Examples Lab

7 Examples of Justification (of a project or research)

The justification to the part of a research project that sets out the reasons that motivated the research. The justification is the section that explains the importance and the reasons that led the researcher to carry out the work.

The justification explains to the reader why and why the chosen topic was investigated. In general, the reasons that the researcher can give in a justification may be that his work allows to build or refute theories; bring a new approach or perspective on the subject; contribute to the solution of a specific problem (social, economic, environmental, etc.) that affects certain people; generate meaningful and reusable empirical data; clarify the causes and consequences of a specific phenomenon of interest; among other.

Among the criteria used to write a justification, the usefulness of the research for other academics or for other social sectors (public officials, companies, sectors of civil society), the significance in time that it may have, the contribution of new research tools or techniques, updating of existing knowledge, among others. Also, the language should be formal and descriptive.

Examples of justification

  • This research will focus on studying the reproduction habits of salmon in the Mediterranean region of Europe, since due to recent ecological changes in the water and temperatures of the region produced by human economic activity , the behavior of these animals has been modified. Thus, the present work would allow to show the changes that the species has developed to adapt to the new circumstances of its ecosystem, and to deepen the theoretical knowledge about accelerated adaptation processes, in addition to offering a comprehensive look at the environmental damage caused by growth. unsustainable economic, helping to raise awareness of the local population.
  • We therefore propose to investigate the evolution of the theoretical conceptions of class struggle and economic structure throughout the work of Antonio Gramsci, since we consider that previous analyzes have overlooked the fundamentally dynamic and unstable conception of human society that is present. in the works of Gramsci, and that is of vital importance to fully understand the author’s thought.
  • The reasons that led us to investigate the effects of regular use of cell phones on the health of middle-class young people under 18 years of age are centered on the fact that this vulnerable sector of the population is exposed to a greater extent than the rest of society to risks that the continuous use of cell phone devices may imply, due to their cultural and social habits. We intend then to help alert about these dangers, as well as to generate knowledge that helps in the treatment of the effects produced by the abuse in the use of this technology.
  • We believe that by means of a detailed analysis of the evolution of financial transactions carried out in the main stock exchanges of the world during the period 2005-2010, as well as the inquiry about how financial and banking agents perceived the situation of the financial system, it will allow us to clarify the economic mechanisms that enable the development of an economic crisis of global dimensions such as the one that the world experienced since 2009, and thus improve the design of regulatory and counter-cyclical public policies that favor the stability of the local and international financial system.
  • Our study about the applications and programs developed through the three analyzed programming languages ​​(Java, C ++ and Haskell), can allow us to clearly distinguish the potential that each of these languages ​​(and similar languages) present for solving specific problems. , in a specific area of ​​activity. This would allow not only to increase efficiency in relation to long-term development projects, but to plan coding strategies with better results in projects that are already working, and to improve teaching plans for teaching programming and computer science.
  • This in-depth study on the expansion of the Chinese empire under the Xia dynasty, will allow to clarify the socioeconomic, military and political processes that allowed the consolidation of one of the oldest states in history, and also understand the expansion of metallurgical and administrative technologies along the coastal region of the Pacific Ocean. The deep understanding of these phenomena will allow us to clarify this little-known period in Chinese history, which was of vital importance for the social transformations that the peoples of the region went through during the period.
  • Research on the efficacy of captropil in the treatment of cardiovascular conditions (in particular hypertension and heart failure) will allow us to determine if angiotensin is of vital importance in the processes of blocking the protein peptidase, or if by the On the contrary, these effects can be attributed to other components present in the formula of drugs frequently prescribed to patients after medical consultation.

Related posts:

  • Research Project: Information and examples
  • 15 Examples of Empirical Knowledge
  • 10 Paragraphs about Social Networks
  • 15 Examples of Quotes
  • What are the Elements of Knowledge?

Privacy Overview


Research proposal, thesis, exegesis, and journal article writing for business, social science and humanities (BSSH) research degree candidates

Topic outline, introduction and research justification.

justification of research project

Introduction and research justification, business, social sciences, humanities


  • Signalling the topic in the first sentence
  • The research justification or 'problem' statement 
  • The 'field' of literature
  • Summary of contrasting areas of research
  • Summary of the 'gap' in the literature
  • Research aims and objectives

Summary of the research design

Example research proposal introductions.

This topic outlines the steps in the introduction of the research proposal. As discussed in the first topic in this series of web resources, there are three key elements or conceptual steps within the main body of the research proposal. In this resource, these elements are referred to as the research justification, the literature review and the research design. These three steps also structure, typically, but not always in this order, the proposal introduction which contains an outline of the proposed research.

These steps pertain to the key questions of reviewers:

  • What problem or issue does the research address? (research justification)
  • How will the research contribute to existing knowledge? (the 'gap' in the literature, sometimes referred to as the research 'significance')
  • How will the research achieve its stated objectives? (the research design)

Reviewers look to find a summary of the case for the research in the introduction, which, in essence, involves providing summary answers to each of the questions above.

The introduction of the research proposal usually includes the following content:

  • a research justification or statement of a problem (which also serves to introduce the topic)
  • a summary of the key point in the literature review (a summary of what is known and how the research aims to contribute to what is known)
  • the research aim or objective
  • a summary of the research design
  • concise definitions of any contested or specialised terms that will be used throughout the proposal (provided the first time the term is used).

This topic will consider how to write about each of these in turn.

Signaling the topic in the first sentence

The first task of the research proposal is to signal the area of the research or 'topic' so the reader knows what subject will be discussed in the proposal. This step is ideally accomplished in the opening sentence or the opening paragraph of the research proposal. It is also indicated in the title of the research proposal. It is important not to provide tangential information in the opening sentence or title because this may mislead the reader about the core subject of the proposal.

A ‘topic’ includes:

justification of research project

  • the context or properties of the subject (the particular aspect or properties of the subject that are of interest).

Questions to consider in helping to clarify the topic:

  • What is the focus of my research?
  • What do I want to understand?
  • What domain/s of activity does it pertain to?
  • What will I investigate in order to shed light on my focus?

The research justification or the ‘problem’ statement

The goal of the first step of the research proposal is to get your audience's attention; to show them why your research matters, and to make them want to know more about your research. The first step within the research proposal is sometimes referred to as the research justification or the statement of the 'problem'. This step involves providing the reader with critical background or contextual information that introduces the topic area, and indicates why the research is important. Research proposals often open by outlining a central concern, issue, question or conundrum to which the research relates.

The research justification should be provided in an accessible and direct manner in the introductory section of the research proposal. The number of words required to complete this first conceptual step will vary widely depending on the project.

Writing about the research justification, like writing about the literature and your research design, is a creative process involving careful decision making on your part. The research justification should lead up to the topic of your research and frame your research, and, when you write your thesis, exegesis or journal article conclusion, you will again return to the research justification to wrap up the implications of your research. That is to say, your conclusions will refer back to the problem and reflect on what the findings suggest about how we should treat the problem. For this reason, you may find the need to go back and reframe your research justification as your research and writing progresses.

The most common way of establishing the importance of the research is to refer to a real world problem. Research may aim to produce knowledge that will ultimately be used to:

  • advance national and organisational goals (health, clean environment, quality education),
  • improve policies and regulations,
  • manage risk,
  • contribute to economic development,
  • promote peace and prosperity,
  • promote democracy,
  • test assumptions (theoretical, popular, policy) about human behaviour, the economy, society,
  • understand human behaviour, the economy and social experience,
  • understand or critique social processes and values.

Examples of 'research problems' in opening sentences and paragraphs of research writing

Management The concept of meritocracy is one replicated and sustained in much discourse around organisational recruitment, retention and promotion. Women have a firm belief in the concept of merit, believing that hard work, education and talent will in the end be rewarded (McNamee and Miller, 2004). This belief in workplace meritocracy could in part be due to the advertising efforts of employers themselves, who, since the early 1990s, attempt to attract employees through intensive branding programs and aggressive advertising which emphasise equality of opportunity. The statistics, however, are less than convincing, with 2008 data from the Equal Employment for Women in the Workplace agency signalling that women are disproportionately represented in senior management levels compared to men, and that the numbers of women at Chief Executive Officer level in corporate Australia have actually decreased (Equal Opportunity for Women Agency, 2008). Women, it seems, are still unable to shatter the glass ceiling and are consistently overlooked at executive level.

Psychology Tension-type headache is extremely prevalent and is associated with significant personal and social costs.

Education One of the major challenges of higher education health programs is developing the cognitive abilities that will assist undergraduate students' clinical decision making. This is achieved by stimulating enquiry analysis, creating independent judgement and developing cognitive skills that are in line with graduate practice (Hollingworth and McLoughlin 2001; Bedard, 1996).

Visual arts In the East, the traditional idea of the body was not as something separate from the mind. In the West, however, the body is still perceived as separate, as a counterpart of the mind. The body is increasingly at the centre of the changing cultural environment, particularly the increasingly visual culture exemplified by the ubiquity of the image, the emergence of virtual reality, voyeurism and surveillance culture. Within the contemporary visual environment, the body's segregation from the mind has become more intense than ever, conferring upon the body a 'being watched' or 'manufacturable' status, further undermining the sense of the body as an integral part of our being.

justification of research project

Literature review summary

The next step following the research justification in the introduction is the literature review summary statement. This part of the introduction summarises the literature review section of the research proposal, providing a concise statement that signals the field of research and the rationale for the research question or aim.

It can be helpful to think about the literature review element as comprised of four parts. The first is a reference to the field or discipline the research will contribute to. The second is a summary of the main questions, approaches or accepted conclusions in your topic area in the field or discipline at present ('what is known'). This summary of existing research acts as a contrast to highlight the significance of the third part, your statement of a 'gap'. The fourth part rephrases this 'gap' in the form of a research question, aim, objective or hypothesis.

For example

Scholars writing about ... (the problem area) in the field of ... (discipline or sub-discipline, part one) have observed that ... ('what is known', part two). Others describe ... ('what is known', part two). A more recent perspective chronicles changes that, in broad outline, parallel those that have occurred in ... ('what is known', part two). This study differs from these approaches in that it considers ... ('gap', research focus, part three). This research draws on ... to consider ... (research objective, part four).  

More information about writing these four parts of the literature review summary is provided below.

1. The 'field' of literature

The field of research is the academic discipline within which your research is situated, and to which it will contribute. Some fields grow out of a single discipline, others are multidisciplinary. The field or discipline is linked to university courses and research, academic journals, conferences and other academic associations, and some book publishers. It also describes the expertise of thesis supervisors and examiners. 

The discipline defines the kinds of approaches, theories, methods and styles of writing adopted by scholars and researchers working within them.

For a list of academic disciplines have a look at the wikipedia site at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_academic_disciplines

The field or discipline is not the same as the topic of the research. The topic is the subject matter or foci of your research. Disciplines or 'fields' refer to globally recognised areas of research and scholarship.

The field or discipline the research aims to contribute to can be signalled in a few key words within the literature review summary, or possibly earlier withn the research justification.

Sentence stems to signal the field of research 

  • Within the field of ... there is now agreement that ... .
  • The field of ... is marked by ongoing debate about ... .
  • Following analysis of ... the field of ... turned to an exploration of ... .

2. A summary of contrasting areas of research or what is 'known'

The newness or significance of what you are doing is typically established in a contrast or dialogue with other research and scholarship. The 'gap' (or hole in the donut) only becomes apparent by the surrounding literature (or donut). Sometimes a contrast is provided to show that you are working in a different area to what has been done before, or to show that you are building on previous work, or perhaps working on an unresolved issue within a discipline. It might also be that the approaches of other disciplines on the same problem area or focus are introduced to highlight a new angle on the topic.

3. The summary of the 'gap' in the literature

The 'gap' in the field typically refers to the explanation provided to support the research question. Questions or objectives grow out of areas of uncertainty, or gaps, in the field of research. In most cases, you will not know what the gap in knowledge is until you have reviewed the literature and written up a good part of the literature review section of the proposal. It is often not possible therefore to confidently write the 'gap' statement until you have done considerable work on the literature review. Once your literature review section is sufficiently developed, you can summarise the missing piece of knowledge in a brief statement in the introduction.

Sentence stems for summarising a 'gap' in the literature

Indicate a gap in the previous research by raising a question about it, or extending previous knowledge in some way:

  • However, there is little information/attention/work/data/research on … .
  • However, few studies/investigations/researchers/attempt to … .

Often steps two and three blend together in the same sentence, as in the sentence stems below.

Sentence stems which both introduce research in the field (what is 'known') and summarise a 'gap'

  • The research has tended to focus on …(introduce existing field foci), rather than on … ('gap').
  • These studies have emphasised that … …(introduce what is known), but it remains unclear whether … ('gap').
  • Although considerable research has been devoted to … (introduce field areas), rather less attention has been paid to … ('gap').

The 'significance' of the research

When writing the research proposal, it is useful to think about the research justification and the  ‘gap in the literature’ as two distinct conceptual elements, each of which must be established separately. Stating a real world problem or outlining a conceptual or other conundrum or concern is typically not, in itself, enough to justify the research. Similarly, establishing that there is a gap in the literature is often not enough on its own to persuade the reader that the research is important. In the first case, reviewers may still wonder ‘perhaps the problem or concern has already been addressed in the literature’, or, in the second, ‘so little has been done on this focus, but perhaps the proposed research is not important’? The proposal will ideally establish that the research is important, and that it will provide something new to the field of knowledge.

In effect, the research justification and the literature review work together to establish the benefit, contribution or 'significance' of the research. The 'significance' of the research is established not in a statement to be incorporated into the proposal, but as something the first two sections of the proposal work to establish. Research is significant when it pertains to something important, and when it provides new knowledge or insights within a field of knowledge.

4. The research aim or objective

The research aim is usually expressed as a concise statement at the close of the literature review. It may be referred to as an objective, a question or an aim. These terms are often used interchangeably to refer to the focus of the investigation. The research focus is the question at the heart of the research, designed to produce new knowledge. To avoid confusing the reader about the purpose of the research it is best to express it as either an aim, or an objective, or a question. It is also important to frame the aims of the research in a succinct manner; no more than three dot points say. And the aim/objective/question should be framed in more or less the same way wherever it appears in the proposal. This ensures the research focus is clear.

Language use

Research generally aims to produce knowledge, as opposed to say recommendations, policy or social change. Research may support policy or social change, and eventually produce it in some of its applications, but it does not typically produce it (with the possible exception of action research). For this reason, aims and objectives are framed in terms of knowledge production, using phrases like:

  • to increase understanding, insight, clarity;
  • to evaluate and critique;
  • to test models, theory, or strategies.

These are all knowledge outcomes that can be achieved within the research process.

Reflecting your social philosophy in the research aim

A well written research aim typically carries within it information about the philosophical approach the research will take, even if the researcher is not themselves aware of it, or if the proposal does not discuss philosophy or social theory at any length. If you are interested in social theory, you might consider framing your aim such that it reflects your philosophical or theoretical approach. Since your philosophical approach reflects your beliefs about how 'valid' knowledge can be gained, and therefore the types of questions you ask, it follows that it will be evident within your statement of the research aim. Researchers, variously, hold that knowledge of the world arises through:

  • observations of phenomena (measurements of what we can see, hear, taste, touch);
  • the interactions between interpreting human subjects and objective phenomena in the world;
  • ideology shaped by power, which we may be unconscious of, and which must be interrogated and replaced with knowledge that reflects people's true interests; 
  • the structure of language and of the unconscious;
  • the play of historical relations between human actions, institutional practices and prevailing discourses;
  • metaphoric and other linguistic relations established within language and text.

The philosophical perspective underpinning your research is then reflected in the research aim. For example, depending upon your philosophical perspective, you may aim to find out about:

  • observable phenomenon or facts;
  • shared cultural meanings of practices, rituals, events that determine how objective phenomena are interpreted and experienced;
  • social structures and political ideologies that shape experience and distort authentic or empowered experience;
  • the structure of language;
  • the historical evolution of networks of discursive and extra-discursive practices;
  • emerging or actual phenomenon untainted by existing representation.

You might check your aim statement to ensure it reflects the philosophical perspective you claim to adopt in your proposal. Check that there are not contradictions in your philosophical claims and that you are consistent in your approach. For assistance with this you may find the Social philosophy of research resources helpful.

Sentence stems for aims and objectives

  • The purpose of this research project is to … .
  • The purpose of this investigation is to … .
  • The aim of this research project is to … .
  • This study is designed to … .

The next step or key element in the research proposal is the research design. The research design explains how the research aims will be achieved. Within the introduction a summary of the overall research design can make the project more accessible to the reader.

The summary statement of the research design within the introduction might include:

  • the method/s that will be used (interviews, surveys, video observation, diary recording);
  • if the research will be phased, how many phases, and what methods will be used in each phase;
  • brief reference to how the data will be analysed.

The statement of the research design is often the last thing discussed in the research proposal introduction.

NB. It is not necessary to explain that a literature review and a detailed ouline of the methods and methodology will follow because academic readers will assume this.

Title: Aboriginal cultural values and economic sustainability: A case study of agro-forestry in a remote Aboriginal community

Further examples can be found at the end of this topic, and in the drop down for this topic in the left menu. 

In summary, the introduction contains a problem statement, or explanation of why the research is important to the world, a summary of the literature review, and a summary of the research design. The introduction enables the reviewer, as well as yourself and your supervisory team, to assess the logical connections between the research justification, the 'gap' in the literature, research aim and the research design without getting lost in the detail of the project. In this sense, the introduction serves as a kind of map or abstract of the proposed research as well as of the main body of the research proposal.

The following questions may be useful in assessing your research proposal introduction.

  • Have I clearly signalled the research topic in the key words and phrases used in the first sentence and title of the research proposal?
  • Have I explained why my research matters, the problem or issue that underlies the research in the opening sentences,  paragraphs and page/s?
  • Have I used literature, examples or other evidence to substantiate my understanding of the key issues?
  • Have I explained the problem in a way that grabs the reader’s attention and concern?
  • Have I indicated the field/s within which my research is situated using key words that are recognised by other scholars?
  • Have I provided a summary of previous research and outlined a 'gap' in the literature?
  • Have I provided a succinct statement of the objectives or aims of my research?
  • Have I provided a summary of the research phases and methods?

This resource was developed by Wendy Bastalich.

File icon

Grad Coach

What (Exactly) Is A Research Proposal?

A simple explainer with examples + free template.

By: Derek Jansen (MBA) | Reviewed By: Dr Eunice Rautenbach | June 2020 (Updated April 2023)

Whether you’re nearing the end of your degree and your dissertation is on the horizon, or you’re planning to apply for a PhD program, chances are you’ll need to craft a convincing research proposal . If you’re on this page, you’re probably unsure exactly what the research proposal is all about. Well, you’ve come to the right place.

Overview: Research Proposal Basics

  • What a research proposal is
  • What a research proposal needs to cover
  • How to structure your research proposal
  • Example /sample proposals
  • Proposal writing FAQs
  • Key takeaways & additional resources

What is a research proposal?

Simply put, a research proposal is a structured, formal document that explains what you plan to research (your research topic), why it’s worth researching (your justification), and how  you plan to investigate it (your methodology). 

The purpose of the research proposal (its job, so to speak) is to convince  your research supervisor, committee or university that your research is  suitable  (for the requirements of the degree program) and  manageable  (given the time and resource constraints you will face). 

The most important word here is “ convince ” – in other words, your research proposal needs to  sell  your research idea (to whoever is going to approve it). If it doesn’t convince them (of its suitability and manageability), you’ll need to revise and resubmit . This will cost you valuable time, which will either delay the start of your research or eat into its time allowance (which is bad news). 

A research proposal is a  formal document that explains what you plan to research , why it's worth researching and how you'll do it.

What goes into a research proposal?

A good dissertation or thesis proposal needs to cover the “ what “, “ why ” and” how ” of the proposed study. Let’s look at each of these attributes in a little more detail:

Your proposal needs to clearly articulate your research topic . This needs to be specific and unambiguous . Your research topic should make it clear exactly what you plan to research and in what context. Here’s an example of a well-articulated research topic:

An investigation into the factors which impact female Generation Y consumer’s likelihood to promote a specific makeup brand to their peers: a British context

As you can see, this topic is extremely clear. From this one line we can see exactly:

  • What’s being investigated – factors that make people promote or advocate for a brand of a specific makeup brand
  • Who it involves – female Gen-Y consumers
  • In what context – the United Kingdom

So, make sure that your research proposal provides a detailed explanation of your research topic . If possible, also briefly outline your research aims and objectives , and perhaps even your research questions (although in some cases you’ll only develop these at a later stage). Needless to say, don’t start writing your proposal until you have a clear topic in mind , or you’ll end up waffling and your research proposal will suffer as a result of this.

Need a helping hand?

justification of research project

As we touched on earlier, it’s not good enough to simply propose a research topic – you need to justify why your topic is original . In other words, what makes it  unique ? What gap in the current literature does it fill? If it’s simply a rehash of the existing research, it’s probably not going to get approval – it needs to be fresh.

But,  originality  alone is not enough. Once you’ve ticked that box, you also need to justify why your proposed topic is  important . In other words, what value will it add to the world if you achieve your research aims?

As an example, let’s look at the sample research topic we mentioned earlier (factors impacting brand advocacy). In this case, if the research could uncover relevant factors, these findings would be very useful to marketers in the cosmetics industry, and would, therefore, have commercial value . That is a clear justification for the research.

So, when you’re crafting your research proposal, remember that it’s not enough for a topic to simply be unique. It needs to be useful and value-creating – and you need to convey that value in your proposal. If you’re struggling to find a research topic that makes the cut, watch  our video covering how to find a research topic .

Free Webinar: How To Write A Research Proposal

It’s all good and well to have a great topic that’s original and valuable, but you’re not going to convince anyone to approve it without discussing the practicalities – in other words:

  • How will you actually undertake your research (i.e., your methodology)?
  • Is your research methodology appropriate given your research aims?
  • Is your approach manageable given your constraints (time, money, etc.)?

While it’s generally not expected that you’ll have a fully fleshed-out methodology at the proposal stage, you’ll likely still need to provide a high-level overview of your research methodology . Here are some important questions you’ll need to address in your research proposal:

  • Will you take a qualitative , quantitative or mixed -method approach?
  • What sampling strategy will you adopt?
  • How will you collect your data (e.g., interviews, surveys, etc)?
  • How will you analyse your data (e.g., descriptive and inferential statistics , content analysis, discourse analysis, etc, .)?
  • What potential limitations will your methodology carry?

So, be sure to give some thought to the practicalities of your research and have at least a basic methodological plan before you start writing up your proposal. If this all sounds rather intimidating, the video below provides a good introduction to research methodology and the key choices you’ll need to make.

How To Structure A Research Proposal

Now that we’ve covered the key points that need to be addressed in a proposal, you may be wondering, “ But how is a research proposal structured? “.

While the exact structure and format required for a research proposal differs from university to university, there are four “essential ingredients” that commonly make up the structure of a research proposal:

  • A rich introduction and background to the proposed research
  • An initial literature review covering the existing research
  • An overview of the proposed research methodology
  • A discussion regarding the practicalities (project plans, timelines, etc.)

In the video below, we unpack each of these four sections, step by step.

Research Proposal Examples/Samples

In the video below, we provide a detailed walkthrough of two successful research proposals (Master’s and PhD-level), as well as our popular free proposal template.

Proposal Writing FAQs

How long should a research proposal be.

This varies tremendously, depending on the university, the field of study (e.g., social sciences vs natural sciences), and the level of the degree (e.g. undergraduate, Masters or PhD) – so it’s always best to check with your university what their specific requirements are before you start planning your proposal.

As a rough guide, a formal research proposal at Masters-level often ranges between 2000-3000 words, while a PhD-level proposal can be far more detailed, ranging from 5000-8000 words. In some cases, a rough outline of the topic is all that’s needed, while in other cases, universities expect a very detailed proposal that essentially forms the first three chapters of the dissertation or thesis.

The takeaway – be sure to check with your institution before you start writing.

How do I choose a topic for my research proposal?

Finding a good research topic is a process that involves multiple steps. We cover the topic ideation process in this video post.

How do I write a literature review for my proposal?

While you typically won’t need a comprehensive literature review at the proposal stage, you still need to demonstrate that you’re familiar with the key literature and are able to synthesise it. We explain the literature review process here.

How do I create a timeline and budget for my proposal?

We explain how to craft a project plan/timeline and budget in Research Proposal Bootcamp .

Which referencing format should I use in my research proposal?

The expectations and requirements regarding formatting and referencing vary from institution to institution. Therefore, you’ll need to check this information with your university.

What common proposal writing mistakes do I need to look out for?

We’ve create a video post about some of the most common mistakes students make when writing a proposal – you can access that here . If you’re short on time, here’s a quick summary:

  • The research topic is too broad (or just poorly articulated).
  • The research aims, objectives and questions don’t align.
  • The research topic is not well justified.
  • The study has a weak theoretical foundation.
  • The research design is not well articulated well enough.
  • Poor writing and sloppy presentation.
  • Poor project planning and risk management.
  • Not following the university’s specific criteria.

Key Takeaways & Additional Resources

As you write up your research proposal, remember the all-important core purpose:  to convince . Your research proposal needs to sell your study in terms of suitability and viability. So, focus on crafting a convincing narrative to ensure a strong proposal.

At the same time, pay close attention to your university’s requirements. While we’ve covered the essentials here, every institution has its own set of expectations and it’s essential that you follow these to maximise your chances of approval.

By the way, we’ve got plenty more resources to help you fast-track your research proposal. Here are some of our most popular resources to get you started:

  • Proposal Writing 101 : A Introductory Webinar
  • Research Proposal Bootcamp : The Ultimate Online Course
  • Template : A basic template to help you craft your proposal

If you’re looking for 1-on-1 support with your research proposal, be sure to check out our private coaching service , where we hold your hand through the proposal development process (and the entire research journey), step by step.

Literature Review Course

Psst… there’s more!

This post is an extract from our bestselling Udemy Course, Research Proposal Bootcamp . If you want to work smart, you don't want to miss this .

You Might Also Like:

Thematic analysis 101


Myrna Pereira

I truly enjoyed this video, as it was eye-opening to what I have to do in the preparation of preparing a Research proposal.

I would be interested in getting some coaching.


I real appreciate on your elaboration on how to develop research proposal,the video explains each steps clearly.

masebo joseph

Thank you for the video. It really assisted me and my niece. I am a PhD candidate and she is an undergraduate student. It is at times, very difficult to guide a family member but with this video, my job is done.

In view of the above, I welcome more coaching.

Zakia Ghafoor

Wonderful guidelines, thanks

Annie Malupande

This is very helpful. Would love to continue even as I prepare for starting my masters next year.


Thanks for the work done, the text was helpful to me

Ahsanullah Mangal

Bundle of thanks to you for the research proposal guide it was really good and useful if it is possible please send me the sample of research proposal

Derek Jansen

You’re most welcome. We don’t have any research proposals that we can share (the students own the intellectual property), but you might find our research proposal template useful: https://gradcoach.com/research-proposal-template/

Cheruiyot Moses Kipyegon

Cheruiyot Moses Kipyegon

Thanks alot. It was an eye opener that came timely enough before my imminent proposal defense. Thanks, again


thank you very much your lesson is very interested may God be with you


I am an undergraduate student (First Degree) preparing to write my project,this video and explanation had shed more light to me thanks for your efforts keep it up.

Synthia Atieno

Very useful. I am grateful.

belina nambeya

this is a very a good guidance on research proposal, for sure i have learnt something

Wonderful guidelines for writing a research proposal, I am a student of m.phil( education), this guideline is suitable for me. Thanks

You’re welcome 🙂


Thank you, this was so helpful.

Amitash Degan

A really great and insightful video. It opened my eyes as to how to write a research paper. I would like to receive more guidance for writing my research paper from your esteemed faculty.

Glaudia Njuguna

Thank you, great insights

Thank you, great insights, thank you so much, feeling edified


Wow thank you, great insights, thanks a lot

Roseline Soetan

Thank you. This is a great insight. I am a student preparing for a PhD program. I am requested to write my Research Proposal as part of what I am required to submit before my unconditional admission. I am grateful having listened to this video which will go a long way in helping me to actually choose a topic of interest and not just any topic as well as to narrow down the topic and be specific about it. I indeed need more of this especially as am trying to choose a topic suitable for a DBA am about embarking on. Thank you once more. The video is indeed helpful.


Have learnt a lot just at the right time. Thank you so much.

laramato ikayo

thank you very much ,because have learn a lot things concerning research proposal and be blessed u for your time that you providing to help us

Cheruiyot M Kipyegon

Hi. For my MSc medical education research, please evaluate this topic for me: Training Needs Assessment of Faculty in Medical Training Institutions in Kericho and Bomet Counties


I have really learnt a lot based on research proposal and it’s formulation

Arega Berlie

Thank you. I learn much from the proposal since it is applied


Your effort is much appreciated – you have good articulation.

You have good articulation.

Douglas Eliaba

I do applaud your simplified method of explaining the subject matter, which indeed has broaden my understanding of the subject matter. Definitely this would enable me writing a sellable research proposal.


This really helping


Great! I liked your tutoring on how to find a research topic and how to write a research proposal. Precise and concise. Thank you very much. Will certainly share this with my students. Research made simple indeed.

Alice Kuyayama

Thank you very much. I an now assist my students effectively.

Thank you very much. I can now assist my students effectively.

Abdurahman Bayoh

I need any research proposal


Thank you for these videos. I will need chapter by chapter assistance in writing my MSc dissertation


Very helpfull

faith wugah

the videos are very good and straight forward


thanks so much for this wonderful presentations, i really enjoyed it to the fullest wish to learn more from you

Bernie E. Balmeo

Thank you very much. I learned a lot from your lecture.

Ishmael kwame Appiah

I really enjoy the in-depth knowledge on research proposal you have given. me. You have indeed broaden my understanding and skills. Thank you

David Mweemba

interesting session this has equipped me with knowledge as i head for exams in an hour’s time, am sure i get A++

Andrea Eccleston

This article was most informative and easy to understand. I now have a good idea of how to write my research proposal.

Thank you very much.

Georgina Ngufan

Wow, this literature is very resourceful and interesting to read. I enjoyed it and I intend reading it every now then.


Thank you for the clarity

Mondika Solomon

Thank you. Very helpful.


Thank you very much for this essential piece. I need 1o1 coaching, unfortunately, your service is not available in my country. Anyways, a very important eye-opener. I really enjoyed it. A thumb up to Gradcoach

Md Moneruszzaman Kayes

What is JAM? Please explain.


Thank you so much for these videos. They are extremely helpful! God bless!

azeem kakar

very very wonderful…

Koang Kuany Bol Nyot

thank you for the video but i need a written example

Submit a Comment Cancel reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.

  • Print Friendly
  • Link to facebook
  • Link to linkedin
  • Link to twitter
  • Link to youtube
  • Writing Tips

How to Justify Your Methods in a Thesis or Dissertation

How to Justify Your Methods in a Thesis or Dissertation

4-minute read

  • 1st May 2023

Writing a thesis or dissertation is hard work. You’ve devoted countless hours to your research, and you want your results to be taken seriously. But how does your professor or evaluating committee know that they can trust your results? You convince them by justifying your research methods.

What Does Justifying Your Methods Mean?

In simple terms, your methods are the tools you use to obtain your data, and the justification (which is also called the methodology ) is the analysis of those tools. In your justification, your goal is to demonstrate that your research is both rigorously conducted and replicable so your audience recognizes that your results are legitimate.

The formatting and structure of your justification will depend on your field of study and your institution’s requirements, but below, we’ve provided questions to ask yourself as you outline your justification.

Why Did You Choose Your Method of Gathering Data?

Does your study rely on quantitative data, qualitative data, or both? Certain types of data work better for certain studies. How did you choose to gather that data? Evaluate your approach to collecting data in light of your research question. Did you consider any alternative approaches? If so, why did you decide not to use them? Highlight the pros and cons of various possible methods if necessary. Research results aren’t valid unless the data are valid, so you have to convince your reader that they are.

How Did You Evaluate Your Data?

Collecting your data was only the first part of your study. Once you had them, how did you use them? Do your results involve cross-referencing? If so, how was this accomplished? Which statistical analyses did you run, and why did you choose them? Are they common in your field? How did you make sure your data were statistically significant ? Is your effect size small, medium, or large? Numbers don’t always lend themselves to an obvious outcome. Here, you want to provide a clear link between the Methods and Results sections of your paper.

Did You Use Any Unconventional Approaches in Your Study?

Most fields have standard approaches to the research they use, but these approaches don’t work for every project. Did you use methods that other fields normally use, or did you need to come up with a different way of obtaining your data? Your reader will look at unconventional approaches with a more critical eye. Acknowledge the limitations of your method, but explain why the strengths of the method outweigh those limitations.

Find this useful?

Subscribe to our newsletter and get writing tips from our editors straight to your inbox.

What Relevant Sources Can You Cite?

You can strengthen your justification by referencing existing research in your field. Citing these references can demonstrate that you’ve followed established practices for your type of research. Or you can discuss how you decided on your approach by evaluating other studies. Highlight the use of established techniques, tools, and measurements in your study. If you used an unconventional approach, justify it by providing evidence of a gap in the existing literature.

Two Final Tips:

●  When you’re writing your justification, write for your audience. Your purpose here is to provide more than a technical list of details and procedures. This section should focus more on the why and less on the how .

●  Consider your methodology as you’re conducting your research. Take thorough notes as you work to make sure you capture all the necessary details correctly. Eliminating any possible confusion or ambiguity will go a long way toward helping your justification.

In Conclusion:

Your goal in writing your justification is to explain not only the decisions you made but also the reasoning behind those decisions. It should be overwhelmingly clear to your audience that your study used the best possible methods to answer your research question. Properly justifying your methods will let your audience know that your research was effective and its results are valid.

Want more writing tips? Check out Proofed’s Writing Tips and Academic Writing Tips blogs. And once you’ve written your thesis or dissertation, consider sending it to us. Our editors will be happy to check your grammar, spelling, and punctuation to make sure your document is the best it can be. Check out our services for free .

Share this article:

Post A New Comment

Got content that needs a quick turnaround? Let us polish your work. Explore our editorial business services.

3-minute read

The 5 Best Ecommerce Website Design Tools 

A visually appealing and user-friendly website is essential for success in today’s competitive ecommerce landscape....

The 7 Best Market Research Tools in 2024

Market research is the backbone of successful marketing strategies. To gain a competitive edge, businesses...

Google Patents: Tutorial and Guide

Google Patents is a valuable resource for anyone who wants to learn more about patents, whether...

How to Come Up With Newsletter Ideas

If used strategically, email can have a substantial impact on your business. In fact, according...

Free Online Peer Review Template

Having your writing peer-reviewed is a valuable process that can showcase the strengths and weaknesses...

How to Embed a Video in PowerPoint

Including a video in your PowerPoint presentation can make it more exciting and engaging. And...

Logo Harvard University

Make sure your writing is the best it can be with our expert English proofreading and editing.

We use cookies on this site to enhance your experience

By clicking any link on this page you are giving your consent for us to set cookies.

A link to reset your password has been sent to your email.

Back to login

We need additional information from you. Please complete your profile first before placing your order.

Thank you. payment completed., you will receive an email from us to confirm your registration, please click the link in the email to activate your account., there was error during payment, orcid profile found in public registry, download history, how to write the rationale for your research.

  • Charlesworth Author Services
  • 19 November, 2021

The rationale for one’s research is the justification for undertaking a given study. It states the reason(s) why a researcher chooses to focus on the topic in question, including what the significance is and what gaps the research intends to fill. In short, it is an explanation that rationalises the need for the study. The rationale is typically followed by a hypothesis/ research question (s) and the study objectives.

When is the rationale for research written?

The rationale of a study can be presented both before and after the research is conducted. 

  • Before : The rationale is a crucial part of your research proposal , representing the plan of your work as formulated before you execute your study.
  • After : Once the study is completed, the rationale is presented in a research paper or dissertation to explain why you focused on the particular question. In this instance, you would link the rationale of your research project to the study aims and outcomes.

Basis for writing the research rationale

The study rationale is predominantly based on preliminary data . A literature review will help you identify gaps in the current knowledge base and also ensure that you avoid duplicating what has already been done. You can then formulate the justification for your study from the existing literature on the subject and the perceived outcomes of the proposed study.

Length of the research rationale

In a research proposal or research article, the rationale would not take up more than a few sentences . A thesis or dissertation would allow for a longer description, which could even run into a couple of paragraphs . The length might even depend on the field of study or nature of the experiment. For instance, a completely novel or unconventional approach might warrant a longer and more detailed justification.

Basic elements of the research rationale

Every research rationale should include some mention or discussion of the following: 

  • An overview of your conclusions from your literature review
  • Gaps in current knowledge
  • Inconclusive or controversial findings from previous studies
  • The need to build on previous research (e.g. unanswered questions, the need to update concepts in light of new findings and/or new technical advancements). 

Example of a research rationale

Note: This uses a fictional study.

Abc xyz is a newly identified microalgal species isolated from fish tanks. While Abc xyz algal blooms have been seen as a threat to pisciculture, some studies have hinted at their unusually high carotenoid content and unique carotenoid profile. Carotenoid profiling has been carried out only in a handful of microalgal species from this genus, and the search for microalgae rich in bioactive carotenoids has not yielded promising candidates so far. This in-depth examination of the carotenoid profile of Abc xyz will help identify and quantify novel and potentially useful carotenoids from an untapped aquaculture resource .

In conclusion

It is important to describe the rationale of your research in order to put the significance and novelty of your specific research project into perspective. Once you have successfully articulated the reason(s) for your research, you will have convinced readers of the importance of your work!

Maximise your publication success with Charlesworth Author Services.

Charlesworth Author Services , a trusted brand supporting the world’s leading academic publishers, institutions and authors since 1928. 

To know more about our services, visit: Our Services

Share with your colleagues

Related articles.

justification of research project

How to identify Gaps in research and determine your original research topic

Charlesworth Author Services 14/09/2021 00:00:00

justification of research project

Tips for designing your Research Question

Charlesworth Author Services 01/08/2017 00:00:00

justification of research project

Why and How to do a literature search

Charlesworth Author Services 17/08/2020 00:00:00

Related webinars

justification of research project

Bitesize Webinar: How to write and structure your academic article for publication - Module 1: Know when are you ready to write

Charlesworth Author Services 04/03/2021 00:00:00

justification of research project

Bitesize Webinar: How to write and structure your academic article for publication- Module 3: Understand the structure of an academic paper

justification of research project

Bitesize Webinar: How to write and structure your academic article for publication: Module 4: Prepare to write your academic paper

justification of research project

Bitesize Webinar: How to write and structure your academic article for publication: Module 5: Conduct a Literature Review

Article sections.

justification of research project

How to write an Introduction to an academic article

justification of research project

Writing a strong Methods section

Charlesworth Author Services 12/03/2021 00:00:00

justification of research project

Strategies for writing the Results section in a scientific paper

Charlesworth Author Services 27/10/2021 00:00:00

U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

The .gov means it’s official. Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you’re on a federal government site.

The site is secure. The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

  • Publications
  • Account settings
  • Advanced Search
  • Journal List
  • Indian J Dermatol
  • v.62(5); Sep-Oct 2017

Summary and Synthesis: How to Present a Research Proposal

Maninder singh setia.

From the MGM Institute of Health Sciences, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Saumya Panda

1 Department of Dermatology, KPC Medical College, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

This concluding module attempts to synthesize the key learning points discussed during the course of the previous ten sets of modules on methodology and biostatistics. The objective of this module is to discuss how to present a model research proposal, based on whatever was discussed in the preceding modules. The lynchpin of a research proposal is the protocol, and the key component of a protocol is the study design. However, one must not neglect the other areas, be it the project summary through which one catches the eyes of the reviewer of the proposal, or the background and the literature review, or the aims and objectives of the study. Two critical areas in the “methods” section that cannot be emphasized more are the sampling strategy and a formal estimation of sample size. Without a legitimate sample size, none of the conclusions based on the statistical analysis would be valid. Finally, the ethical parameters of the study should be well understood by the researchers, and that should get reflected in the proposal.

As we reach the end of an exhaustive module encompassing research methods and biostatistics, we need to summarize and synthesize the key learning points, to demonstrate how one may utilize the different sections of the module to undertake research projects of different kinds. After all, the practical purpose behind publishing such a module is to facilitate the preparation of high quality research proposals and protocols. This concluding part will make an attempt to provide a window to the different sections of the module, underlining the various aspects of design and analysis needed to formulate protocols applicable to different kinds of clinical research in dermatology.

Components of a Research Proposal

The goal of a research proposal is to present and justify the need to study a research problem and to present the practical ways in which the proposed study should be conducted. A research proposal is generally meant to be presented by an investigator to request an agency or a body to support research work in the form of grants. The vast majority of research proposals, in India, however, are not submitted to agency or body for grants, simply because of the paucity of such agencies, bodies, and research grants. Most are academic research proposals, self-financed, and submitted to scientific and ethics committee of an institution. The parts of a proposal include the title page, abstract/project summary, table of contents, introduction, background and review of literature, and the research protocol.

The title page should contain the personal data pertaining to the investigators, and title of the project, which should be concise and comprehensive at the same time. The table of contents, strictly speaking, is not necessary for short proposals. The introduction includes a statement of the problem, purpose, and significance of the research.

The protocol is the document that specifies the research plan. It is the single most important quality control tool for all aspects of a clinical research. It is the instrument where the researcher explains how data will be collected, including the calculation for estimating sample size, and what outcome variables to measure.

A complete clinical research protocol includes the following:

Study design

  • Precise definition of the disease or problem
  • Completely defined prespecified primary and secondary outcome measures, including how and when these will be assessed
  • Clear description of variables
  • Well-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria
  • Efficacy and safety parameters
  • Whenever applicable, stopping guidelines and parameters of interim analyses
  • Sample size calculation
  • Randomization details
  • Plan of statistical analysis
  • Detailed description of interventions
  • A chronogram of research flow (Gantt chart)
  • Informed consent document
  • Clinical research form
  • Details of budget; and
  • References.

(Modified from: Bagatin et al ., 2013).

Project Summary

The project summary is a brief document that consists of an overview, and discusses the intellectual merits, and broader impacts of the research project. Each of these three sections is required to be present and must be clearly defined. The project summary is one of the most important parts of the proposal. It is likely the first thing a reviewer will read, and is the investigators’ best chance to grab their interest, and convince them of the importance, and quality, of their research before they even read the proposal. Though it is the first proposal element in order, many applicants prefer to write the project summary last, after writing the protocol. This allows the writer to better avoid any inconsistencies between the two.

The overview specifies the research goal and it should demonstrate that this goal fits with the principal investigator's long-term research goals. It should specify the proposed research approach and the educational goal of the research project.

The intellectual merits (the contribution your research will make to your field) should specify the current state of knowledge in the field, and where it is headed. It should also clarify what your research will add to the state of knowledge in the field. Furthermore, important to state is what your research will do to enhance or enable other researches in the field. Finally, one should answer why your research is important for the advancement of the field.

The broader impacts (the contribution the research will make to the society) should answer the questions on the benefit to the society at large from the research, and the possible applications of the research, and why the general public would care. It should also clarify how the research can benefit the site of research (medical college or university, etc.) and the funding agency.

Background and Review of Literature

This is an important component of the research protocol. The review should discuss all the relevant literature, the method used in the literature, the lacunae in the literature, and justify the proposed research. We have provided a list of the useful databases in the section on systematic reviews and meta-analysis (Setia, 2017). Some of these are PubMed, Cochrane database, EMBASE, and LILACS.

Provide a critical analysis of the literature

The researcher should not provide a descriptive analysis of literature. For instance, the literature reviews should not be a list of one article followed by the next article. It should be a critical analysis of literature.

A study by XXXX et al . found that the prevalence of psoriasis was 20%. It was a hospital-based study conducted in North India. The prevalence was 35% in males and 12% in females.

Another study by YYYYY et al . found that the prevalence of psoriasis was 14%. The study was conducted in a private clinic in North India. The prevalence was 8% in males and 18% in females.

A third study by ZZZZZ et al . found that the prevalence of psoriasis was 5%. This study was a community-based study. The prevalence was 7% in males and 3% in females.

In this type of review, the researcher has described all the studies. However, it is useful to understand the findings of these three studies and summarize them in researcher's own words.

A possible option can be “ The reported prevalence of psoriasis in the Indian population varied from 5% to 20%. In general, it was higher in hospital-based studies and lower in community-based studies. There was no consistent pattern in the prevalence of psoriasis in males and females. Though some studies found the prevalence to be higher in males, others reported that females had a higher prevalence .”

Discuss the limitations and lacunae of these studies

The researcher should discuss the limitations of the studies. These could be the limitations that the authors have presented in the manuscript or the ones that the researcher has identified. Usually, the current research proposal should try to address the limitations of a previous study.

A study by BBBB et al : “ One of the main limitations of our study was the lack of objective criteria for assessing anemia in patients presenting with psoriasis. We classified the patients based on clinical assessment of pallor .”

The present proposal can mention “ Though previous studies have assessed the association between anemia and psoriasis, they have not used any objective criteria (such as hemoglobin or serum ferritin levels). Furthermore, pallor was evaluated by three clinicians; the authors have not described the agreement between these clinicians .”

In the above example, the authors have stated the limitation of their research in the manuscript. However, in the review of literature, the researcher has added another limitation. It is important to convince the reviewers that the researcher has read and understood the literature. It is also important that some or most of these lacunae should be addressed in the present proposal as far as possible.

Justify the present proposal by review

The researcher should adequately justify the present proposal based on the review of literature. The justification should not only be for the research question, but also the methods, study design, variables of interest, study instruments or measurements, and statistical methods of choice. Sometimes, the justification can be purely statistical. For example, all the previous studies have used cross-sectional data or cross-sectional analysis of longitudinal data in their manuscripts. The present proposal will use methods used for longitudinal data analysis. The researcher should justify the benefit of these methods over the previous statistical methods.

In short, the review should not be a “laundry list” of all the articles. The review should be able to convince the reader that the present research is required and it builds on the existing literature (either as a novel research question, new measurement of the outcome, a better study design, or advanced and appropriate statistical methods).

Kindly try to avoid this justification: “ It has not been done in our center .”

Aims and Objectives

The “aim” of the study is an overarching goal of the study. The objectives are measurable and help the researcher achieve the overall aim.

For example, the overall aim of our study is to assess the long-term health of patients of psoriasis.

The specific objectives are:

  • To record the changes in Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) score in patients with psoriasis over a period of 5 years
  • To study the side effects of medications in these patients over a period of 5 years.

It is important to clearly state the objectives, since the research proposal should be designed to achieve these objectives.

For example, the methods should describe the following:

  • How will the researcher answer the first objective?
  • Where will the researcher recruit the study participants (study site and population)?
  • Which patients of psoriasis will be recruited (inclusion and exclusion criteria)?
  • What will be the design of the study (cohort, etc.)?
  • What are all the variables to be measured to achieve the study outcomes (exposure and outcome variables)?
  • How will the researcher measure these variables (clinical evaluation, history, serological examination, etc.)?
  • How will the researcher record these data (clinical forms, etc.)?
  • How will the researcher analyze the data that have been collected?
  • Are there any limitations of these methods? If so, what has the researcher done to minimize the limitations?

All the ten modules on research methodology have to be read and grasped to plan and design any kind of research applicable to one's chosen field. However, some key areas have been outlined below with examples to appreciate the same in an easier manner.

The study setting must be specified. This should include both the geographical location and the population from which the study sample would be recruited.

“The study took place at the antiretroviral therapy clinic of Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital in Blantyre, Malawi, from January 2006 to April 2007. Blantyre is the major commercial city of Malawi, with a population of 1,000,000 and an estimated HIV prevalence of 27% in adults in 2004” (Ndekha et al ., 2009).

This is a perfect example of description of a study setting which underscores the importance of planning it in detail a priori .

Study population, sampling strategy, and sample size

Study population has to be clearly and precisely defined. For example, a study on atopic dermatitis may be conducted upon patients defined according to the UK Working Party's modified diagnostic criteria, or the Hanifin and Rajka's criteria, or some other criteria defined by the investigators. However, it should always be prespecified within the protocol.

Similarly, the eligibility criteria of the participants for the study must be explicit. One truism that is frequently forgotten is that the inclusion and exclusion criteria are mutually exclusive, and one is not the negative image of the other. Eligible cases are included according to a set of inclusion criteria, and this is followed by administration of the exclusion criteria. Thus, in fact, they can never be the negative image of each other.

“Eligible participants were all adults aged 18 or over with HIV who met the eligibility criteria for antiretroviral therapy according to the Malawian national HIV treatment guidelines (WHO clinical stage III or IV or any WHO stage with a CD4 count < 250/mm 3 ) and who were starting treatment with a BMI < 18.5. Exclusion criteria were pregnancy and lactation or participation in another supplementary feeding program” (Ndekha et al ., 2009).

To put in perspective the point we made about inclusion and exclusion criteria, in the above example, “age above 18 years” or “CD4 count >250/mm 3 ” cannot be exclusion criteria, as these have already been excluded.

Sampling strategy has been adequately discussed in the Module 5 of the Methodology series (Setia, 2016). A few points are worth repeating:

  • The sampling strategy should never be misrepresented. Example: If you have not done random sampling, no big deal. There are other legitimate sampling strategies available for your study. But once you have mentioned “random sampling” in your protocol, you cannot resort to purposive sampling
  • Sometimes, the researcher might want to know the characteristics of a certain problem within a specific population, without caring for generalizability of results. In such a scenario, purposive sampling may be resorted to
  • Nonprobability sampling methods such as consecutive consenting sampling or any such convenience sampling are perfectly legitimate and easy to do, particularly in case of dissertations where time and resources are limited.

Sample size is one of the most misunderstood, yet fundamentally important, issues among clinicians and has to be addressed once the study objectives have been set and the design has been finalized. Too small a sample means that there would be a failure to detect change following test intervention. A sample larger than necessary may also result in bad quality data. In either case, there would be ethical problems and wastage of resources. The researcher needs just enough samples to draw accurate inferences, which would be adequately powered (Panda, 2015).

Estimation of sample size has been dealt with adequately in the Module 5 biostatistics series (Hazra et al ., 2016), including the different mathematical derivations and the available software. Sample size determination is a statistical exercise based on the probability of errors in testing of hypothesis, power of the sample, and effect size. Although, relatively speaking, these are simple concepts to grasp, a large number of different study designs and analytical methods lead to a bewilderingly large number of formulae for determining sample size. Thus, the software are really handy and are becoming increasingly popular.

The study design defines the objectives and end points of the study, the type and manner of data collection, and the strategy of data analysis (Panda 2015). The different types of clinical studies have been depicted in Figure 1 . The suitability of various study designs vis-à-vis different types of research questions is summarized in Table 1 .

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is IJD-62-443-g001.jpg

Types of study (Source: Panda, 2015)

Research questions vis-a-vis study designs

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is IJD-62-443-g002.jpg

In our previous series of ten modules on methodology, we have discussed all these different kinds of studies and more. Some key issues that require reiteration are given below:

  • The control of a case–control study and that of a randomized controlled trial is more different from each other than chalk is from cheese. The former is an observational study, while the latter is an interventional one. Every study with a control group is not a case–control study. For a study to be classified as a case–control study, the study should be an observational study and the participants should be recruited based on their outcome status (Setia, 2016). Apparently, this is not so difficult to understand, yet even now we have publications which confuse between the different kinds of controls (Bhanja et al ., 2015)
  • Due to the fact that the outcome and exposure are assessed at the same time point in a cross-sectional study, it is pretty difficult, if not impossible, to derive causal relationships from such a study. At most, one may establish statistical association between exposures and outcomes by calculating the odds ratio. However, these associations must not be confused with causation.
  • It is generally said that a cohort design may not be efficient for rare outcomes. However, if the rare outcome is common in some exposures, it may be useful to follow a cohort design. For example, melanoma is a rare condition in India. Hence, if we follow individuals to study the incidence of melanoma, it may not be efficient. However, if we know that, in India, acral lentiginous melanoma is the most commonly reported variant, we should follow a cohort of individuals with acral lentiginous and study the incidence of melanoma in this group (Setia, 2016).

Clinical researchers should also be accustomed with observational designs beyond case–control, cohort, and cross-sectional studies. Sometimes, the unit of analysis has to be a group or aggregate rather than the individual. Consider the following example:

The government introduced the supplementation of salt with iodine for about 20 years. However, not all states have used the same level of iodine in salt. Certain hilly states have used higher quantities compared with other states. Incidentally, you read a report that high iodine levels are associated with psoriasis. You are intrigued to find if introduction of iodine has altered the picture of psoriasis in the country. You feel compelled to design a study to answer this question .

It is obvious that here the unit of study cannot be individuals, but a large population distributed in a certain geographical area. This is the domain of ecologic studies. An allied category of observational studies is named “natural experiments,” where the exposure is not assigned by the investigator (as in an interventional study), but through “natural processes.” These may be through changes in the existing regulations or public policies or, may be, through introduction of new laws (Setia, 2017).

Another category of research questions that cannot be satisfactorily captured by all the quantitative methods described earlier, like social stigma experienced by patients or their families with, say, vitiligo, leprosy, or sexually transmitted infections, are best dealt with by qualitative research. As can be seen by the examples given above, this is a type of research which is very relevant to medical research, yet to which the regular medical researcher has got a very poor exposure, if any. We shall encourage interested researchers to take a look at the 10 th Module of the Methodology series that specifically deals with qualitative research (Setia, 2017).

Clinical studies are experiments that are not conducted in laboratories but in controlled real-life settings on human subjects with some disease. Hence, designing a study involves many pragmatic considerations aside pure methodology. Thus, factors to consider when selecting a study design are objectives of the study, time frame, treatment duration, carryover effects, cost and logistics, patient convenience, statistical considerations, sample size, etc. (Panda, 2015).

Certain truisms regarding study designs should always be remembered: a study design has to be tailored to objectives. The same question may be answered by different designs. The optimum design has to be based on workforce, budgetary allocation, infrastructure, and clinical material that may be commanded by the researchers. Finally, no design is perfect, and there is no design to provide a perfect answer to all research questions relevant to a particular problem (Panda, 2015).

Variables of interest and collection of these variables

Data structure depends on the characteristics of the variables [ Figure 2 ]. A variable refers to a particular character on which a set of data are recorded. Data are thus the values of a variable (Hazra et al ., 2016).

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is IJD-62-443-g003.jpg

Types of data and variables (Source: Panda, 2015)

Quantitative data always have a proportional scale among values, and can be either discrete (e.g., number of moles) or continuous (e.g., age). Qualitative data can be either nominal (e.g., blood groups) or ordinal (e.g., Fitzpatrick's phototypes I-VI). Variables can be binary or dichotomous (male/female) or multinomial or polychotomous (homosexual/bisexual/heterosexual) (Panda, 2015).

Changing data scales is possible so that numerical data may become ordinal and ordinal data may become nominal. This may be done when the researcher is not confident about the accuracy of the measuring instrument, is unconcerned about the loss of fine detail, or where group numbers are not large enough to adequately represent a variable of interest. It may also make clinical interpretation easier (Hazra et al ., 2016).

The variables whose effects are observed on other variables are known as independent variables (e.g., risk factors). The latter kind of variables that change as a result of independent variables are known as dependent variables (i.e., outcome). Confounders are those variables that influence the relation between independent and dependent variables (e.g., the clinical effect of sunscreen used as part of a test intervention regimen in melasma). If the researcher fails to control or eliminate the confounder, it will damage the internal validity of an experiment (Panda, 2015).

Biostatistics begins with descriptive statistics that implies summarizing a collection of data from a sample or population. An excellent overview of descriptive statistics has been given in the Module 1 of the Biostatistics series (Hazra et al ., 2016). We would encourage every researcher to embark on designing and collecting data on their own to go through this particular module to have a clear idea on how to proceed further.

Statistical methods

As briefly discussed earlier, the “methods” section should also include a detailed description of statistical methods. It is best to describe the methods for each objective.

For example: Which statistical methods will the researcher use to study the changes in PASI score over time?

It is important to first identify the nature of the outcome – will it be linear or categorical?

  • It may be noticed that the PASI is a score and can range from 0 to 72. The researcher can measure the actual score and assess the changes in score. Thus, the researcher will use methods for statistical analysis of continuous data (such as means, standard deviations, t -test, or linear regressions)
  • However, the researcher may choose to cut off the PASI score at 60 (of course, there has to be justification!) and call it severe psoriasis. Thus, the researcher will have an outcome variable with two outcomes (Yes: >60 PASI, and No: <60 PASI). Thus, in this case, the researcher will use methods for statistical analysis of categorical data (proportions, Chi-square test, or logistic regression models).

The statistical methods have been described in detail in the Biostatistics section of the series. The reader is encouraged to read all the sections to understand these methods. However, the key points to remember are:

  • Identify the nature of the outcome for each objective
  • Describe the statistical methods separately for each objective
  • Identify the methods to handle confounding and describe them in the statistical methods
  • If the researcher is using advanced statistical methods or specific tools, please provide reference to these methods
  • Provide the name of the statistical software (including the version) that will be used for data analysis in the present study
  • Do not provide a laundry list of all the statistical methods. It just shows that the researcher has not understood the relevance of statistics in the study design.

Multivariate models

In general, multivariate analyses are used in studies and research proposals. These analyses are useful to adjust for confounding (though these are also useful to test for interaction, we shall discuss confounding in this section). For example, we propose to compare two different types of medications in psoriasis. We have used secondary clinical data for this study. The outcome of interest is PASI score. We have collected data on the type of medication, age, sex, and alcohol use. When we compare the PASI score in these two groups, we will use t -test (if linear comparison) or Chi-square test (if PASI is categorized – as described earlier). However, it is possible that age, sex, and alcohol use may also play a role in the clinical progression of psoriasis (which is measured as PASI score). Thus, the researcher would like to account for differences in these variables in the two groups. This can be done using multivariate analytical methods (such as linear regression for continuous variables and logistic regression for categorical dichotomous variables). This is a type of mathematical model in which we include multiple variables: the main explanatory variable (type of drug in this study) and potential confounders (age, sex, and alcohol use in this study). Thus, the outcome (PASI score) after multivariate analyses will be “adjusted” for age, sex, and alcohol use after multivariate analysis. We would like to encourage the readers to consult a statistician for these methods.

TRIVIA: The singular for “data” is “datum,” just as “stratum” is the singular for “strata.” Thus, “ data were analyzed …,” “ data were collected …,” and “ data have been ….”

Clinical Record Forms

We have discussed designing of questionnaires and clinical record forms (CRFs) in detail in two modules. We shall just highlight the most important aspects in this part. The CRF is an important part of the research protocol. The CRF should include all the variables of interest in the study. Thus, it is important to make a list of all parameters of interest before working on the CRF. This can be done by a thorough review of literature and discussion with experts. Once the questionnaire/CRF has been designed, the researcher should pilot it and change according to the feedback from the participants and one's own experience while administering the questionnaire or recording data in the CRF. The CRF should use coded responses (for close-ended questions), this will help in data entry and analysis. If the researcher has developed a scale, the reliability and validity should be tested (methods have been discussed in earlier sections). The CRF can be paper based or computer based (it will depend on the resources).

It is very important to describe the ethics for the present study. It should not be restricted to “ The study will be evaluated by an Institutional Review Committee …” The researcher should demonstrate that s/he has understood the various ethical issues in the present study. The three core principles for ethics are: autonomy (the participants have a right to decide whether to participate in the study or opt out), beneficence/nonmaleficence (the study should not be harmful to participants and the risk–benefit ratio should be adequately understood and described), and justice (all the risks and benefits of the present study should be equally distributed).

The researcher should try to address these issues in the section of “Ethics.” Currently, the National Institutes of Health has proposed the following seven principles of “Ethics in Clinical Research:” social and clinical value, scientific validity, fair subject selection, favorable risk–benefit ratio, independent review, informed consent, and respect for potential and enrolled subjects. The Indian Council of Medical Research has also published guidelines to conduct biomedical research in India. We strongly encourage the readers to be familiar with these guidelines. Furthermore, the researchers should keep themselves updated with changes in these regulations. If it is a clinical trial, the researcher should also be familiar with Schedule Y and Consent form requirements for these types of clinical trials.

Concluding Remarks

This module has been designed as a comprehensive guide for a dermatologist to enable him/her to embark on the exciting journey of designing studies of almost any kind that can be thought to be of relevance to clinical dermatology. There has been a conscious attempt to customize the discussion on design and analysis keeping not only dermatology, but also Indian conditions in mind. However, the module can be of help to any medical doctor embarking on the path to medical research. As contributors, it is our ardent hope that this module might act as a catalyst of good-quality research in the field of dermatology and beyond in India and elsewhere.

Financial support and sponsorship

Conflicts of interest.

There are no conflicts of interest.


Customize Your Path

Filters Applied

Customize Your Experience.

Utilize the "Customize Your Path" feature to refine the information displayed in myRESEARCHpath based on your role, project inclusions, sponsor or funding, and management center.

Develop the budget and justification

Need assistance with budgets or budget justifications?

Get help with budgets or budget justifications.

Contact the Office of Research Support (Provost Area or University Campus):

  • Department specialist directory

Contact the Research Navigators (School of Medicine or School of Nursing):

It is essential to the success of the project to carefully and accurately assess all of the financial needs of the research project, and to be able to justify the necessity of these expenses.  Developing an accurate budget can take time, particularly if the project includes Key Personnel from other departments, will involve external consultants, involves technologies or international activities, or includes sub-awards or agreements with other institutions or partners. 

Principal investigators (PIs) should work closely with their grant manager or financial practice manager as early as possible when developing budgets and justifications. PIs should contact [email protected] to find out who to contact or if they do not have departmental resources available.

Budgeting personnel effort and salary

For all personnel on the research project, budgeted effort must be adequate to complete the responsibilities associated with the scope of work. 

  • Access the Budget and manage effort commitments page for additional information and special considerations for effort commitments. 

Additional guidance

  • Access the ORS guide on  salaries and wages .
  • Access the Plan the project or methodology page to connect to support offices about appropriate effort needs in the project's budget.
  • Access the Design analysis plan page to connect to support offices about appropriate statistical support needs in the project's budget. 
  • Access the Hire and engage personnel, students, and volunteers  page for information about the hiring process and allowable activities by role.

Institutional Base Salary (IBS) is the basis for both calculating salaries when developing a proposal budget and for managing effort on a funded project regardless of the appointment type (9 months, 10 months, 12 months). All salary costs applied to sponsored projects are based on the total amount of effort available after taking into account other commitments in support of Duke University activities only. These activities may include instruction, research, administrative activities (committees, chair, director, etc.), and clinical trials and exclude supplemental/extraordinary pay, outside consulting, and study section honoraria.

Duke Appointment Model

Effective July 1, 2022, Duke University School of Medicine (SoM) and School of Nursing (SoN) implemented a Faculty Appointment Model which represents a faculty member’s efforts in support of Duke University as a percent of 12 calendar months.

SoM and SoN Faculty will have 100% appointments unless they also have additional professional effort that includes: outside clinical obligations (PDC), VA Appointments, formally approved Flexible Work arrangements, direct-paid DKU Appointments, direct-paid NUS Appointments, or other reduced schedules.

Access guidance and resources about the Duke Appointment Model .

Campus faculty appointments are generally 9-month appointments with the ability to recover up to, but no more than, 3 summer months. (An academic year runs from September to August and is not tied to the Duke fiscal year.) Duke spreads the 9-month IBS across the 12-month fiscal year, which can impact the calculation of 1 month.

Converting person months

A “person month” is the metric for expressing the effort (amount of time) principal investigators (PIs), faculty and other key personnel devote to a specific project. The effort is based on the type of appointment of the individual with the organization; e.g., calendar year (CY), academic year (AY), and/or summer term (SM); and the organization’s definition of such. For instance, some institutions define the academic year as a 9-month appointment while others define it as a 10-month appointment. Access this guide to  calculating person months .

As of September 2021, SAP salary and effort information feeds into SPS so that all relevant parties working on grant applications can access salaries for individuals participating in research.

For step-by-step guidance and how-to videos on entering salaries in SPS, visit the  Managing Salaries in SPS guide . This is mandatory training for SOM/SON SPS users with editing/viewing rights.

Additional budget and cost considerations

When developing the budget, consider how each proposed cost relates to the scope of work of the proposed project.

Types of costs that should be included in a proposal for funding:

Fringe benefits

Subrecipients, subawards, vendors and consultants, equipment costs.

  • Access the  Determine compute and data storage solutions  page to connect with support offices about budget needs for data storage and computing.
  • Access the  Find equipment, resources, and Service Centers   page to connect with support offices about budget needs for equipment and utilizing Duke Service Centers. 

Supplies and materials

Travel costs.

  • May include participation in conferences to present project specific results

Conference related costs

  • Primary purpose is the dissemination of technical information
  • Must be necessary and reasonable for the successful performance of the award and managed to minimize costs to the award
  • Allowable costs may include rental of facilities, speakers’ fees, costs of meals and refreshments, local transportation, and other items incidental to the conference
  • Refer to Code of Federal Regulations Part 200 and specifically, §200.432 Conferences for additional information

Participant support costs

Participant incentives.

To connect with support offices about budget needs for participant compensation and recruitment costs visit the  Participant recruitment, retention, and engagement  page. 

Other direct costs

  • equipment and computer maintenance or user fees
  • extended warranties for equipment
  • publication costs and page charges
  • photocopying
  • communication costs such as long-distance telephone and facsimiles
  • fees for shared resources
  • incentives for human subjects
  • tuition remission

Cost sharing

Funder-specific guidance on budgets and justifications.

Select the type of project for more detailed guidance on developing a research budget and preparing a budget justification:

Commercial or industry sponsored clinical trial budgets

  • Work with the business manager for all commercial or industry sponsored non-clinical trial budgets. Additional guidance coming soon!

Federally sponsored budgets

Foundations and other budgets.

Developing the budget can be an involved process - particularly if the project includes complexities. 

Common complexities include:  

personnel from other departments   

external consultants 

technology development  

international activities 

sub-awards or agreements with collaborators at other institutions or organizations 

Most sponsors provide guidelines and/or specific forms for budget preparation.  Duke also provides guidance and resources to help investigators ensure that all project costs are 1) budgeted accurately based on the needs of the project and 2) used in accordance with the approved budget. 

The best advice to avoid common errors in budgeting is: 

Start early and seek guidance.   Work with you grants administrator, research development professional, foundation relations representative, or myRESEARCHnavigators early in the process to understand the costs needed for the proposed activities. Begin developing the budget as early as possible. 

Ensure Costs are Budgeted Compliantly.   Costs may vary widely based on the type of project, sponsor, and resources required to conduct the work. Carefully and accurately assess all financial needs of the project and be able to justify the necessity of the costs. The following general principles described in the  Uniform Guidance  apply generally to costs budgeted in Duke sponsored activities: 

Allowable – a cost is allowable if it 1) is necessary and reasonable for the performance of the project, 2) is verifiable with sufficient detail and supporting documentation, 3) conforms to any limitations by the sponsor  Allocable – a cost is allocable if it 1) is necessary to carry out the activities of the project and 2) is assignable to the project (at least in part) with a high degree of accuracy  Reasonable – a cost is reasonable if it 1) does not exceed what is generally recognized as ordinary and necessary for the proper and efficient performance of the project and 2) does not exceed in its nature an amount that which would be incurred by a prudent person in like circumstances  Consistently-treated – for federally funded budgets, a cost may not be assigned as a direct cost if any other cost for the same purpose in like circumstances has been allocated as an indirect cost 

Be a good steward of Duke’s grant funding.   When accepting funds from external sponsors, Duke agrees to follow rules and regulations and to comply with sponsor terms and conditions. 

As a non-profit institution, it is not within Duke’s mission to seek profit from its research activities; therefore, it is important that the budget represent true costs necessary to conduct the work.  All project costs should be included in the budget and be expended within the project period of the award.  To ensure proper accounting of project costs, verify all project expenses are allocated during the project period and to the appropriate funding source.  You can access financial reports for your funded projects by visiting  myRESEARCHhome  and navigating to the myReports widget.  Here you will find various reports ranging from summary financial data to fund balances to expense projections and more. The information in these reports will reflect planned expenses or changes that have not been entered in Duke’s financial systems, so make sure you are working closely with your grant administrator for the most accurate financial information. 

For foundation budgets, please be in touch with the appropriate Foundation Relations office:

  • Office of Foundation Relations  (Campus Schools or Provost Area)
  • Office of Foundation Relations and Strategic Partnerships at Duke Health  (School of Medicine or Nursing)

Have a language expert improve your writing

Run a free plagiarism check in 10 minutes, generate accurate citations for free.

  • Knowledge Base


  • What Is a Research Design | Types, Guide & Examples

What Is a Research Design | Types, Guide & Examples

Published on June 7, 2021 by Shona McCombes . Revised on November 20, 2023 by Pritha Bhandari.

A research design is a strategy for answering your   research question  using empirical data. Creating a research design means making decisions about:

  • Your overall research objectives and approach
  • Whether you’ll rely on primary research or secondary research
  • Your sampling methods or criteria for selecting subjects
  • Your data collection methods
  • The procedures you’ll follow to collect data
  • Your data analysis methods

A well-planned research design helps ensure that your methods match your research objectives and that you use the right kind of analysis for your data.

Table of contents

Step 1: consider your aims and approach, step 2: choose a type of research design, step 3: identify your population and sampling method, step 4: choose your data collection methods, step 5: plan your data collection procedures, step 6: decide on your data analysis strategies, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about research design.

  • Introduction

Before you can start designing your research, you should already have a clear idea of the research question you want to investigate.

There are many different ways you could go about answering this question. Your research design choices should be driven by your aims and priorities—start by thinking carefully about what you want to achieve.

The first choice you need to make is whether you’ll take a qualitative or quantitative approach.

Qualitative research designs tend to be more flexible and inductive , allowing you to adjust your approach based on what you find throughout the research process.

Quantitative research designs tend to be more fixed and deductive , with variables and hypotheses clearly defined in advance of data collection.

It’s also possible to use a mixed-methods design that integrates aspects of both approaches. By combining qualitative and quantitative insights, you can gain a more complete picture of the problem you’re studying and strengthen the credibility of your conclusions.

Practical and ethical considerations when designing research

As well as scientific considerations, you need to think practically when designing your research. If your research involves people or animals, you also need to consider research ethics .

  • How much time do you have to collect data and write up the research?
  • Will you be able to gain access to the data you need (e.g., by travelling to a specific location or contacting specific people)?
  • Do you have the necessary research skills (e.g., statistical analysis or interview techniques)?
  • Will you need ethical approval ?

At each stage of the research design process, make sure that your choices are practically feasible.

Receive feedback on language, structure, and formatting

Professional editors proofread and edit your paper by focusing on:

  • Academic style
  • Vague sentences
  • Style consistency

See an example

justification of research project

Within both qualitative and quantitative approaches, there are several types of research design to choose from. Each type provides a framework for the overall shape of your research.

Types of quantitative research designs

Quantitative designs can be split into four main types.

  • Experimental and   quasi-experimental designs allow you to test cause-and-effect relationships
  • Descriptive and correlational designs allow you to measure variables and describe relationships between them.

With descriptive and correlational designs, you can get a clear picture of characteristics, trends and relationships as they exist in the real world. However, you can’t draw conclusions about cause and effect (because correlation doesn’t imply causation ).

Experiments are the strongest way to test cause-and-effect relationships without the risk of other variables influencing the results. However, their controlled conditions may not always reflect how things work in the real world. They’re often also more difficult and expensive to implement.

Types of qualitative research designs

Qualitative designs are less strictly defined. This approach is about gaining a rich, detailed understanding of a specific context or phenomenon, and you can often be more creative and flexible in designing your research.

The table below shows some common types of qualitative design. They often have similar approaches in terms of data collection, but focus on different aspects when analyzing the data.

Your research design should clearly define who or what your research will focus on, and how you’ll go about choosing your participants or subjects.

In research, a population is the entire group that you want to draw conclusions about, while a sample is the smaller group of individuals you’ll actually collect data from.

Defining the population

A population can be made up of anything you want to study—plants, animals, organizations, texts, countries, etc. In the social sciences, it most often refers to a group of people.

For example, will you focus on people from a specific demographic, region or background? Are you interested in people with a certain job or medical condition, or users of a particular product?

The more precisely you define your population, the easier it will be to gather a representative sample.

  • Sampling methods

Even with a narrowly defined population, it’s rarely possible to collect data from every individual. Instead, you’ll collect data from a sample.

To select a sample, there are two main approaches: probability sampling and non-probability sampling . The sampling method you use affects how confidently you can generalize your results to the population as a whole.

Probability sampling is the most statistically valid option, but it’s often difficult to achieve unless you’re dealing with a very small and accessible population.

For practical reasons, many studies use non-probability sampling, but it’s important to be aware of the limitations and carefully consider potential biases. You should always make an effort to gather a sample that’s as representative as possible of the population.

Case selection in qualitative research

In some types of qualitative designs, sampling may not be relevant.

For example, in an ethnography or a case study , your aim is to deeply understand a specific context, not to generalize to a population. Instead of sampling, you may simply aim to collect as much data as possible about the context you are studying.

In these types of design, you still have to carefully consider your choice of case or community. You should have a clear rationale for why this particular case is suitable for answering your research question .

For example, you might choose a case study that reveals an unusual or neglected aspect of your research problem, or you might choose several very similar or very different cases in order to compare them.

Data collection methods are ways of directly measuring variables and gathering information. They allow you to gain first-hand knowledge and original insights into your research problem.

You can choose just one data collection method, or use several methods in the same study.

Survey methods

Surveys allow you to collect data about opinions, behaviors, experiences, and characteristics by asking people directly. There are two main survey methods to choose from: questionnaires and interviews .

Observation methods

Observational studies allow you to collect data unobtrusively, observing characteristics, behaviors or social interactions without relying on self-reporting.

Observations may be conducted in real time, taking notes as you observe, or you might make audiovisual recordings for later analysis. They can be qualitative or quantitative.

Other methods of data collection

There are many other ways you might collect data depending on your field and topic.

If you’re not sure which methods will work best for your research design, try reading some papers in your field to see what kinds of data collection methods they used.

Secondary data

If you don’t have the time or resources to collect data from the population you’re interested in, you can also choose to use secondary data that other researchers already collected—for example, datasets from government surveys or previous studies on your topic.

With this raw data, you can do your own analysis to answer new research questions that weren’t addressed by the original study.

Using secondary data can expand the scope of your research, as you may be able to access much larger and more varied samples than you could collect yourself.

However, it also means you don’t have any control over which variables to measure or how to measure them, so the conclusions you can draw may be limited.

Here's why students love Scribbr's proofreading services

Discover proofreading & editing

As well as deciding on your methods, you need to plan exactly how you’ll use these methods to collect data that’s consistent, accurate, and unbiased.

Planning systematic procedures is especially important in quantitative research, where you need to precisely define your variables and ensure your measurements are high in reliability and validity.


Some variables, like height or age, are easily measured. But often you’ll be dealing with more abstract concepts, like satisfaction, anxiety, or competence. Operationalization means turning these fuzzy ideas into measurable indicators.

If you’re using observations , which events or actions will you count?

If you’re using surveys , which questions will you ask and what range of responses will be offered?

You may also choose to use or adapt existing materials designed to measure the concept you’re interested in—for example, questionnaires or inventories whose reliability and validity has already been established.

Reliability and validity

Reliability means your results can be consistently reproduced, while validity means that you’re actually measuring the concept you’re interested in.

For valid and reliable results, your measurement materials should be thoroughly researched and carefully designed. Plan your procedures to make sure you carry out the same steps in the same way for each participant.

If you’re developing a new questionnaire or other instrument to measure a specific concept, running a pilot study allows you to check its validity and reliability in advance.

Sampling procedures

As well as choosing an appropriate sampling method , you need a concrete plan for how you’ll actually contact and recruit your selected sample.

That means making decisions about things like:

  • How many participants do you need for an adequate sample size?
  • What inclusion and exclusion criteria will you use to identify eligible participants?
  • How will you contact your sample—by mail, online, by phone, or in person?

If you’re using a probability sampling method , it’s important that everyone who is randomly selected actually participates in the study. How will you ensure a high response rate?

If you’re using a non-probability method , how will you avoid research bias and ensure a representative sample?

Data management

It’s also important to create a data management plan for organizing and storing your data.

Will you need to transcribe interviews or perform data entry for observations? You should anonymize and safeguard any sensitive data, and make sure it’s backed up regularly.

Keeping your data well-organized will save time when it comes to analyzing it. It can also help other researchers validate and add to your findings (high replicability ).

On its own, raw data can’t answer your research question. The last step of designing your research is planning how you’ll analyze the data.

Quantitative data analysis

In quantitative research, you’ll most likely use some form of statistical analysis . With statistics, you can summarize your sample data, make estimates, and test hypotheses.

Using descriptive statistics , you can summarize your sample data in terms of:

  • The distribution of the data (e.g., the frequency of each score on a test)
  • The central tendency of the data (e.g., the mean to describe the average score)
  • The variability of the data (e.g., the standard deviation to describe how spread out the scores are)

The specific calculations you can do depend on the level of measurement of your variables.

Using inferential statistics , you can:

  • Make estimates about the population based on your sample data.
  • Test hypotheses about a relationship between variables.

Regression and correlation tests look for associations between two or more variables, while comparison tests (such as t tests and ANOVAs ) look for differences in the outcomes of different groups.

Your choice of statistical test depends on various aspects of your research design, including the types of variables you’re dealing with and the distribution of your data.

Qualitative data analysis

In qualitative research, your data will usually be very dense with information and ideas. Instead of summing it up in numbers, you’ll need to comb through the data in detail, interpret its meanings, identify patterns, and extract the parts that are most relevant to your research question.

Two of the most common approaches to doing this are thematic analysis and discourse analysis .

There are many other ways of analyzing qualitative data depending on the aims of your research. To get a sense of potential approaches, try reading some qualitative research papers in your field.

If you want to know more about the research process , methodology , research bias , or statistics , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.

  • Simple random sampling
  • Stratified sampling
  • Cluster sampling
  • Likert scales
  • Reproducibility


  • Null hypothesis
  • Statistical power
  • Probability distribution
  • Effect size
  • Poisson distribution

Research bias

  • Optimism bias
  • Cognitive bias
  • Implicit bias
  • Hawthorne effect
  • Anchoring bias
  • Explicit bias

A research design is a strategy for answering your   research question . It defines your overall approach and determines how you will collect and analyze data.

A well-planned research design helps ensure that your methods match your research aims, that you collect high-quality data, and that you use the right kind of analysis to answer your questions, utilizing credible sources . This allows you to draw valid , trustworthy conclusions.

Quantitative research designs can be divided into two main categories:

  • Correlational and descriptive designs are used to investigate characteristics, averages, trends, and associations between variables.
  • Experimental and quasi-experimental designs are used to test causal relationships .

Qualitative research designs tend to be more flexible. Common types of qualitative design include case study , ethnography , and grounded theory designs.

The priorities of a research design can vary depending on the field, but you usually have to specify:

  • Your research questions and/or hypotheses
  • Your overall approach (e.g., qualitative or quantitative )
  • The type of design you’re using (e.g., a survey , experiment , or case study )
  • Your data collection methods (e.g., questionnaires , observations)
  • Your data collection procedures (e.g., operationalization , timing and data management)
  • Your data analysis methods (e.g., statistical tests  or thematic analysis )

A sample is a subset of individuals from a larger population . Sampling means selecting the group that you will actually collect data from in your research. For example, if you are researching the opinions of students in your university, you could survey a sample of 100 students.

In statistics, sampling allows you to test a hypothesis about the characteristics of a population.

Operationalization means turning abstract conceptual ideas into measurable observations.

For example, the concept of social anxiety isn’t directly observable, but it can be operationally defined in terms of self-rating scores, behavioral avoidance of crowded places, or physical anxiety symptoms in social situations.

Before collecting data , it’s important to consider how you will operationalize the variables that you want to measure.

A research project is an academic, scientific, or professional undertaking to answer a research question . Research projects can take many forms, such as qualitative or quantitative , descriptive , longitudinal , experimental , or correlational . What kind of research approach you choose will depend on your topic.

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.

McCombes, S. (2023, November 20). What Is a Research Design | Types, Guide & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved March 13, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/methodology/research-design/

Is this article helpful?

Shona McCombes

Shona McCombes

Other students also liked, guide to experimental design | overview, steps, & examples, how to write a research proposal | examples & templates, ethical considerations in research | types & examples, what is your plagiarism score.

What is justification in research/15 examples of justification

Photo of Ahmad Javed

Research in science is fundamental projects to obtain advances and new knowledge that allow us to better understand the world, managing and dealing with all kinds of phenomena. But investigations are not a spontaneous phenomenon: they require planning, design and, especially, a reason that justifies their being carried out. This rationale must be particularly compelling in cases where financial and other means are required for the investigation to begin. What is justification in research ?

For this reason, before starting a scientific project, it is necessary to develop a justification for that research . Next we are going to see  different examples of justification for an investigation  and what questions they must answer.

What is justification in an investigation/research?

The justification of an investigation is the  part of a scientific project in which the reasons and arguments that have led the person behind proposing it and wanting to carry it out are exposed  . This justification must be added when writing the work in writing, usually appearing at the beginning of it, both in the abstract and in the theoretical introduction. Its objective is to try to answer what, how, why and for what purpose the investigation has been carried out.

Therefore, the part of the justification is something fundamental that all scientific work must explain, since it provides the reasons that have led one or more people to decide to start the research that they present in the article or book. These are the reasons that are considered to make research useful and beneficial to the scientific community . It is very important to indicate in it what benefits for common knowledge can carry out or have carried out such research, as well as to advance in the understanding of a certain knowledge as its practical applications.

As its name indicates, the justification of an investigation is the part that justifies the work, that is, within it a series of arguments must be highlighted that must be valid and powerful enough to prove the need to carry out the investigation. When it comes to demonstrating that the work will be useful, there are many options for arguing and defending such research . What is justification in research ?

Among the most common we have the fact that  this research will allow science to advance in a specific field of knowledge  , something that serves as a precedent for more complex and larger investigations to be developed in the future. It can also be indicated that the research will serve so that what has been discovered can be applied as a solution to an important problem for society.

Another interesting argument used in the justification of an investigation is that, based on what has been discovered in it, a new method can be developed of something that was already known to be solved but that will be more economical, that is, that the investigation will allow develop a new system to face a certain problem but lowering costs, improving efficiency or reducing the consumption of resources, improving the quality of life of people who could not afford to pay the classical method or promoting social and educational changes without having as obstacle to the liquidity of funds.

Several examples of justification for an investigation

Now that we know what the justifications of an investigation are and what questions they must answer, using solid and valid arguments,  we move on to see several examples of justification of an investigation from different areas  . Most come from real investigations, only that here a summary of the part of the introduction has been exposed in which the antecedents of the field to be investigated are exposed a little and what are the reasons, objectives and arguments that have led the research team to deepen on that theme .

1. The effects of television on the behavior of young people

“ Television has become the most influential medium in the development of behavior and thought patterns in children and adolescents around the world, some of them quite disruptive (violence, aggressiveness, lack of respect towards teachers and other reference adults. ..). The relationship between television and youth behavior is suspected, but no clear causal link had been identified.

This article aims to  review the evidence in favor of the hypothesis of the harmful effects of television , trying to understand more fully the effect of this means of communication on younger audiences, its repercussions at a social level and define how it should be a more responsible television “. What is justification in research ?

2. Local development and microfinance as strategies to attend to social needs

“Today, states are involved in two important processes but seen too much at a global level: economics and politics. People often make the mistake of leaving aside the local, a sphere that, focusing on the economic aspect, cannot be understood without understanding the nature of small-scale social development (family, neighborhood, town …) and small economic transactions. that occur in it: microfinance. Although microfinance has been largely ignored, it undoubtedly influences socio-economic policies, albeit often in unexpected ways.

The development of a society cannot be approached only at the global level, but also by paying special interest to the local and trying to understand microfinance in its multiple dimensions: economic, social, environmental, political, cultural and institutional. The objective of this article is precisely to explore these dimensions, addressing the different theoretical approaches to the notions of local development and microfinance in order to establish them as tools for addressing the socioeconomic needs of people with fewer resources.

Since the needs and the capacity to satisfy them are indicative of the poverty of the society ,  these seemingly insignificant socio-economic aspects should be included in the political agenda  , in order to understand and design better intervention strategies for the most disadvantaged people ”.

3. Expression of rabies virus G protein in carrots and corn

“Rabies supposes great economic losses, both in cure methods and in prevention vaccines. The current vaccines are difficult to access and acquire for the population of developing countries, since they do not have the logistical or economic resources so that they The entire population is vaccinated against this pathology, which is why it is necessary to develop new rabies vaccine alternatives, made with resources that can be obtained in countries with mostly subsistence economies.

Among the advantages of plant-derived vaccines we have lower costs in production , storage, transportation and distribution. Furthermore, it is possible to administer plant tissue to human animals without the need to purify the protein of interest. For this reason, it  is of interest to find out how the G protein of the rabies virus is expressed in vegetables, specifically in carrots and corn , plants widely cultivated throughout the world. ” What is justification in research ?

4. Comprehensive use of crustacean waste

“The shrimp industry discards every year hundreds of tons of crustacean remains, specifically the exoskeleton (the shell) and the cephalothorax (head). These parts contain a substance, chitin, which could have applications in the preservation of highly perishable foods, such as fresh fruits.

At present, several methods have been used to preserve fruit and not all of them are respectful with the environment . The objective of this research is to determine if the application of a biofilm of chitin and chitosan, obtained by green chemistry, is beneficial to extend the useful life of fruits and  propose it as a new ecological method in the conservation of the harvest  , since these two substances are neither harmful nor aggressive to the environment “.

5. Reduction of depression in old age through reminiscence therapy

“There is little work on the modification of autobiographical memories with different age groups. However, some research has suggested that life review based on the retrieval of autobiographical memories is effective in modifying such memories in people with depression.

This work is based on the results of several studies that indicate a significant reduction in depression symptoms in elderly people who have undergone a program with individual reminiscence sessions, a program that promotes recovery from positive and negative events. The objective of the present study is to  analyze what is the relationship between depressive symptoms in old age and the characteristics of autobiographical memories  , that is, what role do the memories obtained that explain reduce the symptoms of depression play “.

6. Adherence to pharmacological treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes

“Diabetes mellitus is a disease strongly determined by genetics, in which the individual presents alterations in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats, with a relative or absolute deficit of insulin secretion. Between 85 and 90% of patients with diabetes mellitus are type 2 diabetic and it is chronic. What is justification in research ?

We understand as adherence to a treatment the behavior of the patient when it coincides with the medical prescription, taking the prescribed drugs, following prescribed diets or maintaining healthy lifestyle habits . Adherence to a treatment is important to evaluate the clinical evolution of a pathology. Studies indicate that 50% of people with chronic diseases comply with their treatment, with several risk factors for this not being the case.

We consider it important to identify in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus what is the frequency of therapeutic non-adherence, what relationship it has with metabolic control, in addition to more precisely detecting which are the most common associated risk factors, in order to carry out tending programs to change their behavior  in order to encourage them to follow the treatment that has been prescribed for them  . ”

7. Relationship between family climate and school climate

“Classic studies, like that of Bernstein in the 70s, point out that the negative or positive attitude of the adolescent towards the teachers can be determined by the perception that his family has about the educational field. Both the family environment and the attitude towards authority in the classroom seem to be two very important factors in explaining violent behavior in adolescence in the school context .

Taking this into account, the main objective of this work has been to  examine the relationship between both contexts from the adolescent’s perception of the family and school climates  , analyzing the role played by different individual factors in the interaction between these two contexts ” .

8. Prevention of gender violence in universities

“University faculties are not places outside of gender violence. As a social problem that it is, gender violence affects women of all social classes , ages, cultures and economic levels, and overcomes the classic stereotypes associated with those who suffer it , why and where it occurs It does not matter if it is a socio-economically unfavorable context or if you are in the most select private university: violence against women is everywhere. What is justification in research ?

For this reason, the purpose of this research has been to  analyze the existence of gender-based violence in Spanish universities and to identify and develop measures that can help prevent it  , detecting the main foci, motives and contexts in which there are more possibilities for it to occur. produce in the university population “.

9. Linguistic study in children with Down syndrome

“This final degree project focuses on Down Syndrome , specifically on defining the basic abilities possessed by people with this intellectual disability , focusing on the processes of literacy during Primary Education.

The purpose of the study is to  obtain information that will help those families who have a member with this syndrome  , in order to help them progress taking into account their linguistic abilities and develop resources that allow the acquisition of theoretical-practical skills to be able to progress at work , socially and personally “.

10. Effects of the implementation of a VAT system in the United Arab Emirates

“The six member countries of the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (CCEAG) agreed to launch a common market to increase investment and trade among their members. To facilitate this proposal, the countries agreed to implement a value -added tax system (VAT) for the year 2012.

It is very necessary to evaluate the basic principles and the social and economic implications that this new measure could have before it is officially applied  . The purpose of this work is to provide a comprehensive analysis of the proposed VAT system and what socio-economic repercussions it could imply for the Gulf countries, in addition to identifying possible risks and developing preventive strategies. ” What is justification in research ?

11. Study on the benefits of reading aloud to students

“One of the most traditional pedagogical techniques is to read aloud to students. One student reads aloud, while the others follow the reading in their respective books, being aware of which line they go to and, if any, the teacher so requests, change another student to read aloud.

Although classic, the benefits of reading aloud and listening for content acquisition in class have not been fully evaluated. Among the suspected benefits of this technique we have that the student not only learns to control the volume of his voice or knows how to project it in a public context such as the class, but also, if he has to listen, it allows him to improve the capacity active listening, internalizing academic knowledge.

The objective of the present investigation is to find out to what extent these suspected advantages are real, and to  see if the method of reading aloud to students, both by the teacher and by one of them, improves comprehension and skills. It feeds the student’s critical thinking  , following the class more and asking himself questions about the content while simultaneously acquiring it “.

12. Project to increase production in Chino Winds

“Before 1992, the Yavapai ranch was exploited in a traditional way. About two-thirds of the ranch was not fenced and a rather simple irrigation system was used. The cattle walked freely all year round within this portion of land, having little control of what they ate and without exposing potentially fertile areas that could be used for growing fruits, vegetables , and cereals. Livestock’s favorite areas were those near water sources, wasted as there was no complex irrigation system to irrigate the entire property. What is justification in research ?

The poor exploitation of the Yavapai Ranch is surprising since, taking into account its potential profitability, it turns out to be a great wasted production opportunity. The reason for this project is to improve the irrigation system and make better use of the land, hoping for a greater increase in production and consequently a greater obtaining of income that defies investment costs. In addition, by  controlling grazing, it is expected to improve the vegetation cover of the historically exploited areas  on the ranch, albeit passively. ”

13. Teaching mathematics and understanding its usefulness in real life

“Until today, the way of teaching mathematics has focused on giving the student a definition or a formula, showing them an example of how to use it and hoping that they know how to imitate it, without explaining or having the certainty that they understand what they have to do Nor does it promote the development of the student’s creative and integrative capacity, memorization is more emphasized than comprehension, and traditional tools do not provide the tools to investigate, analyze and discern the problem.

The main objective and motive of this project is to make students learn to use mathematics in their day to day, learning that they are useful for all kinds of areas beyond the subject of mathematics: economics, technology, science … So, It is proposed to give them real examples, in which they themselves have to use their knowledge and resolution capacity to propose a resolution process, talking to each other or communicating in the most precise way all their mental processing. What is justification in research ?

The justification for this project is the large number of students who, after being explained what to do or what formula to apply, detach it from reality itself. There are not a few students who when they finish the mathematics course it is as if they had not learned anything, in the sense that they are not able to see the relationship between what they have learned in that subject and their real life. The subject of mathematics is not in the curriculum to teach useless content, but to  make it easier for people to understand reality and solve problems in real life  , like any other subject “.

14. Study on the reproduction of sockeye salmon in Canada

“The objective of this study is to observe and analyze the habits of the sockeye salmon from the Fraser River (British Columbia, Canada). The justification for this research is that, due to global environmental changes and the increase in the temperature of the water, it has been found that the population of this species in this area has changed, not being certain that the species is out of danger and even suspecting a possible risk that the sockeye salmon could end up being a threatened species ”

The incidence of human beings on this species is well known and historical, since the exploitation of natural resources in its habitat and other economic activities had already dramatically modified the ecological niche where sockeye salmon develop and reproduce. Knowing what the adaptation and change processes of this species  have been, more specific conservation programs can be developed, in addition to starting environmental projects  that prevent the total disappearance of the sockeye salmon “.

15. Justification of the treatment and use of laboratory animals

“The use of animals in scientific research is something historically seen as necessary since there are ethical codes that protect people from taking part in experiments without their consent or causing them some kind of damage, both physical and mental. Although to a certain extent Necessary point, animal research has opened many debates, since the use of non-human animals is done to test techniques that would never be used in humans, such as implanting diseases, testing potentially dangerous drugs or removing vital parts.

Despite the fact that throughout the 20th century and what we have been in the 21st, multiple ethical codes have been developed in which the ethical treatment of laboratory animals is addressed, the simple fact of using them without their consent is an aspect that movements animalists do not overlook.  Research should be carried out only if there is a clear scientific purpose, and that involves minimal harm and suffering to the animal.

This point is not the justification for actual research , but rather what is deemed necessary to justify research using animals. The scientific purpose of the research  must have a great potential benefit for scientific knowledge at the cost of suffering  , preferably not very serious, of the animal. The species that are chosen must be the most appropriate, that they are not in danger of extinction or protected by law and that it is known how to treat them in the least stressful way possible but that implies some kind of scientific benefit “.

Related Articles

Advantages and disadvantages of cluster sampling/types, purpose of standard deviation/definition/measure of position and variability.

Life story research

Life story research Method characteristics examples How to apply

Conference abstract

What is a Conference abstract summary structure how to write

Leave a reply cancel reply.

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.


Please input characters displayed above.

  • What is preprint/Why publish/Advantages/Disadvantages/Where to publish August 12, 2023

404 Not found

An official website of the United States government Here's how you know

Official websites use .gov A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS A lock ( Lock A locked padlock ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Statement by Secretary Buttigieg on the President’s Fiscal Year 2025 Budget

From requiring private jet users to pay their fair share into our aviation operations and hiring more air traffic controllers, to strengthening supply chains and improving roads and bridges, the DOT budget request will improve the lives of Americans in communities of all sizes

WASHINGTON - The Biden-Harris Administration today released the President’s Budget for Fiscal Year 2025. Following historic progress made since the President took office—with nearly 15 million jobs created and inflation down two-thirds—the Budget protects and builds on this progress by lowering costs for working families, protecting and strengthening Social Security and Medicare, investing in America and the American people, and reducing the deficit by cracking down on fraud, cutting wasteful spending, and making the wealthy and corporations pay their fair share. 

“President Biden's Budget allows us to continue advancing vital work underway across the country - making travel safer on every mode of transportation, strengthening supply chains to keep costs down, and modernizing our infrastructure to serve Americans for generations,” said U.S. Transportation Secretary Pete Buttigieg. “Americans are already seeing the roads being repaired, new bus and bike infrastructure being built, goods moving more smoothly from ships to shelves, and more - and this budget will accelerate all of that.”

The Budget—which requests $109.3 billion for the U.S. Department of Transportation-- makes critical, targeted investments in the American people that will promote greater prosperity for decades to come. At the Department of Transportation, the Budget will:

  • Invest in a safer, more efficient aviation system, with more air traffic controllers: $21.8 billion for the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), including funding to continue the air traffic controller hiring and training surge. With funding, the FAA has a plan to hire at least 2,000 new controllers in order to meet growing air travel demand into the future, a $3.6 billion investment to sustain the National Airspace System, and an $8 billion commitment over five years to invest in aviation safety, efficiency, and facilities, including facility replacement and radar modernization.    
  • Crack down on a corporate jet funding loophole. The President’s Budget takes a critical step toward stabilizing funding for the National Airspace, which has largely been disproportionately funded by commercial air passengers. Commercial passengers pay a 7.5% tax on the prices of their tickets plus a passenger facility charge up to $4.50. Meanwhile private jets users only pay fuel surcharge taxes — roughly $0.22 per gallon of jet fuel. Private jets are 7% of flights handled by the FAA but contribute just 0.6% of the taxes that make up the Airport and Airway Trust Fund. The President’s FY2025 Budget proposes a phased-in fuel fee increase to $1.06 per gallon for private jets. This increase would phase in over five years, the first update in decades.  
  • Improve our nation’s roads and ensure the nation’s most important bridges remain safe and operational after decades of disinvestment. $62 billion for the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) to modernize and improve the condition of the Nation’s roads and bridges, support State safety programs, and help communities carry out infrastructure projects. This is an increase of more than 30% compared to 2021. This request includes another $675 million for the multi-billion dollar Bridge Investment Program. The additional $675 million will mean the Department can award more communities the funding they need to advance critical transportation projects and create good-paying jobs. In total, the President’s Bipartisan Infrastructure Law invests a record $40 billion to fix thousands of our Nation’s bridges.  
  • Increase rail safety and improve passenger rail: $3.2 billion for the Federal Railroad Administration to improve the safety and condition of railroad infrastructure and rail services that keep America’s freight and passengers moving. This includes $2.5 billion for Amtrak and increasing safety inspector staffing to a record 400 inspectors and adding new staff dedicated to safety audits.  
  • Fund reliable, safe and accessible transit: $16.8 billion for the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) in support for urban and rural transit service, including $2.4 billion for major capital projects through the Capital Investments Grant program.

Other portions of the budget request will strengthen supply chains at our nation’s ports, including an $80 million investment in the Port Infrastructure Development Program and additional investments to support shipping operations on the St. Lawrence Seaway, fund pipeline safety inspections, invest in innovation and emerging technologies, and much more.

The Budget builds on the President’s record while achieving meaningful deficit reduction through measures that cut wasteful spending and ask the wealthy to pay their fair share.

For more information on the USDOT FY25 Budget highlights, please visit: https://www.transportation.gov/mission/budget/fiscal-year-2025-budget-highlights .

For more information on the President’s FY 2025 Budget, please visit: https://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/ . 

Inside Defense

Wednesday, March 13, 2024

Key Issues      Air Force budget      Army budget      Navy budget

DARPA's FY-25 budget justification book

On March 12, 2024 the Pentagon released the fiscal year 2025 budget justification book for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.

Not a subscriber? Sign up for 30 days free access to exclusive, behind-the-scenes reporting on defense policy and procurement.

Log in to access this content..

  • Create new account
  • Request new password


  1. Step 4: Selecting and Justifying Your Research Design

    justification of research project

  2. Example Of Justification Of The Study In Research

    justification of research project

  3. Project Justification Template

    justification of research project

  4. Justification Letter Template for Data Project

    justification of research project

  5. Example Of Justification Of The Study In Research

    justification of research project

  6. What Justification Needed for a Research Method Choice

    justification of research project


  1. What is research

  2. What is Research??


  4. Workshop on "Research Methodology & Project Writing"

  5. How to do research projects

  6. Choosing A Research Topic


  1. PDF Sample Project Justification

    Justification Statement. The justification statement should include 2 to 3 paragraphs that convey the relevance of the over-arching topic in which the proposed research study is grounded. The purpose of this project is to examine the personal perceptions and safety concerns of workers in assumed low-risk. organizations.

  2. 7 Examples of Justification (of a project or research)

    The justification to the part of a research project that sets out the reasons that motivated the research. The justification is the section that explains the importance and the reasons that led the researcher to carry out the work. The justification explains to the reader why and why the chosen topic was investigated.

  3. What is the justification of a research?

    Answer: Research is conducted to add something new, either knowledge or solutions, to a field. Therefore, when undertaking new research, it is important to know and state why the research is being conducted, in other words, justify the research. The justification of a research is also known as the rationale.

  4. How to Write a Research Proposal

    A research aim is a broad statement indicating the general purpose of your research project. It should appear in your introduction at the end of your problem statement, before your research objectives. Research objectives are more specific than your research aim. They indicate the specific ways you'll address the overarching aim.

  5. How is research justification or justification of a study written

    1 Answer to this question. Answer: The rationale or justification for doing any research must be gleaned from the existing literature on the subject. You will need to conduct a thorough literature survey and identify gaps in the current literature. The best way to write this is to introduce the current literature in the background/Introduction ...

  6. Topic: Introduction and research justification

    The research justification should lead up to the topic of your research and frame your research, and, when you write your thesis, exegesis or journal article conclusion, you will again return to the research justification to wrap up the implications of your research. ... This research project will investigate the options and the obstacles faced ...

  7. What Is A Research Proposal? Examples + Template

    The research topic is too broad (or just poorly articulated). The research aims, objectives and questions don't align. The research topic is not well justified. The study has a weak theoretical foundation. The research design is not well articulated well enough. Poor writing and sloppy presentation. Poor project planning and risk management.

  8. Justification of research using systematic reviews continues to be

    The researcher thus strives to enter the project unbiased, or at least aware of the risk of knowledge redundancy bias. The key is an evidence synthesis using formal, ... Justification of research using systematic reviews continues to be inconsistent in clinical health science - a systematic review and meta-analysis of meta-research studies ...

  9. How to Justify Your Methods in a Thesis or Dissertation

    Two Final Tips: When you're writing your justification, write for your audience. Your purpose here is to provide more than a technical list of details and procedures. This section should focus more on the why and less on the how. Consider your methodology as you're conducting your research.

  10. PDF Research Services How to write a Justification for Resources

    in the final year of the project at no additional cost. We seek funding for the PDRA, PI and model Co-Is to attend one CCMI project workshop each over the period of the project to liaise with project partner YYY, discuss applications of the analysis, and disseminate results to the international modelling community (6 x £1200).


    in this video Dr. Nelson, explains the importance, structure and content of a justification statement of a research proposal. To learn more about RineCynth A...

  12. Q: How can I write about the justification of my research

    The justification is also known as the rationale and is written in the Introduction. You may thus refer to these resources for writing the justification of your research: How to write the rationale for research? Can you give an example of the "rationale of a study"? 4 Step approach to writing the Introduction section of a research paper.

  13. Writing a Dissertation & Applied Doctoral Project

    Whether doing a dissertation or ADP, you will need to provide reasoning that will serve as the center of your research or applied study. For the dissertation, this is called a "problem statement"; for the ADP, this is called a "project justification.". This must be approved by your doctoral chair before you can proceed.

  14. How to write the rationale for your research

    The rationale for one's research is the justification for undertaking a given study. It states the reason (s) why a researcher chooses to focus on the topic in question, including what the significance is and what gaps the research intends to fill. In short, it is an explanation that rationalises the need for the study.

  15. Summary and Synthesis: How to Present a Research Proposal

    The project summary is a brief document that consists of an overview, and discusses the intellectual merits, and broader impacts of the research project. Each of these three sections is required to be present and must be clearly defined. The project summary is one of the most important parts of the proposal.

  16. Develop the budget and justification

    It is essential to the success of the project to carefully and accurately assess all of the financial needs of the research project, and to be able to justify the necessity of these expenses. Developing an accurate budget can take time, particularly if the project includes Key Personnel from other departments, will involve external consultants ...

  17. What Is a Research Design

    A research design is a strategy for answering your research question using empirical data. Creating a research design means making decisions about: Your overall research objectives and approach. Whether you'll rely on primary research or secondary research. Your sampling methods or criteria for selecting subjects. Your data collection methods.

  18. What is justification in research/15 examples of justification

    The justification of an investigation is the part of a scientific project in which the reasons and arguments that have led the person behind proposing it and wanting to carry it out are exposed . This justification must be added when writing the work in writing, usually appearing at the beginning of it, both in the abstract and in the ...

  19. 7 Examples of Justification (of a project or research)

    One justification for the share away a research project that sets outside the rationale ensure motivated the resources. One justification is the untergliederung that explains that importance and the reasons that led the scientists to carry out the labour. Aforementioned justification explains to aforementioned rfid why both why the chosen your was investigated.

  20. How to write a background and a justification for a research topic

    Write a research background or justification on the topic has the study of ICT in our education system affected our youth positively or negatively Asked by Emmanuel Kwesi on 25 Aug, 2021 Answer

  21. PDF Tufts Budget Justification

    Office of Research and Sponsored Programs Revised 2/13/15 . The budget narrative is an excellent place to continue to sell your project by pointing out the various strengths of faculty and resources and through the suitable allocation of funds over the project period. Make certain that the numbers

  22. Q: How to write the rationale or justification of a study?

    1 Answer to this question. The term used to imply why the study was needed in the first place is "rationale for research" or "rationale of a study." It is also sometimes referred to as the justification of the study. I have edited your question to reflect this. The rationale of a study is a very important part of the manuscript.

  23. Statement by Secretary Buttigieg on the President's Fiscal Year 2025

    This is an increase of more than 30% compared to 2021. This request includes another $675 million for the multi-billion dollar Bridge Investment Program. The additional $675 million will mean the Department can award more communities the funding they need to advance critical transportation projects and create good-paying jobs.

  24. DARPA's FY-25 budget justification book

    On March 12, 2024 the Pentagon released the fiscal year 2025 budget justification book for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. 220505 Not a subscriber? Sign up for 30 days free access to exclusive, behind-the-scenes reporting on defense policy and procurement.

  25. Q: How can I write the Justification of my research paper?

    Answer: Welcome to the Editage Insights Q&A Forum, and thanks for your question. We have quite a few resources on writing the justification or rationale of a study. We have linked a few of these below. For more, you can search the forum/site and the platform using the relevant keywords.

  26. Can you provide a sample of the justification of the research for my

    Answer: Firstly, your topic sounds both interesting and relevant. Now, the justification or the rationale explains why the research is needed - what gaps it aims to fill in existing literature, how it aims to add to the existing body of knowledge, or what solutions it aims to provide. In the research paper, it is meant to set the context for ...