last 25 years have been subject to fundamental flaws, preventing the successful management of change” (p. 16).

Contemporary studies have identified that the pace of change management has increase in the recent years and managers are becoming more responsive to the changes in the environment (Burnes, 2004). There is no organization or industry is immune from change since change is caused by many internal and external factors.

The introduction, implementation and monitoring of change requires the collaboration of all stakeholders to an organization. Change cannot be achieved by an individual department, or sector. The management should respond quickly to internal and external changes required by the organization. Delays in response can retard the achievement of appropriate change.

Since new technologies are being introduced in the global markets each day, delay in establishing change may result into the organization adopting old systems which are not beneficial. Adequate research should be done into the recent changes in the market. There are no universally acceptable processes of creating change in an organization. The management should apply the best structures relevant to the organization (Burnes, 2004).

Inculcating culture in EWRM and/ or GRC

According to Kotter and Heskett (1992) culture refers to the beliefs, attitudes, values and norms that a given people have. The organizational culture is defined by the stakeholders and this is reflected in the nature of activities the management sets. The culture of an organization is inculcated in the GRC by creating systems of compliance.

Culture establishes the norms to be observed by all stakeholders and this creates the basis of compliance. Culture explains the extent to which the management can take risks while managing the resources of an organization (Klein, 2011).

There are organizations which are risk-averse while others are encourage taking risks as the basis of operation. This differentiates the decisions to be made by the management during the operation and implementation of the strategies (Burnaby & Hass, 2009).

To achieve appropriate governance the management requires establishing better strategies of promoting the cultural morals of an organization. Cultural morals have become a major concern in the business world today because organizations are operating in multicultural environments.

Working with people from different cultures requires understanding the cultures of each person in the organization Global human resource management involves dealing with people from different cultures and different backgrounds. There are several advantages and disadvantages of operating global human resource management.

Some companies have failed while others have acquired great success after extending their operations across the borders. Proper strategies are required in the management of employees with diversified cultures.

The political, legal and social environments in the global labor markets are different and the management should be very accurate in establishing the appropriate strategies which match the particular needs of the different employees. With the increase in globalization many people are seeking employment across the borders of their domestic markets.

However, organizations dealing in the international scene face some challenges when relocating employees from one country to another. There are several barriers which hinder managers of multinational companies from relocating their employees from one country to another. These barriers relate to the physical conditions, legal aspects, economics, and cultural barriers (Golembiewski, 1995).

Complexity in the diverse cultures makes is difficult to operate in many countries. Several companies have failed in their strategies to operate in the global scene due to due to poor integration of the ingredients required in multinational human resources management. Global human resource management is a strategy that is gaining a lot of importance especially after the spirit of globalization started.

Several companies have improved their performance after establishing proper strategies to manage their employees while others have failed due to poor integration of the required aspects of global human resources management.

The need to understand the cultural differences, the diversity in economic, legal and political environments is very important when dealing with global human resources management (Burnaby & Hass, 2009).

The culture of an organization dictates the shape taken by the management goals and objectives. The success or failure of organizational change is determined to a great extent by the culture in the organization

Cultural change is required for the achievement of successful change management strategies. The globalization of many organizations has created a scenario where multinational organizations are operating in diverse cultures where many people are involved. The integration of each cultural aspect into the processes of the organizational change is essential for the success of the organization.

The global business requires applying the best strategies to achieve a competitive edge. Many global organizations have failed to venture into some countries due to poor analysis of cultural aspects of the people it is involved in. the management of change is a very important aspect in achieving success in accomplishing global goals.

The management of an organization must analyze the cultural needs of all consumer groups. This will enable the management to match the cultural needs of the various consumers into the products being manufactured by the organization.

In addition, the employees of the organization need to understand the cultural aspects of the organization in order to establish goals which are achievable and which will create success to the organization. Both the internal and external environmental factors should be well analyzed when integrating a culture that will create successful change management strategies (Schein, 1992).

Changing culture is a systematic process which requires proper strategies to ensure all stakeholders internalize the required changes. This process is affected by factors such as the complexity, ambiguity and powers the cultural aspects of the organization.

The main architects of an organizational culture are the top management individuals.The culture of an organization is developed by the people working there as well as all other internal and external stakeholders (Schein, 1992).

Is it simply too expensive for value?

It is not too expensive to maintain values in an organization because there are more benefits accrued from operating in an ethical manner. Values provide an organization with the guidelines to be applied in the implementation of strategies.

When an organization conducts business unethically there are many costs incurred and these can only be avoided by applying the best values possible. Maintaining values improves the public image of an organization and this makes an organization achieve a competitive edge (Thompson & Martin, 2005).

Organizations which fail to establish a good system of values they end up incurring many losses which could have been avoided. These costs may include loss of customer trust, legal action, bad corporate image and others.

The cost of failing to maintain values in an organization is too high not only in the short run but also in the long run. Organizations which focus on existing in the market for a longer period of time use strategies which promote a good image which will attract more customers, they maintain legal ethics and other activities which improve the position of the company in the market (Cunningham, 2001).

Conclusion of risk management analysis

Risk management is an important process that managers should maintain in an organization. It is inevitable to have risks and managers should have better strategies to deal with risks. The long-term survival of an organization depends on the ability to manage risks. The intensifying competition in the global markets has forced managers to focus on maintaining a strong risks management program by establishing values.

Complying with the values and cultural aspects of an organization is important in achieving the goals and objectives of an organization. The culture of an organization determines its success in the market environment. It is a reflection of the beliefs and attitudes that people have towards the organizational systems.

Culture is developed and shaped by the stakeholders of the organization. Change management is very important to an organization and managers should possess the required skills of carrying out this process. Therefore, risks management is an important activity for organization in the modern market environment and all managers should embrace it for the long-term survival of their businesses.

List of bibliography

Burnaby, P. and Hass, S. (2009). Ten steps to enterprise-wide risk management. Corporate Governance , 9(5). p. 539-550.

Burnes, B. (2004) Managing Change: A Strategic Approach to Organizational Dynamics , 4th Edn (Harlow: Prentice Hall)

Champoux, J. (2010). Organizational behavior: Integrating individuals, Groups, and organizations . New York: NY, Taylor & Francis.

Cunningham, B. J. (2001). Researching organizational values and beliefs: the Echo approach. New York: NY, Greenwood Publishing Group.

Edmonstone, J. (1995) ‘managing change: an emerging consensus’, Health Manpower Management, 21(1), pp. 16–19.

Golembiewski, R. T. (1995). Managing diversity in organizations . Alabama, University of Alabama Press.

Gupta, P. K. (2011). Risk management in Indian companies: EWRM concerns and issues. The Journal of Risk Finance , 12(2). P. 121-139.

Jafari, M., Rezaeenour, J., Mazdeh, M. and Hooshmandi, A. (2011). Development and evaluation of a knowledge risk management model for project-based organizations. Management decision , 49(3). P. 309-329.

Jennings, J. and L. Haughton. (April 16, 2002). It’s not the BIG and eats the SMALL… it’s the FAST that eats the SLOW. Harper Paperbacks; 1st edition. 288 pages. ISBN-10: 0066620546 ISBN-13: 978-0066620541

Klein, A. (2011). Corporate culture: its value as a resource for competitive advantage. Journal of Business Strategy , 32(2). p. 21-28.

Kotter, J. P. and Heskett, J. L. (1992). Corporate culture and performance. New York, Simon and Schuster.

Loras,J. (2010). Book Review : Strategic Risk Management Practice: How to Deal Effectively with Major Corporate Exposures. Management Decision, 49(1). p. 167-170.

Luecke, R. (2003) Managing Change and Transition (Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press).

Mather, T., Kumaraswamy, S. & Latif, S. (2009). Cloud Security and Privacy: An Enterprise Perspective on Risks and Complianc e. New Jersey: NJ, O’Reilly Media, Inc.

Mbuya, J. C. (n.d.). Risk management strategy . South Africa, Dr John Chibaya Mbuya.

Mohapatra, (n.d.). Business Process Automation . New Delhi, PHI Learning Pvt Ltd.

Moran, J. W. and Brightman, B. K. (2001). ‘Leading organizational change’, Career Development International, 6(2), pp. 111–118.

Schein, Edgar. (1992). Organizational Culture and Leadership , Second Edition. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass

Thompson, J. L. and Martin, F. (2005). Strategic management: awareness and change. London, Cengage Learning EMEA.

Wilson, S. B. and Dobson, M. S. (2008). Goal setting: how to create an action plan and achieve your goals. New Jersey: NJ, AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn.

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