Types of Network Protocols Explained with Functions

This tutorial explains network protocols types and their functions. Learn the most common types of network protocols and how they work in a computer network.

TCP and UDP protocols

TCP stands for Transmission Control Protocol. UDP stands for User Datagram Protocol. Both protocols allow network applications to exchange data between nodes. The main difference between both is that TCP is a connection-oriented protocol while UDP is a connectionless protocol.

When the TCP protocol is used, a special connection is opened up between two network devices, and the channel remains open to transmit data until it is closed. On the other hand, a UDP transmission does not make a proper connection and merely broadcasts its data to the specified network address without any verification of receipt.

To learn more about TCP and UDP, you can check the following tutorial.

TCP features and functions

IP protocol

IP stands for Internet Protocol. This protocol works with TCP and UDP protocols. It provides a unique identity to each node on the computer network. This identity is known as an IP address. An IP address is a software address of the node on a computer network. There are two versions of IP protocol: IPv4 and IPv6. IPv4 uses 32 bits to create an IP address while IPv6 uses 128 bits to create an IP address.

To learn how IP protocol creates and manages IP addresses, you can check the following tutorial.

>IP address classes explained

DNS stands for Domain Name Service. This service allows us to access a node by its name. By default, nodes use IP addresses to identify each other on the network. DNS service allows us to map a name to an IP address. When we access a node by its name, the DNS service translates the name into the IP address. Let's take an example.

Suppose you want to access the home page of Yahoo's site. For this, you enter the following address in your web browser.


Your web browser connects the configured DNS server and sends a request to convert the entered address into the IP address. DNS server translates the address into the IP address and sends the IP address of Yahoo's site. Your browser accesses Yahoo's site and displays it on the viewport. Without DNS service, your browser will not be able to access Yahoo's site.

NAT stands for Network Address Translation. This protocol translates one IP address to another. This can be a source address or a destination address. Two basic implementations of NAT can be used: static and dynamic. In the static NAT, a manual translation is performed. In the dynamic NAT, an automatic address translation is performed by an address translation device. Static NAT is used to translate destination IP addresses in packets as they come into your network, but you can translate source addresses also. Dynamic NAT is used to translate source IP addresses in packets as they go out of your network. In dynamic NAT, the global address assigned to the internal user isn’t that important, since outside devices don’t directly connect to your internal users—they just return traffic to them that the inside user requested.

To learn more about NAT, you can check the following tutorial.

> Basic Concepts of NAT Explained in Easy Language

SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)

Simple Network Management Protocol is a TCP/IP protocol for monitoring networks and network components. SNMP uses small utility programs called agents to monitor behavior and traffic on the network. These agents can be loaded onto managed devices such as hubs, NIC's, servers, routers, and bridges. The gathered data is stored in a MIB (management information base). To collect the information in a usable form, a management program console polls these agents and downloads the information from their MIBs, which then can be displayed as graphs, charts and sent to a database program to be analyzed.

SMB (Server Message Block)

SMB is a file-sharing protocol. It allows networked computers to transparently access files that reside on remote systems over a variety of networks. The SMB protocol defines a series of commands that pass information between computers. It is mainly used by Microsoft Windows-equipped computers. SMB works through a client-server approach, where a client makes specific requests and the server responds accordingly.

FTP (File Transfer Protocol)

One of the earliest uses of the Internet, long before Web browsing came along, was transferring files between computers. The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is used to connect to remote computers, list shared files, and either upload or download files between local and remote computers.

FTP runs over TCP, which provides a connection-oriented, guaranteed data-delivery service. FTP is a character-based command interface, although many FTP applications have graphical interfaces. FTP is still used for file transfer purposes, most commonly as a central FTP server with files available for download. Web browsers can make FTP requests to download programs from links selected on a Web page.

TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol)

TFTP is used when a file transfer does not require an acknowledgment packet during file transfer. TFTP is used often in the router configuration. TFTP is similar in operation to FTP. TFTP is also a command-line-based utility.

One of the two primary differences between TFTP and FTP is speed and authentication. Because TFTP is used without acknowledgment packets, it is usually faster than FTP. TFTP does not provide user authentication like FTP and therefore the user must be logged on to the client and the files on the remote computer must be writable. TFTP supports only unidirectional data transfer (unlike FTP, which supports bi-directional transfer). TFTP is operated over port 69.

HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)

HTTP is often called the protocol of the Internet. HTTP received this designation because most Internet traffic is based on HTTP. When a user requests a Web resource, it is requested using HTTP. The following is a Web request:


When a client enters this address into a Web browser, DNS is called to resolve the Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) to an IP address. When the address is resolved, an HTTP get request is sent to the Web server. The Web server responds with an HTTP send response. Such communication is done several times throughout a single session to a Web site. HTTP uses TCP for communication between clients and servers. HTTP operates on port 80.

HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure)

HTTPS is for Web sites using additional security features such as certificates. HTTPS is used when Web transactions are required to be secure. HTTPS uses a certificate-based technology such as VeriSign.

Certificate-based transactions offer mutual authentication between the client and the server. Mutual authentication ensures the server of the client identity and ensures the client of the server identity. HTTPS, in addition to using certificate-based authentication, encrypts all data packets sent during a session.

SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)

SMTP is a standard electronic-mail protocol that handles the sending of mail from one SMTP to another SMTP server. To accomplish the transport, the SMTP server has its MX (mail exchanger) record in the DNS database that corresponds to the domain for which it is configured to receive mail.

When equipped for two-way communication, mail clients are configured with the address of a POP3 server to receive mail and the address of an SMTP server to send mail. The clients can configure server parameters in the properties sheets of the mail client, basing the choices on an FQDN or an IP address.

POP3 / IMAP4 (Post Office Protocol version 3 / Internet Message Access Protocol version 4)

Post Office Protocol 3 (POP3) and Internet Message Access Protocol 4 (IMAP4) are two application-layer protocols used for electronic messaging across the Internet. POP3 is a protocol that involves both a server and a client. A POP3 server receives an e-mail message and holds it for the user. A POP3 client application periodically checks the mailbox on the server to download mail. POP3 does not allow a client to send mail, only to receive it. POP3 transfers e-mail messages over TCP port 110.

IMAP4 is an alternate e-mail protocol. IMAP4 works in the same way as POP3. In this, an e-mail message is held on a server and then downloaded to an e-mail client application. Users can read their e-mail messages locally in their e-mail client application, but they can't send an e-mail message using IMAP4. When users access e-mail messages via IMAP4, they have the option to view just the message header, including its title and the sender's name, before downloading the body of the message. Users can create, change, or delete folders on the server, as well as search for messages and delete them from the server.

Telnet stands for Telecommunication Network. It is a virtual terminal protocol. It allows a user to access a system remotely. In remote control, a session appears in which the user can manage the files on the remote computer, although the session appears to be functioning locally. Telnet is an early version of a remote control application.

Telnet is very basic; it offers solely character-based access to another computer. You can often use Telnet to manage equipment that lacks a monitor. For example, most routers have Telnet enabled so that the administrator can log in and manage the router. Telnet also provides a quick check to make certain that network connectivity is functioning. Because Telnet sits at the application layer, if it can connect to a remote host, you can be certain that network connectivity between the two hosts is operational, as well as all lower-layer protocols.

SSH (Secure Shell)

SSH is a program for logging in to and executing commands on a remote machine. It provides secure encrypted communications between two untrusted hosts over an insecure network. When SSH connects and logs in to a specified computer, the user must prove his/her identity to the remote machine which is transmitted across the connection using data encryption. This process makes SSH impervious to Internet eavesdroppers who might otherwise steal account information.

ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol)

ICMP provides network diagnostic functions and error reporting. ICMP also provides a little network help for routers. When a router is being overloaded with route requests, the router sends a source quench message to all clients on the network, instructing them to slow their data requests to the router.

To learn ICMP protocol in detail, you can check the following tutorial.

ARP (Address Resolution Protocol)

The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is an Internet layer protocol that helps TCP/IP network components find other devices in the same broadcast domain. ARP uses a local broadcast ( at layer 3 and FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF at layer 2 to discover neighboring devices.

RARP (Reverse Address Resolution Protocol)

RARP is sort of the reverse of an ARP. In an ARP, the device knows the layer 3 address, but not the data link-layer address. With a RARP, the device doesn’t have an IP address and wants to acquire one. The only address that this device has is a MAC address. Common protocols that use RARP are BOOTP and DHCP

NTP (Network Time Protocol)

The Network Time Protocol is used to synchronize the time of a computer client or server to another server or reference time source, such as a radio or satellite receiver or modem. It provides accuracy's typically within a millisecond on LANs and up to a few tens of milliseconds on WANs.

SCP (Secure Copy Protocol)

Secure Copy or SCP is a means of securely transferring computer files between a local and a remote host or between two remote hosts, using the Secure Shell (SSH) protocol. The protocol itself does not provide authentication and security; it expects the underlying protocol, SSH, to secure this. The SCP protocol implements file transfers only. It does so by connecting to the host using SSH and there executes an SCP server (SCP). SCP server connects with SCP client and transfers files securely.

LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol)

Lightweight Directory Access Protocol, or LDAP, is a networking protocol for querying and modifying directory services running over TCP/IP. A directory is a set of information with similar attributes organized logically and hierarchically. The most common example is the telephone directory, which consists of a series of names organized alphabetically, with an address and phone number attached.

IGMP (Internet Group Multicast Protocol)

The Internet Group Management Protocol is a communications protocol used to manage the membership of Internet Protocol multicast groups. IGMP is used by IP hosts and adjacent multicast routers to establish multicast group memberships. It is an integral part of the IP multicast specification, like ICMP for unicast connections. IGMP can be used for online video and gaming and allows more efficient use of resources when supporting these uses.

LPD (Line Printer Daemon) /LPR (Line Printer Remote)

The Line Printer Daemon protocol/Line Printer Remote protocol (or LPD, LPR) also known as the Berkeley printing system, is a set of programs that provide printer spooling and network print server functionality for Unix-like systems.

The most common implementations of LPD are the official BSD UNIX operating system and the LPRng project. The Common Unix Printing System (or CUPS), which is more common on modern Linux distributions, borrows heavily from LPD.

That's all for this tutorial. In this tutorial, we discussed some most common networking protocols and their functions. If you have suggestions or feedback about this tutorial, you can mail us or comment on our Facebook page.

By ComputerNetworkingNotes Updated on 2024-03-30 07:00:01 IST

ComputerNetworkingNotes Networking Tutorials Types of Network Protocols Explained with Functions

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Types of Network Protocols and Their Uses

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Network protocols are a set of rules that are responsible for the communication of data between various devices in the network. These protocols define guidelines and conventions for transmitting and receiving data, ensuring efficient and reliable data communication.

What is Network Protocol?

A network protocol is a set of rules that govern data communication between different devices in the network. It determines what is being communicated, how it is being communicated, and when it is being communicated. It permits connected devices to communicate with each other, irrespective of internal and structural differences.

How do Network Protocols Work?

It is essential to understand how devices communicate over a network by recognizing network protocols. The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI), the most widely used model, illustrates how computer systems interact with one another over a network. The communication mechanism between two network devices is shown by seven different layers in the OSI model. Every layer in the OSI model works based on different network protocols. At every layer, one or more protocols are there for network communication. To enable network-to-network connections, the Internet Protocol (IP), for instance, routes data by controlling information like the source and destination addresses of data packets. It is known as a network layer protocol.

Types of Network Protocols

In most cases, communication across a network like the Internet uses the OSI model . The OSI model has a total of seven layers. Secured connections, network management, and network communication are the three main tasks that the network protocol performs. The purpose of protocols is to link different devices.

The protocols can be broadly classified into three major categories:

  • Network Communication
  • Network Management
  • Network Security

1. Network Communication

Communication protocols are really important for the functioning of a network. They are so crucial that it is not possible to have computer networks without them. These protocols formally set out the rules and formats through which data is transferred. These protocols handle syntax, semantics, error detection, synchronization, and authentication. Below mentioned are some network communication protocol:

Hypertext Transfer Protocol(HTTP)

It is a layer 7 protocol that is designed for transferring a hypertext between two or more systems. HTTP works on a client-server model , most of the data sharing over the web is done through using HTTP.

Transmission Control Protocol(TCP)

TCP layouts a reliable stream delivery by using sequenced acknowledgment. It is a connection-oriented protocol i.e., it establishes a connection between applications before sending any data . It is used for communicating over a network. It has many applications such as emails , FTP , streaming media, etc.

User Datagram Protocol(UDP)

It is a connectionless protocol that lay-out a basic but unreliable message service. It adds no flow control , reliability, or error-recovery functions. UPD is functional in cases where reliability is not required. It is used when we want faster transmission, for multicasting and broadcasting connections, etc.

Border Gateway Protocol(BGP)

BGP is a routing protocol that controls how packets pass through the router in an independent system one or more networks run by a single organization and connect to different networks. It connects the endpoints of a LAN with other LANs and it also connects endpoints in different LANs to one another.

Address Resolution Protocol(ARP)

ARP is a protocol that helps in mapping logical addresses to the physical addresses acknowledged in a local network. For mapping and maintaining a correlation between these logical and physical addresses a table known as ARP cache is used.

Internet Protocol(IP)

It is a protocol through which data is sent from one host to another over the internet. It is used for addressing and routing data packets so that they can reach their destination.

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol(DHCP)

it’s a protocol for network management and it’s used for the method of automating the process of configuring devices on IP networks. A DHCP server automatically assigns an IP address and various other configurational changes to devices on a network so they can communicate with other IP networks. it also allows devices to use various services such as NTP, DNS , or any other protocol based on TCP or UDP .

2. Network Management 

These protocols assist in describing the procedures and policies that are used in monitoring, maintaining, and managing the computer network. These protocols also help in communicating these requirements across the network to ensure stable communication. Network management protocols can also be used for troubleshooting connections between a host and a client.

Internet Control Message Protocol(ICMP)

It is a layer 3 protocol that is used by network devices to forward operational information and error messages. ICMP is used for reporting congestions, network errors, diagnostic purposes, and timeouts.

Simple Network Management Protocol(SNMP)

It is a layer 7 protocol that is used for managing nodes on an IP network. There are three main components in the SNMP protocol i.e., SNMP agent, SNMP manager, and managed device. SNMP agent has the local knowledge of management details, it translates those details into a form that is compatible with the SNMP manager. The manager presents data acquired from SNMP agents, thus helping in monitoring network glitches, and network performance, and troubleshooting them.

It is a type of file retrieval protocol that provides downloadable files with some description for easy management, retrieving, and searching of files. All the files are arranged on a remote computer in a stratified manner. Gopher is an old protocol and it is not much used nowadays.

File Transfer Protocol(FTP)

FTP is a Client/server protocol that is used for moving files to or from a host computer, it allows users to download files, programs , web pages , and other things that are available on other services.

Post Office Protocol (POP3)

It is a protocol that a local mail client uses to get email messages from a remote email server over a TCP/IP connection. Email servers hosted by ISPs also use the POP3 protocol to hold and receive emails intended for their users. Eventually, these users will use email client software to look at their mailbox on the remote server and to download their emails. After the email client downloads the emails, they are generally deleted from the servers.

It is a protocol that allows the user to connect to a remote computer program and to use it i.e., it is designed for remote connectivity. Telnet creates a connection between a host machine and a remote endpoint to enable a remote session.

3. Network Security

These protocols secure the data in passage over a network. These protocols also determine how the network secures data from any unauthorized attempts to extract or review data. These protocols make sure that no unauthorized devices, users, or services can access the network data. Primarily, these protocols depend on encryption to secure data.

Secure Socket Layer(SSL)

It is a network security protocol mainly used for protecting sensitive data and securing internet connections. SSL allows both server-to-server and client-to-server communication. All the data transferred through SSL is encrypted thus stopping any unauthorized person from accessing it.

Hypertext Transfer Protocol(HTTPS)

It is the secured version of HTTP. this protocol ensures secure communication between two computers where one sends the request through the browser and the other fetches the data from the web server .

Transport Layer Security(TLS)

It is a security protocol designed for data security and privacy over the internet, its functionality is encryption, checking the integrity of data i.e., whether it has been tampered with or not, and authentication. It is generally used for encrypted communication between servers and web apps, like a web browser loading a website, it can also be used for encryption of messages, emails, and VoIP .

Some Other Protocols

Internet message access protocol (imap).

  • ICMP protocol is used to retrieve message from the mail server. By using ICMP mail user can view and manage mails on his system.

Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)

  • SIP is used in video, voice, and messaging application. This protocol is used to initiating, Managing, Terminating the session between two users while they are communicating.

Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP)

  • This protocol is used to forward audio, video over IP network. This protocol is used with SIP protocol to send audio, video at real-time.

Rout Access Protocol (RAP)

  • RAP is used in network management. It helps to user for accessing the nearest router for communication. RAP is less efficient as compared to SNMP .

Point To Point Tunnelling Protocol (PPTP)

  • It is used to implement VPN ( Virtual Private Network ). PPTP protocol append PPP frame in IP datagram for transmission through IP based network.

Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP)

  • TFTP is the simplified version of FTP. TFTP is also used to transfer file over internet

Resource Location Protocol (RLP)

  • RLP is used to assign the resource such as server, printer, or other devices over the internet to the user. It is used to locate the resource to the client for broadcast query.

Frequently Asked Question on Network Protocols – FAQs

What is the need of network protocols.

Network protocol is a set of rules that shows how data is transferred between various devices connected to the same network.

Which protocol suite is used when accessing the Internet?

The protocol used while accessing the internet are TCP and UDP.

What is meant by IP multicasting?

IP Multicasting is defined as the types of group communication in which data is sent simultaneously to multiple computers.

What are some important protocols of transport layer?

Important protocols of transport layer include- Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). User Datagram Protocol (UDP). Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP).

What are important protocols of Application layer?

Some important protocols of Application Layer include- Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP). File transfer Protocol (FTP). Simple Mail Transfer protocol (SMTP). Domain Name System (DNS).

What is the full form of DHCP?

Full form of DHCP is Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol.

What is the function of DHCP?

Function of DHCP is to assign IP address to device on a network automatically.

What is Virtual Local Area Network in networking?

A virtual local area network (VLAN) is a virtualized link that unites various network nodes and devices from several LANs into a single logical network.

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5 Common Network Communication Protocols Explained

  • backlinkworks
  • December 28, 2023

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In the world of networking , communication protocols are essential for ensuring that devices can communicate with each other and transfer data efficiently. There are a wide variety of network communication protocols in use today, each with its own specific purpose and use cases. In this article, we will explore 5 common network communication protocols and explain how they work.

TCP/IP, or Transmission Control Protocol/ internet Protocol, is perhaps the most well-known and widely used network communication protocol. IT is the standard protocol for communication on the internet and is responsible for breaking data into packets, routing them to their destination, and reassembling them at the other end. TCP/IP is a reliable, connection-oriented protocol that ensures data is delivered in sequence and without errors.

User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is a simpler, connectionless protocol that is often used for time-sensitive applications where speed is more important than reliability. UDP does not guarantee the delivery of packets or the order in which they arrive, making IT ideal for services such as streaming media, online gaming, and voice over IP (VoIP). While UDP may not be as reliable as TCP/IP, its speed and efficiency make IT a valuable protocol for certain applications.

The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is the protocol used for transferring web pages and other data over the internet . IT is a request-response protocol, with clients (such as web browsers) sending requests to servers, which then respond with the requested information. HTTP is the foundation of the World Wide Web and is essential for accessing and transferring data on the internet .

File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a protocol used for transferring files between a client and a server on a computer network. FTP allows users to upload, download, and manage files on a remote server, making IT a valuable tool for sharing and accessing files over a network. While FTP has been largely replaced by more secure alternatives such as SFTP and FTPS, IT is still widely used in certain environments.

The Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is the standard protocol for sending emails over the internet . SMTP is responsible for routing emails between mail servers and ensuring that they are delivered to the correct recipients. SMTP is a simple, text-based protocol that has been in use since the early days of the internet and remains essential for email communication.

Network communication protocols are the foundation of modern networking , enabling devices to communicate with each other and share data. Each of the protocols discussed in this article plays a vital role in the functioning of the internet and computer networks. Understanding these protocols is essential for anyone working in the field of networking and can help optimize network performance and reliability.

1. What is the difference between TCP/IP and UDP?

TCP/IP is a reliable, connection-oriented protocol that ensures data is delivered in sequence and without errors, while UDP is a simpler, connectionless protocol that prioritizes speed over reliability.

2. What is the purpose of HTTP?

HTTP is the protocol used for transferring web pages and other data over the internet , enabling users to access and transfer information on the World Wide Web.

3. Is FTP still used in modern networking ?

While FTP has been largely replaced by more secure alternatives such as SFTP and FTPS, IT is still widely used in certain environments for transferring files between clients and servers.

4. Why is SMTP important for email communication?

SMTP is the standard protocol for sending emails over the internet , ensuring that emails are routed between mail servers and delivered to the correct recipients.

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The OSI Model – The 7 Layers of Networking Explained in Plain English

Chloe Tucker

This article explains the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model and the 7 layers of networking, in plain English.

The OSI model is a conceptual framework that is used to describe how a network functions. In plain English, the OSI model helped standardize the way computer systems send information to each other.

Learning networking is a bit like learning a language - there are lots of standards and then some exceptions. Therefore, it’s important to really understand that the OSI model is not a set of rules. It is a tool for understanding how networks function.

Once you learn the OSI model, you will be able to further understand and appreciate this glorious entity we call the Internet, as well as be able to troubleshoot networking issues with greater fluency and ease.

All hail the Internet!


You don’t need any prior programming or networking experience to understand this article. However, you will need:

  • Basic familiarity with common networking terms (explained below)
  • A curiosity about how things work :)

Learning Objectives

Over the course of this article, you will learn:

  • What the OSI model is
  • The purpose of each of the 7 layers
  • The problems that can happen at each of the 7 layers
  • The difference between TCP/IP model and the OSI model

Common Networking Terms

Here are some common networking terms that you should be familiar with to get the most out of this article. I’ll use these terms when I talk about OSI layers next.

A node is a physical electronic device hooked up to a network, for example a computer, printer, router, and so on. If set up properly, a node is capable of sending and/or receiving information over a network.

Nodes may be set up adjacent to one other, wherein Node A can connect directly to Node B, or there may be an intermediate node, like a switch or a router, set up between Node A and Node B.

Typically, routers connect networks to the Internet and switches operate within a network to facilitate intra-network communication. Learn more about hub vs. switch vs. router.

Here's an example:


For the nitpicky among us (yep, I see you), host is another term that you will encounter in networking. I will define a host as a type of node that requires an IP address. All hosts are nodes, but not all nodes are hosts. Please Tweet angrily at me if you disagree.

Links connect nodes on a network. Links can be wired, like Ethernet, or cable-free, like WiFi.

Links to can either be point-to-point, where Node A is connected to Node B, or multipoint, where Node A is connected to Node B and Node C.

When we’re talking about information being transmitted, this may also be described as a one-to-one vs. a one-to-many relationship.

A protocol is a mutually agreed upon set of rules that allows two nodes on a network to exchange data.

“A protocol defines the rules governing the syntax (what can be communicated), semantics (how it can be communicated), and synchronization (when and at what speed it can be communicated) of the communications procedure. Protocols can be implemented on hardware, software, or a combination of both. Protocols can be created by anyone, but the most widely adopted protocols are based on standards.” - The Illustrated Network.

Both wired and cable-free links can have protocols.

While anyone can create a protocol, the most widely adopted protocols are often based on standards published by Internet organizations such as the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).

A network is a general term for a group of computers, printers, or any other device that wants to share data.

Network types include LAN, HAN, CAN, MAN, WAN, BAN, or VPN. Think I’m just randomly rhyming things with the word can ? I can ’t say I am - these are all real network types. Learn more here .

Topology describes how nodes and links fit together in a network configuration, often depicted in a diagram. Here are some common network topology types:

What is Network Topology? Best Guides to Types & Diagrams - DNSstuff

A network consists of nodes, links between nodes, and protocols that govern data transmission between nodes.

At whatever scale and complexity networks get to, you will understand what’s happening in all computer networks by learning the OSI model and 7 layers of networking.

What is the OSI Model?

The OSI model consists of 7 layers of networking.

First, what’s a layer?

Cave, Dragon's Lair, mountains

No, a layer - not a lair . Here there are no dragons.

A layer is a way of categorizing and grouping functionality and behavior on and of a network.

In the OSI model, layers are organized from the most tangible and most physical, to less tangible and less physical but closer to the end user.

Each layer abstracts lower level functionality away until by the time you get to the highest layer. All the details and inner workings of all the other layers are hidden from the end user.

How to remember all the names of the layers? Easy.

  • Please | Physical Layer
  • Do | Data Link Layer
  • Not | Network Layer
  • Tell (the) | Transport Layer
  • Secret | Session Layer
  • Password (to) | Presentation Layer
  • Anyone | Application Layer

Keep in mind that while certain technologies, like protocols, may logically “belong to” one layer more than another, not all technologies fit neatly into a single layer in the OSI model. For example, Ethernet, 802.11 (Wifi) and the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) procedure operate on >1 layer.

The OSI is a model and a tool, not a set of rules.

OSI Layer 1

Layer 1 is the physical layer . There’s a lot of technology in Layer 1 - everything from physical network devices, cabling, to how the cables hook up to the devices. Plus if we don’t need cables, what the signal type and transmission methods are (for example, wireless broadband).

Instead of listing every type of technology in Layer 1, I’ve created broader categories for these technologies. I encourage readers to learn more about each of these categories:

  • Nodes (devices) and networking hardware components. Devices include hubs, repeaters, routers, computers, printers, and so on. Hardware components that live inside of these devices include antennas, amplifiers, Network Interface Cards (NICs), and more.
  • Device interface mechanics. How and where does a cable connect to a device (cable connector and device socket)? What is the size and shape of the connector, and how many pins does it have? What dictates when a pin is active or inactive?
  • Functional and procedural logic. What is the function of each pin in the connector - send or receive? What procedural logic dictates the sequence of events so a node can start to communicate with another node on Layer 2?
  • Cabling protocols and specifications. Ethernet (CAT), USB, Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) , and more. Specifications include maximum cable length, modulation techniques, radio specifications, line coding, and bits synchronization (more on that below).
  • Cable types. Options include shielded or unshielded twisted pair, untwisted pair, coaxial and so on. Learn more about cable types here .
  • Signal type. Baseband is a single bit stream at a time, like a railway track - one-way only. Broadband consists of multiple bit streams at the same time, like a bi-directional highway.
  • Signal transmission method (may be wired or cable-free). Options include electrical (Ethernet), light (optical networks, fiber optics), radio waves (802.11 WiFi, a/b/g/n/ac/ax variants or Bluetooth). If cable-free, then also consider frequency: 2.5 GHz vs. 5 GHz. If it’s cabled, consider voltage. If cabled and Ethernet, also consider networking standards like 100BASE-T and related standards.

The data unit on Layer 1 is the bit.

A bit the smallest unit of transmittable digital information. Bits are binary, so either a 0 or a 1. Bytes, consisting of 8 bits, are used to represent single characters, like a letter, numeral, or symbol.

Bits are sent to and from hardware devices in accordance with the supported data rate (transmission rate, in number of bits per second or millisecond) and are synchronized so the number of bits sent and received per unit of time remains consistent (this is called bit synchronization). The way bits are transmitted depends on the signal transmission method.

Nodes can send, receive, or send and receive bits. If they can only do one, then the node uses a simplex mode. If they can do both, then the node uses a duplex mode. If a node can send and receive at the same time, it’s full-duplex – if not, it’s just half-duplex.

The original Ethernet was half-duplex. Full-duplex Ethernet is an option now, given the right equipment.

How to Troubleshoot OSI Layer 1 Problems

Here are some Layer 1 problems to watch out for:

  • Defunct cables, for example damaged wires or broken connectors
  • Broken hardware network devices, for example damaged circuits
  • Stuff being unplugged (...we’ve all been there)

If there are issues in Layer 1, anything beyond Layer 1 will not function properly.

Layer 1 contains the infrastructure that makes communication on networks possible.

It defines the electrical, mechanical, procedural, and functional specifications for activating, maintaining, and deactivating physical links between network devices. - Source

Fun fact: deep-sea communications cables transmit data around the world. This map will blow your mind: https://www.submarinecablemap.com/

And because you made it this far, here’s a koala:

Closeup of a Koala

OSI Layer 2

Layer 2 is the data link layer . Layer 2 defines how data is formatted for transmission, how much data can flow between nodes, for how long, and what to do when errors are detected in this flow.

In more official tech terms:

  • Line discipline. Who should talk for how long? How long should nodes be able to transit information for?
  • Flow control. How much data should be transmitted?
  • Error control - detection and correction . All data transmission methods have potential for errors, from electrical spikes to dirty connectors. Once Layer 2 technologies tell network administrators about an issue on Layer 2 or Layer 1, the system administrator can correct for those errors on subsequent layers. Layer 2 is mostly concerned with error detection, not error correction. ( Source )

There are two distinct sublayers within Layer 2:

  • Media Access Control (MAC): the MAC sublayer handles the assignment of a hardware identification number, called a MAC address, that uniquely identifies each device on a network. No two devices should have the same MAC address. The MAC address is assigned at the point of manufacturing. It is automatically recognized by most networks. MAC addresses live on Network Interface Cards (NICs). Switches keep track of all MAC addresses on a network. Learn more about MAC addresses on PC Mag and in this article . Learn more about network switches here .
  • Logical Link Control (LLC): the LLC sublayer handles framing addressing and flow control. The speed depends on the link between nodes, for example Ethernet or Wifi.

The data unit on Layer 2 is a frame .

Each frame contains a frame header, body, and a frame trailer:

  • Header: typically includes MAC addresses for the source and destination nodes.
  • Body: consists of the bits being transmitted.
  • Trailer: includes error detection information. When errors are detected, and depending on the implementation or configuration of a network or protocol, frames may be discarded or the error may be reported up to higher layers for further error correction. Examples of error detection mechanisms: Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) and Frame Check Sequence (FCS). Learn more about error detection techniques here .

Example of frames, the network layer, and the physical layer

Typically there is a maximum frame size limit, called an Maximum Transmission Unit, MTU. Jumbo frames exceed the standard MTU, learn more about jumbo frames here .

How to Troubleshoot OSI Layer 2 Problems

Here are some Layer 2 problems to watch out for:

  • All the problems that can occur on Layer 1
  • Unsuccessful connections (sessions) between two nodes
  • Sessions that are successfully established but intermittently fail
  • Frame collisions

The Data Link Layer allows nodes to communicate with each other within a local area network. The foundations of line discipline, flow control, and error control are established in this layer.

OSI Layer 3

Layer 3 is the network layer . This is where we send information between and across networks through the use of routers. Instead of just node-to-node communication, we can now do network-to-network communication.

Routers are the workhorse of Layer 3 - we couldn’t have Layer 3 without them. They move data packets across multiple networks.

Not only do they connect to Internet Service Providers (ISPs) to provide access to the Internet, they also keep track of what’s on its network (remember that switches keep track of all MAC addresses on a network), what other networks it’s connected to, and the different paths for routing data packets across these networks.

Routers store all of this addressing and routing information in routing tables.

Here’s a simple example of a routing table:

A routing table showing the destination, subnet mask, and interface

The data unit on Layer 3 is the data packet . Typically, each data packet contains a frame plus an IP address information wrapper. In other words, frames are encapsulated by Layer 3 addressing information.

The data being transmitted in a packet is also sometimes called the payload . While each packet has everything it needs to get to its destination, whether or not it makes it there is another story.

Layer 3 transmissions are connectionless, or best effort - they don't do anything but send the traffic where it’s supposed to go. More on data transport protocols on Layer 4.

Once a node is connected to the Internet, it is assigned an Internet Protocol (IP) address, which looks either like 172.16. 254.1 (IPv4 address convention) or like 2001:0db8:85a3:0000:0000:8a2e:0370:7334 (IPv6 address convention). Routers use IP addresses in their routing tables.

IP addresses are associated with the physical node’s MAC address via the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), which resolves MAC addresses with the node’s corresponding IP address.

ARP is conventionally considered part of Layer 2, but since IP addresses don’t exist until Layer 3, it’s also part of Layer 3.

How to Troubleshoot OSI Layer 3 Problems

Here are some Layer 3 problems to watch out for:

  • All the problems that can crop up on previous layers :)
  • Faulty or non-functional router or other node
  • IP address is incorrectly configured

Many answers to Layer 3 questions will require the use of command-line tools like ping , trace , show ip route , or show ip protocols . Learn more about troubleshooting on layer 1-3 here .

The Network Layer allows nodes to connect to the Internet and send information across different networks.

OSI Layer 4

Layer 4 is the transport layer . This where we dive into the nitty gritty specifics of the connection between two nodes and how information is transmitted between them. It builds on the functions of Layer 2 - line discipline, flow control, and error control.

This layer is also responsible for data packet segmentation, or how data packets are broken up and sent over the network.

Unlike the previous layer, Layer 4 also has an understanding of the whole message, not just the contents of each individual data packet. With this understanding, Layer 4 is able to manage network congestion by not sending all the packets at once.

The data units of Layer 4 go by a few names. For TCP, the data unit is a packet. For UDP, a packet is referred to as a datagram. I’ll just use the term data packet here for the sake of simplicity.

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP) are two of the most well-known protocols in Layer 4.

TCP, a connection-oriented protocol, prioritizes data quality over speed.

TCP explicitly establishes a connection with the destination node and requires a handshake between the source and destination nodes when data is transmitted. The handshake confirms that data was received. If the destination node does not receive all of the data, TCP will ask for a retry.

TCP also ensures that packets are delivered or reassembled in the correct order. Learn more about TCP here .

UDP, a connectionless protocol, prioritizes speed over data quality. UDP does not require a handshake, which is why it’s called connectionless.

Because UDP doesn’t have to wait for this acknowledgement, it can send data at a faster rate, but not all of the data may be successfully transmitted and we’d never know.

If information is split up into multiple datagrams, unless those datagrams contain a sequence number, UDP does not ensure that packets are reassembled in the correct order. Learn more about UDP here .

TCP and UDP both send data to specific ports on a network device, which has an IP address. The combination of the IP address and the port number is called a socket.

Learn more about sockets here .

Learn more about the differences and similarities between these two protocols here .

How to Troubleshoot OSI Layer 4 Problems

Here are some Layer 4 problems to watch out for:

  • Blocked ports - check your Access Control Lists (ACL) & firewalls
  • Quality of Service (QoS) settings. QoS is a feature of routers/switches that can prioritize traffic, and they can really muck things up. Learn more about QoS here .

The Transport Layer provides end-to-end transmission of a message by segmenting a message into multiple data packets; the layer supports connection-oriented and connectionless communication.

OSI Layer 5

Layer 5 is the session layer . This layer establishes, maintains, and terminates sessions.

A session is a mutually agreed upon connection that is established between two network applications. Not two nodes! Nope, we’ve moved on from nodes. They were so Layer 4.

Just kidding, we still have nodes, but Layer 5 doesn’t need to retain the concept of a node because that’s been abstracted out (taken care of) by previous layers.

So a session is a connection that is established between two specific end-user applications. There are two important concepts to consider here:

  • Client and server model: the application requesting the information is called the client, and the application that has the requested information is called the server.
  • Request and response model: while a session is being established and during a session, there is a constant back-and-forth of requests for information and responses containing that information or “hey, I don’t have what you’re requesting.”

Sessions may be open for a very short amount of time or a long amount of time. They may fail sometimes, too.

Depending on the protocol in question, various failure resolution processes may kick in. Depending on the applications/protocols/hardware in use, sessions may support simplex, half-duplex, or full-duplex modes.

Examples of protocols on Layer 5 include Network Basic Input Output System (NetBIOS) and Remote Procedure Call Protocol (RPC), and many others.

From here on out (layer 5 and up), networks are focused on ways of making connections to end-user applications and displaying data to the user.

How to Troubleshoot OSI Layer 5 Problems

Here are some Layer 5 problems to watch out for:

  • Servers are unavailable
  • Servers are incorrectly configured, for example Apache or PHP configs
  • Session failure - disconnect, timeout, and so on.

The Session Layer initiates, maintains, and terminates connections between two end-user applications. It responds to requests from the presentation layer and issues requests to the transport layer.

OSI Layer 6

Layer 6 is the presentation layer . This layer is responsible for data formatting, such as character encoding and conversions, and data encryption.

The operating system that hosts the end-user application is typically involved in Layer 6 processes. This functionality is not always implemented in a network protocol.

Layer 6 makes sure that end-user applications operating on Layer 7 can successfully consume data and, of course, eventually display it.

There are three data formatting methods to be aware of:

  • American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII): this 7-bit encoding technique is the most widely used standard for character encoding. One superset is ISO-8859-1, which provides most of the characters necessary for languages spoken in Western Europe.
  • Extended Binary-Coded Decimal Interchange Code (EBDCIC): designed by IBM for mainframe usage. This encoding is incompatible with other character encoding methods.
  • Unicode: character encodings can be done with 32-, 16-, or 8-bit characters and attempts to accommodate every known, written alphabet.

Learn more about character encoding methods in this article , and also here .

Encryption: SSL or TLS encryption protocols live on Layer 6. These encryption protocols help ensure that transmitted data is less vulnerable to malicious actors by providing authentication and data encryption for nodes operating on a network. TLS is the successor to SSL.

How to Troubleshoot OSI Layer 6 Problems

Here are some Layer 6 problems to watch out for:

  • Non-existent or corrupted drivers
  • Incorrect OS user access level

The Presentation Layer formats and encrypts data.

OSI Layer 7

Layer 7 is the application layer .

True to its name, this is the layer that is ultimately responsible for supporting services used by end-user applications. Applications include software programs that are installed on the operating system, like Internet browsers (for example, Firefox) or word processing programs (for example, Microsoft Word).

Applications can perform specialized network functions under the hood and require specialized services that fall under the umbrella of Layer 7.

Electronic mail programs, for example, are specifically created to run over a network and utilize networking functionality, such as email protocols, which fall under Layer 7.

Applications will also control end-user interaction, such as security checks (for example, MFA), identification of two participants, initiation of an exchange of information, and so on.

Protocols that operate on this level include File Transfer Protocol (FTP), Secure Shell (SSH), Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP), Domain Name Service (DNS), and Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP).

While each of these protocols serve different functions and operate differently, on a high level they all facilitate the communication of information. ( Source )

How to Troubleshoot OSI Layer 7 Problems

Here are some Layer 7 problems to watch out for:

  • All issues on previous layers
  • Incorrectly configured software applications
  • User error (... we’ve all been there)

The Application Layer owns the services and functions that end-user applications need to work. It does not include the applications themselves.

Our Layer 1 koala is all grown up.

Koala with Photoshopped makeup

Learning check - can you apply makeup to a koala?

Don’t have a koala?

Well - answer these questions instead. It’s the next best thing, I promise.

  • What is the OSI model?
  • What are each of the layers?
  • How could I use this information to troubleshoot networking issues?

Congratulations - you’ve taken one step farther to understanding the glorious entity we call the Internet.

Learning Resources

Many, very smart people have written entire books about the OSI model or entire books about specific layers. I encourage readers to check out any O’Reilly-published books about the subject or about network engineering in general.

Here are some resources I used when writing this article:

  • The Illustrated Network, 2nd Edition
  • Protocol Data Unit (PDU): https://www.geeksforgeeks.org/difference-between-segments-packets-and-frames/
  • Troubleshooting Along the OSI Model: https://www.pearsonitcertification.com/articles/article.aspx?p=1730891
  • The OSI Model Demystified: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HEEnLZV2wGI
  • OSI Model for Dummies: https://www.dummies.com/programming/networking/layers-in-the-osi-model-of-a-computer-network/

Chloe Tucker is an artist and computer science enthusiast based in Portland, Oregon. As a former educator, she's continuously searching for the intersection of learning and teaching, or technology and art. Reach out to her on Twitter @_chloetucker and check out her website at chloe.dev .

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Fundamentals of computer networking

You learn the fundamental principles of computer networking to prepare you for the Azure admin and developer learning paths.

Learning objectives

In this module, you will:

  • List the different network protocols and network standards.
  • List the different network types and topologies.
  • List the different types of network devices used in a network.
  • Describe network communication principles like TCP/IP, DNS, and ports.
  • Describe how these core components map to Azure networking.


  • Introduction min
  • Network types and topologies to use when you design a network min
  • Types of network devices to use when you build a network min
  • Network protocols to use when you implement a network min
  • IP address standards and services min
  • Summary min

network protocols

Network Protocols

Mar 22, 2019

610 likes | 1.47k Views

Network Protocols. Why Protocols?. Rules and procedures to govern communication Some for transferring data Some for route discovery. TCP/IP. Suite of Protocols to define communication Application – client functionality Transport - moving data Network – tasks for moving data.

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  • hypertext transfer protocol secure


Presentation Transcript

Why Protocols? • Rules and procedures to govern communication • Some for transferring data • Some for route discovery

TCP/IP • Suite of Protocols to define communication • Application – client functionality • Transport - moving data • Network – tasks for moving data

Steps –Sending • Protocol responsible for breaking data into smaller parts called packets • Network address is attached to packet • Data prepared for transmission and sent through NIC

Steps - Receiving • Data received, taken off network through NIC • Address information stripped • Data packets are resembles • Packets are then sent to application for use.


TCP • Transmission Control Protocol • Connection oriented – establishes a manually acknowledged session between two hosts. • Provides reliability to IP • Flow control, sequencing, and error detection and correction. • Transport layer

TCP Connection • Sends SYN to target host • Target opens connection and sends ACK • Originated host sends ACK ready to transfer data • Called three-way handshake

UDP • User Datagram Protocol • No guarantee delivery • “fire and forget” • Uses IP • Transport layer • Lower overhead – low bandwidth

FTP • File Transfer Protocol • Uploading and downloading of files • Uses TCP as a transport protocol • Used to transfer files over the LAN • Popular to distribute files over the internet • Application layer

Common FTP commands • know

SSH • Secure Shell • Alternative to telnet • Provides security and encryption • Allows sessions to be opened on a remote host

SFTP • Secure File Transfer Protocol • Authentication between sender and receiver • Encryption – if packets copied remain hidden • Implemented though client and server software • Allows for securely uploading and downloading files to and from remote host

TFTP • Trivial File Transfer Protocol • File transfer • Not the same file security and functionality as FTP • Simple downloads – firmware • No directory navigation • Uses UDP • Application layer

SMTP • Simple Mail Transfer Protocol • How mail is sent/transported through the network • TCP • Can be used to send and receive mail • authentication

HTTP • Hypertext Transfer Protocol • Uses TCP • Allows text, graphics, multimedia and other material to be downloaded • Requests sent in clear text

HTTPS • Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure • SSL – encrypts • Both the client and server must support

POP3/IMAP4 • Post Office Protocol 3/ Internet Message Access Protocol • Can download email but not send • Passwords transferred in clear text

Telnet • Virtual terminal protocol • Allows session to be opened and commands executed • Used to access routers and other network devices • Not secure

ICMP • Internet Control Message Protocol • Works with the IP layer to provide error checking and reporting • Tools to provide best-delivery • PING • Used for error reporting, flow control, and route testing

ARP • Address Resolution Protocol • Resolving IP addresses to MAC addresses

RARP • Reverse ARP • Resolves MAC to IP addresses • Reveres lookups in DNS

Network Time Protocol NTP • Facilitates the communication of time between systems • Important for email and directory services

Network News Transfer Protocol NNTP • Posting and retrieval of messages • Application layer

Secure Copy Protocol SCP • Secure means of copying files • Encrypts data • More secure then RCP

Lightweight Directory Access Protocol LDAP • Access and query directory services • NDS and ADS

Internet Group Management Protocol IGMP • Manages multicast • Used to register and discover devices • Routers and videoconferencing clients

Domain Name Service DNS • Resolves host names to IP addresses • Used to use txt file hosts

WINS • On windows allows NetBIOS names to be resolved to IP addresses. • If no WINS server use LMHOSTS file

Simple Network Management Protocol SNMP • Network management of devices

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol DHCP • Automatically assigns IP addresses • Allows a range of IP addresses to be defined • Clients ask the server for and address • Lease - scope

Transport Layer Security TLS • Ensure privacy between client/server apps

Session Initiation Protocol SIP • VOIP • Establish and maintain multimedia sessions • Internet telephone calls • Uses TCP or UDP • Application layer

Real Time Transport Protocol RTP • Transport of real-time data • Does not guarantee delivery • Transport Layer

Ports • Each protocol needs a port to access and leave the system

Ports • TCP/IP has 65,535 ports • Well known – 0-1023 • Registered ports – 1024-49151 • Used by apps or services • Dynamic or private – 49152 – 65353 • Can be used for any service or app

FTP – 20 – TCP • FTP – 21 TCP • SSH – 22 TCP • Telnet – 23 – TCP • SMTP – 25 – TCP • DNS – 53 – UDP/TCP • TFTP – 69 – UDP • HTTP – 80 – TCP/UDP • POP3 – 110 – TCP

NNTP – 119 – TCP NTP – 123 – TCP IMAP4 – 143 – TCP SNMP – 161- UDP HTTPS – 443 – TCP DHCP – 67 - UDP

IP Address • Consists of a series of 32 binary bits • Grouped into four 8-bit bytes • Called and octet • Presented in decimal value • Composed of two parts • First part – network • Second part - host

Example • • First three octets are network • 192.168.18 • Last octet identifies the host • 57

Address Ranges • Class Address Range Default Subnet Mask • A • B • C

Need to Know • no DHCP server to give address • 127 loopback

Class • IP addresses are divided into 5 classes • Class A – large networks • Class B – medium sized networks – universities • Class C – small networks – ISP’s for customers • Class D – multicasting • Class E - testing

Subnet Mask • Network portion of the address • Hosts on a LAN use the same subnet mask

Subnet Mask cont • Class A – • Class B – • Class C –

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The Complete Guide To Giving A Networking Presentation

The Complete Guide To Giving A Networking Presentation

Ah yes. The classic business networking presentation.  If you are in the business sphere at all, at some time or another you will have the floor to give a presentation. If you incorporate business networking in your marketing, then, you’ll likely have an opportunity to do a business networking presentation.

But what exactly IS that?

A networking presentation isn’t a sale pitch, or a TEDtalk (although those rock). It is a special blend of who you are, why you do what you do, and what people need to know in order to send you quality business.

While it’s pretty standard to have this kind of opportunity if you are part of a networking group, it can be a challenge to make the most of this time. Even if you are veteran networking beast and have done these types of presentations before – you will find that the networking game have changed immensely in the last few years. So how to do give a networking presentation that benefits both you and your fellow networkers?

After years of networking, building my own businesses , and leading  networking groups  I have seen it all – the good, the bad, the ugly.

I’ve laughed, I’ve cried, I’ve cringed.

I’ve been bored, felt insulted, been inspired. I’ve done presentations and witnessed countless more. 5 minutes long, 10 minutes, 15, 20… big business, small businesses, it doesn’t really matter – there are some ket things that set about a decent networking presentation from one that smashes it out of the park. And that’s really what we are all going for – to take our businesses to the next level. We’re all on the same team, we all have the same goals.

So are you ready to dive in? Grab a cup of coffee and a notepad (or tablet, or voice memo, or however you record your muse) and let’s unpack how to give the ultimate networking presentation!

prepare a presentation on 5 networking protocols

First things first, we have to lay some ground rules when it comes to networking presentations. The most important thing you need to get straight is your perspective- where you are coming from, how you are approaching your presentation.

Traditionally, a business prevention is coming from a sales perspective  – selling an item, service, or even an idea.

A networking presentation, however, breaks out of that  mold and focuses on the opposite. The goal is not to sell a service or product or even an idea.

Your goal is to sell YOU.

If you go in with a traditional sales mindset, then you are already setting yourself up for failure. Why?

The people listening to your networking presentation are not your customers!

In a business networking group, your goal is to build trusting relationships that lead to referrals  and strategic partnerships. It’s not about selling… at least, not directly. Sales are the fruit  of time spent sowing and cultivating relationships . That perspective is what lead to productive networking , a solid 30/60/90 second  marketing message , and is the key to a successful networking presentation as well.

Now that we have our focus right, we can get into the nitty gritty of planning out a presentation!

Step 1: Determine your goals.

prepare a presentation on 5 networking protocols

Your networking presentation should have two goals:

  • to tell who you are
  • to tell how we (the people in the room) can send you business.

Sound simple, right? Don’t scroll to the end of this blog so fast, because it’s actually harder than it seems to share these two things well.

If you only share who you are, then all you succeeded in doing was talking about yourself for ten minutes straight. If you only talk about how we can help you, then we don’t have anything to base our trust on.

Why should we trust you? Why should we go out of our way to do the things you are asking us to do? Why should we refer someone to you instead of someone else in the same industry?

People have to know who you are.

prepare a presentation on 5 networking protocols

To get started with your planning, ask yourself:

Who am I? How can the people in this room best send me business?

Then actually answer those questions.

Got it written down? For real? Ok, fine, it can be digitally recored, if you are anti-paper. But are you clear on those two things? Now we are ready for the next step!

Step 2: The Beginning (of your presentation)

prepare a presentation on 5 networking protocols

People remember the beginning and the end of your presentation, and that’s about it.

It’s not that they weren’t listening, didn’t find it interesting, or just don’t care… it’s just how people are. So don’t take it personally. What you should do is give some TLC to the beginning of your presentation.  Don’t discredit the first few minutes of your presentation. You only have a few minutes to make an impact, so plan it out!

Plan to start with a bang. Tell a story, ask a proactive question, share a compelling quote.

Pay close attention to how you phrase questions, too. Think “trivia question” format. Instead of “how many of you are ready to retirement?” or “how many of you know someone who is near retirement age?” ask “who do you think the average retirement age is?”

Another key component of a great opening is to tell us what you are going to tell us about.

Get us ready. Get our brains focused. “Think about a time…” We live in an age of pings and tweets and stories to do lists… assume that your audience is distracted, and act accordingly to bring their attention back to you.

Step 3: The Middle (of your presentation)

prepare a presentation on 5 networking protocols

Now is the time to dive in and start sharing the important information that helps us trust you and want to refer you business. Don’t waste time sharing things that don’t contribute to that goal. Good questions to ask are:

How long have you been in business? What is your experience? How long have you been in your city? Why do you do what you do, what is your passion?

While it’s ok to share person info – like pets, favorite sports teams, hobbies – but be careful not to take up too much time with those things. Pick one unique thing about you and stick to that.

Now for this next one, I need you to hang with me. Put down the coffee for just a sec, because I am about to tell you to

Ditch the slides.

I know I am getting crazy, but hear me out:

If your goal is not to sell a product, service, or idea, but to instead to sell yourself… what better way to do that than to just share you? The real, live, in the flesh, talking and breathing you?

Slides may be pretty, but that is the danger. People end up focusing on what is on the screen and not on YOU.

So what’s a person to do? Slides ARE professional, no doubt about that, and it’s great to have supporting information for what you are verbally speaking.

Instead of a full set of slides, I recommend opting for one or two slides, a simple handout, or other physical object.

prepare a presentation on 5 networking protocols

Canva is the end all, be all to creating your own visual content, slides included. If you haven’t check out this free tool, you totally should… just be prepared to just sucked in to creating content for social media, your website, and more. They even have tutorials to help you get started.

But I digress. Canva rocks, and slides rock, but don’t let them take over you… because YOU are your own best salesperson.

Step 4: The Ending – what it all comes down to

Cue dramatic cinematic music. The crowd is hushed. You have commanded their attention for 80% of your presentation. The world is yours.

No pressure. Don’t blow it!

But really. Remember when said that people only really remember the beginning and the end of your presentation?  If you give an engaging presentation, but fail to end with a bang, all of your time and planning was in vain. And no one want’s that.  Pay special attention to the last 1-2 minutes of your presentation in a way that leads to cheers and applause.

Here are 2 things that I think are invaluable to ending your presentation strong:

Leave time for questions.

prepare a presentation on 5 networking protocols

For most presentations you will have a set amount of time. Out of respect for the group and your fellow networkers, make sure you stick to your allotted time. Part of that means building in time for questions. If you have the floor for ten minutes, then you need to present for 8 and then have 2 minutes of questions.  Interactive back and forth conversations is more impactful than one way conversations, so leaving time for questions is worth it!

Remember that questions don’t have to be saved to the end; you can give time throughout your presentation for people to ask, if you would like. Just set the expectations clearly at the beginning. Either say “there will be time for questions at the end,” or “please feel free to ask questions as we go.” The more clarity you give us (the listeners!) the more impactful your presentation will be.

REALLY know what you need! Have a call to action.

prepare a presentation on 5 networking protocols

And don’t say “I need referrals!” We ALL need more referrals.

Instead, tell people how they can help you specifically:

  • TODAY. Immediately.

This goes back to the beginning, when we really had to get clear on who you are and how other business owners can help you.

If you want to use a flier or handout, make one specifically for your business networking connections, not one that you already have pre-made for your customers. Canva is another great place to make a tool like this, or, just have a simple word document with your logo on it.

Some great things to include would be who you are, your business, your contact information, where they can find you online in social media, what you ideal client is, and who your strategic partnerships are.

Things that do NOT count as a productive call to action: passing around a pile of your business cards, collecting everyone else business cards, having an email sign up sheet. 

To wrap things up, networking presentations can have a huge impact on your business – it just takes some planning and practice. Invest the time to laying a solid foundation, then work through planning out each section of your presentation.

The result will be an impactful, engaging presentation that benefits not only your business, but your networking group as well.

Networking is meant to be awkward, confusing, and so much fun. What I have found is that by working together we can all ultimately grow; so give us a share if you liked this blog (and we sure hope you did) give it a share! Facebook , Twitter, Instagram, good old fashioned email… however you want to spread the love. Snooze-free presentations for everyone!

Download your Complete Guide – including a worksheet – HERE!

Elizabeth Victory

We're not around right now. But you can send us an email and we'll get back to you, asap.

prepare a presentation on 5 networking protocols

Communication Technologies Tutorial

  • Communication Technologies
  • Introduction
  • History of Networking
  • Terminologies
  • Switching Techniques
  • Transmission Media
  • Network Devices
  • Network Topologies
  • Types of Networks
  • Network Protocols

Mobile Communication Protocols

  • Mobile Communication Technologies
  • Email Protocols
  • Wireless Technologies
  • Network Security
  • Security Acts & Laws
  • Web Services
  • Useful Resources
  • Quick Guide
  • Selected Reading
  • UPSC IAS Exams Notes
  • Developer's Best Practices
  • Questions and Answers
  • Effective Resume Writing
  • HR Interview Questions
  • Computer Glossary

Any device that does not need to remain at one place to carry out its functions is a mobile device. So laptops, smartphones and personal digital assistants are some examples of mobile devices. Due to their portable nature, mobile devices connect to networks wirelessly. Mobile devices typically use radio waves to communicate with other devices and networks. Here we will discuss the protocols used to carry out mobile communication.

Mobile communication protocols use multiplexing to send information. Multiplexing is a method to combine multiple digital or analog signals into one signal over the data channel. This ensures optimum utilization of expensive resource and time. At the destination these signals are de-multiplexed to recover individual signals.

Mobile Communication Protocols

These are the types of multiplexing options available to communication channels −

FDM (Frequency Division Multiplexing) − Here each user is assigned a different frequency from the complete spectrum. All the frequencies can then simultaneously travel on the data channel.

TDM (Time Division Multiplexing) − A single radio frequency is divided into multiple slots and each slot is assigned to a different user. So multiple users can be supported simultaneously.

CDMA (Code Division Multiplexing) − Here several users share the same frequency spectrum simultaneously. They are differentiated by assigning unique codes to them. The receiver has the unique key to identify the individual calls.

GSM stands for Global System for Mobile communications. GSM is one of the most widely used digital wireless telephony system. It was developed in Europe in 1980s and is now international standard in Europe, Australia, Asia and Africa. Any GSM handset with a SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) card can be used in any country that uses this standard. Every SIM card has a unique identification number. It has memory to store applications and data like phone numbers, processor to carry out its functions and software to send and receive messages

GSM technology uses TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) to support up to eight calls simultaneously. It also uses encryption to make the data more secure.

The frequencies used by the international standard is 900 MHz to 1800 MHz However, GSM phones used in the US use 1900 MHz frequency and hence are not compatible with the international system.

CDMA stands for Code Division Multiple Access. It was first used by the British military during World War II. After the war its use spread to civilian areas due to high service quality. As each user gets the entire spectrum all the time, voice quality is very high. Also, it is automatically encrypted and hence provides high security against signal interception and eavesdropping.

WLL stands for Wireless in Local Loop. It is a wireless local telephone service that can be provided in homes or offices. The subscribers connect to their local exchange instead of the central exchange wirelessly. Using wireless link eliminates last mile or first mile construction of network connection, thereby reducing cost and set up time. As data is transferred over very short range, it is more secure than wired networks.

WLL system consists of user handsets and a base station. The base station is connected to the central exchange as well as an antenna. The antenna transmits to and receives calls from users through terrestrial microwave links. Each base station can support multiple handsets depending on its capacity.

GPRS stands for General Packet Radio Services. It is a packet based wireless communication technology that charges users based on the volume of data they send rather than the time duration for which they are using the service. This is possible because GPRS sends data over the network in packets and its throughput depends on network traffic. As traffic increases, service quality may go down due to congestion, hence it is logical to charge the users as per data volume transmitted.

GPRS is the mobile communication protocol used by second (2G) and third generation (3G) of mobile telephony. It pledges a speed of 56 kbps to 114 kbps, however the actual speed may vary depending on network load.

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2024 Charles Schwab Challenge scores, takeaways: Tony Finau, Brian Harman just off the pace after Round 1

It's a condensed leaderboard after 18 holes of play in fort worth.


A new-look Colonial Country Club produced old-time scoring in the first round of the 2024 Charles Schwab Challenge. Playing firmer and faster as the day progressed, Colonial played to an average of just about 1 over, with those players off in the morning wave receiving the easiest of the conditions.

Charley Hoffman tops the congested leaderboard thanks to a 5-under 65 with a number of heavy hitters close behind him, including Tony Finau. Fresh off a strong performance last week at Valhalla, where his putter proved uncooperative, Finau leaned on that very club en route to his 4-under 66 on Thursday.

"I think right out of the gate I made a 60-foot birdie putt, and I think it kind of got me under way," Finau said. "The golf course is quite a bit different than it's been years in the past, and so a little bit unfamiliar, I think, with how maybe it's going to bounce and how it's going to play, but with the 4-under round I thought that was a really nice start."

Stealing one at the first 🐦 @TonyFinauGolf drains it from 56 feet @CSChallengeFW . pic.twitter.com/TKuslVxPG9 — PGA TOUR (@PGATOUR) May 23, 2024

Finau is joined at that number by Brian Harman, Davis Riley, Martin Laird and S.H. Kim, who were all clipped by Hoffman late in the afternoon as winds picked up. The playoff loser from earlier in the season in Phoenix will have a chance for a quick turnaround to push his lead out even further Friday morning when scoring should be easier.

Not only is the immediate chasing pack large, nearly half the field remains within five of the lead. Collin Morikawa — fresh off another contention run in a major championship — is only two adrift at 2 under, along with Sepp Straka and J.T. Poston. Min Woo Lee, Tom Kim, Harris English and Billy Horschel stand at 1 under.

Meanwhile, world No. 1 Scottie Scheffler will have his work cut out for him if he is to play his way back into this tournament. Getting to 2 under early in his round, the Texan looked like he was going to do his usual thing and card an under-par round to sit somewhere on the first or second page of the leaderboard. Instead, a couple of dropped shots before the turn and a poor tee shot into the par-3 13th resulting in a triple bogey — his first since Round 1 of the 2023 Tour Championship — has the local man on his back foot with an opening 2-over 72.

The leaders

1. Charley Hoffman (-5) T2. Tony Finau, Brian Harman, Davis Riley, Martin Laird, S.H. Kim (-4)

It's been a somewhat quiet season so far for the Champion Golfer of the Year, but he has made some noise on shorter positional golf courses like Colonial. Harman has done damage at TPC Sawgrass and Harbour Town Golf Links, and he looks to add Colonial to that list after opening with a 4-under 66. Despite only hitting eight fairways, the fiery left-hander dotted 15 greens in regulation and was among the leaders in terms of strokes gained approach.

"I loved the old course so much, I had so many laps around this place, it's one that I always had circled," Harman said. "I felt like I had a little bit of knowledge, especially on the younger guys trying to play Colonial for the first couple times. But, yeah, we're all on the same footing now, but I feel like the essence of the course is still the same. You got to hit some really demanding tee shots, and if you can pull those off, you get some shorter clubs into the holes. So I don't feel like that the main theme of this place has changed a whole lot."

Dialed in early 💪 @HarmanBrian ties the lead with his fourth birdie of the day @CSChallengeFW . pic.twitter.com/P4HdnJgq40 — PGA TOUR (@PGATOUR) May 23, 2024

Other contenders

T7. Robby Shelton, Hayden Buckley, Pierceson Coody, Callum Tarren, C.T. Pan (-3) T12. Collin Morikawa, J.T. Poston, Zach Johnson, Brendon Todd, Sepp Straka, Christiaan Bezuidenhout, Matt Kuchar, Keegan Bradley, Grayson Murray (-2)

Ever since his run at the Masters, Morikawa has been running downhill. He was featured in the final group in the final round at the second straight major championship last week in Louisville, and he has continued to keep a good thing going this week with a first-round 68. While much has been made of the trajectory of the two-time major champion's iron play, it has been a massive stride with his short game which should take notice. Carding a total of three birdies on Thursday, Morikawa holed out twice from off the greens and continues to enjoy a level of competence in this area of the game he has not seen before.

No putter needed 👏 @Collin_Morikawa | @CSChallengeFW pic.twitter.com/QfS73PHZrL — PGA TOUR (@PGATOUR) May 23, 2024

Stars start over par

Coming into the week, Scheffler, Jordan Spieth and Max Homa were among those names at the top of the odds board. After just 18 holes, they find their names near the projected cutline and in jeopardy of missing the weekend entirely. After playing 40-plus rounds without signing for an over-par score, Scheffler has now carded two over-par rounds in his last three dating back to last week's PGA Championship. 

Spieth has been up and down all season, and it looks like a return to the typically comfortable Colonial may have brought a sense of steadiness with his first-round 71 (just about course average). Homa was the worst of the bunch, struggling to an 8-over 78 on Thursday with a round that featured everything from a near shank off the tee to a penalty drop. The good news is the winning score in this tournament last year was 8 under, but the bad news is they have some work to do.

Max Homa just tapped in on 18 to shoot a 78 (+8) and has lost 7.524 strokes to the field. This is on pace to be the 10th worst round of Homa's career (out of 618) and will be his worst since the end of 2019. He was rostered in 15.2% of fantasy lineups and 6% of O&D Leagues. pic.twitter.com/eSoJHiCIa5 — Rick Gehman (@RickRunGood) May 23, 2024

2024 Charles Schwab Challenge updated odds and picks

  • Tony Finau: 7-1
  • Scottie Scheffler: 8-1
  • Brian Harman: 8-1
  • Collin Morikawa: 8-1
  • Sepp Straka: 22-1
  • Charley Hoffman: 22-1
  • Keegan Bradley: 25-1
  • Christiaan Bezuidenhout: 25-1
  • S.H. Kim: 28-1

The afternoon played about one stroke more difficult than the morning, meaning someone from the late crop of players on Thursday should have a great chance to make their mark on this tournament Friday morning. Scheffler is among this group, but it will be his playing partner, Horschel at 40-1, who draws our interest. 

A winner already this season on the PGA Tour, Horschel was solid throughout the bag with an opening 69 and should do even better tomorrow if the iron play takes a step in the right direction. If yo're looking for a little more bang for the buck, then Spieth at 65-1 could be a fun (depending on your definition) play especially with the way he is driving the ball.

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prepare a presentation on 5 networking protocols

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  1. What Is Networking Protocols

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  2. A Complete List of Network Protocols

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  3. Types of Network Protocols: The Ultimate Guide

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  4. Network Protocol Layers: A Powerful Model for Networked Services

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  5. PPT

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  6. PPT

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  1. Introduction to Network Protocols

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  3. Group Assessment 1

  4. The Complete Guide to OSI Model||What is OSI Model|| #computer #computerknowledge

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  6. networking protocols #coding #network #shorts


  1. 12 common network protocols and their functions explained

    This glossary explores 12 common network protocols network engineers should be familiar with and provides information about their main functions and importance. 1. Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) ARP translates IP addresses to MAC addresses and vice versa so LAN endpoints can communicate with one another. ARP is necessary because IP and MAC ...

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    IP protocol. IP stands for Internet Protocol. This protocol works with TCP and UDP protocols. It provides a unique identity to each node on the computer network. This identity is known as an IP address. An IP address is a software address of the node on a computer network. There are two versions of IP protocol: IPv4 and IPv6.

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    Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) SIP is used in video, voice, and messaging application. This protocol is used to initiating, Managing, Terminating the session between two users while they are communicating. Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP) This protocol is used to forward audio, video over IP network.

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    In this article, we will explore 5 common network communication protocols and explain how they work. 1. TCP/IP. TCP/IP, or Transmission Control Protocol/ internet Protocol, is perhaps the most well-known and widely used network communication protocol. IT is the standard protocol for communication on the internet and is responsible for breaking ...

  6. PDF L09N Networks (Protocols)

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  7. PDF Network Models and Protocols

    Network Protocols: TCP, UDP, IP, and ICMP. •Describe the relationship between the following Network Protocols: TCP, UDP, IP, and ICMP. •Describe peer-to-peer communication. To help you meet these objectives, this chapter covers the following topics: •layered network models •the layers of the TCP/IP 5-layer model •network protocols

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    Chloe Tucker. This article explains the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model and the 7 layers of networking, in plain English. The OSI model is a conceptual framework that is used to describe how a network functions. In plain English, the OSI model helped standardize the way computer systems send information to each other.

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    Protocol: A protocol is a set of rules and standards that define a language that devices can use to communicate. There are a great number of protocols in use extensively in networking, and they are often implemented in different layers. Some low level protocols are TCP, UDP, IP, and ICMP. Some familiar examples of application layer protocols ...

  10. PDF Lecture 13: Introduction to Networking

    Lecture 13: Introduction to Networking Some common ports are listed above. You can see a full list and . Ports 25 and 587 are the SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol), for sending and receiving email. Port 53 is the DNS (Domain Name Service) port, for associating names with IP addresses. Port 22 is the port for SSH (Secure Shell)

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    Examples of network communication protocols include: Bluetooth: A Bluetooth protocol can connect devices with different functions like laptops, mobile phones, cameras, printers and tablets. File transfer protocol (FTP): FTP protocols allow devices to share files between hosts. They enable devices to share large files, resume sharing after an ...

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    Cisco - CyberOps Associate - Module 05 - Network ProtocolsPreparing students for Cisco 200-201 CBROPS - Understanding Cisco Cybersecurity Operations Fundamen...

  18. Networking Essentials (Version 2)

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  19. protocols and types of protocols.

    protocols and types of protocols. contents Protocol Types of protocol Transmission control protocol (TCP) internet protocol (IP) Hyper text transfer protocol (HTTP) Simple mail transfer protocol (SMTP) File transfer protocol (FTP) Layers protocol:-A protocol is a set of rules for the exchange of data between a terminal and computer or between ...

  20. PPT

    Simple Network Management Protocol SNMP • Network management of devices. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol DHCP • Automatically assigns IP addresses • Allows a range of IP addresses to be defined • Clients ask the server for and address • Lease - scope. Transport Layer Security TLS • Ensure privacy between client/server apps.

  21. Computer Network Powerpoint Templates and Google Slides Themes

    They can be used by IT professionals, network administrators, or anyone looking to explain or discuss topics such as network architecture, cybersecurity, or data communication. Download your presentation as a PowerPoint template or use it online as a Google Slides theme. 100% free, no registration or download limits.

  22. The Complete Guide To Giving A Networking Presentation

    For most presentations you will have a set amount of time. Out of respect for the group and your fellow networkers, make sure you stick to your allotted time. Part of that means building in time for questions. If you have the floor for ten minutes, then you need to present for 8 and then have 2 minutes of questions.

  23. Mobile Communication Protocols

    GPRS is the mobile communication protocol used by second (2G) and third generation (3G) of mobile telephony. It pledges a speed of 56 kbps to 114 kbps, however the actual speed may vary depending on network load. Mobile Communication Protocols - Any device that does not need to remain at one place to carry out its functions is a mobile device.

  24. 2024 U.S. Open picks, odds, field: Surprising predictions from proven

    2024 U.S. Open odds, field. Get full 2024 U.S. Open picks, best bets, and predictions here. Scottie Scheffler 4-1 Rory McIlroy 9-1 Xander Schauffele 10-1

  25. 2024 Charles Schwab Challenge scores, takeaways: Tony Finau, Brian

    Not only is the immediate chasing pack large, nearly half the field remains within five of the lead. Collin Morikawa — fresh off another contention run in a major championship — is only two ...