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## Null & Alternative Hypotheses | Definitions, Templates & Examples

Published on May 6, 2022 by Shaun Turney . Revised on June 22, 2023.

The null and alternative hypotheses are two competing claims that researchers weigh evidence for and against using a statistical test :

- Null hypothesis ( H 0 ): There’s no effect in the population .
- Alternative hypothesis ( H a or H 1 ) : There’s an effect in the population.

## Table of contents

Answering your research question with hypotheses, what is a null hypothesis, what is an alternative hypothesis, similarities and differences between null and alternative hypotheses, how to write null and alternative hypotheses, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions.

The null and alternative hypotheses offer competing answers to your research question . When the research question asks “Does the independent variable affect the dependent variable?”:

- The null hypothesis ( H 0 ) answers “No, there’s no effect in the population.”
- The alternative hypothesis ( H a ) answers “Yes, there is an effect in the population.”

The null and alternative are always claims about the population. That’s because the goal of hypothesis testing is to make inferences about a population based on a sample . Often, we infer whether there’s an effect in the population by looking at differences between groups or relationships between variables in the sample. It’s critical for your research to write strong hypotheses .

You can use a statistical test to decide whether the evidence favors the null or alternative hypothesis. Each type of statistical test comes with a specific way of phrasing the null and alternative hypothesis. However, the hypotheses can also be phrased in a general way that applies to any test.

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The null hypothesis is the claim that there’s no effect in the population.

If the sample provides enough evidence against the claim that there’s no effect in the population ( p ≤ α), then we can reject the null hypothesis . Otherwise, we fail to reject the null hypothesis.

Although “fail to reject” may sound awkward, it’s the only wording that statisticians accept . Be careful not to say you “prove” or “accept” the null hypothesis.

Null hypotheses often include phrases such as “no effect,” “no difference,” or “no relationship.” When written in mathematical terms, they always include an equality (usually =, but sometimes ≥ or ≤).

You can never know with complete certainty whether there is an effect in the population. Some percentage of the time, your inference about the population will be incorrect. When you incorrectly reject the null hypothesis, it’s called a type I error . When you incorrectly fail to reject it, it’s a type II error.

## Examples of null hypotheses

The table below gives examples of research questions and null hypotheses. There’s always more than one way to answer a research question, but these null hypotheses can help you get started.

*Note that some researchers prefer to always write the null hypothesis in terms of “no effect” and “=”. It would be fine to say that daily meditation has no effect on the incidence of depression and p 1 = p 2 .

The alternative hypothesis ( H a ) is the other answer to your research question . It claims that there’s an effect in the population.

Often, your alternative hypothesis is the same as your research hypothesis. In other words, it’s the claim that you expect or hope will be true.

The alternative hypothesis is the complement to the null hypothesis. Null and alternative hypotheses are exhaustive, meaning that together they cover every possible outcome. They are also mutually exclusive, meaning that only one can be true at a time.

Alternative hypotheses often include phrases such as “an effect,” “a difference,” or “a relationship.” When alternative hypotheses are written in mathematical terms, they always include an inequality (usually ≠, but sometimes < or >). As with null hypotheses, there are many acceptable ways to phrase an alternative hypothesis.

## Examples of alternative hypotheses

The table below gives examples of research questions and alternative hypotheses to help you get started with formulating your own.

Null and alternative hypotheses are similar in some ways:

- They’re both answers to the research question.
- They both make claims about the population.
- They’re both evaluated by statistical tests.

However, there are important differences between the two types of hypotheses, summarized in the following table.

To help you write your hypotheses, you can use the template sentences below. If you know which statistical test you’re going to use, you can use the test-specific template sentences. Otherwise, you can use the general template sentences.

## General template sentences

The only thing you need to know to use these general template sentences are your dependent and independent variables. To write your research question, null hypothesis, and alternative hypothesis, fill in the following sentences with your variables:

Does independent variable affect dependent variable ?

- Null hypothesis ( H 0 ): Independent variable does not affect dependent variable.
- Alternative hypothesis ( H a ): Independent variable affects dependent variable.

## Test-specific template sentences

Once you know the statistical test you’ll be using, you can write your hypotheses in a more precise and mathematical way specific to the test you chose. The table below provides template sentences for common statistical tests.

Note: The template sentences above assume that you’re performing one-tailed tests . One-tailed tests are appropriate for most studies.

If you want to know more about statistics , methodology , or research bias , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.

- Normal distribution
- Descriptive statistics
- Measures of central tendency
- Correlation coefficient

Methodology

- Cluster sampling
- Stratified sampling
- Types of interviews
- Cohort study
- Thematic analysis

Research bias

- Implicit bias
- Cognitive bias
- Survivorship bias
- Availability heuristic
- Nonresponse bias
- Regression to the mean

Hypothesis testing is a formal procedure for investigating our ideas about the world using statistics. It is used by scientists to test specific predictions, called hypotheses , by calculating how likely it is that a pattern or relationship between variables could have arisen by chance.

Null and alternative hypotheses are used in statistical hypothesis testing . The null hypothesis of a test always predicts no effect or no relationship between variables, while the alternative hypothesis states your research prediction of an effect or relationship.

The null hypothesis is often abbreviated as H 0 . When the null hypothesis is written using mathematical symbols, it always includes an equality symbol (usually =, but sometimes ≥ or ≤).

The alternative hypothesis is often abbreviated as H a or H 1 . When the alternative hypothesis is written using mathematical symbols, it always includes an inequality symbol (usually ≠, but sometimes < or >).

A research hypothesis is your proposed answer to your research question. The research hypothesis usually includes an explanation (“ x affects y because …”).

A statistical hypothesis, on the other hand, is a mathematical statement about a population parameter. Statistical hypotheses always come in pairs: the null and alternative hypotheses . In a well-designed study , the statistical hypotheses correspond logically to the research hypothesis.

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## 9.1: Null and Alternative Hypotheses

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The actual test begins by considering two hypotheses . They are called the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis . These hypotheses contain opposing viewpoints.

\(H_0\): The null hypothesis: It is a statement of no difference between the variables—they are not related. This can often be considered the status quo and as a result if you cannot accept the null it requires some action.

\(H_a\): The alternative hypothesis: It is a claim about the population that is contradictory to \(H_0\) and what we conclude when we reject \(H_0\). This is usually what the researcher is trying to prove.

Since the null and alternative hypotheses are contradictory, you must examine evidence to decide if you have enough evidence to reject the null hypothesis or not. The evidence is in the form of sample data.

After you have determined which hypothesis the sample supports, you make a decision. There are two options for a decision. They are "reject \(H_0\)" if the sample information favors the alternative hypothesis or "do not reject \(H_0\)" or "decline to reject \(H_0\)" if the sample information is insufficient to reject the null hypothesis.

\(H_{0}\) always has a symbol with an equal in it. \(H_{a}\) never has a symbol with an equal in it. The choice of symbol depends on the wording of the hypothesis test. However, be aware that many researchers (including one of the co-authors in research work) use = in the null hypothesis, even with > or < as the symbol in the alternative hypothesis. This practice is acceptable because we only make the decision to reject or not reject the null hypothesis.

## Example \(\PageIndex{1}\)

- \(H_{0}\): No more than 30% of the registered voters in Santa Clara County voted in the primary election. \(p \leq 30\)
- \(H_{a}\): More than 30% of the registered voters in Santa Clara County voted in the primary election. \(p > 30\)

## Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

A medical trial is conducted to test whether or not a new medicine reduces cholesterol by 25%. State the null and alternative hypotheses.

- \(H_{0}\): The drug reduces cholesterol by 25%. \(p = 0.25\)
- \(H_{a}\): The drug does not reduce cholesterol by 25%. \(p \neq 0.25\)

## Example \(\PageIndex{2}\)

We want to test whether the mean GPA of students in American colleges is different from 2.0 (out of 4.0). The null and alternative hypotheses are:

- \(H_{0}: \mu = 2.0\)
- \(H_{a}: \mu \neq 2.0\)

## Exercise \(\PageIndex{2}\)

We want to test whether the mean height of eighth graders is 66 inches. State the null and alternative hypotheses. Fill in the correct symbol \((=, \neq, \geq, <, \leq, >)\) for the null and alternative hypotheses.

- \(H_{0}: \mu \_ 66\)
- \(H_{a}: \mu \_ 66\)
- \(H_{0}: \mu = 66\)
- \(H_{a}: \mu \neq 66\)

## Example \(\PageIndex{3}\)

We want to test if college students take less than five years to graduate from college, on the average. The null and alternative hypotheses are:

- \(H_{0}: \mu \geq 5\)
- \(H_{a}: \mu < 5\)

## Exercise \(\PageIndex{3}\)

We want to test if it takes fewer than 45 minutes to teach a lesson plan. State the null and alternative hypotheses. Fill in the correct symbol ( =, ≠, ≥, <, ≤, >) for the null and alternative hypotheses.

- \(H_{0}: \mu \_ 45\)
- \(H_{a}: \mu \_ 45\)
- \(H_{0}: \mu \geq 45\)
- \(H_{a}: \mu < 45\)

## Example \(\PageIndex{4}\)

In an issue of U. S. News and World Report , an article on school standards stated that about half of all students in France, Germany, and Israel take advanced placement exams and a third pass. The same article stated that 6.6% of U.S. students take advanced placement exams and 4.4% pass. Test if the percentage of U.S. students who take advanced placement exams is more than 6.6%. State the null and alternative hypotheses.

- \(H_{0}: p \leq 0.066\)
- \(H_{a}: p > 0.066\)

## Exercise \(\PageIndex{4}\)

On a state driver’s test, about 40% pass the test on the first try. We want to test if more than 40% pass on the first try. Fill in the correct symbol (\(=, \neq, \geq, <, \leq, >\)) for the null and alternative hypotheses.

- \(H_{0}: p \_ 0.40\)
- \(H_{a}: p \_ 0.40\)
- \(H_{0}: p = 0.40\)
- \(H_{a}: p > 0.40\)

## COLLABORATIVE EXERCISE

Bring to class a newspaper, some news magazines, and some Internet articles . In groups, find articles from which your group can write null and alternative hypotheses. Discuss your hypotheses with the rest of the class.

In a hypothesis test , sample data is evaluated in order to arrive at a decision about some type of claim. If certain conditions about the sample are satisfied, then the claim can be evaluated for a population. In a hypothesis test, we:

- Evaluate the null hypothesis , typically denoted with \(H_{0}\). The null is not rejected unless the hypothesis test shows otherwise. The null statement must always contain some form of equality \((=, \leq \text{or} \geq)\)
- Always write the alternative hypothesis , typically denoted with \(H_{a}\) or \(H_{1}\), using less than, greater than, or not equals symbols, i.e., \((\neq, >, \text{or} <)\).
- If we reject the null hypothesis, then we can assume there is enough evidence to support the alternative hypothesis.
- Never state that a claim is proven true or false. Keep in mind the underlying fact that hypothesis testing is based on probability laws; therefore, we can talk only in terms of non-absolute certainties.

## Formula Review

\(H_{0}\) and \(H_{a}\) are contradictory.

- If \(\alpha \leq p\)-value, then do not reject \(H_{0}\).
- If\(\alpha > p\)-value, then reject \(H_{0}\).

\(\alpha\) is preconceived. Its value is set before the hypothesis test starts. The \(p\)-value is calculated from the data.References

Data from the National Institute of Mental Health. Available online at http://www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/depression.cfm .

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- Null and Alternative Hypotheses | Definitions & Examples

## Null and Alternative Hypotheses | Definitions & Examples

Published on 5 October 2022 by Shaun Turney . Revised on 6 December 2022.

The null and alternative hypotheses are two competing claims that researchers weigh evidence for and against using a statistical test :

- Null hypothesis (H 0 ): There’s no effect in the population .
- Alternative hypothesis (H A ): There’s an effect in the population.

The effect is usually the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable .

## Table of contents

Answering your research question with hypotheses, what is a null hypothesis, what is an alternative hypothesis, differences between null and alternative hypotheses, how to write null and alternative hypotheses, frequently asked questions about null and alternative hypotheses.

The null and alternative hypotheses offer competing answers to your research question . When the research question asks “Does the independent variable affect the dependent variable?”, the null hypothesis (H 0 ) answers “No, there’s no effect in the population.” On the other hand, the alternative hypothesis (H A ) answers “Yes, there is an effect in the population.”

The null and alternative are always claims about the population. That’s because the goal of hypothesis testing is to make inferences about a population based on a sample . Often, we infer whether there’s an effect in the population by looking at differences between groups or relationships between variables in the sample.

You can use a statistical test to decide whether the evidence favors the null or alternative hypothesis. Each type of statistical test comes with a specific way of phrasing the null and alternative hypothesis. However, the hypotheses can also be phrased in a general way that applies to any test.

The null hypothesis is the claim that there’s no effect in the population.

If the sample provides enough evidence against the claim that there’s no effect in the population ( p ≤ α), then we can reject the null hypothesis . Otherwise, we fail to reject the null hypothesis.

Although “fail to reject” may sound awkward, it’s the only wording that statisticians accept. Be careful not to say you “prove” or “accept” the null hypothesis.

Null hypotheses often include phrases such as “no effect”, “no difference”, or “no relationship”. When written in mathematical terms, they always include an equality (usually =, but sometimes ≥ or ≤).

## Examples of null hypotheses

The table below gives examples of research questions and null hypotheses. There’s always more than one way to answer a research question, but these null hypotheses can help you get started.

*Note that some researchers prefer to always write the null hypothesis in terms of “no effect” and “=”. It would be fine to say that daily meditation has no effect on the incidence of depression and p 1 = p 2 .

The alternative hypothesis (H A ) is the other answer to your research question . It claims that there’s an effect in the population.

Often, your alternative hypothesis is the same as your research hypothesis. In other words, it’s the claim that you expect or hope will be true.

The alternative hypothesis is the complement to the null hypothesis. Null and alternative hypotheses are exhaustive, meaning that together they cover every possible outcome. They are also mutually exclusive, meaning that only one can be true at a time.

Alternative hypotheses often include phrases such as “an effect”, “a difference”, or “a relationship”. When alternative hypotheses are written in mathematical terms, they always include an inequality (usually ≠, but sometimes > or <). As with null hypotheses, there are many acceptable ways to phrase an alternative hypothesis.

## Examples of alternative hypotheses

The table below gives examples of research questions and alternative hypotheses to help you get started with formulating your own.

Null and alternative hypotheses are similar in some ways:

- They’re both answers to the research question
- They both make claims about the population
- They’re both evaluated by statistical tests.

However, there are important differences between the two types of hypotheses, summarized in the following table.

To help you write your hypotheses, you can use the template sentences below. If you know which statistical test you’re going to use, you can use the test-specific template sentences. Otherwise, you can use the general template sentences.

The only thing you need to know to use these general template sentences are your dependent and independent variables. To write your research question, null hypothesis, and alternative hypothesis, fill in the following sentences with your variables:

Does independent variable affect dependent variable ?

- Null hypothesis (H 0 ): Independent variable does not affect dependent variable .
- Alternative hypothesis (H A ): Independent variable affects dependent variable .

## Test-specific

Once you know the statistical test you’ll be using, you can write your hypotheses in a more precise and mathematical way specific to the test you chose. The table below provides template sentences for common statistical tests.

Note: The template sentences above assume that you’re performing one-tailed tests . One-tailed tests are appropriate for most studies.

The null hypothesis is often abbreviated as H 0 . When the null hypothesis is written using mathematical symbols, it always includes an equality symbol (usually =, but sometimes ≥ or ≤).

The alternative hypothesis is often abbreviated as H a or H 1 . When the alternative hypothesis is written using mathematical symbols, it always includes an inequality symbol (usually ≠, but sometimes < or >).

A research hypothesis is your proposed answer to your research question. The research hypothesis usually includes an explanation (‘ x affects y because …’).

A statistical hypothesis, on the other hand, is a mathematical statement about a population parameter. Statistical hypotheses always come in pairs: the null and alternative hypotheses. In a well-designed study , the statistical hypotheses correspond logically to the research hypothesis.

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## AP®︎/College Statistics

Course: ap®︎/college statistics > unit 10.

- Idea behind hypothesis testing

## Examples of null and alternative hypotheses

- Writing null and alternative hypotheses
- P-values and significance tests
- Comparing P-values to different significance levels
- Estimating a P-value from a simulation
- Estimating P-values from simulations
- Using P-values to make conclusions

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## Video transcript

Want to create or adapt books like this? Learn more about how Pressbooks supports open publishing practices.

Hypothesis Testing with One Sample

## Null and Alternative Hypotheses

OpenStaxCollege

[latexpage]

The actual test begins by considering two hypotheses . They are called the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis . These hypotheses contain opposing viewpoints.

H 0 : The null hypothesis: It is a statement about the population that either is believed to be true or is used to put forth an argument unless it can be shown to be incorrect beyond a reasonable doubt.

H a : The alternative hypothesis: It is a claim about the population that is contradictory to H 0 and what we conclude when we reject H 0 .

Since the null and alternative hypotheses are contradictory, you must examine evidence to decide if you have enough evidence to reject the null hypothesis or not. The evidence is in the form of sample data.

After you have determined which hypothesis the sample supports, you make a decision. There are two options for a decision. They are “reject H 0 ” if the sample information favors the alternative hypothesis or “do not reject H 0 ” or “decline to reject H 0 ” if the sample information is insufficient to reject the null hypothesis.

Mathematical Symbols Used in H 0 and H a :

H 0 always has a symbol with an equal in it. H a never has a symbol with an equal in it. The choice of symbol depends on the wording of the hypothesis test. However, be aware that many researchers (including one of the co-authors in research work) use = in the null hypothesis, even with > or < as the symbol in the alternative hypothesis. This practice is acceptable because we only make the decision to reject or not reject the null hypothesis.

H 0 : No more than 30% of the registered voters in Santa Clara County voted in the primary election. p ≤ 30

A medical trial is conducted to test whether or not a new medicine reduces cholesterol by 25%. State the null and alternative hypotheses.

H 0 : The drug reduces cholesterol by 25%. p = 0.25

H a : The drug does not reduce cholesterol by 25%. p ≠ 0.25

We want to test whether the mean GPA of students in American colleges is different from 2.0 (out of 4.0). The null and alternative hypotheses are:

H 0 : μ = 2.0

We want to test whether the mean height of eighth graders is 66 inches. State the null and alternative hypotheses. Fill in the correct symbol (=, ≠, ≥, <, ≤, >) for the null and alternative hypotheses.

- H 0 : μ = 66
- H a : μ ≠ 66

We want to test if college students take less than five years to graduate from college, on the average. The null and alternative hypotheses are:

H 0 : μ ≥ 5

We want to test if it takes fewer than 45 minutes to teach a lesson plan. State the null and alternative hypotheses. Fill in the correct symbol ( =, ≠, ≥, <, ≤, >) for the null and alternative hypotheses.

- H 0 : μ ≥ 45
- H a : μ < 45

In an issue of U. S. News and World Report , an article on school standards stated that about half of all students in France, Germany, and Israel take advanced placement exams and a third pass. The same article stated that 6.6% of U.S. students take advanced placement exams and 4.4% pass. Test if the percentage of U.S. students who take advanced placement exams is more than 6.6%. State the null and alternative hypotheses.

H 0 : p ≤ 0.066

On a state driver’s test, about 40% pass the test on the first try. We want to test if more than 40% pass on the first try. Fill in the correct symbol (=, ≠, ≥, <, ≤, >) for the null and alternative hypotheses.

- H 0 : p = 0.40
- H a : p > 0.40

<!– ??? –>

Bring to class a newspaper, some news magazines, and some Internet articles . In groups, find articles from which your group can write null and alternative hypotheses. Discuss your hypotheses with the rest of the class.

## Chapter Review

In a hypothesis test , sample data is evaluated in order to arrive at a decision about some type of claim. If certain conditions about the sample are satisfied, then the claim can be evaluated for a population. In a hypothesis test, we:

## Formula Review

H 0 and H a are contradictory.

If α ≤ p -value, then do not reject H 0 .

If α > p -value, then reject H 0 .

α is preconceived. Its value is set before the hypothesis test starts. The p -value is calculated from the data.

You are testing that the mean speed of your cable Internet connection is more than three Megabits per second. What is the random variable? Describe in words.

The random variable is the mean Internet speed in Megabits per second.

You are testing that the mean speed of your cable Internet connection is more than three Megabits per second. State the null and alternative hypotheses.

The American family has an average of two children. What is the random variable? Describe in words.

The random variable is the mean number of children an American family has.

The mean entry level salary of an employee at a company is 💲58,000. You believe it is higher for IT professionals in the company. State the null and alternative hypotheses.

A sociologist claims the probability that a person picked at random in Times Square in New York City is visiting the area is 0.83. You want to test to see if the proportion is actually less. What is the random variable? Describe in words.

The random variable is the proportion of people picked at random in Times Square visiting the city.

A sociologist claims the probability that a person picked at random in Times Square in New York City is visiting the area is 0.83. You want to test to see if the claim is correct. State the null and alternative hypotheses.

In a population of fish, approximately 42% are female. A test is conducted to see if, in fact, the proportion is less. State the null and alternative hypotheses.

Suppose that a recent article stated that the mean time spent in jail by a first–time convicted burglar is 2.5 years. A study was then done to see if the mean time has increased in the new century. A random sample of 26 first-time convicted burglars in a recent year was picked. The mean length of time in jail from the survey was 3 years with a standard deviation of 1.8 years. Suppose that it is somehow known that the population standard deviation is 1.5. If you were conducting a hypothesis test to determine if the mean length of jail time has increased, what would the null and alternative hypotheses be? The distribution of the population is normal.

A random survey of 75 death row inmates revealed that the mean length of time on death row is 17.4 years with a standard deviation of 6.3 years. If you were conducting a hypothesis test to determine if the population mean time on death row could likely be 15 years, what would the null and alternative hypotheses be?

- H 0 : __________
- H a : __________
- H 0 : μ = 15
- H a : μ ≠ 15

The National Institute of Mental Health published an article stating that in any one-year period, approximately 9.5 percent of American adults suffer from depression or a depressive illness. Suppose that in a survey of 100 people in a certain town, seven of them suffered from depression or a depressive illness. If you were conducting a hypothesis test to determine if the true proportion of people in that town suffering from depression or a depressive illness is lower than the percent in the general adult American population, what would the null and alternative hypotheses be?

Some of the following statements refer to the null hypothesis, some to the alternate hypothesis.

State the null hypothesis, H 0 , and the alternative hypothesis. H a , in terms of the appropriate parameter ( μ or p ).

- The mean number of years Americans work before retiring is 34.
- At most 60% of Americans vote in presidential elections.
- The mean starting salary for San Jose State University graduates is at least 💲100,000 per year.
- Twenty-nine percent of high school seniors get drunk each month.
- Fewer than 5% of adults ride the bus to work in Los Angeles.
- The mean number of cars a person owns in her lifetime is not more than ten.
- About half of Americans prefer to live away from cities, given the choice.
- Europeans have a mean paid vacation each year of six weeks.
- The chance of developing breast cancer is under 11% for women.
- Private universities’ mean tuition cost is more than 💲20,000 per year.
- H 0 : μ = 34; H a : μ ≠ 34
- H 0 : p ≤ 0.60; H a : p > 0.60
- H 0 : μ ≥ 100,000; H a : μ < 100,000
- H 0 : p = 0.29; H a : p ≠ 0.29
- H 0 : p = 0.05; H a : p < 0.05
- H 0 : μ ≤ 10; H a : μ > 10
- H 0 : p = 0.50; H a : p ≠ 0.50
- H 0 : μ = 6; H a : μ ≠ 6
- H 0 : p ≥ 0.11; H a : p < 0.11
- H 0 : μ ≤ 20,000; H a : μ > 20,000

Over the past few decades, public health officials have examined the link between weight concerns and teen girls’ smoking. Researchers surveyed a group of 273 randomly selected teen girls living in Massachusetts (between 12 and 15 years old). After four years the girls were surveyed again. Sixty-three said they smoked to stay thin. Is there good evidence that more than thirty percent of the teen girls smoke to stay thin? The alternative hypothesis is:

- p < 0.30
- p > 0.30

A statistics instructor believes that fewer than 20% of Evergreen Valley College (EVC) students attended the opening night midnight showing of the latest Harry Potter movie. She surveys 84 of her students and finds that 11 attended the midnight showing. An appropriate alternative hypothesis is:

- p > 0.20
- p < 0.20

Previously, an organization reported that teenagers spent 4.5 hours per week, on average, on the phone. The organization thinks that, currently, the mean is higher. Fifteen randomly chosen teenagers were asked how many hours per week they spend on the phone. The sample mean was 4.75 hours with a sample standard deviation of 2.0. Conduct a hypothesis test. The null and alternative hypotheses are:

- H o : \(\overline{x}\) = 4.5, H a : \(\overline{x}\) > 4.5
- H o : μ ≥ 4.5, H a : μ < 4.5
- H o : μ = 4.75, H a : μ > 4.75
- H o : μ = 4.5, H a : μ > 4.5

Data from the National Institute of Mental Health. Available online at http://www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/depression.cfm.

Null and Alternative Hypotheses Copyright © 2013 by OpenStaxCollege is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

## Module 9: Hypothesis Testing With One Sample

Null and alternative hypotheses, learning outcomes.

- Describe hypothesis testing in general and in practice

The actual test begins by considering two hypotheses . They are called the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis . These hypotheses contain opposing viewpoints.

H 0 : The null hypothesis: It is a statement about the population that either is believed to be true or is used to put forth an argument unless it can be shown to be incorrect beyond a reasonable doubt.

H a : The alternative hypothesis : It is a claim about the population that is contradictory to H 0 and what we conclude when we reject H 0 .

Since the null and alternative hypotheses are contradictory, you must examine evidence to decide if you have enough evidence to reject the null hypothesis or not. The evidence is in the form of sample data.

After you have determined which hypothesis the sample supports, you make adecision. There are two options for a decision . They are “reject H 0 ” if the sample information favors the alternative hypothesis or “do not reject H 0 ” or “decline to reject H 0 ” if the sample information is insufficient to reject the null hypothesis.

Mathematical Symbols Used in H 0 and H a :

H 0 always has a symbol with an equal in it. H a never has a symbol with an equal in it. The choice of symbol depends on the wording of the hypothesis test. However, be aware that many researchers (including one of the co-authors in research work) use = in the null hypothesis, even with > or < as the symbol in the alternative hypothesis. This practice is acceptable because we only make the decision to reject or not reject the null hypothesis.

H 0 : No more than 30% of the registered voters in Santa Clara County voted in the primary election. p ≤ 30

H a : More than 30% of the registered voters in Santa Clara County voted in the primary election. p > 30

A medical trial is conducted to test whether or not a new medicine reduces cholesterol by 25%. State the null and alternative hypotheses.

H 0 : The drug reduces cholesterol by 25%. p = 0.25

H a : The drug does not reduce cholesterol by 25%. p ≠ 0.25

We want to test whether the mean GPA of students in American colleges is different from 2.0 (out of 4.0). The null and alternative hypotheses are:

H 0 : μ = 2.0

H a : μ ≠ 2.0

We want to test whether the mean height of eighth graders is 66 inches. State the null and alternative hypotheses. Fill in the correct symbol (=, ≠, ≥, <, ≤, >) for the null and alternative hypotheses. H 0 : μ __ 66 H a : μ __ 66

- H 0 : μ = 66
- H a : μ ≠ 66

We want to test if college students take less than five years to graduate from college, on the average. The null and alternative hypotheses are:

H 0 : μ ≥ 5

H a : μ < 5

We want to test if it takes fewer than 45 minutes to teach a lesson plan. State the null and alternative hypotheses. Fill in the correct symbol ( =, ≠, ≥, <, ≤, >) for the null and alternative hypotheses. H 0 : μ __ 45 H a : μ __ 45

- H 0 : μ ≥ 45
- H a : μ < 45

In an issue of U.S. News and World Report , an article on school standards stated that about half of all students in France, Germany, and Israel take advanced placement exams and a third pass. The same article stated that 6.6% of U.S. students take advanced placement exams and 4.4% pass. Test if the percentage of U.S. students who take advanced placement exams is more than 6.6%. State the null and alternative hypotheses.

H 0 : p ≤ 0.066

H a : p > 0.066

On a state driver’s test, about 40% pass the test on the first try. We want to test if more than 40% pass on the first try. Fill in the correct symbol (=, ≠, ≥, <, ≤, >) for the null and alternative hypotheses. H 0 : p __ 0.40 H a : p __ 0.40

- H 0 : p = 0.40
- H a : p > 0.40

## Concept Review

In a hypothesis test , sample data is evaluated in order to arrive at a decision about some type of claim. If certain conditions about the sample are satisfied, then the claim can be evaluated for a population. In a hypothesis test, we: Evaluate the null hypothesis , typically denoted with H 0 . The null is not rejected unless the hypothesis test shows otherwise. The null statement must always contain some form of equality (=, ≤ or ≥) Always write the alternative hypothesis , typically denoted with H a or H 1 , using less than, greater than, or not equals symbols, i.e., (≠, >, or <). If we reject the null hypothesis, then we can assume there is enough evidence to support the alternative hypothesis. Never state that a claim is proven true or false. Keep in mind the underlying fact that hypothesis testing is based on probability laws; therefore, we can talk only in terms of non-absolute certainties.

## Formula Review

H 0 and H a are contradictory.

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- Introductory Statistics . Authored by : Barbara Illowski, Susan Dean. Provided by : Open Stax. Located at : http://cnx.org/contents/[email protected] . License : CC BY: Attribution . License Terms : Download for free at http://cnx.org/contents/[email protected]
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Statistics Made Easy

## How to Write a Null Hypothesis (5 Examples)

A hypothesis test uses sample data to determine whether or not some claim about a population parameter is true.

Whenever we perform a hypothesis test, we always write a null hypothesis and an alternative hypothesis, which take the following forms:

H 0 (Null Hypothesis): Population parameter =, ≤, ≥ some value

H A (Alternative Hypothesis): Population parameter <, >, ≠ some value

Note that the null hypothesis always contains the equal sign .

We interpret the hypotheses as follows:

Null hypothesis: The sample data provides no evidence to support some claim being made by an individual.

Alternative hypothesis: The sample data does provide sufficient evidence to support the claim being made by an individual.

For example, suppose it’s assumed that the average height of a certain species of plant is 20 inches tall. However, one botanist claims the true average height is greater than 20 inches.

To test this claim, she may go out and collect a random sample of plants. She can then use this sample data to perform a hypothesis test using the following two hypotheses:

H 0 : μ ≤ 20 (the true mean height of plants is equal to or even less than 20 inches)

H A : μ > 20 (the true mean height of plants is greater than 20 inches)

If the sample data gathered by the botanist shows that the mean height of this species of plants is significantly greater than 20 inches, she can reject the null hypothesis and conclude that the mean height is greater than 20 inches.

Read through the following examples to gain a better understanding of how to write a null hypothesis in different situations.

## Example 1: Weight of Turtles

A biologist wants to test whether or not the true mean weight of a certain species of turtles is 300 pounds. To test this, he goes out and measures the weight of a random sample of 40 turtles.

Here is how to write the null and alternative hypotheses for this scenario:

H 0 : μ = 300 (the true mean weight is equal to 300 pounds)

H A : μ ≠ 300 (the true mean weight is not equal to 300 pounds)

## Example 2: Height of Males

It’s assumed that the mean height of males in a certain city is 68 inches. However, an independent researcher believes the true mean height is greater than 68 inches. To test this, he goes out and collects the height of 50 males in the city.

H 0 : μ ≤ 68 (the true mean height is equal to or even less than 68 inches)

H A : μ > 68 (the true mean height is greater than 68 inches)

## Example 3: Graduation Rates

A university states that 80% of all students graduate on time. However, an independent researcher believes that less than 80% of all students graduate on time. To test this, she collects data on the proportion of students who graduated on time last year at the university.

H 0 : p ≥ 0.80 (the true proportion of students who graduate on time is 80% or higher)

H A : μ < 0.80 (the true proportion of students who graduate on time is less than 80%)

## Example 4: Burger Weights

A food researcher wants to test whether or not the true mean weight of a burger at a certain restaurant is 7 ounces. To test this, he goes out and measures the weight of a random sample of 20 burgers from this restaurant.

H 0 : μ = 7 (the true mean weight is equal to 7 ounces)

H A : μ ≠ 7 (the true mean weight is not equal to 7 ounces)

## Example 5: Citizen Support

A politician claims that less than 30% of citizens in a certain town support a certain law. To test this, he goes out and surveys 200 citizens on whether or not they support the law.

H 0 : p ≥ .30 (the true proportion of citizens who support the law is greater than or equal to 30%)

H A : μ < 0.30 (the true proportion of citizens who support the law is less than 30%)

## Additional Resources

Introduction to Hypothesis Testing Introduction to Confidence Intervals An Explanation of P-Values and Statistical Significance

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## Null Hypothesis Definition and Examples

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In a scientific experiment, the null hypothesis is the proposition that there is no effect or no relationship between phenomena or populations. If the null hypothesis is true, any observed difference in phenomena or populations would be due to sampling error (random chance) or experimental error. The null hypothesis is useful because it can be tested and found to be false, which then implies that there is a relationship between the observed data. It may be easier to think of it as a nullifiable hypothesis or one that the researcher seeks to nullify. The null hypothesis is also known as the H 0, or no-difference hypothesis.

The alternate hypothesis, H A or H 1 , proposes that observations are influenced by a non-random factor. In an experiment, the alternate hypothesis suggests that the experimental or independent variable has an effect on the dependent variable .

## How to State a Null Hypothesis

There are two ways to state a null hypothesis. One is to state it as a declarative sentence, and the other is to present it as a mathematical statement.

For example, say a researcher suspects that exercise is correlated to weight loss, assuming diet remains unchanged. The average length of time to achieve a certain amount of weight loss is six weeks when a person works out five times a week. The researcher wants to test whether weight loss takes longer to occur if the number of workouts is reduced to three times a week.

The first step to writing the null hypothesis is to find the (alternate) hypothesis. In a word problem like this, you're looking for what you expect to be the outcome of the experiment. In this case, the hypothesis is "I expect weight loss to take longer than six weeks."

This can be written mathematically as: H 1 : μ > 6

In this example, μ is the average.

Now, the null hypothesis is what you expect if this hypothesis does not happen. In this case, if weight loss isn't achieved in greater than six weeks, then it must occur at a time equal to or less than six weeks. This can be written mathematically as:

H 0 : μ ≤ 6

The other way to state the null hypothesis is to make no assumption about the outcome of the experiment. In this case, the null hypothesis is simply that the treatment or change will have no effect on the outcome of the experiment. For this example, it would be that reducing the number of workouts would not affect the time needed to achieve weight loss:

H 0 : μ = 6

- Null Hypothesis Examples

"Hyperactivity is unrelated to eating sugar " is an example of a null hypothesis. If the hypothesis is tested and found to be false, using statistics, then a connection between hyperactivity and sugar ingestion may be indicated. A significance test is the most common statistical test used to establish confidence in a null hypothesis.

Another example of a null hypothesis is "Plant growth rate is unaffected by the presence of cadmium in the soil ." A researcher could test the hypothesis by measuring the growth rate of plants grown in a medium lacking cadmium, compared with the growth rate of plants grown in mediums containing different amounts of cadmium. Disproving the null hypothesis would set the groundwork for further research into the effects of different concentrations of the element in soil.

## Why Test a Null Hypothesis?

You may be wondering why you would want to test a hypothesis just to find it false. Why not just test an alternate hypothesis and find it true? The short answer is that it is part of the scientific method. In science, propositions are not explicitly "proven." Rather, science uses math to determine the probability that a statement is true or false. It turns out it's much easier to disprove a hypothesis than to positively prove one. Also, while the null hypothesis may be simply stated, there's a good chance the alternate hypothesis is incorrect.

For example, if your null hypothesis is that plant growth is unaffected by duration of sunlight, you could state the alternate hypothesis in several different ways. Some of these statements might be incorrect. You could say plants are harmed by more than 12 hours of sunlight or that plants need at least three hours of sunlight, etc. There are clear exceptions to those alternate hypotheses, so if you test the wrong plants, you could reach the wrong conclusion. The null hypothesis is a general statement that can be used to develop an alternate hypothesis, which may or may not be correct.

- What Are Examples of a Hypothesis?
- What Is a Hypothesis? (Science)
- What 'Fail to Reject' Means in a Hypothesis Test
- What Are the Elements of a Good Hypothesis?
- Scientific Hypothesis Examples
- Null Hypothesis and Alternative Hypothesis
- What Is a Control Group?
- Understanding Simple vs Controlled Experiments
- Six Steps of the Scientific Method
- Scientific Method Vocabulary Terms
- Definition of a Hypothesis
- Type I and Type II Errors in Statistics
- An Example of a Hypothesis Test
- How to Conduct a Hypothesis Test
- Hypothesis Test Example

## Research Hypothesis In Psychology: Types, & Examples

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A research hypothesis, in its plural form “hypotheses,” is a specific, testable prediction about the anticipated results of a study, established at its outset. It is a key component of the scientific method .

Hypotheses connect theory to data and guide the research process towards expanding scientific understanding

## Some key points about hypotheses:

- A hypothesis expresses an expected pattern or relationship. It connects the variables under investigation.
- It is stated in clear, precise terms before any data collection or analysis occurs. This makes the hypothesis testable.
- A hypothesis must be falsifiable. It should be possible, even if unlikely in practice, to collect data that disconfirms rather than supports the hypothesis.
- Hypotheses guide research. Scientists design studies to explicitly evaluate hypotheses about how nature works.
- For a hypothesis to be valid, it must be testable against empirical evidence. The evidence can then confirm or disprove the testable predictions.
- Hypotheses are informed by background knowledge and observation, but go beyond what is already known to propose an explanation of how or why something occurs.

Predictions typically arise from a thorough knowledge of the research literature, curiosity about real-world problems or implications, and integrating this to advance theory. They build on existing literature while providing new insight.

## Types of Research Hypotheses

Alternative hypothesis.

The research hypothesis is often called the alternative or experimental hypothesis in experimental research.

It typically suggests a potential relationship between two key variables: the independent variable, which the researcher manipulates, and the dependent variable, which is measured based on those changes.

The alternative hypothesis states a relationship exists between the two variables being studied (one variable affects the other).

A hypothesis is a testable statement or prediction about the relationship between two or more variables. It is a key component of the scientific method. Some key points about hypotheses:

- Important hypotheses lead to predictions that can be tested empirically. The evidence can then confirm or disprove the testable predictions.

In summary, a hypothesis is a precise, testable statement of what researchers expect to happen in a study and why. Hypotheses connect theory to data and guide the research process towards expanding scientific understanding.

An experimental hypothesis predicts what change(s) will occur in the dependent variable when the independent variable is manipulated.

It states that the results are not due to chance and are significant in supporting the theory being investigated.

The alternative hypothesis can be directional, indicating a specific direction of the effect, or non-directional, suggesting a difference without specifying its nature. It’s what researchers aim to support or demonstrate through their study.

## Null Hypothesis

The null hypothesis states no relationship exists between the two variables being studied (one variable does not affect the other). There will be no changes in the dependent variable due to manipulating the independent variable.

It states results are due to chance and are not significant in supporting the idea being investigated.

The null hypothesis, positing no effect or relationship, is a foundational contrast to the research hypothesis in scientific inquiry. It establishes a baseline for statistical testing, promoting objectivity by initiating research from a neutral stance.

Many statistical methods are tailored to test the null hypothesis, determining the likelihood of observed results if no true effect exists.

This dual-hypothesis approach provides clarity, ensuring that research intentions are explicit, and fosters consistency across scientific studies, enhancing the standardization and interpretability of research outcomes.

## Nondirectional Hypothesis

A non-directional hypothesis, also known as a two-tailed hypothesis, predicts that there is a difference or relationship between two variables but does not specify the direction of this relationship.

It merely indicates that a change or effect will occur without predicting which group will have higher or lower values.

For example, “There is a difference in performance between Group A and Group B” is a non-directional hypothesis.

## Directional Hypothesis

A directional (one-tailed) hypothesis predicts the nature of the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable. It predicts in which direction the change will take place. (i.e., greater, smaller, less, more)

It specifies whether one variable is greater, lesser, or different from another, rather than just indicating that there’s a difference without specifying its nature.

For example, “Exercise increases weight loss” is a directional hypothesis.

## Falsifiability

The Falsification Principle, proposed by Karl Popper , is a way of demarcating science from non-science. It suggests that for a theory or hypothesis to be considered scientific, it must be testable and irrefutable.

Falsifiability emphasizes that scientific claims shouldn’t just be confirmable but should also have the potential to be proven wrong.

It means that there should exist some potential evidence or experiment that could prove the proposition false.

However many confirming instances exist for a theory, it only takes one counter observation to falsify it. For example, the hypothesis that “all swans are white,” can be falsified by observing a black swan.

For Popper, science should attempt to disprove a theory rather than attempt to continually provide evidence to support a research hypothesis.

## Can a Hypothesis be Proven?

Hypotheses make probabilistic predictions. They state the expected outcome if a particular relationship exists. However, a study result supporting a hypothesis does not definitively prove it is true.

All studies have limitations. There may be unknown confounding factors or issues that limit the certainty of conclusions. Additional studies may yield different results.

In science, hypotheses can realistically only be supported with some degree of confidence, not proven. The process of science is to incrementally accumulate evidence for and against hypothesized relationships in an ongoing pursuit of better models and explanations that best fit the empirical data. But hypotheses remain open to revision and rejection if that is where the evidence leads.

- Disproving a hypothesis is definitive. Solid disconfirmatory evidence will falsify a hypothesis and require altering or discarding it based on the evidence.
- However, confirming evidence is always open to revision. Other explanations may account for the same results, and additional or contradictory evidence may emerge over time.

We can never 100% prove the alternative hypothesis. Instead, we see if we can disprove, or reject the null hypothesis.

If we reject the null hypothesis, this doesn’t mean that our alternative hypothesis is correct but does support the alternative/experimental hypothesis.

Upon analysis of the results, an alternative hypothesis can be rejected or supported, but it can never be proven to be correct. We must avoid any reference to results proving a theory as this implies 100% certainty, and there is always a chance that evidence may exist which could refute a theory.

## How to Write a Hypothesis

- Identify variables . The researcher manipulates the independent variable and the dependent variable is the measured outcome.
- Operationalized the variables being investigated . Operationalization of a hypothesis refers to the process of making the variables physically measurable or testable, e.g. if you are about to study aggression, you might count the number of punches given by participants.
- Decide on a direction for your prediction . If there is evidence in the literature to support a specific effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable, write a directional (one-tailed) hypothesis. If there are limited or ambiguous findings in the literature regarding the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable, write a non-directional (two-tailed) hypothesis.
- Make it Testable : Ensure your hypothesis can be tested through experimentation or observation. It should be possible to prove it false (principle of falsifiability).
- Clear & concise language . A strong hypothesis is concise (typically one to two sentences long), and formulated using clear and straightforward language, ensuring it’s easily understood and testable.

Consider a hypothesis many teachers might subscribe to: students work better on Monday morning than on Friday afternoon (IV=Day, DV= Standard of work).

Now, if we decide to study this by giving the same group of students a lesson on a Monday morning and a Friday afternoon and then measuring their immediate recall of the material covered in each session, we would end up with the following:

- The alternative hypothesis states that students will recall significantly more information on a Monday morning than on a Friday afternoon.
- The null hypothesis states that there will be no significant difference in the amount recalled on a Monday morning compared to a Friday afternoon. Any difference will be due to chance or confounding factors.

## More Examples

- Memory : Participants exposed to classical music during study sessions will recall more items from a list than those who studied in silence.
- Social Psychology : Individuals who frequently engage in social media use will report higher levels of perceived social isolation compared to those who use it infrequently.
- Developmental Psychology : Children who engage in regular imaginative play have better problem-solving skills than those who don’t.
- Clinical Psychology : Cognitive-behavioral therapy will be more effective in reducing symptoms of anxiety over a 6-month period compared to traditional talk therapy.
- Cognitive Psychology : Individuals who multitask between various electronic devices will have shorter attention spans on focused tasks than those who single-task.
- Health Psychology : Patients who practice mindfulness meditation will experience lower levels of chronic pain compared to those who don’t meditate.
- Organizational Psychology : Employees in open-plan offices will report higher levels of stress than those in private offices.
- Behavioral Psychology : Rats rewarded with food after pressing a lever will press it more frequently than rats who receive no reward.

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## 10.2: Null and Alternative Hypotheses

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The actual test begins by considering two hypotheses. They are called the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis. These hypotheses contain opposing viewpoints.

- The null hypothesis (\(H_{0}\)) is a statement about the population that either is believed to be true or is used to put forth an argument unless it can be shown to be incorrect beyond a reasonable doubt.
- The alternative hypothesis (\(H_{a}\)) is a claim about the population that is contradictory to \(H_{0}\) and what we conclude when we reject \(H_{0}\).

Since the null and alternative hypotheses are contradictory, you must examine evidence to decide if you have enough evidence to reject the null hypothesis or not. The evidence is in the form of sample data. After you have determined which hypothesis the sample supports, you make a decision. There are two options for a decision. They are "reject \(H_{0}\)" if the sample information favors the alternative hypothesis or "do not reject \(H_{0}\)" or "decline to reject \(H_{0}\)" if the sample information is insufficient to reject the null hypothesis.

\(H_{0}\) always has a symbol with an equal in it. \(H_{a}\) never has a symbol with an equal in it. The choice of symbol depends on the wording of the hypothesis test. However, be aware that many researchers (including one of the co-authors in research work) use = in the null hypothesis, even with > or < as the symbol in the alternative hypothesis. This practice is acceptable because we only make the decision to reject or not reject the null hypothesis.

Example \(\PageIndex{1}\)

- \(H_{0}\): No more than 30% of the registered voters in Santa Clara County voted in the primary election. \(p \leq 30\)
- \(H_{a}\): More than 30% of the registered voters in Santa Clara County voted in the primary election. \(p > 30\)

Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

- \(H_{0}\): The drug reduces cholesterol by 25%. \(p = 0.25\)
- \(H_{a}\): The drug does not reduce cholesterol by 25%. \(p \neq 0.25\)

Example \(\PageIndex{2}\)

- \(H_{0}: \mu = 2.0\)
- \(H_{a}: \mu \neq 2.0\)

Exercise \(\PageIndex{2}\)

We want to test whether the mean height of eighth graders is 66 inches. State the null and alternative hypotheses. Fill in the correct symbol \((=, \neq, \geq, <, \leq, >)\) for the null and alternative hypotheses.

- \(H_{0}: \mu \ \_ \ 66\)
- \(H_{a}: \mu \ \_ \ 66\)
- \(H_{0}: \mu = 66\)
- \(H_{a}: \mu \neq 66\)

Example \(\PageIndex{3}\)

- \(H_{0}: \mu \geq 5\)
- \(H_{a}: \mu < 5\)

Exercise \(\PageIndex{3}\)

We want to test if it takes fewer than 45 minutes to teach a lesson plan. State the null and alternative hypotheses. Fill in the correct symbol ( =, ≠, ≥, <, ≤, >) for the null and alternative hypotheses.

- \(H_{0}: \mu \ \_ \ 45\)
- \(H_{a}: \mu \ \_ \ 45\)
- \(H_{0}: \mu \geq 45\)
- \(H_{a}: \mu < 45\)

Example \(\PageIndex{4}\)

In an issue of U. S. News and World Report , an article on school standards stated that about half of all students in France, Germany, and Israel take advanced placement exams and a third pass. The same article stated that 6.6% of U.S. students take advanced placement exams and 4.4% pass. Test if the percentage of U.S. students who take advanced placement exams is more than 6.6%. State the null and alternative hypotheses.

- \(H_{0}: p \leq 0.066\)
- \(H_{a}: p > 0.066\)

Exercise \(\PageIndex{4}\)

On a state driver’s test, about 40% pass the test on the first try. We want to test if more than 40% pass on the first try. Fill in the correct symbol (\(=, \neq, \geq, <, \leq, >\)) for the null and alternative hypotheses.

- \(H_{0}: p \ \_ \ 0.40\)
- \(H_{a}: p \ \_ \ 0.40\)
- \(H_{0}: p = 0.40\)
- \(H_{a}: p > 0.40\)

COLLABORATIVE EXERCISE

Bring to class a newspaper, some news magazines, and some Internet articles . In groups, find articles from which your group can write null and alternative hypotheses. Discuss your hypotheses with the rest of the class.

## Chapter Review

In a hypothesis test , sample data is evaluated in order to arrive at a decision about some type of claim. If certain conditions about the sample are satisfied, then the claim can be evaluated for a population. In a hypothesis test, we:

- Evaluate the null hypothesis , typically denoted with \(H_{0}\). The null is not rejected unless the hypothesis test shows otherwise. The null statement must always contain some form of equality \((=, \leq \text{or} \geq)\)
- Always write the alternative hypothesis , typically denoted with \(H_{a}\) or \(H_{1}\), using less than, greater than, or not equals symbols, i.e., \((\neq, >, \text{or} <)\).
- If we reject the null hypothesis, then we can assume there is enough evidence to support the alternative hypothesis.
- Never state that a claim is proven true or false. Keep in mind the underlying fact that hypothesis testing is based on probability laws; therefore, we can talk only in terms of non-absolute certainties.

## Formula Review

\(H_{0}\) and \(H_{a}\) are contradictory.

- If \(\alpha \leq p\)-value, then do not reject \(H_{0}\).
- If\(\alpha > p\)-value, then reject \(H_{0}\).

\(\alpha\) is preconceived. Its value is set before the hypothesis test starts. The \(p\)-value is calculated from the data.References

Data from the National Institute of Mental Health. Available online at http://www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/depression.cfm .

## Contributors

Barbara Illowsky and Susan Dean (De Anza College) with many other contributing authors. Content produced by OpenStax College is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 license. Download for free at http://cnx.org/contents/[email protected] .

## Null Hypothesis

Null hypothesis is used to make decisions based on data and by using statistical tests. Null hypothesis is represented using H o and it states that there is no difference between the characteristics of two samples. Null hypothesis is generally a statement of no difference. The rejection of null hypothesis is equivalent to the acceptance of the alternate hypothesis.

Let us learn more about null hypotheses, tests for null hypotheses, the difference between null hypothesis and alternate hypothesis, with the help of examples, FAQs.

## What Is Null Hypothesis?

Null hypothesis states that there is no significant difference between the observed characteristics across two sample sets. Null hypothesis states the observed population parameters or variables is the same across the samples. The null hypothesis states that there is no relationship between the sample parameters, the independent variable, and the dependent variable. The term null hypothesis is used in instances to mean that there is no differences in the two means, or that the difference is not so significant.

If the experimental outcome is the same as the theoretical outcome then the null hypothesis holds good. But if there are any differences in the observed parameters across the samples then the null hypothesis is rejected, and we consider an alternate hypothesis. The rejection of the null hypothesis does not mean that there were flaws in the basic experimentation, but it sets the stage for further research. Generally, the strength of the evidence is tested against the null hypothesis.

Null hypothesis and alternate hypothesis are the two approaches used across statistics. The alternate hypothesis states that there is a significant difference between the parameters across the samples. The alternate hypothesis is the inverse of null hypothesis. An important reason to reject the null hypothesis and consider the alternate hypothesis is due to experimental or sampling errors.

## Tests For Null Hypothesis

The two important approaches of statistical interference of null hypothesis are significance testing and hypothesis testing. The null hypothesis is a theoretical hypothesis and is based on insufficient evidence, which requires further testing to prove if it is true or false.

## Significance Testing

The aim of significance testing is to provide evidence to reject the null hypothesis. If the difference is strong enough then reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternate hypothesis. The testing is designed to test the strength of the evidence against the hypothesis. The four important steps of significance testing are as follows.

- First state the null and alternate hypotheses.
- Calculate the test statistics.
- Find the p-value.
- Test the p-value with the α and decide if the null hypothesis should be rejected or accepted.

If the p-value is lesser than the significance level α, then the null hypothesis is rejected. And if the p-value is greater than the significance level α, then the null hypothesis is accepted.

- Hypothesis Testing

Hypothesis testing takes the parameters from the sample and makes a derivation about the population. A hypothesis is an educated guess about a sample, which can be tested either through an experiment or an observation. Initially, a tentative assumption is made about the sample in the form of a null hypothesis.

There are four steps to perform hypothesis testing. They are:

- Identify the null hypothesis.
- Define the null hypothesis statement.
- Choose the test to be performed.
- Accept the null hypothesis or the alternate hypothesis.

There are often errors in the process of testing the hypothesis. The two important errors observed in hypothesis testing is as follows.

- Type - I error is rejecting the null hypothesis when the null hypothesis is actually true.
- Type - II error is accepting the null hypothesis when the null hypothesis is actually false.

## Difference Between Null Hypothesis And Alternate Hypothesis

The difference between null hypothesis and alternate hypothesis can be understood through the following points.

- The opposite of the null hypothesis is the alternate hypothesis and it is the claim which is being proved by research to be true.
- The null hypothesis states that the two samples of the population are the same, and the alternate hypothesis states that there is a significant difference between the two samples of the population.
- The null hypothesis is designated as H o and the alternate hypothesis is designated as H a .
- For the null hypothesis, the same means are assumed to be equal, and we have H 0 : µ 1 = µ 2. And for the alternate hypothesis, the sample means are unequal, and we have H a : µ 1 ≠ µ 2.
- The observed population parameters and variables are the same across the samples, for a null hypothesis, but in an alternate hypothesis, there is a significant difference between the observed parameters and variables across the samples.

☛ Related Topics

The following topics help in a better understanding of the null hypothesis.

- Probability and Statistics
- Basic Statistics Formula
- Sample Space

## Examples on Null Hypothesis

Example 1: A medical experiment and trial is conducted to check if a particular drug can serve as the vaccine for Covid-19, and can prevent from occurrence of Corona. Write the null hypothesis and the alternate hypothesis for this situation.

The given situation refers to a possible new drug and its effectiveness of being a vaccine for Covid-19 or not. The null hypothesis (H o ) and alternate hypothesis (H a ) for this medical experiment is as follows.

- H 0 : The use of the new drug is not helpful for the prevention of Covid-19.
- H a : The use of the new drug serves as a vaccine and helps for the prevention of Covid-19.

Example 2: The teacher has prepared a set of important questions and informs the student that preparing these questions helps in scoring more than 60% marks in the board exams. Write the null hypothesis and the alternate hypothesis for this situation.

The given situation refers to the teacher who has claimed that her important questions helps to score more than 60% marks in the board exams. The null hypothesis(H o ) and alternate hypothesis(H a ) for this situation is as follows.

- H o : The important questions given by the teacher does not really help the students to get a score of more than 60% in the board exams.
- H a : The important questions given by the teacher is helpful for the students to score more than 60% marks in the board exams.

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## Practice Questions on Null Hypothesis

Faqs on null hypothesis, what is null hypothesis in maths.

Null hypothesis is used in statistics and it states if there is any significant difference between the two samples. The acceptance of null hypothesis mean that there is no significant difference between the two samples. And the rejection of null hypothesis means that the two samples are different, and we need to accept the alternate hypothesis. The null hypothesis statement is represented as H 0 and the alternate hypothesis is represented as H a .

## How Do You Test Null Hypothesis?

The null hypothesis is broadly tested using two methods. The null hypothesis can be tested using significance testing and hypothesis testing.Broadly the test for null hypothesis is performed across four stages. First the null hypothesis is identified, secondly the null hypothesis is defined. Next a suitable test is used to test the hypothesis, and finally either the null hypothesis or the alternate hypothesis is accepted.

## How To Accept or Reject Null Hypothesis?

The null hypothesis is accepted or rejected based on the result of the hypothesis testing. The p value is found and the significance level is defined. If the p-value is lesser than the significance level α, then the null hypothesis is rejected. And if the p-value is greater than the significance level α, then the null hypothesis is accepted.

## What Is the Difference Between Null Hypothesis And Alternate Hypothesis?

The null hypothesis states that there is no significant difference between the two samples, and the alternate hypothesis states that there is a significant difference between the two samples. The null hypothesis is referred using H o and the alternate hypothesis is referred using H a . As per null hypothesis the observed variables and parameters are the same across the samples, but as per alternate hypothesis there is a significant difference between the observed variables and parameters across the samples.

## What Is Null Hypothesis Example?

A few quick examples of null hypothesis are as follows.

- The salary of a person is independent of his profession, is an example of null hypothesis. And the salary is dependent on the profession of a person, is an alternate hypothesis.
- The performance of the students in Maths from two different classes is a null hypothesis. And the performance of the students from each of the classes is different, is an example of alternate hypothesis.
- The nutrient content of mango and a mango milk shake is equal and it can be taken as a null hypothesis. The test to prove the different nutrient content of the two is referred to as alternate hypothesis.

- Math Article

## Null Hypothesis

In mathematics, Statistics deals with the study of research and surveys on the numerical data. For taking surveys, we have to define the hypothesis. Generally, there are two types of hypothesis. One is a null hypothesis, and another is an alternative hypothesis .

In probability and statistics, the null hypothesis is a comprehensive statement or default status that there is zero happening or nothing happening. For example, there is no connection among groups or no association between two measured events. It is generally assumed here that the hypothesis is true until any other proof has been brought into the light to deny the hypothesis. Let us learn more here with definition, symbol, principle, types and example, in this article.

Table of contents:

- Comparison with Alternative Hypothesis

## Null Hypothesis Definition

The null hypothesis is a kind of hypothesis which explains the population parameter whose purpose is to test the validity of the given experimental data. This hypothesis is either rejected or not rejected based on the viability of the given population or sample . In other words, the null hypothesis is a hypothesis in which the sample observations results from the chance. It is said to be a statement in which the surveyors wants to examine the data. It is denoted by H 0 .

## Null Hypothesis Symbol

In statistics, the null hypothesis is usually denoted by letter H with subscript ‘0’ (zero), such that H 0 . It is pronounced as H-null or H-zero or H-nought. At the same time, the alternative hypothesis expresses the observations determined by the non-random cause. It is represented by H 1 or H a .

## Null Hypothesis Principle

The principle followed for null hypothesis testing is, collecting the data and determining the chances of a given set of data during the study on some random sample, assuming that the null hypothesis is true. In case if the given data does not face the expected null hypothesis, then the outcome will be quite weaker, and they conclude by saying that the given set of data does not provide strong evidence against the null hypothesis because of insufficient evidence. Finally, the researchers tend to reject that.

## Null Hypothesis Formula

Here, the hypothesis test formulas are given below for reference.

The formula for the null hypothesis is:

H 0 : p = p 0

The formula for the alternative hypothesis is:

H a = p >p 0 , < p 0 ≠ p 0

The formula for the test static is:

Remember that, p 0 is the null hypothesis and p – hat is the sample proportion.

Also, read:

## Types of Null Hypothesis

There are different types of hypothesis. They are:

Simple Hypothesis

It completely specifies the population distribution. In this method, the sampling distribution is the function of the sample size.

Composite Hypothesis

The composite hypothesis is one that does not completely specify the population distribution.

Exact Hypothesis

Exact hypothesis defines the exact value of the parameter. For example μ= 50

Inexact Hypothesis

This type of hypothesis does not define the exact value of the parameter. But it denotes a specific range or interval. For example 45< μ <60

## Null Hypothesis Rejection

Sometimes the null hypothesis is rejected too. If this hypothesis is rejected means, that research could be invalid. Many researchers will neglect this hypothesis as it is merely opposite to the alternate hypothesis. It is a better practice to create a hypothesis and test it. The goal of researchers is not to reject the hypothesis. But it is evident that a perfect statistical model is always associated with the failure to reject the null hypothesis.

## How do you Find the Null Hypothesis?

The null hypothesis says there is no correlation between the measured event (the dependent variable) and the independent variable. We don’t have to believe that the null hypothesis is true to test it. On the contrast, you will possibly assume that there is a connection between a set of variables ( dependent and independent).

## When is Null Hypothesis Rejected?

The null hypothesis is rejected using the P-value approach. If the P-value is less than or equal to the α, there should be a rejection of the null hypothesis in favour of the alternate hypothesis. In case, if P-value is greater than α, the null hypothesis is not rejected.

## Null Hypothesis and Alternative Hypothesis

Now, let us discuss the difference between the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis.

## Null Hypothesis Examples

Here, some of the examples of the null hypothesis are given below. Go through the below ones to understand the concept of the null hypothesis in a better way.

If a medicine reduces the risk of cardiac stroke, then the null hypothesis should be “the medicine does not reduce the chance of cardiac stroke”. This testing can be performed by the administration of a drug to a certain group of people in a controlled way. If the survey shows that there is a significant change in the people, then the hypothesis is rejected.

Few more examples are:

1). Are there is 100% chance of getting affected by dengue?

Ans: There could be chances of getting affected by dengue but not 100%.

2). Do teenagers are using mobile phones more than grown-ups to access the internet?

Ans: Age has no limit on using mobile phones to access the internet.

3). Does having apple daily will not cause fever?

Ans: Having apple daily does not assure of not having fever, but increases the immunity to fight against such diseases.

4). Do the children more good in doing mathematical calculations than grown-ups?

Ans: Age has no effect on Mathematical skills.

In many common applications, the choice of the null hypothesis is not automated, but the testing and calculations may be automated. Also, the choice of the null hypothesis is completely based on previous experiences and inconsistent advice. The choice can be more complicated and based on the variety of applications and the diversity of the objectives.

The main limitation for the choice of the null hypothesis is that the hypothesis suggested by the data is based on the reasoning which proves nothing. It means that if some hypothesis provides a summary of the data set, then there would be no value in the testing of the hypothesis on the particular set of data.

## Frequently Asked Questions on Null Hypothesis

What is meant by the null hypothesis.

In Statistics, a null hypothesis is a type of hypothesis which explains the population parameter whose purpose is to test the validity of the given experimental data.

## What are the benefits of hypothesis testing?

Hypothesis testing is defined as a form of inferential statistics, which allows making conclusions from the entire population based on the sample representative.

## When a null hypothesis is accepted and rejected?

The null hypothesis is either accepted or rejected in terms of the given data. If P-value is less than α, then the null hypothesis is rejected in favor of the alternative hypothesis, and if the P-value is greater than α, then the null hypothesis is accepted in favor of the alternative hypothesis.

## Why is the null hypothesis important?

The importance of the null hypothesis is that it provides an approximate description of the phenomena of the given data. It allows the investigators to directly test the relational statement in a research study.

## How to accept or reject the null hypothesis in the chi-square test?

If the result of the chi-square test is bigger than the critical value in the table, then the data does not fit the model, which represents the rejection of the null hypothesis.

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Home » What is a Hypothesis – Types, Examples and Writing Guide

## What is a Hypothesis – Types, Examples and Writing Guide

Table of Contents

Definition:

Hypothesis is an educated guess or proposed explanation for a phenomenon, based on some initial observations or data. It is a tentative statement that can be tested and potentially proven or disproven through further investigation and experimentation.

Hypothesis is often used in scientific research to guide the design of experiments and the collection and analysis of data. It is an essential element of the scientific method, as it allows researchers to make predictions about the outcome of their experiments and to test those predictions to determine their accuracy.

## Types of Hypothesis

Types of Hypothesis are as follows:

## Research Hypothesis

A research hypothesis is a statement that predicts a relationship between variables. It is usually formulated as a specific statement that can be tested through research, and it is often used in scientific research to guide the design of experiments.

## Null Hypothesis

The null hypothesis is a statement that assumes there is no significant difference or relationship between variables. It is often used as a starting point for testing the research hypothesis, and if the results of the study reject the null hypothesis, it suggests that there is a significant difference or relationship between variables.

## Alternative Hypothesis

An alternative hypothesis is a statement that assumes there is a significant difference or relationship between variables. It is often used as an alternative to the null hypothesis and is tested against the null hypothesis to determine which statement is more accurate.

## Directional Hypothesis

A directional hypothesis is a statement that predicts the direction of the relationship between variables. For example, a researcher might predict that increasing the amount of exercise will result in a decrease in body weight.

## Non-directional Hypothesis

A non-directional hypothesis is a statement that predicts the relationship between variables but does not specify the direction. For example, a researcher might predict that there is a relationship between the amount of exercise and body weight, but they do not specify whether increasing or decreasing exercise will affect body weight.

## Statistical Hypothesis

A statistical hypothesis is a statement that assumes a particular statistical model or distribution for the data. It is often used in statistical analysis to test the significance of a particular result.

## Composite Hypothesis

A composite hypothesis is a statement that assumes more than one condition or outcome. It can be divided into several sub-hypotheses, each of which represents a different possible outcome.

## Empirical Hypothesis

An empirical hypothesis is a statement that is based on observed phenomena or data. It is often used in scientific research to develop theories or models that explain the observed phenomena.

## Simple Hypothesis

A simple hypothesis is a statement that assumes only one outcome or condition. It is often used in scientific research to test a single variable or factor.

## Complex Hypothesis

A complex hypothesis is a statement that assumes multiple outcomes or conditions. It is often used in scientific research to test the effects of multiple variables or factors on a particular outcome.

## Applications of Hypothesis

Hypotheses are used in various fields to guide research and make predictions about the outcomes of experiments or observations. Here are some examples of how hypotheses are applied in different fields:

- Science : In scientific research, hypotheses are used to test the validity of theories and models that explain natural phenomena. For example, a hypothesis might be formulated to test the effects of a particular variable on a natural system, such as the effects of climate change on an ecosystem.
- Medicine : In medical research, hypotheses are used to test the effectiveness of treatments and therapies for specific conditions. For example, a hypothesis might be formulated to test the effects of a new drug on a particular disease.
- Psychology : In psychology, hypotheses are used to test theories and models of human behavior and cognition. For example, a hypothesis might be formulated to test the effects of a particular stimulus on the brain or behavior.
- Sociology : In sociology, hypotheses are used to test theories and models of social phenomena, such as the effects of social structures or institutions on human behavior. For example, a hypothesis might be formulated to test the effects of income inequality on crime rates.
- Business : In business research, hypotheses are used to test the validity of theories and models that explain business phenomena, such as consumer behavior or market trends. For example, a hypothesis might be formulated to test the effects of a new marketing campaign on consumer buying behavior.
- Engineering : In engineering, hypotheses are used to test the effectiveness of new technologies or designs. For example, a hypothesis might be formulated to test the efficiency of a new solar panel design.

## How to write a Hypothesis

Here are the steps to follow when writing a hypothesis:

## Identify the Research Question

The first step is to identify the research question that you want to answer through your study. This question should be clear, specific, and focused. It should be something that can be investigated empirically and that has some relevance or significance in the field.

## Conduct a Literature Review

Before writing your hypothesis, it’s essential to conduct a thorough literature review to understand what is already known about the topic. This will help you to identify the research gap and formulate a hypothesis that builds on existing knowledge.

## Determine the Variables

The next step is to identify the variables involved in the research question. A variable is any characteristic or factor that can vary or change. There are two types of variables: independent and dependent. The independent variable is the one that is manipulated or changed by the researcher, while the dependent variable is the one that is measured or observed as a result of the independent variable.

## Formulate the Hypothesis

Based on the research question and the variables involved, you can now formulate your hypothesis. A hypothesis should be a clear and concise statement that predicts the relationship between the variables. It should be testable through empirical research and based on existing theory or evidence.

## Write the Null Hypothesis

The null hypothesis is the opposite of the alternative hypothesis, which is the hypothesis that you are testing. The null hypothesis states that there is no significant difference or relationship between the variables. It is important to write the null hypothesis because it allows you to compare your results with what would be expected by chance.

## Refine the Hypothesis

After formulating the hypothesis, it’s important to refine it and make it more precise. This may involve clarifying the variables, specifying the direction of the relationship, or making the hypothesis more testable.

## Examples of Hypothesis

Here are a few examples of hypotheses in different fields:

- Psychology : “Increased exposure to violent video games leads to increased aggressive behavior in adolescents.”
- Biology : “Higher levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere will lead to increased plant growth.”
- Sociology : “Individuals who grow up in households with higher socioeconomic status will have higher levels of education and income as adults.”
- Education : “Implementing a new teaching method will result in higher student achievement scores.”
- Marketing : “Customers who receive a personalized email will be more likely to make a purchase than those who receive a generic email.”
- Physics : “An increase in temperature will cause an increase in the volume of a gas, assuming all other variables remain constant.”
- Medicine : “Consuming a diet high in saturated fats will increase the risk of developing heart disease.”

## Purpose of Hypothesis

The purpose of a hypothesis is to provide a testable explanation for an observed phenomenon or a prediction of a future outcome based on existing knowledge or theories. A hypothesis is an essential part of the scientific method and helps to guide the research process by providing a clear focus for investigation. It enables scientists to design experiments or studies to gather evidence and data that can support or refute the proposed explanation or prediction.

The formulation of a hypothesis is based on existing knowledge, observations, and theories, and it should be specific, testable, and falsifiable. A specific hypothesis helps to define the research question, which is important in the research process as it guides the selection of an appropriate research design and methodology. Testability of the hypothesis means that it can be proven or disproven through empirical data collection and analysis. Falsifiability means that the hypothesis should be formulated in such a way that it can be proven wrong if it is incorrect.

In addition to guiding the research process, the testing of hypotheses can lead to new discoveries and advancements in scientific knowledge. When a hypothesis is supported by the data, it can be used to develop new theories or models to explain the observed phenomenon. When a hypothesis is not supported by the data, it can help to refine existing theories or prompt the development of new hypotheses to explain the phenomenon.

## When to use Hypothesis

Here are some common situations in which hypotheses are used:

- In scientific research , hypotheses are used to guide the design of experiments and to help researchers make predictions about the outcomes of those experiments.
- In social science research , hypotheses are used to test theories about human behavior, social relationships, and other phenomena.
- I n business , hypotheses can be used to guide decisions about marketing, product development, and other areas. For example, a hypothesis might be that a new product will sell well in a particular market, and this hypothesis can be tested through market research.

## Characteristics of Hypothesis

Here are some common characteristics of a hypothesis:

- Testable : A hypothesis must be able to be tested through observation or experimentation. This means that it must be possible to collect data that will either support or refute the hypothesis.
- Falsifiable : A hypothesis must be able to be proven false if it is not supported by the data. If a hypothesis cannot be falsified, then it is not a scientific hypothesis.
- Clear and concise : A hypothesis should be stated in a clear and concise manner so that it can be easily understood and tested.
- Based on existing knowledge : A hypothesis should be based on existing knowledge and research in the field. It should not be based on personal beliefs or opinions.
- Specific : A hypothesis should be specific in terms of the variables being tested and the predicted outcome. This will help to ensure that the research is focused and well-designed.
- Tentative: A hypothesis is a tentative statement or assumption that requires further testing and evidence to be confirmed or refuted. It is not a final conclusion or assertion.
- Relevant : A hypothesis should be relevant to the research question or problem being studied. It should address a gap in knowledge or provide a new perspective on the issue.

## Advantages of Hypothesis

Hypotheses have several advantages in scientific research and experimentation:

- Guides research: A hypothesis provides a clear and specific direction for research. It helps to focus the research question, select appropriate methods and variables, and interpret the results.
- Predictive powe r: A hypothesis makes predictions about the outcome of research, which can be tested through experimentation. This allows researchers to evaluate the validity of the hypothesis and make new discoveries.
- Facilitates communication: A hypothesis provides a common language and framework for scientists to communicate with one another about their research. This helps to facilitate the exchange of ideas and promotes collaboration.
- Efficient use of resources: A hypothesis helps researchers to use their time, resources, and funding efficiently by directing them towards specific research questions and methods that are most likely to yield results.
- Provides a basis for further research: A hypothesis that is supported by data provides a basis for further research and exploration. It can lead to new hypotheses, theories, and discoveries.
- Increases objectivity: A hypothesis can help to increase objectivity in research by providing a clear and specific framework for testing and interpreting results. This can reduce bias and increase the reliability of research findings.

## Limitations of Hypothesis

Some Limitations of the Hypothesis are as follows:

- Limited to observable phenomena: Hypotheses are limited to observable phenomena and cannot account for unobservable or intangible factors. This means that some research questions may not be amenable to hypothesis testing.
- May be inaccurate or incomplete: Hypotheses are based on existing knowledge and research, which may be incomplete or inaccurate. This can lead to flawed hypotheses and erroneous conclusions.
- May be biased: Hypotheses may be biased by the researcher’s own beliefs, values, or assumptions. This can lead to selective interpretation of data and a lack of objectivity in research.
- Cannot prove causation: A hypothesis can only show a correlation between variables, but it cannot prove causation. This requires further experimentation and analysis.
- Limited to specific contexts: Hypotheses are limited to specific contexts and may not be generalizable to other situations or populations. This means that results may not be applicable in other contexts or may require further testing.
- May be affected by chance : Hypotheses may be affected by chance or random variation, which can obscure or distort the true relationship between variables.

## About the author

## Muhammad Hassan

Researcher, Academic Writer, Web developer

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## Null Hypothesis

Null Hypothesis , often denoted as H 0, is a foundational concept in statistical hypothesis testing. It represents an assumption that no significant difference, effect, or relationship exists between variables within a population. It serves as a baseline assumption, positing no observed change or effect occurring. The null is t he truth or falsity of an idea in analysis.

In this article, we will discuss the null hypothesis in detail, along with some solved examples and questions on the null hypothesis.

Table of Content

- What Is a Null Hypothesis?

## Symbol of Null Hypothesis

Formula of null hypothesis, types of null hypothesis, principle of null hypothesis, how do you find null hypothesis, what is a null hypothesis.

Null Hypothesis in statistical analysis suggests the absence of statistical significance within a specific set of observed data. Hypothesis testing, using sample data, evaluates the validity of this hypothesis. Commonly denoted as H 0 or simply “null,” it plays an important role in quantitative analysis, examining theories related to markets, investment strategies, or economies to determine their validity.

## Definition of Null Hypothesis

Null Hypothesis represent a default position, often suggesting no effect or difference, against which researchers compare their experimental results. The Null Hypothesis, often denoted as H 0 , asserts a default assumption in statistical analysis. It posits no significant difference or effect, serving as a baseline for comparison in hypothesis testing.

Null Hypothesis is represented as H 0 , the Null Hypothesis symbolizes the absence of a measurable effect or difference in the variables under examination.

Certainly, a simple example would be asserting that the mean score of a group is equal to a specified value like stating that the average IQ of a population is 100.

The Null Hypothesis is typically formulated as a statement of equality or absence of a specific parameter in the population being studied. It provides a clear and testable prediction for comparison with the alternative hypothesis. The formulation of the Null Hypothesis typically follows a concise structure, stating the equality or absence of a specific parameter in the population.

## Mean Comparison (Two-sample t-test)

H 0 : μ 1 = μ 2

This asserts that there is no significant difference between the means of two populations or groups.

## Proportion Comparison

H 0 : p 1 − p 2 = 0

This suggests no significant difference in proportions between two populations or conditions.

## Equality in Variance (F-test in ANOVA)

H 0 : σ 1 = σ 2

This states that there’s no significant difference in variances between groups or populations.

## Independence (Chi-square Test of Independence):

H 0 : Variables are independent

This asserts that there’s no association or relationship between categorical variables.

Null Hypotheses vary including simple and composite forms, each tailored to the complexity of the research question. Understanding these types is pivotal for effective hypothesis testing.

## Equality Null Hypothesis (Simple Null Hypothesis)

The Equality Null Hypothesis, also known as the Simple Null Hypothesis, is a fundamental concept in statistical hypothesis testing that assumes no difference, effect or relationship between groups, conditions or populations being compared.

## Non-Inferiority Null Hypothesis

In some studies, the focus might be on demonstrating that a new treatment or method is not significantly worse than the standard or existing one.

## Superiority Null Hypothesis

The concept of a superiority null hypothesis comes into play when a study aims to demonstrate that a new treatment, method, or intervention is significantly better than an existing or standard one.

## Independence Null Hypothesis

In certain statistical tests, such as chi-square tests for independence, the null hypothesis assumes no association or independence between categorical variables.

## Homogeneity Null Hypothesis

In tests like ANOVA (Analysis of Variance), the null hypothesis suggests that there’s no difference in population means across different groups.

## Examples of Null Hypothesis

- Medicine: Null Hypothesis: “No significant difference exists in blood pressure levels between patients given the experimental drug versus those given a placebo.”
- Education: Null Hypothesis: “There’s no significant variation in test scores between students using a new teaching method and those using traditional teaching.”
- Economics: Null Hypothesis: “There’s no significant change in consumer spending pre- and post-implementation of a new taxation policy.”
- Environmental Science: Null Hypothesis: “There’s no substantial difference in pollution levels before and after a water treatment plant’s establishment.”

The principle of the null hypothesis is a fundamental concept in statistical hypothesis testing. It involves making an assumption about the population parameter or the absence of an effect or relationship between variables.

In essence, the null hypothesis (H 0 ) proposes that there is no significant difference, effect, or relationship between variables. It serves as a starting point or a default assumption that there is no real change, no effect or no difference between groups or conditions.

## Null Hypothesis Rejection

Rejecting the Null Hypothesis occurs when statistical evidence suggests a significant departure from the assumed baseline. It implies that there is enough evidence to support the alternative hypothesis, indicating a meaningful effect or difference. Null Hypothesis rejection occurs when statistical evidence suggests a deviation from the assumed baseline, prompting a reconsideration of the initial hypothesis.

Identifying the Null Hypothesis involves defining the status quotient, asserting no effect and formulating a statement suitable for statistical analysis.

## When is Null Hypothesis Rejected?

The Null Hypothesis is rejected when statistical tests indicate a significant departure from the expected outcome, leading to the consideration of alternative hypotheses. It occurs when statistical evidence suggests a deviation from the assumed baseline, prompting a reconsideration of the initial hypothesis.

## Null Hypothesis and Alternative Hypothesis

In the realm of hypothesis testing, the null hypothesis (H 0 ) and alternative hypothesis (H₁ or Ha) play critical roles. The null hypothesis generally assumes no difference, effect, or relationship between variables, suggesting that any observed change or effect is due to random chance. Its counterpart, the alternative hypothesis, asserts the presence of a significant difference, effect, or relationship between variables, challenging the null hypothesis. These hypotheses are formulated based on the research question and guide statistical analyses.

## Null Hypothesis vs Alternative Hypothesis

The null hypothesis (H 0 ) serves as the baseline assumption in statistical testing, suggesting no significant effect, relationship, or difference within the data. It often proposes that any observed change or correlation is merely due to chance or random variation. Conversely, the alternative hypothesis (H 1 or Ha) contradicts the null hypothesis, positing the existence of a genuine effect, relationship or difference in the data. It represents the researcher’s intended focus, seeking to provide evidence against the null hypothesis and support for a specific outcome or theory. These hypotheses form the crux of hypothesis testing, guiding the assessment of data to draw conclusions about the population being studied.

## Example of Alternative and Null Hypothesis

Let’s envision a scenario where a researcher aims to examine the impact of a new medication on reducing blood pressure among patients. In this context:

Null Hypothesis (H 0 ): “The new medication does not produce a significant effect in reducing blood pressure levels among patients.”

Alternative Hypothesis (H 1 or Ha): “The new medication yields a significant effect in reducing blood pressure levels among patients.”

The null hypothesis implies that any observed alterations in blood pressure subsequent to the medication’s administration are a result of random fluctuations rather than a consequence of the medication itself. Conversely, the alternative hypothesis contends that the medication does indeed generate a meaningful alteration in blood pressure levels, distinct from what might naturally occur or by random chance.

Also, Check

## Solved Examples on Null Hypothesis

Example 1: A researcher claims that the average time students spend on homework is 2 hours per night.

Null Hypothesis (H 0 ): The average time students spend on homework is equal to 2 hours per night. Data: A random sample of 30 students has an average homework time of 1.8 hours with a standard deviation of 0.5 hours. Test Statistic and Decision: Using a t-test, if the calculated t-statistic falls within the acceptance region, we fail to reject the null hypothesis. If it falls in the rejection region, we reject the null hypothesis. Conclusion: Based on the statistical analysis, we fail to reject the null hypothesis, suggesting that there is not enough evidence to dispute the claim of the average homework time being 2 hours per night.

Example 2: A company asserts that the error rate in its production process is less than 1%.

Null Hypothesis (H 0 ): The error rate in the production process is 1% or higher. Data: A sample of 500 products shows an error rate of 0.8%. Test Statistic and Decision: Using a z-test, if the calculated z-statistic falls within the acceptance region, we fail to reject the null hypothesis. If it falls in the rejection region, we reject the null hypothesis. Conclusion: The statistical analysis supports rejecting the null hypothesis, indicating that there is enough evidence to dispute the company’s claim of an error rate of 1% or higher.

## Null Hypothesis – Practice Problems

Q1. A researcher claims that the average time spent by students on homework is less than 2 hours per day. Formulate the null hypothesis for this claim?

Q2. A manufacturing company states that their new machine produces widgets with a defect rate of less than 5%. Write the null hypothesis to test this claim?

Q3. An educational institute believes that their online course completion rate is at least 60%. Develop the null hypothesis to validate this assertion?

Q4. A restaurant claims that the waiting time for customers during peak hours is not more than 15 minutes. Formulate the null hypothesis for this claim?

Q5. A study suggests that the mean weight loss after following a specific diet plan for a month is more than 8 pounds. Construct the null hypothesis to evaluate this statement?

## Null Hypothesis – Frequently Asked Questions

How to form a null hypothesis.

A null hypothesis is formed based on the assumption that there is no significant difference or effect between the groups being compared or no association between variables being tested. It often involves stating that there is no relationship, no change, or no effect in the population being studied.

## When Do we reject the Null Hypothesis?

In statistical hypothesis testing, if the p-value (the probability of obtaining the observed results) is lower than the chosen significance level (commonly 0.05), we reject the null hypothesis. This suggests that the data provides enough evidence to refute the assumption made in the null hypothesis.

## What is a Null Hypothesis in Research?

In research, the null hypothesis represents the default assumption or position that there is no significant difference or effect. Researchers often try to test this hypothesis by collecting data and performing statistical analyses to see if the observed results contradict the assumption.

## What Are Alternative and Null Hypotheses?

The null hypothesis (H0) is the default assumption that there is no significant difference or effect. The alternative hypothesis (H1 or Ha) is the opposite, suggesting there is a significant difference, effect or relationship.

## What Does it Mean to Reject the Null Hypothesis?

Rejecting the null hypothesis implies that there is enough evidence in the data to support the alternative hypothesis. In simpler terms, it suggests that there might be a significant difference, effect or relationship between the groups or variables being studied.

## How to Find Null Hypothesis?

Formulating a null hypothesis often involves considering the research question and assuming that no difference or effect exists. It should be a statement that can be tested through data collection and statistical analysis, typically stating no relationship or no change between variables or groups.

## How is Null Hypothesis denoted?

The null hypothesis is commonly symbolized as H 0 in statistical notation.

## What is the Purpose of the Null hypothesis in Statistical Analysis?

The null hypothesis serves as a starting point for hypothesis testing, enabling researchers to assess if there’s enough evidence to reject it in favor of an alternative hypothesis.

## What happens if we Reject the Null hypothesis?

Rejecting the null hypothesis implies that there is sufficient evidence to support an alternative hypothesis, suggesting a significant effect or relationship between variables.

## Is it Possible to Prove the Null Hypothesis?

No, statistical testing aims to either reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis based on evidence from sample data. It does not prove the null hypothesis to be true.

## What are Test for Null Hypothesis?

Various statistical tests, such as t-tests or chi-square tests, are employed to evaluate the validity of the Null Hypothesis in different scenarios.

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## Null Hypothesis vs. Hypothesis

Published: November 3, 2022 by iSixSigma Staff

## Null Hypothesis vs. Hypothesis: What’s the Difference?

What is null hypothesis.

A null hypothesis is a prediction that there is no statistical relationship between two variables or two sets of data. Essentially, a null hypothesis makes the assumption that any measured differences are the result of randomness and that the two possibilities are the same until proven otherwise.

## The Benefits of a Null Hypothesis

A null hypothesis is commonly used in research to determine whether there is a real relationship between two measured phenomena. It offers the ability to distinguish between results that are the result of random chance or if there is a legitimate statistical relationship.

## How to Create a Null Hypothesis

To create a null hypothesis, start by asking a few questions about the set of data or experiment. Then rephrase those questions into a statement that assumes no relationship. Null hypotheses usually include phrases such as “no relationship,” “no effect,” etc. For example, let’s say you are looking at some data about whether the number of people on a project affects the overall ability of the team to accomplish its goals.

A question might look like this:

“Does the number of people working on a team project impact the ability of the team to achieve the goals of the project?”

Rephrasing this into a null hypothesis that assumes no relationship would look like this:

“The number of people working on a team project does not impact the ability of the team to achieve the goals of the project.”

The null hypothesis is assumed true until proven otherwise.

## What Is a Hypothesis?

A hypothesis, also known as an alternative hypothesis, is an educated theory or “guess” based on limited evidence that requires further testing to be proven true or false. It is used in an experiment to define a relationship between two variables.

## The Benefits of a Hypothesis

A hypothesis helps a researcher prove or disprove their theories, or guesses, using limited data and knowledge. Researchers and scientists will create a formalized hypothesis based on past data or experiments. This hypothesis forces them to think about what they should be looking for in their experiments.

## How to Create a Hypothesis

The best way to create a hypothesis is first to create a null hypothesis. Once you have your null hypothesis that states there is no relationship, you can then revise the statement that implies a relationship does exist. This is the reason it is referred to as an “alternative hypothesis.”

As an example:

Null hypothesis: There is no relationship between mediation and the reduction of depression. Alternative hypothesis: The practice of meditation reduces depression.

In this example, the research wants to disprove that there is no relationship between meditation and the reduction of depression and prove that meditation does, in fact, reduce depression. The researcher’s goal is to prove their hypothesis through statistical data.

In the simplest terms, a hypothesis is something that a researcher tries to prove, while a null hypothesis is something that a researcher tries to disprove. Both are used when performing research and evaluating data.

There are two variables in a hypothesis. The first is called the independent variable. This is the driving force of the experiment or research. The second is called the dependent variable, which is the measurable result.

The biggest difference between the two is that a null hypothesis cannot be proven; it can only be rejected.

## Null Hypothesis vs. Hypothesis: Who Would Use Null Hypothesis and/or Hypothesis?

Having both a null hypothesis and hypothesis is beneficial and required in nearly all fields of research. Having both null and alternative hypothesis offer competing views into your research. Researchers weigh the evidence for and against the two hypotheses using a statistical test. The statistical data is used to prove or disprove the alternative hypothesis. If an alternative hypothesis is disproved, researchers can then modify their alternative hypothesis and look at their experimentation method(s) in order to achieve their goals and improve the accuracy of their experiments.

## Choosing Between Null Hypothesis and Hypothesis: Real World Scenarios

Null and alternative hypotheses are used extensively in medical research. Let’s say a team of researchers is trying to determine if flossing decreases the number of cavities a person might experience.

Their null hypothesis might look like this:

“There is no relationship between tooth flossing and the number of cavities a person experiences.”

Their alternative hypothesis might be:

“Tooth flossing reduces the number of cavities a person experiences.”

In the world of investing, a null hypothesis is frequently used in the quantitative analysis of data to test theories about economies, investing strategies, and other financial markets.

An example of a null hypothesis: The mean annual return of a stock option is 3%.

An example of an alternative hypothesis: The mean annual return of a stock option is NOT 3%.

Essentially, the theories are the alternative hypothesis you are trying to prove, and the null hypothesis is the statement you are trying to disprove.

The bottom line is that both types of hypotheses are required for proper research and data evaluation. Create a null hypothesis to disprove and an alternative hypothesis to prove. Collect and evaluate the data to determine which hypothesis is favored.

## About the Author

## iSixSigma Staff

## 9.1 Null and Alternative Hypotheses

H 0 : The null hypothesis: It is a statement of no difference between the variables—they are not related. This can often be considered the status quo and as a result if you cannot accept the null it requires some action.

H a : The alternative hypothesis: It is a claim about the population that is contradictory to H 0 and what we conclude when we reject H 0 . This is usually what the researcher is trying to prove.

After you have determined which hypothesis the sample supports, you make a decision. There are two options for a decision. They are "reject H 0 " if the sample information favors the alternative hypothesis or "do not reject H 0 " or "decline to reject H 0 " if the sample information is insufficient to reject the null hypothesis.

Mathematical Symbols Used in H 0 and H a :

H 0 always has a symbol with an equal in it. H a never has a symbol with an equal in it. The choice of symbol depends on the wording of the hypothesis test. However, be aware that many researchers (including one of the co-authors in research work) use = in the null hypothesis, even with > or < as the symbol in the alternative hypothesis. This practice is acceptable because we only make the decision to reject or not reject the null hypothesis.

## Example 9.1

H 0 : No more than 30% of the registered voters in Santa Clara County voted in the primary election. p ≤ .30 H a : More than 30% of the registered voters in Santa Clara County voted in the primary election. p > 30

## Example 9.2

We want to test whether the mean GPA of students in American colleges is different from 2.0 (out of 4.0). The null and alternative hypotheses are: H 0 : μ = 2.0 H a : μ ≠ 2.0

We want to test whether the mean height of eighth graders is 66 inches. State the null and alternative hypotheses. Fill in the correct symbol (=, ≠, ≥, <, ≤, >) for the null and alternative hypotheses.

- H 0 : μ __ 66
- H a : μ __ 66

## Example 9.3

We want to test if college students take less than five years to graduate from college, on the average. The null and alternative hypotheses are: H 0 : μ ≥ 5 H a : μ < 5

- H 0 : μ __ 45
- H a : μ __ 45

## Example 9.4

In an issue of U. S. News and World Report , an article on school standards stated that about half of all students in France, Germany, and Israel take advanced placement exams and a third pass. The same article stated that 6.6% of U.S. students take advanced placement exams and 4.4% pass. Test if the percentage of U.S. students who take advanced placement exams is more than 6.6%. State the null and alternative hypotheses. H 0 : p ≤ 0.066 H a : p > 0.066

On a state driver’s test, about 40% pass the test on the first try. We want to test if more than 40% pass on the first try. Fill in the correct symbol (=, ≠, ≥, <, ≤, >) for the null and alternative hypotheses.

- H 0 : p __ 0.40
- H a : p __ 0.40

## Collaborative Exercise

This book may not be used in the training of large language models or otherwise be ingested into large language models or generative AI offerings without OpenStax's permission.

Want to cite, share, or modify this book? This book uses the Creative Commons Attribution License and you must attribute OpenStax.

Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/introductory-statistics-2e/pages/1-introduction

- Authors: Barbara Illowsky, Susan Dean
- Publisher/website: OpenStax
- Book title: Introductory Statistics 2e
- Publication date: Dec 13, 2023
- Location: Houston, Texas
- Book URL: https://openstax.org/books/introductory-statistics-2e/pages/1-introduction
- Section URL: https://openstax.org/books/introductory-statistics-2e/pages/9-1-null-and-alternative-hypotheses

© Dec 6, 2023 OpenStax. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License . The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, and OpenStax CNX logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University.

## READY, FIRE, AIM: Big Foot… and the Null Hypothesis

Image of Big Foot by Steve Baxter. (Not an actual photo.)

Who doesn’t love a mystery?

Apparently, scientists.

Scientists are always trying to find the ‘answer’ to this or that ‘mystery’ — and occasionally, they seem to succeed.

Occasionally, they fail.

Like, with SARS-CoV-2, an invisible virus that has been blamed for causing ‘COVID-19’. At the beginning of 2020, it was a mystery disease, with no known cure, that came from God-knows-where.

Now that we’ve all had COVID, and most of us survived the experience, it’s still a mystery disease, with no known cure, that came from God-knows-where. (A virology lab in China, apparently?)

But the search for a cure made a few people really, really rich.

I doubt anyone is going to get rich, proving that Big Foot — Sasquatch — doesn’t exist. Nevertheless, an international collaboration of scientists apparently spent considerable effort performing a genomic analysis of hairs that people claimed came from a large, hairy primate. After weeks of hard scientific work in a laboratory at the University of Oxford, the scientists wrote a report , published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society, declaring that they had not found any evidence of Sasquatch.

They were also searching for evidence of the Yeti, the big guy who lives in the Himalayas. But in spite of their efforts, they failed to prove that the Sasquatch and the Yeti don’t exist.

Many of us believe that the Yeti and the Sasquatch are probably the same, identical primate. Or at least, close cousins. Science has, thus far, been unable to clear up that question for us.

But they may have found another mystery to solve.

In the first ever systematic genetic survey, we have used rigorous decontamination followed by mitochondrial 12S RNA sequencing to identify the species origin of 30 hair samples attributed to anomalous primates. Two Himalayan samples, one from Ladakh, India, the other from Bhutan, had their closest genetic affinity with a Palaeolithic polar bear, Ursus maritimus. Otherwise the hairs were from a range of known extant mammals.

In this situation, we might be dealing with a ‘null hypothesis’.

Scientists often try to find a explanation behind a mystery, and they often do. Or think they do. They tell us, for example, that an invisible virus, that travels through the air during casual conversation (or maybe, kissing) can cause a person to suffer severe respiratory distress. But there are other situations where scientists (perhaps out of frustration) try to prove the opposite — that there is no connection between a certain presumed agent and a certain outcome. This typically involves statistical analysis, which we’ve all come to suspect, with good reason.

If you can prove that a certain outcome is totally random and has no relationship to the suspected causal agent, you have successfully confirmed your ‘null hypothesis’.

But it’s not as simple as it might sound.

The international collaboration of scientist at the University of Oxford, for example, tested hairs collected in Asia and North America. Presumably, the hairs had been collected during sightings of Yeti or Big Foot. So maybe the hairs could provide proof that these primates actually exist?

We’ve lately been told that scientists can identify people and other biological life forms using DNA or RNA analysis. For all we know, the scientists are actually making the whole thing up and using a dart board. But the machinery involved is so complicated, no one can really tell what’s going on. (A dart board is easier to understand, and probably more fun.)

The scientists in the Big Foot study analyzed the 30 hair samples and determined that they were similar to hairs from ordinary, everyday animals. Porcupines, raccoons, cows, for example.

But two of the samples had mysterious RNA.

In the case of two samples gathered in the Himalayas, the only close match the scientists could find was with RNA extracted from a 40,000-year-old fossil of a (presumably extinct) polar bear. The RNA was not a match to any living polar bears’ RNA.

The report did not jump to the (very obvious) conclusion, which is: Big Foot is not a primate at all, but rather, a polar bear that was thought to have become extinct 40,000 years ago.

You have to be a non-scientist, I guess, to see the obvious explanation.

So what did we learn? That a careful analysis of 30 hair samples didn’t prove anything, one way or the other. Remind anyone of the Chinese virology lab problem?

Nevertheless, the Oxford scientists got their report published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society, for which I presume they were paid handsomely. (RNA testing machinery is not cheap.)

Meanwhile, I’ll probably get no credit at all, for explaining the mystery of the not-extinct polar bear.

Like my dad used to tell me: Life isn’t fair.

Underrated writer Louis Cannon grew up in the vast American West, although his ex-wife, given the slightest opportunity, will deny that he ever grew up at all.

## AV Rant #903: Speaker Null Hypothesis Podcast Archives - AV Rant

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## COMMENTS

The null and alternative hypotheses offer competing answers to your research question. When the research question asks "Does the independent variable affect the dependent variable?": The null hypothesis ( H0) answers "No, there's no effect in the population.". The alternative hypothesis ( Ha) answers "Yes, there is an effect in the ...

Null Hypothesis H 0: The correlation in the population is zero: ρ = 0. Alternative Hypothesis H A: The correlation in the population is not zero: ρ ≠ 0. For all these cases, the analysts define the hypotheses before the study. After collecting the data, they perform a hypothesis test to determine whether they can reject the null hypothesis.

Null hypothesis. In scientific research, the null hypothesis (often denoted H0) [1] is the claim that the effect being studied does not exist. Note that the term "effect" here is not meant to imply a causative relationship. The null hypothesis can also be described as the hypothesis in which no relationship exists between two sets of data or ...

The actual test begins by considering two hypotheses.They are called the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis.These hypotheses contain opposing viewpoints. H 0, the —null hypothesis: a statement of no difference between sample means or proportions or no difference between a sample mean or proportion and a population mean or proportion. In other words, the difference equals 0.

Review. In a hypothesis test, sample data is evaluated in order to arrive at a decision about some type of claim.If certain conditions about the sample are satisfied, then the claim can be evaluated for a population. In a hypothesis test, we: Evaluate the null hypothesis, typically denoted with \(H_{0}\).The null is not rejected unless the hypothesis test shows otherwise.

A null hypothesis is a statistical concept suggesting no significant difference or relationship between measured variables. It's the default assumption unless empirical evidence proves otherwise. The null hypothesis states no relationship exists between the two variables being studied (i.e., one variable does not affect the other).

The null and alternative hypotheses are two competing claims that researchers weigh evidence for and against using a statistical test: Null hypothesis (H0): There's no effect in the population. Alternative hypothesis (HA): There's an effect in the population. The effect is usually the effect of the independent variable on the dependent ...

It is the opposite of your research hypothesis. The alternative hypothesis--that is, the research hypothesis--is the idea, phenomenon, observation that you want to prove. If you suspect that girls take longer to get ready for school than boys, then: Alternative: girls time > boys time. Null: girls time <= boys time.

H0: The null hypothesis: It is a statement about the population that either is believed to be true or is used to put forth an argument unless it can be shown to be incorrect beyond a reasonable doubt. Ha: The alternative hypothesis: It is a claim about the population that is.

The actual test begins by considering two hypotheses.They are called the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis.These hypotheses contain opposing viewpoints. H 0: The null hypothesis: It is a statement about the population that either is believed to be true or is used to put forth an argument unless it can be shown to be incorrect beyond a reasonable doubt.

Null Hypothesis Overview. The null hypothesis, H 0 is the commonly accepted fact; it is the opposite of the alternate hypothesis. Researchers work to reject, nullify or disprove the null hypothesis. Researchers come up with an alternate hypothesis, one that they think explains a phenomenon, and then work to reject the null hypothesis.

Whenever we perform a hypothesis test, we always write a null hypothesis and an alternative hypothesis, which take the following forms: H0 (Null Hypothesis): Population parameter =, ≤, ≥ some value. HA (Alternative Hypothesis): Population parameter <, >, ≠ some value. Note that the null hypothesis always contains the equal sign.

Null Hypothesis Examples. "Hyperactivity is unrelated to eating sugar " is an example of a null hypothesis. If the hypothesis is tested and found to be false, using statistics, then a connection between hyperactivity and sugar ingestion may be indicated. A significance test is the most common statistical test used to establish confidence in a ...

The null hypothesis, positing no effect or relationship, is a foundational contrast to the research hypothesis in scientific inquiry. It establishes a baseline for statistical testing, promoting objectivity by initiating research from a neutral stance.

A null hypothesis is a theory based on insufficient evidence that requires further testing to prove whether the observed data is true or false. For example, a null hypothesis statement can be "the rate of plant growth is not affected by sunlight.". It can be tested by measuring the growth of plants in the presence of sunlight and comparing ...

In a hypothesis test, sample data is evaluated in order to arrive at a decision about some type of claim. If certain conditions about the sample are satisfied, then the claim can be evaluated for a population. In a hypothesis test, we: Evaluate the null hypothesis, typically denoted with \(H_{0}\). The null is not rejected unless the hypothesis ...

Null hypothesis is used to make decisions based on data and by using statistical tests. Null hypothesis is represented using H o and it states that there is no difference between the characteristics of two samples. Null hypothesis is generally a statement of no difference. The rejection of null hypothesis is equivalent to the acceptance of the ...

The null hypothesis is a kind of hypothesis which explains the population parameter whose purpose is to test the validity of the given experimental data. This hypothesis is either rejected or not rejected based on the viability of the given population or sample. In other words, the null hypothesis is a hypothesis in which the sample ...

The null hypothesis is the opposite of the alternative hypothesis, which is the hypothesis that you are testing. The null hypothesis states that there is no significant difference or relationship between the variables. It is important to write the null hypothesis because it allows you to compare your results with what would be expected by chance.

Null hypothesis, often denoted as H0, is a foundational concept in statistical hypothesis testing. It represents an assumption that no significant difference, effect, or relationship exists between variables within a population. Learn more about Null Hypothesis, its formula, symbol and example in this article

A null hypothesis is commonly used in research to determine whether there is a real relationship between two measured phenomena. It offers the ability to distinguish between results that are the result of random chance or if there is a legitimate statistical relationship.

The actual test begins by considering two hypotheses.They are called the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis.These hypotheses contain opposing viewpoints. H 0: The null hypothesis: It is a statement of no difference between the variables—they are not related. This can often be considered the status quo and as a result if you cannot accept the null it requires some action.

Hypothesis tests are used to test the validity of a claim that is made about a population. This claim that's on trial, in essence, is called the null hypothesis (H 0).The alternative hypothesis (H a) is the one you would believe if the null hypothesis is concluded to be untrue.Learning how to find the p-value in statistics is a fundamental skill in testing, helping you weigh the evidence ...

If testing a 2-sided hypothesis, use a 2-sided test! Morals of the sidedness (or tail) tale: + A single, 1-sided test is fine if one has prior information and makes *a* 1-sided hypothesis. + For all other cases, use *a* 2-sided test. + A pair of 1-sided tests with FPR = α is equivalent to one 2-sided test with FPR = 2α, i.e.,

In a test of hypothesis, the null hypothesis is that the population mean is greater than or equal to 7 4 and the alternative hypothesis is that the population mean is less than 7 4. A sample of 3 5 elements selected from this population produced a mean of 7 2. 4 and a standard deviation of 6. 4. The significance level is 1 %.

Scientists are always trying to find the 'answer' to this or that 'mystery' — and occasionally, they seem to succeed. Occasionally, they fail. Like, with SARS-CoV-2, an invisible virus that has been blamed for causing 'COVID-19'. At the beginning of 2020, it was a mystery disease ...

AV Rant #903: Speaker Null Hypothesis Podcast Archives - AV Rant Technology OLED TV prices are either staying the same or going up a bit. M&K Sound has new THX Dominus Certified in-wall speakers. APC has two new Back-UPS BE power protection models.