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Article • 8 min read

8D Problem Solving Process

Solving major problems in a disciplined way.

By the Mind Tools Content Team

(Also known as Global 8D Problem Solving)

problem solving using 8d

When your company runs into a major problem, you need to address it quickly. However, you also need to deal with it thoroughly and ensure that it doesn't recur – and this can take a lot of effort and elapsed time.

The 8D Problem Solving Process helps you do both of these seemingly-contradictory things, in a professional and controlled way. In this article, we'll look at the 8D Problem Solving Process, and we'll discuss how you can use it to help your team solve major problems.

Origins of the Tool

The Ford Motor Company® developed the 8D (8 Disciplines) Problem Solving Process, and published it in their 1987 manual, "Team Oriented Problem Solving (TOPS)." In the mid-90s, Ford added an additional discipline, D0: Plan. The process is now Ford's global standard, and is called Global 8D.

Ford created the 8D Process to help teams deal with quality control and safety issues; develop customized, permanent solutions to problems; and prevent problems from recurring. Although the 8D Process was initially applied in the manufacturing, engineering, and aerospace industries, it's useful and relevant in any industry.

The eight disciplines are shown in figure 1, below:

Figure 1: The 8D Problem Solving Process

problem solving using 8d

The 8D Process works best in teams tasked with solving a complex problem with identifiable symptoms. However, you can also use this process on an individual level, as well.

Applying the Tool

To use the 8D Process, address each of the disciplines listed below, in order. Take care not to skip steps, even when time is limited; the process is only effective when you follow every step.

Discipline 0: Plan

Before you begin to assemble a team to address the problem, you need to plan your approach. This means thinking about who will be on the team, what your time frame is, and what resources you'll need to address the problem at hand.

Discipline 1: Build the Team

You should aim to put together a team that has the skills needed to solve the problem, and that has the time and energy to commit to the problem solving process.

Keep in mind that a diverse team is more likely to find a creative solution than a team of people with the same outlook (although if outlooks are too diverse, people can spend so much time disagreeing that nothing gets done).

Create a team charter that outlines the team's goal and identifies each person's role. Then, do what you can to build trust and get everyone involved in the process that's about to happen.

If your team is made up of professionals who haven't worked together before, consider beginning with team-building activities to ensure that everyone is comfortable working with one another.

Discipline 2: Describe the Problem

Once your team has settled in, describe the problem in detail. Specify the who, what, when, where, why, how, and how many; and use techniques like CATWOE and the Problem-Definition Process to ensure that you're focusing on the right problem.

Start by doing a Risk Analysis – if the problem is causing serious risks, for example, to people's health or life, then you need to take appropriate action. (This may include stopping people using a product or process until the problem is resolved.)

If the problem is with a process, use a Flow Chart , Swim Lane Diagram , or Storyboard to map each step out; these tools will help your team members understand how the process works, and, later on, think about how they can best fix it.

Discovering the root cause of the problem comes later in the process, so don't spend time on this here. Right now, your goal is to look at what's going wrong and to make sure that your team understands the full extent of the problem.

Discipline 3: Implement a Temporary Fix

Once your team understands the problem, come up with a temporary fix. This is particularly important if the problem is affecting customers, reducing product quality, or slowing down work processes.

Harness the knowledge of everyone on the team. To ensure that each person's ideas are heard, consider using brainstorming techniques such as Round Robin Brainstorming or Crawford's Slip Writing Method , alongside more traditional team problem solving discussions.

Once the group has identified possible temporary fixes, address issues such as cost, implementation time, and relevancy. The short-term solution should be quick, easy to implement, and worth the effort.

Discipline 4: Identify and Eliminate the Root Cause

Once your temporary fix is in place, it's time to discover the root cause of the problem.

Conduct a Cause and Effect Analysis to identify the likely causes of the problem. This tool is useful because it helps you uncover many possible causes, and it can highlight other problems that you might not have been aware of. Next, apply Root Cause Analysis to find the root causes of the problems you've identified.

Once you identify the source of the problem, develop several permanent solutions to it.

If your team members are having trouble coming up with viable permanent solutions, use the Straw Man Concept to generate prototype solutions that you can then discuss, tear apart, and rebuild into stronger solutions.

Discipline 5: Verify the Solution

Once your team agrees on a permanent solution, make sure that you test it thoroughly before you fully implement it, in the next step.

  • Conducting a Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) to spot any potential problems.
  • Using Impact Analysis to make sure that there will be no unexpected future consequences.
  • Using Six Thinking Hats to examine the fix from several different emotional perspectives.

Last, conduct a Blind Spot Analysis to confirm that you and your team haven't overlooked a key factor, or made an incorrect assumption about this solution.

Discipline 6: Implement a Permanent Solution

Once your team reaches a consensus on the solution, roll your fix out. Monitor this new solution closely for an appropriate period of time to make sure that it's working correctly, and ensure that there are no unexpected side effects.

Discipline 7: Prevent the Problem From Recurring

When you're sure that the permanent solution has solved the problem, gather your team together again to identify how you'll prevent the problem from recurring in the future.

You might need to update your organization's standards, policies, procedures, or training manual to reflect the new fix. You'll likely also need to train others on the new process or standard. Finally, you'll need to consider whether to change your management practices or procedures to prevent a recurrence.

Discipline 8: Celebrate Team Success

The last step in the process is to celebrate and reward your team's success . Say "thank you" to everyone involved, and be specific about how each person's hard work has made a difference. If appropriate, plan a party or celebration to communicate your appreciation.

Before the team disbands, conduct a Post-Implementation Review to analyze whether your solution is working as you thought, and to improve the way that you solve problems in the future.

In the late 1980s, Ford Motor Company developed the 8D (8 Disciplines) Problem Solving Process to help manufacturing and engineering teams diagnose, treat, and eliminate quality problems. However, teams in any industry can use this problem solving process.

The eight disciplines are:

  • Build the Team.
  • Describe the Problem.
  • Implement a Temporary Fix.
  • Identify and Eliminate the Root Cause.
  • Verify the Solution.
  • Implement a Permanent Solution.
  • Prevent the Problem From Recurring.
  • Celebrate Team Success.

The 8D Problem Solving Process is best used with a team solving complex problems; however, individuals can also use it to solve problems on their own.

Ford is a registered trademark of the Ford Motor Company: https://www.ford.com/

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  • What is 8D? A template for efficient pr ...

What is 8D? A template for efficient problem-solving

Team Asana contributor image

How you respond when problems arise is one of the most defining qualities of a manager. Luckily, there are tools you can use to master problem-solving. The 8D method of problem-solving combines teamwork and basic statistics to help you reach a logical solution and prevent new issues from arising.

You’ve spent months overseeing the development of your company's newest project. From initiation, planning, and execution, you’re confident this may be your best work yet.

Until the feedback starts rolling in.

There’s no sugar-coating it—things don’t always go as planned. But production or process issues are hardly a signal to throw in the towel. Instead, focus on honing your problem-solving skills to find a solution that keeps it from happening again. 

The 8D method of problem solving emphasizes the importance of teamwork to not only solve your process woes but prevent new ones from occurring. In this guide, we’ll break down what 8D is, how to use this methodology, and the benefits it can give to you and your team. Plus, get an 8D template to make solving your issue easier. 

What is 8D?

The eight disciplines (8D) method is a problem-solving approach that identifies, corrects, and eliminates recurring problems. By determining the root causes of a problem, managers can use this method to establish a permanent corrective action and prevent recurring issues. 

How do you use the 8D method?

The 8D method is a proven strategy for avoiding long-term damage from recurring problems. If you’re noticing issues in your workflow or processes, then it’s a good time to give this problem-solving method a try. 

To complete an 8D analysis, follow “the eight disciplines” to construct a statistical analysis of the problem and determine the best solution.

The eight disciplines of problem-solving

8D stands for the eight disciplines you will use to establish an 8D report. As you may notice, this outline starts with zero, which makes nine total disciplines. The “zero stage” was developed later as an initial planning stage. 

To illustrate these steps, imagine your organization experienced a decline in team innovation and productivity this past year. Your stakeholders have noticed and want to see changes implemented within the next six months. Below, we’ll use the 8D process to uncover a morale-boosting solution.

[inline illustration] D8 problem solving approach (infographic)

D0: Prepare and plan

Before starting the problem-solving process, evaluate the problem you want to solve. Understanding the background of the problem will help you identify the root cause in later steps. 

Collect information about how the problem has affected a process or product and what the most severe consequences may be. Planning can include:

Gathering data

Determining the prerequisites for solving the problem

Collecting feedback from others involved

[inline illustration] D0 Planning (example)

If we look back at our example, you may want to figure out whether this decline in morale is organization-wide or only applies to a few departments. Consider interviewing a few employees from different departments and levels of management to gain some perspective. Next, determine what knowledge and skills you will need to solve this lapse in productivity. 

D1: Form your team

Create a cross-functional team made up of people who have knowledge of the various products and workflows involved. These team members should have the skills needed to solve the problem and put corrective actions in place. 

Steps in this discipline may include:

Appointing a team leader

Developing and implementing team guidelines

Determining team goals and priorities

Assigning individual roles

Arranging team-building activities

[inline illustration] D1 Team members (example)

From our example, a solid team would consist of people with first-hand experience with the issues—like representatives from all departments and key people close to workshop-level work. You may also want to pull someone in from your HR department to help design and implement a solution. Most importantly, make sure the people you choose want to be involved and contribute to the solution.

D2: Identify the problem

You may have a good understanding of your problem by now, but this phase aims to break it down into clear and quantifiable terms by identifying the five W’s a and two H’s (5W2H):

Who first reported the problem?

What is the problem about?

When did it occur and how often?

Where did it occur (relating to the sector, supplier, machine, or production line involved)?

Why is solving the problem important?

How was the problem first detected?

How many parts/units/customers are affected?

[inline illustration] D2 Problem statement & description (example)

Use your team’s insights to answer these questions. From our example, your team may conclude that: 

Employees feel overwhelmed with their current workload. 

There is no real structure or opportunity to share new ideas.

Managers have had no training for meetings or innovation settings.

Disgruntled employees know they can achieve more—and want to achieve more—even if they seem disengaged.

Once you answer these questions, record an official problem statement to describe the issue. If possible, include photos, videos, and diagrams to ensure all parties have a clear understanding of the problem. It may also help to create a flowchart of the process that includes various steps related to the problem description.

D3: Develop an interim containment plan

Much like we can expect speedy first aid after an accident, your team should take immediate actions to ensure you contain the problem—especially if the problem is related to customer safety. 

An interim containment plan will provide a temporary solution to isolate the problem from customers and clients while your team works to develop a permanent corrective action. This band-aid will help keep your customers informed and safe—and your reputation intact.

[inline illustration] D3 Interim containment action (example)

Because your findings revealed workers were overworked and managers lacked training, your team suggests scheduling a few mandatory training sessions for leaders of each department covering time and stress management and combating burnout . You may also want to have a presentation outlining the topics of this training to get key managers and stakeholders interested and primed for positive upcoming changes. 

D4: Verify root causes and escape points

Refer back to your findings and consult with your team about how the problem may have occurred. The root cause analysis involves mapping each potential root cause against the problem statement and its related test data. Make sure to test all potential causes—fuzzy brainstorming and sloppy analyses may cause you to overlook vital information. 

[inline illustration] D4 Root cause & escape points (example)

In our example, focus on the “why” portion of the 5W2H. You and your team identify six root causes:

Managers have never had any training

There is a lack of trust and psychological safety

Employees don’t understand the objectives and goals

Communication is poor

Time management is poor

Employees lack confidence

In addition to identifying the root causes, try to pinpoint where you first detected the problem in the process, and why it went unnoticed. This is called the escape point, and there may be more than one. 

D5: Choose permanent corrective actions

Work with your team to determine the most likely solution to remove the root cause of the problem and address the issues with the escape points. Quantitatively confirm that the selected permanent corrective action(s) (PCA) will resolve the problem for the customer. 

Steps to choosing a PCA may include:

Determining if you require further expertise

Ensuring the 5W2Hs are defined correctly

Carrying out a decision analysis and risk assessment

Considering alternative measures

Collecting evidence to prove the PCA will be effective

[inline illustration] D5 Permanent corrective action (example)

Your team decides to roll out the training used in the interim plan to all employees, with monthly company-wide workshops on improving well-being. You also plan to implement meetings, innovation sessions, and team-coaching training for managers. Lastly, you suggest adopting software to improve communication and collaboration. 

D6: Implement your corrective actions

Once all parties have agreed on a solution, the next step is to create an action plan to remove the root causes and escape points. Once the solution is in effect, you can remove your interim containment actions.

After seeing success with the training in the interim phase, your stakeholders approve all of your team’s proposed PCAs. Your representative from HR also plans to implement periodic employee wellness checks to track employee morale .

[inline illustration] D6 PCA implementation plan (example)

To ensure your corrective action was a success, monitor the results, customer, or employee feedback over a long period of time and take note of any negative effects. Setting up “controls” like employee wellness checks will help you validate whether your solution is working or more needs to be done. 

D7: Take preventive measures

One of the main benefits of using the 8D method is the improved ability to identify necessary systematic changes to prevent future issues from occurring. Look for ways to improve your management systems, operating methods, and procedures to not only eliminate your current problem, but stop similar problems from developing later on.

[inline illustration] D7 Preventive measure (example)

Based on our example, the training your team suggested is now adopted in the new manager onboarding curriculum. Every manager now has a “meeting system” that all meetings must be guided by, and workloads and projects are managed as a team within your new collaboration software . Innovation is improving, and morale is at an all-time high!

D8: Celebrate with your team

The 8D method of problem-solving is impossible to accomplish without dedicated team members and first-class collaboration. Once notes, lessons, research, and test data are documented and saved, congratulate your teammates on a job well done! Make an effort to recognize each individual for their contribution to uncovering a successful solution.

[inline illustration] 8D Team congratulations & reward (example)

8D report template and example

Check out our 8D report template below to help you record your findings as you navigate through the eight disciplines of problem solving. This is a formal report that can be used as a means of communication within companies, which makes for transparent problem-solving that you can apply to the entire production or process chain.

Benefits of using the 8D method

The 8D method is one of the most popular problem-solving strategies for good reason. Its strength lies in teamwork and fact-based analyses to create a culture of continuous improvement —making it one of the most effective tools for quality managers. The benefits of using the 8D method include: 

Improved team-oriented problem-solving skills rather than relying on an individual to provide a solution

Increased familiarity with a problem-solving structure

A better understanding of how to use basic statistical tools for problem-solving

Open and honest communication in problem-solving discussions

Prevent future problems from occurring by identifying system weaknesses and solutions

Improved effectiveness and efficiency at problem-solving

Better collaboration = better problem solving

No matter how good a manager you are, production and process issues are inevitable. It’s how you solve them that separates the good from the great. The 8D method of problem solving allows you to not only solve the problem at hand but improve team collaboration, improve processes, and prevent future issues from arising. 

Try Asana’s project management tool to break communication barriers and keep your team on track.

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Quality-One

Eight Disciplines of Problem Solving (8D)

– Eight Disciplines of Problem Solving –

⇓   Introduction to 8D

⇓   What is 8D

⇓   Why Apply 8D

⇓   When to Apply 8D

⇓   How to Apply 8D

Quality and Reliability Support | Quality-One

Introduction to Eight Disciplines of Problem Solving (8D)

The Eight Disciplines of Problem Solving (8D) is a problem solving methodology designed to find the root cause of a problem, devise a short-term fix and implement a long-term solution to prevent recurring problems. When it’s clear that your product is defective or isn’t satisfying your customers, an 8D is an excellent first step to improving Quality and Reliability.

Ford Motor Company developed this problem solving methodology, then known as Team Oriented Problem Solving (TOPS), in the 1980s. The early usage of 8D proved so effective that it was adopted by Ford as the primary method of documenting problem solving efforts, and the company continues to use 8D today.

8D has become very popular among manufacturers because it is effective and reasonably easy to teach. Below you’ll find the benefits of an 8D, when it is appropriate to perform and how it is performed.

What is Eight Disciplines of Problem Solving (8D)

The 8D problem solving process is a detailed, team oriented approach to solving critical problems in the production process. The goals of this method are to find the root cause of a problem, develop containment actions to protect customers and take corrective action to prevent similar problems in the future.

The strength of the 8D process lies in its structure, discipline and methodology. 8D uses a composite methodology, utilizing best practices from various existing approaches. It is a problem solving method that drives systemic change, improving an entire process in order to avoid not only the problem at hand but also other issues that may stem from a systemic failure.

8D has grown to be one of the most popular problem solving methodologies used for Manufacturing, Assembly and Services around the globe. Read on to learn about the reasons why the Eight Disciplines of Problem Solving may be a good fit for your company.

8D - Problem Solving Format

Why Apply Eight Disciplines of Problem Solving (8D)

The 8D methodology is so popular in part because it offers your engineering team a consistent, easy-to-learn and thorough approach to solving whatever problems might arise at various stages in your production process. When properly applied, you can expect the following benefits:

  • Improved team oriented problem solving skills rather than reliance on the individual
  • Increased familiarity with a structure for problem solving
  • Creation and expansion of a database of past failures and lessons learned to prevent problems in the future
  • Better understanding of how to use basic statistical tools required for problem solving
  • Improved effectiveness and efficiency at problem solving
  • A practical understanding of Root Cause Analysis (RCA)
  • Problem solving effort may be adopted into the processes and methods of the organization
  • Improved skills for implementing corrective action
  • Better ability to identify necessary systemic changes and subsequent inputs for change
  • More candid and open communication in problem solving discussion, increasing effectiveness
  • An improvement in management’s understanding of problems and problem resolution

8D was created to represent the best practices in problem solving. When performed correctly, this methodology not only improves the Quality and Reliability of your products but also prepares your engineering team for future problems.

When to Apply Eight Disciplines of Problem Solving (8D)

The 8D problem solving process is typically required when:

  • Safety or Regulatory issues has been discovered
  • Customer complaints are received
  • Warranty Concerns have indicated greater-than-expected failure rates
  • Internal rejects, waste, scrap, poor performance or test failures are present at unacceptable levels

How to Apply Eight Disciplines of Problem Solving (8D)

The 8D process alternates inductive and deductive problem solving tools to relentlessly move forward toward a solution. The Quality-One approach uses a core team of three individuals for inductive activities with data driven tools and then a larger Subject Matter Expert (SME) group for the deductive activities through brainstorming, data-gathering and experimentation.

D0: Prepare and Plan for the 8D

Proper planning will always translate to a better start. Thus, before 8D analysis begins, it is always a good idea to ask an expert first for their impressions. After receiving feedback, the following criterion should be applied prior to forming a team:

Collect information on the symptoms

Use a Symptoms Checklist to ask the correct questions

Identify the need for an Emergency Response Action (ERA), which protects the customer from further exposure to the undesired symptoms

D1: Form a Team

A Cross Functional Team (CFT) is made up of members from many disciplines. Quality-One takes this principle one step further by having two levels of CFT:

  • The Core Team Structure should involve three people on the respective subjects: product, process and data
  • Additional Subject Matter Experts are brought in at various times to assist with brainstorming, data collection and analysis

Teams require proper preparation. Setting the ground rules is paramount. Implementation of disciplines like checklists, forms and techniques will ensure steady progress.  8D must always have two key members: a Leader and a Champion / Sponsor:

  • The Leader is the person who knows the 8D process and can lead the team through it (although not always the most knowledgeable about the problem being studied)
  • The Champion or Sponsor is the one person who can affect change by agreeing with the findings and can provide final approval on such changes

D2: Describe the Problem

The 8D method’s initial focus is to properly describe the problem utilizing the known data and placing it into specific categories for future comparisons. The “Is” data supports the facts whereas the “Is Not” data does not. As the “Is Not” data is collected, many possible reasons for failure are able to be eliminated. This approach utilizes the following tools:

  • Problem Statement
  • Affinity Diagram (Deductive tool)
  • Fishbone/Ishikawa Diagram (Deductive tool)
  • Problem Description

D3: Interim Containment Action

In the interim, before the permanent corrective action has been determined, an action to protect the customer can be taken. The Interim Containment Action (ICA) is temporary and is typically removed after the Permanent Correct Action (PCA) is taken.

  • Verification of effectiveness of the ICA is always recommended to prevent any additional customer dissatisfaction calls

D4: Root Cause Analysis (RCA) and Escape Point

The root cause must be identified to take permanent action to eliminate it. The root cause definition requires that it can be turned on or off, at will. Activities in D4 include:

  • Comparative Analysis listing differences and changes between “Is” and “Is Not”
  • Development of Root Cause Theories based on remaining items
  • Verification of the Root Cause through data collection
  • Review Process Flow Diagram for location of the root cause
  • Determine Escape Point, which is the closest point in the process where the root cause could have been found but was not

D5: Permanent Corrective Action (PCA)

The PCA is directed toward the root cause and removes / changes the conditions of the product or process that was responsible for the problem. Activities in D5 include:

  • Establish the Acceptance Criteria which include Mandatory Requirements and Wants
  • Perform a Risk Assessment /  Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) on the PCA choices
  • Based on risk assessment, make a balanced choice for PCA
  • Select control-point improvement for the Escape Point
  • Verification of Effectiveness for both the PCA and the Escape Point are required

D6: Implement and Validate the Permanent Corrective Action

To successfully implement a permanent change, proper planning is essential. A project plan should encompass: communication, steps to complete, measurement of success and lessons learned. Activities in D6 include:

  • Develop Project Plan for Implementation
  • Communicate the plan to all stakeholders
  • Validation of improvements using measurement

D7: Prevent Recurrence

D7 affords the opportunity to preserve and share the knowledge, preventing problems on similar products, processes, locations or families. Updating documents and procedures / work instructions are expected at this step to improve future use. Activities in D7 include:

  • Review Similar Products and Processes for problem prevention
  • Develop / Update Procedures and Work Instructions for Systems Prevention
  • Capture Standard Work / Practice and reuse
  • Assure FMEA updates have been completed
  • Assure Control Plans have been updated

D8: Closure and Team Celebration

Teams require feedback to allow for satisfactory closure. Recognizing both team and individual efforts and allowing the team to see the previous and new state solidifies the value of the 8D process. Activities in D8 include:

  • Archive the 8D Documents for future reference
  • Document Lessons Learned on how to make problem solving better
  • Before and After Comparison of issue
  • Celebrate Successful Completion

8D - D0 Reference Card

8D and Root Cause Analysis (RCA)

The 8D process has Root Cause Analysis (RCA) imbedded within it. All problem solving techniques include RCA within their structure. The steps and techniques within 8D which correspond to Root Cause Analysis are as follows:

  • Problem Symptom is quantified and converted to “Object and Defect”
  • Problem Symptom is converted to Problem Statement using Repeated Whys
  • Possible and Potential Causes are collected using deductive tools (i.e. Fishbone or Affinity Diagram)
  • Problem Statement is converted into Problem Description using Is / Is Not
  • Problem Description reduces the number of items on the deductive tool (from step 3)
  • Comparative Analysis between the Is and Is Not items (note changes and time)
  • Root Cause theories are developed from remaining possible causes on deductive tool and coupled with changes from Is / Is Not
  • Compare theories with current data and develop experiments for Root Cause Verification
  • Test and confirm the Root Causes

Is Is Not Example

Example: Multiple Why Technique

The Multiple / Repeated Why (Similar to 5 Why) is an inductive tool, which means facts are required to proceed to a more detailed level. The steps required to determine problem statement are:

  • Problem Symptom is defined as an Object and Defect i.e. “Passenger Injury”
  • Why? In every case “SUV’s Roll Over”
  • Why? In every case, it was preceded by a “Blown Tire”
  • Why? Many explanations may be applied, therefore the team cannot continue with another repeated why past “Blown Tire”
  • Therefore, the Problem Statement is “Blown Tire”
  • Why? Low (Air) Pressure, Tire Defect (Degradation of an Interface) and High (Ambient) Temperature
  • Counter measures assigned to low pressure and tire defect

This example uses only 4 of the 5 Whys to determine the root causes without going further into the systemic reasons that supported the failure. The Repeated Why is one way to depict this failure chain. Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) could also be used.

3 Legged 5 Why

Learn More About Eight Disciplines of Problem Solving (8D)

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Home > Quality Management > The 8D Problem-Solving Method: What is it And How To Use It

The 8D Problem-Solving Method: What is it And How To Use It

problem solving using 8d

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Table of Contents

The 8D ( 8D Problem-Solving Method ) method, also known as 8 disciplines, first appeared in Ford’s 1987 “Team-Oriented Problem Solving” manual. It is a tool that has stood the test of time and has become the first solution used by the company known today as Global 8D. Although the 8D method has been around for years, many companies still face the problem of low resolution and poor use of fixes.

Eight Laws of Problem-Solving ( 8D Problem-Solving Method ) are an efficient, effective, and proven way to identify the root cause of a problem, plan a quick solution, and prevent a solution, treatment, and recurrence of the problem. If your product is faulty or does not meet customer expectations, the 8D is a great first step toward improving quality and reliability. The 8D has become very popular with manufacturers, installers, and workshops worldwide due to its efficiency and ease.

8D Problem-Solving Method

Organizations can benefit from improving their production processes and preventing problems that can hinder productivity. This approach provides businesses with the necessary and practical tools to increase efficiency and take action when necessary.

The 8D Problem-Solving Method is the process of teaching and improving quality and eliminating problems. Here we will show you a step-by-step troubleshooting tool to help you identify the problem and identify issues and errors. It also helps identify root causes and take steps to resolve and prevent problems identified in the process. So, let us look at the steps:

1. D0: Planning and Preparation-

Planning and proper planning is a good start before taking action. The process begins with devising a plan and analyzing the problems the organization wants to solve. In this step, company leaders combine information from different sources and generate ideas. In general, at this stage, they identify the problem that needs urgent attention, the main resources that can be used to solve the problem, and the parties involved in the resolution process. The planning phase forms the basis for the next step.

Therefore, before building a team, you should consider:

  • Problem description
  • The time frame for resolution
  • Resources needed to complete the job.

2. D1: Formation of a Team-

This process is based on the creation of groups that will be part of the problem-solving process. During teamwork, the team leader will usually select someone with experience on the job and identify areas to consider in hiring professionals with skills in these areas. The group may also choose a leader to lead its efforts in the problem-solving process.

Building teams to do the 8D Problem-Solving Method is a weak spot for many organizations. Collaborating with people from relevant organizations is important because you cannot solve the problem without first-hand knowledge. If a part problem, the engineer responsible for the design should be in the team. If a production problem, it should be walked around by the staff from the special work area. Do not make the mistake of thinking that the 8D is a job only a competent person can do at their desk.

3. D2: Describing Problem-

The main purpose of the 8D approach is to accurately and objectively describe the problem so that all important information is captured. This step involves writing down detailed information and information to describe the problem, and this is another area where people run into a lot of trouble. Problem definition may mean walking the field to observe the problem on the production floor, reviewing quality data, and/or confirming/not validating the problem.

Organizations can further identify and solve the problem by identifying the problem. During this time, the team reviews issues that need fixing, and management maintains good communication with everyone on the team. Describe the situation in meaningful terms to help identify the potential and type of problem. Often, at this stage, the team writes problem statements, gathers information, and creates diagrams and charts to add to the project.

4. D3: Problem Containment Planning-

Sometimes it is necessary to develop a temporary problem management plan to reduce the impact of the problem until a permanent solution is found. New methods are needed to fix the problem until a permanent solution is found. Problem-solving is a process that takes time and goes through many stages. It is important to have a contingency plan when dealing with serious and persistent problems. Issue management can help reduce the immediate impact of an incident on a product or customer. Temporary protection plans often use quick, easy, and inexpensive measures that the team can reverse at a later stage if needed. With advice, it is important to analyze the results and monitor the situation carefully to prevent further damage.

Temporary protection minimizes the impact of the problem during a permanent solution, which is especially important when product quality or safety is at risk. Many automakers make the mistake of stopping at this point and causing confusion and correction. Sorting materials or clearing clutter only fixes the symptoms, not the cause. The result: repeated problems, higher costs, and loss of business.

5. D4: The Root Cause Analysis (RCA)-

There are many tools available to identify the true root cause of a problem. With the issue temporarily resolved, you can now begin to identify the cause of the inconsistency.

Once the interim plan is in effect, the next step will be an in-depth analysis of the root of the problem. The team examines each potential resource through in-depth analysis and testing. They bring in all relevant test data and discuss the unidentifiable details of the method. This issue is common and can help organizations better identify problems and prevent their recurrence in the future. Organizations often use marketing and visualization tools such as Five WHYs, the Fishbone diagram to visualize the cause, and the Pareto charts to identify root cause analysis.

6. D5: Analyzing Permanent Corrective Action-

Once the team has identified the source of the problem, we can decide what the best solution is. Networking with tools such as social mapping can help plan ideas and identify best practices through relationships.

After determining the best solution, the team evaluates corrective action against the root cause of the problem and escape points. With this information, they can compare corrections and write their results. At this stage, they can also make a risk assessment of each solution they create and choose the most appropriate one. Brainstorming combined with tools such as affinity diagrams helps organize ideas based on relationships and determine the best course of action.

7. D6: Implementing & Validating Permanent Corrective Action-

Management should be involved in verifying correct operation and this means that they must be present in the workshop to measure performance and in regular reviews of key performance indicators (KPIs). Leadership should be exemplified by examining the process from the paying customer’s perspective. It is worth noting that the 6 steps of the 8D Problem-Solving Method are when you are finally ready to use the correction, demonstrating the critical role of planning in this process.

Once a solution is identified, management should implement corrective actions using the PDCA (Plan Do Check Act) process with small tests before expansion. So, keep track of the results and tweak the fix to get the desired results. To achieve and implement a permanent change, the strategic plan should include:

  • Creating an action plan
  • Communicating the plan to all stakeholders
  • Recognizing improvement using metrics

8. D7: Preventing Recurrence-

Once the best solutions have been identified and tested, it is important to pursue permanent corrective action to eliminate roots and escapes. Generally, the organization pulls back the management plan from time to time, creates an action plan for the right action, and then communicates it to all stakeholders. To implement the plan, organizations monitor instant results and results over time. It also monitors the effectiveness of permanent fixes.

The organization should decide to take steps such as updating the process of checking questions and performing regular preventive maintenance on them, ensuring defect-free products for high-risk processes, and rejecting to avoid risking other processes.

9. D8: Recognizing Team Contributions-

When the problem is solved, the last step is to congratulate the team. Because teams need feedback to achieve great results, it is important to recognize their efforts and share their success across the organization. This increases motivation and employee engagement while helping you develop quality control, implement process improvements, and manage change as you grow.

At the final stage of the process, the team reviews their work and discusses the project and its achievements. Effective communication and comparison before and after the 8D Problem-Solving Method process helps the team. Awareness of personal effort and feedback is important during this period as it can increase job satisfaction.

About Henry Harvin 8D Analysis Course:

Henry Harvin’s 8D Problem-Solving Method Analysis course is designed to identify the root cause of a problem, develop a short-term solution strategy, and implement long-term solutions to prevent the recurrence of the problem and 8D gives you an understanding of Root Cause Analysis. It’s not just about solving problems. However, it can help prepare your engineering team for the future.

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Learning Benefits:

  • Learn and find clear information on 8D analysis courses.
  • Learning various 8D Problem-Solving Method analysis principles.
  • Understand government processes and products.
  • Design advanced knowledge using project management.
  • Manage performance, and understand capacity and growth.

Youtube URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IX4eMOJC4VE

Other Courses

  • LEAN SIX SIGMA IN IT COURSE
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Benefits of the 8D Problem-Solving Method include a better way to find the root cause, establish the necessary measures to eliminate the root cause, and apply the right treatment. The 8D method also helps find the control that is causing the problem to escape. The purpose of learning escape points is to improve management’s ability to identify failures or their causes (when and when they occur again). Finally, the prevention cycle examines the sequence of events that allowed the failure and the process that caused it to exist.

The 8D Problem-Solving Method approach is universally applicable to any organization that needs a solution. However, there are some industries and businesses that have been successful using this 8D method, such as manufacturing, the automotive industry, engineering companies that produce products, and large and medium-sized businesses.

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Youtube URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-9MUBLT0DjI

To complete the 8D process, the following are important:   i. Good team.   ii. A correct description of the problem.   iii. Not skipping the 8D Problem-Solving Method steps.   iv. Cooperation within the team and management support.

Some errors continued to occur as the team tried to locate the source of the problem and implement the correct solution. To prevent these defective products from reaching consumers, interim containment ensures that the defect remains in place until the problem is completely resolved. If the customer reaches the wrong location, it can lead to liability, failure, and customer dissatisfaction.

The 8D Problem-Solving Method report is a document used to document the 8D process, detailing the implementation of solutions and evaluating the effectiveness of solutions.  

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What is the 8D Problem Solving? And How to use the 8D Report?

The 8D problem-solving process (also known as the 8 Disciplines) is very different from previous processes we explored previously, such as the Double Diamond process or the IBM Design Thinking. The 8D process works in a rigid standardised nature to address the crisis caused by problems. The 8D process aims to walk with the team to highlight the problem, its root causes and propose a long-term solution. The process is documented in an 8D report which includes details of each of the eight stages. At the end of this article, we will explore an example report, and you can find a free 8D report template to download.

In times of crisis, companies face the challenge of analysing and solving problems efficiently in a short time to save developed projects. Problem-solving techniques such as the  TRIZ method  and  Hurson’s Production Thinking Model  allow companies to overcome crises and solve problems using less effort and time.

  • Stage Gate Process: The Complete Practice Guide

The Double Diamond Design Thinking Process and How to Use it

  • A Guide to the SCAMPER Technique for Creative Thinking
  • Design Thinking Tools: Reverse Brainstorming

Brief History of the 8D Problem Solving

The 8D method was first implemented by the US government during WW II as a military standard and was referred to as the Army Directive 1520, “Remedies and disposal of nonconforming materials.” In 1987, the demand for a team-oriented problem-solving method increased among the management organisation in the automotive industry to find a way to eliminate recurring issues.

Ford Motor Company published their manual,  Team Oriented Problem Solving (TOPS),  which includes their 8 Disciplines of the problem-solving process. The process was initially used to deal with quality control and safety issues inside the company but later expanded its role to a team approach problem-solving method. The 8D process is employed by engineers and designers to identify, analyse, and correct problems by eliminating the primary source that caused the problem.

So, what are the eight steps in the 8D methodology? The 8D problem solving process includes 8 Disciplines. In the mid-90s, a D0 step for planning was added to the process. The 8D steps include the following:

  • D1: Team formation
  • D2: Describe the problem
  • D3: Develop a temporary containment plan
  • D4: Determine and verify root causes
  • D5: Verify the permanent solution
  • D6: Implement the permanent solution
  • D7: Prevent recurrence
  • D8: Congratulate your team

The 8 Disciplines aim to achieve the following targets while solving the specified problem:

  • Think as a team while solving the problem
  • Isolate the situation and understand its causes
  • Identify the factors that contribute to the problem
  • Provide a temporary solution to halt the impact of the problem
  • Eliminate the causes of the problem and the factors contributing to it
  • Prevent the problem from recurring

When Should the 8D Problem Solving be Used?

Based on the above targets, the 8D problem solving process is designed for complex problems whose solution exceeds the ability of one expert. Also, it aims to establish communication for problem resolution through different levels inside the company. In some situations, the consumer or the management team requests the application of the 8D process through several forms or documentation.

While 8D problem solving is suitable for recurring problems that may repeatedly occur within a project or company, it is not ideal for simple issues that can be solved quickly by individual efforts. The process is unsuitable for a problem that can be solved with a straightforward solution. The 8D process is designed for complex issues, which require several weeks to solve and the involvement of at least four people.

8D problem solving provides a systematic process to find and solve problems. Therefore, if the situation requires choosing between alternative solutions, 8D acknowledges that other tools may help solve the problem better than the 8D process.

8D problem solving

How to Apply the 8D Problem Solving Process?

The steps below form the 8 Discipline process to achieve targeted problem solving through the eight steps.

This discipline is also known as the Pre 8D because it aims to understand the problem and determine if the 8D process is the correct method to use. At this stage, the team aims to answer general questions such as:

  • Is this a new problem, or has it happened before?
  • Is this a recurring problem?
  • What is the history of this issue?
  • What was the method used to solve the problem before?

At this stage, the target is to learn about the problem’s history and decide if the 8D process is the best tool to solve the problem.

D1: Team Formation

Thinking as a team can produce more efficient solutions than trying to solve a problem alone. The team includes all the stakeholders involved in the situation. The team communicates with each other and performs brainstorming to solve the problem (check  Design Thinking Tools: Reverse Brainstorming ). If the team does not know each other, the brainstorming time can be used to learn how to teach members to explore ideas together. Methods can be used in brainstorming sessions such as mind mapping , Six Thinking Hats , and  Lego Serious Play.

D2: Describe the Problem

After team formation, the second step is to understand the problem and its risks. This stage starts with a risk analysis to identify the situation and how it can affect the project flow. Several methods can be used to analyse the problem from different perspectives, including  SWOT analysis ,  SCAMPER technique , and similar tools. This stage is essential to building a clear vision of the problem and ensuring all stakeholders have the same understanding of the situation.

D3: Develop a Temporary Containment Plan

While solving the problem, there should be a temporary containment plan to prevent the problem from affecting the rest of the project or the final product. This temporary containment solution is a short-term operation such as adding more labour, increasing the quality measurements, applying a risk plan, etc.

It is essential to understand that the containment action is not the real solution and can only be used for the short term. Therefore, this action can be applied internally and not affect the process of reaching a permanent solution.

D4: Determine and Verify Root Causes

This stage aims to investigate the root causes of the problem; it can be considered the core of the 8D problem solving process. In many problems, what we see as causes are symptoms of other root causes. This misunderstanding can lead to inaccurate attempts at solutions that can have negative consequences in the future and leave the underlying problem unsolved.

An intensive investigation should be implemented because, in many cases, the root cause is hidden inside the process and covered by many symptoms, which is confusing. Some tools can be used to define the root causes of the problem, such as  brainstorming , statistical analysis, flow charts, audits, etc.

D5: Verify the Permanent Solution

Once the root cause is defined, the solution becomes apparent, and the team better understands how to solve the problem. However, the symptoms and other related factors may create difficulties deciding how best to apply the solution. So, these other factors should be considered when determining the permanent solution to the dilemma.

When choosing the permanent solution to the problem, it should meet the following criteria to ensure it is the ideal solution for the problem:

  • The solution should be practical
  • The solution should be feasible
  • The solution should be cost-effective
  • The solution should not fail during production
  • The solution should be implemented in all affected facilities in the company

D6: Implement the Permanent Solution

Once the solution is approved, this step tends to work as an action plan. This plan aims to outline the steps to implement the solution. It is common to ask questions in this stage: What should be done? Who should be involved in the correction plan?

More documentation and detailed plans should be created if the solution is complex and needs further procedures. The method may include training the team and checking the plan’s progress for further development and improvement.

D7: Prevent Recurrence

Once the action plan is set and ready to be implemented, the team should establish a plan to prevent the problem from occurring in the future. The action plan should be tested and documented as part of the process to avoid the recurrence of the problem. Some of the tools that can achieve this goal are Control Charts, Capabilities Analysis, and Control Plans.

D8: Congratulate the Team

After completing the task and implementing the solution, the team deserves an acknowledgement of their work and a celebration. This event will positively impact the stakeholders and reflect recognition of employees’ efforts from the management inside the company.

How do you Write an 8D Report?

The primary documentation used in the problem solving process is the 8D report. Korenko et al. (2013) presented an example of the 8D problem-solving application, Application 8D Method For Problems Solving . After this example, you can find a free 8D Report template that you can download and use for both commercial and noncommercial applications. The first part of the report, D0, includes information about the problem and the project details related to the project. D1 section contains details of the team involved in the project, roles, titles and contact information. D2 part of the report includes a detailed description of the problem and possible visual images to show the problem clearly. The report can consist of the type of damage of the failure and the function where the problem occurs (Figure 2).  

8D Report example

D3 includes details of the temporary solution for the problem required to stop the damage rapidly. In this part, the temporary remedy is described, particularly the symptoms affect, the responsibility, and the validation of the action. In D4, the team uses a root-cause method such as the 5WHYs or the Cause-Effect analysis (Fish Bone method). These methods help the team to identify the root causes of the problem. In Figure 3, the 5WHYs method is used several times to identify the root cause of the problem. 

8D Report example

D5 of the report provides details about the permanent solution to fix the problem. Unlike the temporary solution, this aims to element the root causes of the problem. This section includes the procedure’s name, the reason to use it, the responsibility, the management approval to apply it and the expected date of completing the utilisation of the solution, as seen in Figure 4. In the following stage, D6, the team provides details on the implementation and validation of the permanent action.

8D Report example

D7 provides details about preventing the recurrent problem, such as the name of the action after the validation process in the previous stage. Also, this stage provides details of the cause behind this action and elements about its responsibility and implementing details. Finally, in D8, the report includes a summary of the procedure and the proper approvals related to the procedure implementation (Figure 5). 

8D Report example

Free 8D Report Template Download

Free 8D Report Template

You can download the below 8D report, which you can use for commercial and noncommercial projects. Don’t forget to mention Designorate as the source of this free 8D report.

The 8D Problem Solving process provides a reliable and systematic method that ensures that the problems inside a company or project are solved by eliminating their root causes and preventing recurrence. However, it is most suitable for complex problems that can take weeks or even months to solve. Therefore, the first stage aims to determine if the 8D process is ideal for the problem or if more straightforward tools should be implemented. If the 8D problem solving method is appropriate for your business problem, you have a step-by-step template to guide you through your attempts to find a suitable solution to the obstacle you need to overcome.

Dr Rafiq Elmansy

I'm an academic, author and design thinker, currently teaching design at the University of Leeds with a research focus on design thinking, design for health, interaction design and design for behaviour change. I developed and taught design programmes at Wrexham Glyndwr University, Northumbria University and The American University in Cairo. Additionally, I'm a published book author and founder of Designorate.com. I am a fellow for the Higher Education Academy (HEA), the Royal Society of Arts (FRSA), and an Adobe Education Leader. I write Adobe certification exams with Pearson Certiport. My design experience involves 20 years working with clients such as the UN, World Bank, Adobe, and Schneider. I worked with the Adobe team in developing many Adobe applications for more than 12 years.

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8D Chess: How to Use The 8 Disciplines for Problem Solving

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Hospitals have developed something of a reputation for being rife with bad processes . When processes aren’t adequate, the result is an abundance of “workarounds”.

For example, when equipment or supplies are missing, a nurse might waste time running around searching for what is needed, and once the item is found, return to their previous duties.

One study indicates that nurses spend 33 minutes of a 7.5-hour shift completing workarounds that are not part of their job description.

This may well “put out the fire” so-to-speak, but really it is just a hastily applied band-aid that does nothing to treat the root cause of the problem.

More time is wasted and more problems will arise in the future because nothing has been done to prevent the initial problem from happening again.

Individual nurses are not at fault here; workplace culture often values expertise in the form of those who “get the job done”, which tends to pull against the notion of spending time building good processes (time in which the job is perhaps not “getting done”).

So how to approach the problem of problem solving ?

In a lean context, problem solving can be distilled into two simple questions:

  • What is the problem and how did it happen?
  • How can we make sure that it doesn’t happen again?

The 8D, or eight disciplines methodology, is a problem solving process – most likely one of the most widely used problem solving processes out there. It is used by many different countries, in many different industries, and many different organizations.

8D is designed to help you put out those fires, and make sure they don’t happen again.

In this article, I’ll introduce you to the 8D problem solving methodology and provide you with an outline of the basic process that you can hopefully apply in your own business, plus how you can enhance 8D with other tools and methodologies like Six Sigma , FMEA , and Process Street .

Here’s what I hope you’ll take away after reading:

  • An understanding of the basics of 8D
  • Advantages of using 8D
  • The purpose and objectives of each phase of the 8D process
  • An understanding of how to use 8D for problem solving
  • How 8D works with other problem solving tools
  • How you can use Process Street to maximize the potential of the 8D framework

Let’s begin with the origins of 8D – what is it, and where did it come from?

What is 8D?

8D (sometimes Global 8D or G8D) stands for eight disciplines, and is a problem solving methodology. It’s basically a process for understanding and preventing problems.

Much like how risk management seeks to take a proactive, preventative stance, 8D aims to gain insight into the root causes of why the problems happen, so they won’t happen again.

The 8D process involves eight (sometimes nine) steps to solve difficult, recurring problems. It’s a transparent, team-based approach that will help you solve more problems in your business.

8D origins: Where did it come from?

problem solving using 8d

Despite the popular story that 8D originated at Ford, it was in fact developed in 1974 by the US Department of Defence, ultimately taking the form of the military standard 1520 Corrective Action and Disposition System for Nonconforming Material .

Ford took this military standard, which was essentially a process for quality management , and expanded on it to include more robust problem solving methods.

In 1987, Ford Motor Company published their manual, Team Oriented Problem Solving (TOPS) , which included their first iteration of the 8D methodology.

Initially termed Global 8D (or G8D) standard, it is currently used by Ford and many other companies in the automotive supply chain.

8D, PDSA, & other problem solving processes

problem solving processes

The disciplines of 8D follow the same logic as the Deming Cycle (also known as PDSA, and sometimes PDCA).

PDSA stands for Plan, Do, Study, Act (or Check, in the case of PDCA).

The similarity lies in the fact that both PDSA and 8D are designed to be used to improve processes. They’re both examples of cycles of continuous improvement.

Whereas 8D may be painted as a more generic problem-solving framework, structurally speaking both 8D and PDSA share a lot in common.

The simple idea of beginning with a clear objective, or desired output, and then testing, analyzing , and iteratively tweaking in a continuous cycle is the basis for both methodologies.

There are, of course, differences. We’ll cover the different applications of both 8D and PDSA in this article.

8D advantages

problem solving using 8d

One of the main strengths of 8D is its focus on teamwork. 8D philosophy encourages the idea that teams, as a whole, are more powerful than the sum of the individual qualities of each team member.

It’s also an empirical methodology; that is to say that it is a fact-based problem solving process.

A branch of continuous improvement, proper use of 8D will help you coordinate your entire team for effective problem solving and improved implementation of just about all of the processes used in your business.

The 8 disciplines for problem solving

As you may have noticed, we’re starting with zero, which makes nine total disciplines. This “zero” stage was developed as an initial planning step.

D0: Plan adequately

Make comprehensive plans for solving the problem including any prerequisites you might determine.

Be sure to include emergency response actions.

D1: Establish your team

Establish your core team with relevant product or process knowledge. This team will provide you with the perspective and ideas needed for the problem solving process.

The team should consist of about five people, from various cross-functional departments. All individuals should have relevant process knowledge.

A varied group will offer you a variety of different perspectives from which to observe the problem.

It is advisable to establish team structure, roles, and objectives as far ahead in advance as possible so that corrective action can begin as quickly and effectively as possible.

D2: Describe the problem

Have your team gather information and data related to the problem or symptom. Using clear, quantifiable terms, unpack the problem by asking:

D3: Contain the problem (temporary damage control)

Depending on the circumstances, you may need to mobilize some kind of temporary fix, or “firefighting”.

The focus of this stage should be on preventing the problem from getting worse, until a more permanent solution can be identified and implemented.

D4: Identify, describe, and verify root causes

In preparation for permanent corrective action, you must identify, describe, and verify all possible causes that could contribute to the problem happening.

You can use various techniques for this, including a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis , or Ishikawa (fishbone) diagram .

It’s important that the root causes are systematically identified, described in detail, and promptly verified (or proved). How each cause is verified will depend on the data type and the nature of the problem.

Take a look at the section towards the end of this article for some more problem solving tools to help you decide the right approach.

D5: Identify corrective actions

You must verify that the corrective action you identified will in fact solve the problem and prevent it from happening again in the future (or whatever is your desired threshold of recurrence).

The best way to do this is to collect as much data as possible and by performing smaller-scale “pilot” tests to get an idea of the corrective action’s impact.

You can’t begin to identify the optimal corrective action until you have identified the root cause(s) of the problem.

D6: Implement and validate corrective actions

Carry out the corrective actions, and monitor short and long term effects. During this stage, you should assess and validate the corrective actions with empirical evidence.

Discuss and review results with your team.

D7: Take preventative measures (to avoid the problem happening again)

Here is where you make any necessary changes to your processes, standard operating procedures , policies , and anything else to make sure the problem does not happen again.

It may not be possible to completely eliminate any chance of the problem recurring; in that case, efforts should focus on minimizing possibility of recurrence as much as possible.

D8: Congratulate your team

It’s important to recognize the joint contribution of each and every one of the individuals that were involved in the process.

Team members should feel valued and rewarded for their efforts; this is crucial and perhaps the most important step – after all, without the team, the problem would not have been fixed.

Providing positive feedback and expressing appreciation helps to keep motivation high, which in turn improves the sense of process ownership and simply increases the likelihood your team will actually want to improve internal processes in the future.

How to use 8D for problem solving

The 8D method above outlines a proven strategy for identifying and dealing with problems. It’s an effective problem solving and problem prevention process.

In addition to avoiding long-term damage from recurring problems, 8D also helps to mitigate customer impact as much as possible.

More than just a problem-solving methodology, 8D sits alongside Six Sigma and other lean frameworks and can easily be integrated with them to minimize training and maximize efficacy.

8D is definitely a powerful framework on its own, but it really shines when combined with other synergistic concepts of lean and continuous improvement.

More problem solving tools that synergize well with 8D

8D has become a leading framework for process improvement, and in many ways it is more prescriptive and robust than other more simplistic Six Sigma approaches.

However, there are many Six Sigma methodologies, and even more frameworks for problem solving and process improvement .

The following improvement tools are often used within or alongside the 8D methodology.

DMAIC: Lean Six Sigma

dmaic process

DMAIC stands for:

The DMAIC process is a data-driven cycle of process improvement designed for businesses to help identify flaws or inefficiencies in processes.

Simply put, the goal with DMAIC is to improve and optimize existing processes.

Interestingly, the development of the DMAIC framework is credited to Motorola , whose work built upon the systems initially developed by Toyota .

In terms of working alongside 8D, you could use DMAIC to identify root causes as in D4; you could also implement the same techniques to better understand prospects for corrective actions as in D5, and D6.

We have a whole article on the DMAIC process, if you’re interested.

SWOT analysis

swot analysis

Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats. You can use a SWOT analysis to gain insight into your organization as a whole, or on individual processes.

The main synergy with 8D is in the identification of opportunities, threats, and weaknesses.

These can represent opportunities for process improvements, weaknesses in your process that could produce problems further down the line, and threats, both internal and external, that may be out of your direct control but that could cause problems for you.

Here’s a SWOT analysis checklist you can use to structure your own analysis:

FMEA: Failure Mode and Effects Analysis

fmea process

FMEA (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis) is a way of understanding the potential for problems and making preemptive preparations in order to avoid them. It is a method of risk management .

It is a type of preventative risk management process, and so works well in the context of identifying causes of problems so you can better deal with them.

FMEA and 8D work well together because:

  • 8D can make use of information gathered during an FMEA process, like brainstorming sessions, to identify potential problems and their root causes.
  • You can reuse possible cause information gathered during an FMEA process to feed into different representational diagrams like the Ishikawa (fishbone) diagram, which will help in the 8D process.
  • 8D brainstorming data is useful for new process design. This allows the FMEA to take actual process failures into account, which produces more effective results.
  • FMEA completed in the past can be used as databases of potential root causes of problems to inform 8D process development.

Here’s a free FMEA template for you to get started ASAP:

The Pareto Chart

The Pareto Chart helps us understand the impact of different variations of input on our output.

In relation to 8D, Pareto Charts can help us prioritize which root cause to target, based on which will have the greatest impact on improvement (where improvement is the desired output of the 8D process).

Here’s the Six Sigma Institute’s example Pareto Chart :

problem solving using 8d

Here we have a simple deductive reasoning technique that asks “why?” five times to dig into the root cause of a problem.

The logic here is that by asking the same question five times, you work progressively “deeper” into the complexity of the problem from a single point of focus.

Ideally, by the fifth question you should have something that has a high likelihood of being a root cause.

This example from Wikipedia does a great job of conveying how the process works:

  • The vehicle will not start. (the problem)
  • Why? – The battery is dead. (First why)
  • Why? – The alternator is not functioning. (Second why)
  • Why? – The alternator belt has broken. (Third why)
  • Why? – The alternator belt was well beyond its useful service life and not replaced. (Fourth why)
  • Why? – The vehicle was not maintained according to the recommended service schedule. (Fifth why, a root cause)

Ishikawa diagrams (fishbone diagrams)

Sometimes called “cause-and-effect diagrams”, they are as such used to visualize the cause and effect of problems.

The approach takes six different categories and places information about the problem into different categories to help you understand what factors could be contributing to the problem.

One advantage over the 5 Whys approach is the way this method forces a more holistic perspective, as opposed to the potentially narrow vantage point offered by zooming in on a single aspect or question.

According to the Six Sigma Institute, the 6 key variables pertaining to root causes of problems are:

  • Machine: Root causes related to tools used to execute the process.
  • Material: Root causes related to information and forms needed to execute the process.
  • Nature: Root causes related to our work environment, market conditions, and regulatory issues.
  • Measure: Root causes related to the process measurement.
  • Method: Root causes related to procedures, hand-offs, input-output issues.
  • People: Root causes related people and organizations.

There’s also this useful illustration of a company using a fishbone diagram to better understand what factors contribute to a company’s high turn around time.

problem solving using 8d

Gap analysis

gap analysis graph

A gap analysis is concerned with three key elements:

  • The current situation, or “performance”
  • The ideal situation, or “potential”
  • What needs to be done in order to get from performance to potential, or “bridging the gap”

The “gap” is what separates your current situation from your ideal situation.

Businesses that perform a gap analysis can improve their efficiency and better understand how to improve processes and products.

They can help to better optimize how time, money, and human resources are spent in business.

There’s a lot that goes into a gap analysis, and quite a few different ways to approach it. Check out our article for a deeper dive into the gap analysis process.

Superpowered checklists

Checklists can be a great way to simplify a complex process into a series of smaller, easy-to-manage tasks. They’re one of the best ways to start using processes in your business.

By using checklists, you can reduce the amount of error in your workflow , while saving time and money by eliminating confusion and uncertainty.

What’s more, if you’re using Process Street, you have access to advanced features like conditional logic , rich form fields and streamlined template editing .

How to use Process Street for 8D problem solving

Good problem solving relies on good process. If you’re trying to solve problems effectively, the last thing you want is your tools getting in your way.

What you want is a seamless experience from start to finish of the 8D methodology.

The best kinds of processes are actionable. That’s why you should consider using a BPM software like Process Street to streamline recurring tasks and eliminate manual work with automation .

Process Street’s mission statement is to make recurring work fun, fast, and faultless. By breaking down a process into bite-sized tasks , you can get more done and stay on top of your workload.

Sign up today for a free Process Street trial!

Problem solving is an invaluable skill. What’s your go-to process for problem solving? We’d love to know how it compares with the 8D method. Let us know in the comments!

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Oliver Peterson

Oliver Peterson is a content writer for Process Street with an interest in systems and processes, attempting to use them as tools for taking apart problems and gaining insight into building robust, lasting solutions.

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Certainty Blog

Mastering 8d problem solving: a comprehensive guide for businesses.

Table of contents

  • What is 8D Problem Solving?
  • The 8 Disciples of Problem Solving
  • Implementing 8D Problem Solving Methodology

Example of Successful 8D Problem Solving

  • Common Challenges and Best Practices

Measuring the Effectiveness of 8D Problem-Solving Efforts

The Eight Disciples (8D) of Problem Solving

Problem solving is a vital skill for any business that wants to survive and thrive in today’s competitive and dynamic environment. However, not all problems are created equal. Some are simple and straightforward, while others are complex and multifaceted. How can businesses effectively tackle these challenging problems and prevent them from recurring?

One of the most powerful and proven problem-solving methodologies is 8D problem solving. 8D stands for eight disciplines, which are a series of steps that guide teams through the process of identifying, analyzing, resolving, and preventing problems. 8D problem solving can help businesses improve their quality, reduce their costs, and enhance their customer satisfaction.

What is 8D Problem Solving

8D problem solving is a structured and systematic approach to solving complex problems that require cross-functional collaboration and root cause analysis. It was developed by Ford Motor Company in the late 1980s as a way to address customer complaints and improve product quality. Since then, it has been widely adopted by many organizations across various sectors.

The core principles and objectives of 8D problem solving are:

  • Focus on the customer’s needs and expectations
  • Involve a multidisciplinary team with relevant expertise and authority
  • Use data and facts to support decision making
  • Identify and eliminate the root causes of the problem
  • Implement corrective actions that prevent reoccurrence
  • Document and communicate the problem-solving process and results

The 8D methodology differs from other problem-solving approaches in several ways. First, it emphasizes team-oriented problem-solving. Second, it follows a sequential and logical order of steps that ensures thoroughness and consistency. Third, it uses various tools and techniques to facilitate analysis and action. Fourth, it incorporates feedback loops and verification methods to ensure effectiveness and sustainability.

The Eight Disciples of Problem Solving

D1: establish the team.

The first step in the 8D approach is to form a team that will work on the problem. The team should consist of members who have knowledge, experience, or involvement in the problem area. The team should also have a leader who will coordinate the activities and communicate with stakeholders.

The purpose of establishing the team is to:

  • Define the roles and responsibilities of each team member
  • Establish the scope and boundaries of the problem
  • Set the goals and expectations for the problem-solving process
  • Allocate the resources and time required for the process

D2: Describe the Problem

The second step in this problem-solving method is to define and describe the problem in detail. The team should use data and facts to describe the problem as accurately as possible. The team should also use tools such as the 5W2H method (who, what, where, when, why, how, how much), Six Sigma, or an IS/IS NOT matrix to clarify the aspects of the problem.

Defining and describing the problem allows businesses to:

  • Establish a common understanding of the problem among the team members
  • Identify the symptoms, effects, and impacts of the problem
  • Quantify the magnitude and frequency of the problem
  • Specify the criteria for evaluating potential solutions

D3: Develop Interim Containment Actions

The third step in 8D problem solving is to develop interim containment actions that will prevent or minimize the negative consequences of the problem until a permanent solution is found. The team should identify and implement actions that will isolate, control, or eliminate the causes or sources of variation that contribute to the problem.

When you develop interim containment actions, you:

  • Protect the customer from defective products or services
  • Reduce the risk of further damage or harm
  • Maintain operational continuity and stability
  • Buy time for root cause analysis and corrective actions

D4: Determine Root Causes

The fourth step in the 8D method is to determine the root causes responsible for creating or allowing the problem to occur. The team should use data analysis tools such as Pareto charts, histograms, scatter plots, or fishbone diagrams to identify possible causes. The team should also use root cause analysis techniques such as 5 Whys, fault tree analysis, or Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA) to verify or validate the causes.

The purpose of determining root causes is to:

  • Understand why the problem happened
  • Identify all possible factors that influence or contribute to the problem
  • Eliminate superficial or symptomatic causes
  • Prevent jumping to conclusions or making assumptions

D5: Choose Permanent Corrective Actions

The fifth step in 8D problem solving is to choose permanent corrective actions that will address or remove root causes permanently. The team should generate multiple possible solutions using brainstorming techniques such as SCAMPER (substitute, combine, adapt, modify, put to another use, eliminate, reverse) or TRIZ (theory of inventive problem solving). The team should also evaluate each solution using criteria such as feasibility, effectiveness, cost, risk, or impact.

Choosing permanent corrective actions helps to:

  • Select the best solution that meets customer needs and expectations
  • Ensure that root causes are eliminated or prevented from recurring
  • Consider trade-offs between different solutions
  • Plan for implementation challenges or barriers

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D6: implement permanent corrective actions.

The sixth step in 8D problem solving is to implement permanent corrective actions that were chosen in D5. The team should develop an action plan that specifies who will do what by when using tools such as Gantt charts or PDCA cycles (plan-do-check-act). The team should also execute the action plan according to schedule using tools such as checklists or standard operating procedures.

The purpose of implementing permanent corrective actions is to:

  • Put the chosen solution into practice
  • Monitor progress and performance during implementation
  • Resolve any issues or problems that arise during the implementation
  • Document changes or modifications made during implementation

D7: Prevent Recurrence

The seventh step in 8D problem solving is to prevent recurrence by ensuring that permanent corrective actions are effective and sustainable. The team should verify that root causes have been eliminated using tools such as control charts or statistical process control (SPC). The team should also validate that customer requirements have been met using tools such as surveys or audits.

Preventing reoccurrence helps to:

  • Confirm that permanent corrective actions have solved the problem
  • Evaluate customer satisfaction with products or services after implementation
  • Identify opportunities for further improvement or optimization
  • Standardize best practices or lessons learned from implementation

D8: Recognize Team Efforts

The eighth step in 8D problem solving is recognizing team efforts by acknowledging their contributions and achievements throughout the process. The team should celebrate their success by sharing their results with stakeholders using tools such as reports or presentations. The team should also appreciate their efforts by rewarding them with recognition or incentives.

The purpose of recognizing team efforts is to:

  • Motivate team members for future challenges
  • Build trust and rapport among team members
  • Enhance team morale and cohesion
  • Promote a culture of continuous improvement

Implementing 8D Problem-Solving Methodology

Implementing an 8D problem-solving methodology can be challenging for many businesses due to various factors such as organizational culture, resources, or complexity. However, with proper planning, preparation, and execution, it can be done successfully.

Here is some practical guidance on how businesses can effectively implement the 8D process:

Define clear roles & responsibilities for each discipline

One of the key factors for successful implementation is having clear roles & responsibilities for each discipline within the 8D process. Each discipline requires specific skills, knowledge, or authority that may not be available within a single person or department.

Therefore, it is important to assign appropriate roles & responsibilities for each discipline based on their expertise & involvement in the problem area.

Some examples of roles & responsibilities are:

8D Problem Solving Discipline Roles and Responsibilities

By defining clear roles & responsibilities for each discipline, businesses can ensure accountability, transparency, and collaboration throughout the process.

Establish a common language & framework for communication

Another key factor for successful implementation is having a common language & framework for communication among team members & stakeholders. Communication is essential for sharing information, ideas, or feedback during the process.

However, communication can also be challenging due to different backgrounds, perspectives, or expectations among team members & stakeholders. Therefore, it is important to establish a common language & framework for communication that can facilitate understanding, alignment, and agreement throughout the process. Some examples of common language & framework are:

  • Using standard terminology & definitions for the 8D process
  • Implementing visual tools & templates to document & present the 8D process
  • Using common metrics & criteria to measure & evaluate the 8D process
  • Establishing feedback mechanisms & channels to communicate & collaborate during the 8D process

By establishing a common language & framework for communication, businesses can ensure clarity, consistency, and quality throughout the process.

Provide adequate training & support for team members

A third key factor for successful implementation is providing adequate training & support for team members who are involved in the 8D process. Team members need to have sufficient knowledge, skills, or confidence to perform their roles & responsibilities effectively. However, team members may not have prior experience or exposure to the 8D process or its tools & techniques. Therefore, it is important to provide adequate training & support for team members that can enhance their competence & capability during the process. Some examples of training & support are:

  • Providing formal training sessions or workshops on the 8D process or its tools & techniques
  • Offering coaching or mentoring from experts or experienced practitioners on the 8D process or its tools & techniques
  • Contributing access to resources or references on the 8D process or its tools & techniques
  • Maintaining feedback or recognition of team members’ performance or improvement during the 8D process

By providing adequate training & support for team members, businesses can ensure effectiveness, efficiency, and engagement throughout the process.

To illustrate the versatility and applicability of 8D problem solving across different industries and contexts, here is a hypothetical example of successful 8D problem solving:

Example: Reducing Customer Complaints in a Food Manufacturing Company

A food manufacturing company was facing a high rate of customer complaints due to foreign materials found in their products. The company used 8D problem solving to address this issue and improve product quality. Here are the steps they took within each discipline:

The company formed a cross-functional team consisting of representatives from quality assurance, production, engineering, and customer service. The team leader was the quality assurance manager who had the authority and responsibility to coordinate the activities and communicate with stakeholders.

The team defined and described the problem using data and facts from customer complaints and product inspection records. The team used the 5W2H method to clarify the aspects of the problem. The problem statement was: “In the past six months, we have received 25 customer complaints due to foreign materials such as metal shavings, plastic pieces, or wood chips found in our products.”

The team developed interim containment actions that would prevent or minimize the occurrence of foreign materials in their products until a permanent solution was found. The team identified and implemented measures such as increasing the frequency and intensity of product inspection, installing additional metal detectors and filters in the production line, and segregating and quarantining any products that were suspected or confirmed to contain foreign materials.

The team determined the root causes that were responsible for creating or allowing foreign materials to enter their products. They then used data analysis tools such as Pareto charts and fishbone diagrams to identify potential causes. Root cause analysis techniques such as 5 Whys to verify or validate the causes were also implemented.

Ultimately, they found that there were three main root causes:

  • inadequate maintenance of equipment that resulted in metal shavings or plastic pieces falling off during operation;
  • improper handling of raw materials that resulted in wood chips or other contaminants being mixed in during storage or transportation;
  • lack of awareness or training of staff on how to prevent or detect foreign materials in products.

The team chose permanent corrective actions that would address or remove root causes permanently. The team generated multiple possible solutions using brainstorming techniques such as SCAMPER and TRIZ. They also evaluated each solution using criteria such as feasibility, effectiveness, cost, risk, or impact. Eventually, they selected the best solutions that met customer needs and expectations.

The solutions were:

  • implementing a preventive maintenance program for equipment that included regular inspection, cleaning, and replacement of parts;
  • establishing a quality control system for raw materials that included verification, testing, and labeling of incoming materials;
  • conducting a training program for staff on how to prevent, detect, and report foreign materials in products.

The team implemented permanent corrective actions that were chosen in D5. An action plan that specified who would do what by when using tools such as Gantt charts and PDCA cycles was then developed. They then executed the action plan according to schedule using tools such as checklists and standard operating procedures.

The team prevented recurrence by ensuring that permanent corrective actions were effective and sustainable. They first verified that root causes had been eliminated using tools such as control charts and statistical process control (SPC). Next, they validated that customer requirements had been met using tools such as surveys and audits. After implementing permanent corrective actions, the rate of customer complaints due to foreign materials dropped by 90%.

Team efforts were recognized by acknowledging their contributions and achievements throughout the process. The team celebrated their success by sharing their results with stakeholders using tools such as reports and presentations. Management also appreciated their efforts by rewarding them with recognition or incentives such as certificates, gift cards, or bonuses.

Common Challenges and Best Practices in 8D Problem Solving

Despite its benefits and advantages,

8D problem solving can also pose some challenges for businesses that want to implement it effectively. Some of these challenges are:

  • Resistance to change from staff or management who are used to existing processes or practices
  • Lack of commitment or support from senior leaders who do not see the value or urgency of problem-solving
  • Difficulty in defining or measuring problems
  • Insufficient data or information to support analysis or decision making
  • Conflicts or disagreements among team members or stakeholders due to different opinions or interests

To overcome these challenges and ensure successful 8D problem solving, businesses can adopt some best practices such as:

  • Communicating the benefits and objectives of 8D problem solving to staff and management
  • Securing the buy-in and sponsorship of senior leaders who can provide direction and resources
  • Using clear and objective criteria to define and measure problems
  • Collecting and analyzing relevant and reliable data or information
  • Resolving conflicts or disagreements through constructive dialogue and compromise

To ensure that 8D problem-solving efforts are not wasted or forgotten, businesses need to measure the effectiveness and impact of their initiatives. Measuring the effectiveness of 8D problem-solving efforts can help businesses:

  • Assess whether they have achieved their goals and expectations
  • Evaluate whether they have improved their performance and customer satisfaction
  • Identify areas for further improvement or optimization
  • Demonstrate their value and credibility to stakeholders

To measure the effectiveness of 8D problem-solving efforts, businesses can use various methods such as:

  • Key performance indicators (KPIs) that can be used to quantify the results or outcomes of 8D problem-solving initiatives. Some examples of KPIs are customer satisfaction scores, defect rates, cycle times, or cost savings.
  • Data collection and analysis tools that can be used to gather and interpret data or information related to 8D problem-solving initiatives. Some examples of data collection and analysis tools are surveys, audits, control charts, or statistical process control (SPC).
  • Periodic reviews and feedback mechanisms can be used to monitor and evaluate the progress and performance of 8D problem-solving initiatives. Some examples of periodic reviews and feedback mechanisms are reports, presentations, meetings, or feedback forms.

By measuring the effectiveness of 8D problem-solving efforts, businesses can ensure that they are continuously improving their quality, efficiency, and customer satisfaction.

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Understanding 8D Principle of Problem Solving

8D Problem Solving : 8D Stands for the Eight Disciplines of team-oriented problem-solving. It is a step-by-step process of identifying the root cause of a problem, providing corrective solutions, and preventive solutions to eliminate the recurring problems permanently. 8D follows the logic of PDCA (Plan-Do-Check-Adjust) . And the 8D was developed and implemented in the Second World War by the US government. Later it was popularized by the Ford Motor Company’s Team Oriented Problem Solving manual.  

In addition to the eight disciplines, one more step is appended initially. That step is known as Step zero – D0.  

Let’s have a look at the Eight Disciplines of problem-solving in detail.  

D0 – Preparation : Begin with the end in mind. This discipline emphasizes the following saying:  

“Preparation for tomorrow is hard work today”.

In order to be prepared to solve a problem using 8D, one needs to follow the steps given below.  

  • Do the hard work (Such as clearly understanding the problem, gathering required resources, and identifying people who have the expertise to solve the problem).
  • Do the smart work (Before rushing into solving the problem with the information gathered, make a plan and execute it systematically).

D1 – Build a Problem Solving Team : Building a team to solve the problem using 8D is one of the most important steps of 8D. Yet, one should be mindful about choosing the team members. The team doesn’t need the best people from the company. It needs the people who have the expertise, and are concerned with the problem. Solving the problem is much easier when we know exactly what the problem is and have the right team of people working systematically to solve the problem.  

D2 – Describe the Problem : In this step, information regarding the problem is collected to describe the problem in detail. And describing the exact problem is a challenging task that can be completed by carefully gathering relevant data and profound analysis.  

By answering the following with the gathered information, a perfect problem description is found.  

What, who, where, why, when, how often and how (5W2H) of the problem.  

D3 – Temporarily Confine the Problem : Identifying the ideal solution to solve the problem and stop the problem from occurring again is not a piece of cake. That’s why it is wise to isolate the problem to minimize its impact on the product quality or the customers before finding the permanent solution.  

D4 – Root Cause Analysis and Escape Point Detection : After isolating the problem, the root cause of the problem needs to be identified. So, detect all relative causes that help the team understand why the problem has occurred and identify the escape point – the time in which the problem could have been noticed as it occurred.

Then the causes can be verified using the following methods to ensure that the cause found is the actual root cause of the problem.  

  • Brainstorming
  • Five why processes
  • Affinity diagram
  • Pareto charts

D5 – Research and Develop Permanent Corrective Action : Once the root cause of the problem is identified and verified, necessary actions must be taken through profound research and brainstorming to solve the problem completely and permanently.  

After identifying necessary actions (permanent corrective actions), the team has to perform a risk assessment of the actions.  

D6 – Implement  Permanent Corrective Actions : After successfully developing the permanent corrective actions and implementing the solution, the team needs to make an action plan.  

Then the plan has to be communicated with stakeholders, validated with empirical information for improvements and executed sequentially.  

D7 – Implement Preventive Actions : By this stage, the team has gained profound awareness of the problem, its impact and the one-stop solution to resolve the problem once and for all. This awareness also helps the team to prevent problems with relevant products and processes.  

So the practices of management and standard systems can be modified as required with the acquired intelligence to prevent the problems that might arise in the future.  

D8 – Appreciate Team Members : This final discipline incorporates documentation of intelligence gained through the awareness of conducting the 8D steps for future reference and to improve the approaches of solving problems.  

Last but not least – appreciating the team for its diligence. This motivates the team and other employees to be more confident, productive, and passionate. So appreciation matters, it shan’t be underrated.  

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What is 8D problem solving? Complete guide for 2023

8D problem solving

Problem-solving is now becoming essential for companies to stay ahead of the competition. 8D problem solving is one of the most popular methodology used in all industries for solving technical problems at the workplace.

This methodology uses many of the tools from six sigma but focused on identifying, correcting, and preventing a problem. This methodology is not part of six sigma but they do help in many situations to structure the problem-solving process and find its solution. 

In this article, we will understand the 8D problem solving methodology in detail along with a case study example so that at the end you will become ready to implement it. Let’s start…

Table of Contents

What is 8D problem solving methodology – 

Before getting into this let’s understand the simple question, what is meant by a problem?… A problem is a situation you want to change or it is an opportunity for improvement. right! In the context of Six Sigma, the problem is nothing but the out-of-control situation, waste in the process or special causes of variation, etc.

Generally, there are two causes of variation which are responsible to disturb any process i.e.  Special cause of variation and a common cause of variation. The focus of any problem-solving tool is to reduce these variations as much as possible.

Suppose, If we plot the control chart, in that any data point which is beyond the upper and lower limits indicates that the process has special causes of variation, and when all the data points are within these limits that means our process has only a common cause of variation.

Common causes of variation are an integral part of any process, they cannot be eliminated completely from the process. We can reduce it up to a certain level so that process performs effectively and efficiently. Six Sigma methodology is useful to reduce these common causes of variation by using the DMAIC process . 

But when there is a special cause of variation in the process, it is an indication of disturbances in the process which then increase the variability of the process beyond acceptable levels.

These causes of variation must be eliminated from the process to make it stable. Here comes the use of 8D problem solving methodology. This 8D methodology is useful to eliminate all the special causes of variation to bring long-term stability to the process.

Six Sigma   – Useful in reducing common cause of variation. 8D problem solving – useful in eliminating special cause of variation.

This problem-solving methodology is designed to define the problem in the process and find the root cause of that problem. It focuses on implementing a long-term solution to prevent the reoccurrence of the problem.

History of 8D methodology – 

8D has its origins in the united states military and also in the automobile industry but nowadays it is extensively used in all industries like food processing, healthcare, tech manufacturing, services, etc. In 1980, Ford Motor Company developed team-oriented problem solving which then become an 8D problem solving methodology.

Due to its effectiveness, it was accepted as a primary method of problem-solving at Ford. After it becomes popular at Ford and because of its effective results, 8D methodology was globally accepted as the best problem-solving method to tackle engineering problems.

The name 8D stands for the disciplines covered in this methodology or the 8 steps of problem-solving. These steps are identified as D0 to D8 and it follows the PDCA cycle (Plan – Do – Check  – Act).

The goal of this method is to find the root cause of a problem, develop containment action to protect customers, and take corrective action to prevent similar problems in the future.

What are the 8 disciplines of 8D problem solving – 

8D methodology is the combination of 8 steps or disciplines starting from D1 to D8 in which professionals work together to solve problems and create effective solutions for that problems. Initially, it is comprised of 8 stages of problem-solving later it is updated with the initial planning stage D0 so now 8D becomes D0 to D8 steps.

This is a very structured and highly disciplined methodology of problem-solving which drives systematic changes or improvement in the process by preventing problems. We will discuss how this 8D problem solving works later in this article but for now, Let me list down all the steps of this powerful method.

When to use 8D problem solving – 

This powerful problem-solving methodology is required when…

  • There is a need to find a permanent solution to the problem and prevent the recurrence of that problem.
  • There is a need to develop containment action to protect customers, and take corrective action to prevent similar problems in the future.
  • Customer complaints are received (when they are unhappy with product/service performance.)
  • There is more amount of internal rejection, waste, and scrap in the process which makes process performance poor.
  • There is a failure in a system or in a process beyond the acceptable levels.
  • There is safety or regulatory issues that occurred.

How to apply eight disciplines of (8D) problem-solving –

Now let’s get into the depth of each discipline and understand what will happen in each discipline and as problem solvers what you need to do – 

D0 – Prepare and plan for 8D – 

Proper planning is important to implement 8D problem solving successfully. This stage is all about finding the problems and prioritizing them.

You may find multiple problems and all seem to be urgent hence main task here is to identify the main problem on the basis of its impact or importance and the urgency to resolve it.

We need to properly understand the customer complaint data and then check which complaint needs an emergency response to protect the customer from further consequences.

At this stage, we can use tools like Pareto analysis to select and prioritize the problem. This tool gives us a clear picture of the problem and tells us where we need to do the investigation.

At the time of the planning stage, we need to consider – 

  • Who will be on your team?
  • What is your time frame?
  • What resources will you require?
  • Is it a new problem or already occurred?
  • What is the history of the problem?
  • If it occurred before then how it was solved at that time?

D1-Grab a team 

To implement this team-oriented problem-solving methodology we need a cross-functional team of quality professionals, process owners, subject matter experts, team leaders, and sponsors. This stage is all about forming a team of people with product or process knowledge.

The team leader should be the person who has the right expertise to solve problems and knows how to implement the 8D process or the person who works close to the process i.e. process owner. Then there is an 8D moderator or SME, the person who is trained in 8D and guides the team by giving them feedback.

On the other hand, the Sponsor is responsible for resources and they support the team in any financial decision-making and give the authority to implement corrective action.

And at last, there are team members who are experts assigned to work on the problem with their specific knowledge. Time and resources are allocated to them so that they can work on the problem as per the 8D problem solving process.

List of team members who are generally part of this project –

  • Process owner
  • SME’s
  • Quality engineers
  • production staff
  • Team leader

D2-Understand the problem

A properly defined problem is a half-solved problem. At this stage, describe the problems in such a way that it is easily understood and can highlight the issue faced. While highlighting the problem you need to focus on Where, When, and How.

For Where type questions ask like where did the problem occur? which site of the company? which location in the company or which process line has a problem etc. Is the problem with a single process/product or does the entire batch have a problem? etc.

For when type questions ask like when was the first occurrence of the problem? Is there any time pattern? Does it occur after every cycle, every day, or every shift? Focus on when exactly the problem occurs.

For how type question ask like how many products affected? how many processes have these problems? All the answers to such questions must be based on facts and exact data. This helps to understand the exact problem.

Understanding the problem becomes easy when we focus on these types of questions. We can use tools like cause & effect diagrams, 5 why analysis, or affinity diagrams to get more information about the problems.

D3-Take containment action

At this stage, we need to define and implement the containment action that will protect the customer from the problem. It is the temporary action implemented till permanent corrective action is implemented and validated. This action will be discontinued after the positive results of the validation of permanent corrective action.

It is the quick fix of a problem for example- S hutdown of the machines that are not working. So that we can stop the production of defective parts. That means the target of this action is to protect customers from future consequences.

During this stage, we need to maintain communication with the customer because of containment action there may be a delay in the delivery of the product so discussion with them helps to maintain trust.

Examples of Containment action- 

  • Stoppage of production.
  • Informing the customer about the problem.
  • Informing operators about the problem.
  • Additional visual control.

D4- Find the Root cause

Identification of the root cause is very important. If it is properly identified, it can be acted upon and recurrence can be prevented from that root cause. The location of that root cause also needs to be identified. More than one root causes are responsible for the problem.

To identify this we can use tools like root cause analysis, fishbone diagram, 5 why analysis, and Is/Is Not analysis. Well, you are familiar with other tools but Is/Is Not analysis is something new. Let me give you one example to show what this tool is…

For example – If there is a problem and you start assessing the situation with questions starting from Where When etc. we already discussed this.

In this analysis, we look for both sides of the question. Where is the problem and where is not the problem or we can ask when the problem occurs and when it does not occur? This type of questioning helps us to set some boundaries for the problem study.

For example – The problem is in product A and it is not in products B and C these answers we will get and after that, we can only focus on product A for further problem study. That’s how Is/Is not analysis works.

List of tools used for finding root cause- 

  • Pareto charts
  • Affinity diagram
  • Brainstorming session
  • 5-why analysis
  • Fishbone diagram
  • Fault tree analysis
  • Statistical analysis
  • Hypothesis testing
  • Regression analysis

D5- Choose permanent corrective action

Permanent corrective action is the action that removes product/process/system condition which is responsible for the generation of the problems. The determination of this permanent action is dependent on the root cause identified in the D4 stage.

Basically, at this stage, we want to remove the root cause of the problem by choosing effective permanent action. There can be more than one permanent action so to choose the best from it we can do brainstorming with team members also we can use the affinity diagram tool.

During brainstorming, team members look for acceptance criteria to select the permanent action, they evaluate the risk associated with the particular permanent action and make a balanced choice. Hence the goal of this stage is to remove the cause & effect link completely.

Criteria for choosing the best corrective action or solution for the problem – 

  • Practical – 8D team should be able to implement the solution practically.
  • Feasible – The solution must be feasible. 
  • Cost-effective – Implementing and using the solution must be cost-effective.
  • Robust – The solution must be robust so that it should not fail when it is implemented practically.

Examples of permanent corrective action – 

  • Introducing additional control in the process.
  • Rework defective units found in the process.
  • Rework units returned from the customers.
  • Inform the supplier about defective parts delivered and their exchange.
  • Implement visual control at the workplace.
  • Implement Poka-Yoke

D6- Implement and validate corrective action 

Once the permanent corrective action is determined it is implemented and for effective implementation, we need to focus on proper planning. We need to create an action plan which includes information like what steps are needed to implement the solution, who will do them, and when they will be completed.

Communicate the action plan and all the changes with team members as well as with people who are working in that area and make sure everyone in the team follows the action plan and tracks results.

At this stage, we also need to prove the effectiveness of the permanent action. After its implementation, we have to recollect the response data about that process. service or sites in order to understand how this permanent solution works. That means we have to verify the effectiveness of the solution.

Then accordingly team updates all the documentation plans, work instructions, and failure effect analysis data once the validation of corrective action is done. That’s how this stage completely focuses on the implementation and validation of the solution.

List of tools used during this stage – 

  • Check sheets
  • Control charts

D7- Learn and define prevention for the future 

This stage is more like the control phase of the DMAIC project where we need to control the improvements made on the process and ensure that gains obtained during the project are maintained long after the end of the project.

Similarly, at this stage of 8D problem solving, the team focuses on the active prevention of the reoccurrence of the problem. They review similar services/products or processes in the company to prevent a recurrence.

The team actively presents the 8D methods to experts at other process lines or at other sites of the company so that they can actively work on the prevention of problems.

Process owners and upper management work together to share the learnings of 8D across the company and execute 8D training at different processes or product lines. These learning documents consist of updated procedures and work instructions for the prevention of problems.

Also, the team develops a new set of standard operating procedures that everybody needs to follow who works in that area or at the process line, etc. in order to prevent the recurrence of the problem.

They proactively update the failure mode effect analysis document and control plans because these two tools help us identify the problem area and then prevent its occurrence. 

  • Control plans
  • Capability analysis

D8- Congratulate and release the team

This stage is one of the most important disciplines of 8D problem solving , here the team leader should recognize the team and individual efforts, recognize those who perform best during the project, and then congratulate all the team members as well as the main contributors to this project.

Recognition is important because we don’t know when we need these team members again so if the team leader appreciates their effort at the end of the project then team members feel motivated and they will be always ready to work with the leader in the future.

After this team leader declares the formal closure of the 8D project by documenting all the lessons learned. Finally, all the documentation is completed in the form of an 8D report which is available for all the employees at the company for learning purposes. 

This stage is all about the documenting final 8D report and celebrating the successful completion of the 8D project.

That’s how the 8 disciplines of 8D problem solving methodology work. The most important part of this method is the 8D report which consists of a quick summary of the entire problem-solving project. Now let’s see what the 8D report means…

What is 8D report?

The output of an 8D project is the 8D report and this is first used in the automotive industry. Here we will go through a basic example of the 8D format in order to understand what it includes and its structure. 8D report has 3 parts let’s see them one by one…

In the first part (as per sample 8D report picture), we have to fill in our company information like name and logo. Then, we have to fill in information about the parts/process where we performed this project and the date(when the problem occurred).

After that in the next section, we have to fill in information about the problem basic like whether the problem occurred for the first time or it is repeated and how much severity it has.

Then in the next section, we have to add the team member information like their names and sign. After that in the next section, we have to add detailed information about the problem.

Then there is a section of containment action, in which we have to add what type of containment action we have taken to avoid more damage. Provide details about containment action.

In the second part (as per the sample 8D report picture), initially, we have to add our cause & effect diagram with a detailed analysis that includes all the possible causes classified into different categories.

After that, there is a section on the Root cause, see during cause & effect analysis we found the possible causes and then we segregated potential causes from that. By using tools like 5 why analysis, we found the root causes of all these potential causes, that root cause information we have to add in this section.

Then in the next section, we have to add information about the corrective action which we have taken to prevent the occurrence of the problem. Next to that section, we have to add validation results of corrective action, after testing the correction action and how it works, that information we have to include here.

In the third part (as per the sample 8D report picture), We have to add a list of the preventive action taken. Next to it, we have to add information about all the documents created during the project like a list of documents and the name of updated documents.

After that, we have to add evidence of the final results like photographs, graphs, control plans, etc. At last, there is a section on problem closure and sign-off, which includes a summary of all 8 disciplines or 8D steps like the start and end date of each step.

Then there is sign-off from all the team members which shows this project successfully completed. At the bottom mention the total time required to complete the 8D project .

This is the basic structure of the 8D report , it is different for different companies so there is no standard for it you can select as per your company. I hope you got the basic idea of the 8D format. (Check out 8D report template )

Benefits of 8D problem solving method- 

8D is the structured and highly disciplined methodology of problem-solving. Proper implementation of this methodology can provide the best results. It is easy to learn and applicable to solving any type of engineering problem. Here is the list of benefits of 8D problem solving – 

  • This methodology builds a culture of team-oriented problem-solving instead of individual problem-solving. Inspire the employee to work together in a team to solve any engineering problem.
  • It improves the awareness amongst the employees as well as management about understanding the problems and ways to find solutions.
  • It increases customer satisfaction, profitability, and market share of a company.
  • It increases the practical understanding of Root cause analysis.
  • It increases the understanding of statistical tools amongst the employee that are used in problem-solving. 
  • It improves the skill of implementing permanent corrective action and validates its results.
  • This methodology helps to create a proper action plan to prevent the reoccurrence of problems in the future and engage everybody in this process.
  • This methodology helps in bringing about systematic change rather than just quick fixes.

8D problem solving case study – 

Until now we discussed everything about 8D problem solving so it’s time to understand how it works practically. With this case study, we will understand How the 8 disciplines of the 8D methodology work. Lets’ see – 

Practical implementation of 8D at car washing center. (Scenario)

“ TATA motors have a car wash service center in Bombay city (Bombay – a popular city in India). TATA motors recently ran into problems with some of their customers which causes damage to their reputation.

Also, they have built over a long period, incurring financial damages from litigation from angry customers and losing their loyal customer base to their competitors.

Recently, the shift operator discovered that some of the cars coming out from one of three car wash machines have scratches on the rear body. The problem was fixed by calling a technician.

But again after two weeks, the problem started re-occurring, and this time the scratches were even more worst. This was discovered by the evening shift operator who notified the supervisor.

TATA motor’s head office sends the quality control supervisor to the car wash center to deal with this problem. After analyzing the situation he came to the conclusion that to properly solve this problem we have to use the 8D problem solving approach.

To prevent further damage to the machine, the quality supervisor immediately instructed the operator to shut down the faulty car washing machines. Customers were already waiting to resolve this problem. 

The quality supervisor invited the engineer, operator, car wash center supervisor, and service technician to a brainstorming session. Everybody on the team knows that due to this problem our company facing negative feedback from customers.

During the brainstorming session, they discussed the questions like who discovered the scratches? What did those scratches look like? when it was first noticed? after how much time it re-occurred? etc. Everybody on the team puts their own opinion during the discussion.

At the end of a brainstorming session, they gather the data and the team comes to the conclusion that the problem is due to the malfunctioning of a particular sensor in the machine. The engineering team looked into this and found that the machine had a sensor calibration problem in which the sensor periodically malfunction.

They found the problem and now the team wants to know the reason behind that problem so that they can find a permanent solution for that. After performing a Root cause analysis they found that this problem happened due to the annual servicing of the machine being 4 months late.

To fix this problem, the 8D problem solving team instructed the car washing center supervisor to call a specialist to do servicing of problematic machines and repair or replace that non-functioning sensor.

After fixing this, the team collected the data of that machine (which has a sensor problem earlier) in order to validate whether that machine working properly or not. After 9 hrs the machine was continuously tested and as a result, it is found that there were no scratches, and cars were washed from the center there were no new reports regarding the scratches. 

In order o address the angry customers, the 8D team suggested a car wash center to give them some concession for car washing and respond to all their feedback. And then 8D team created an action plan or strict guidelines for the servicing procedure of all the 3 car washing machines to prevent the recurrence of the problem.

All the important lesson learned during this project has been documented for future reference. In the end, the quality supervisor who is the team leader of this 8D project appreciated all the teammate’s efforts and congratulated them on the successful completion of the project.”

This is a complete problem scenario we discussed and now below we documented all these scenarios in the form of 8 disciplines of problem-solving. 

OD – Aware of the problem

A Shift operator discovered that a number of cars coming out from one of the three-car washing machines have scratches on the car body.

1D -Grab the team 

The quality supervisor invited the engineer, operator, car wash center supervisor, and service technician to a brainstorming session in order to discuss the problem.

2D- Understand the problem

At the end of a brainstorming session, they gather the data and the team comes to the conclusion that the problem is due to the malfunctioning of a particular sensor in the machine.

In order to come to this conclusion, they studied questions like who discovered the scratches? What did those scratches look like? when it was first noticed? after how much time it re-occurred? etc.

3D -Take containment action 

To prevent further damage to the machine, the quality supervisor immediately instructed the operator to shut down the faulty car washing machines.

4D – Find the root cause 

The engineering team looked into this and found that the machine had a sensor calibration problem in which the sensor periodically malfunction.

They found the problem and now the team wants to know the reason behind that problem so that they can find a permanent solution for that.

After performing a Root cause analysis they found that this problem happened due to the annual servicing of the machine being 4 months late.

5D – Choose corrective action

To fix this problem, the 8D problem solving team instructed the car washing center supervisor to call a specialist to do servicing of the problematic machine and repair or replace that non-functioning sensor.

6D – Implement Corrective action

The team collected the data of that machine (which has a sensor problem earlier) in order to validate whether that machine working properly or not.

After 9 hrs the machine was continuously tested and as a result, it is found that there were no scratches, and cars were washed from the center there were no new reports regarding the scratches. 

7D – Prevention for the future 

8D team created an action plan or strict guidelines for the servicing procedure of all the 3 car washing machines to prevent the recurrence of the problem. All the important lesson learned during this project has been documented for future reference.

8D – Release the team 

The quality supervisor who is the team leader of this 8D project appreciated all the teammate’s efforts and congratulated them on the successful completion of the project.

That’s how this problem in the car washing center was permanently solved using 8D problem-solving and in the end, the team created an 8D report for further learning. This example shows how effectively we can apply this methodology to solve technical problems.

Conclusion – 

Well, I hope you got the basic idea about the powerful tool called 8D problem solving. We discussed all the concepts related to this methodology and also discussed the eight disciplines of this method along with what happens during each discipline and which tools we need to use.

We also understood when to use this tool and what are its benefits. We also discussed the concept of the 8D report , and what it looks like. In the end, we covered one basic case study to understand how 8D problem solving works to solve real-life problems.

If you found this article useful then please share it in your network and subscribe to this platform to get more such articles every week. We will meet again in the next article!

Frequently asked question

What is 8d problem solving process.

This problem-solving methodology designed to define the problem in the process and finding the root cause of that problem. It focuses on implementing a long-term solution to prevent the reoccurrence of the problem.

What does 8D stand for?

The name 8D stands for the disciplines covered in this methodology or the 8 steps of problem-solving. These steps are identified as a D0 to D8 and it follows the PDCA cycle (Plan - Do - Check  - Act).

Is 8D a Six Sigma tool?

8D methodology uses many of the tools from six sigma but focused on identifying, correcting, and preventing a problem. This methodology is not part of six sigma but they do help in many situations to structure the problem-solving process and find its solution. 

Related Posts:

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8D Problem-Solving: Common Mistakes to Avoid

8 Mistakes to avoid - 8D Problem-Solving - Feature image

  • Learn Lean Sigma
  • 8D Problem Solving

In today’s competitive business landscape, effective problem-solving is the cornerstone of organizational success. The 8D Problem-Solving methodology offers a structured, team-based approach to tackle challenges head-on. Yet, while many rush to employ its eight disciplines, few navigate its intricacies without stumbling. Whether you’re a seasoned professional or new to the 8D realm, recognizing and sidestepping common mistakes is pivotal. In this article, we unveil the most frequent blunders that teams unwittingly commit, providing insights to enhance your problem-solving prowess. Dive in to discover these pitfalls and ensure your 8D approach is both efficient and impactful.

Table of Contents

The 8D method is a popular way teams solve problems step-by-step. It’s like a roadmap that helps teams figure out what went wrong and how to fix it for good. Many businesses love using it because it’s organized and gets results. But, like anything, there are some common mistakes people make when using this method. In this article, we’ll talk about those mistakes and give tips on how to avoid them. By the end, you’ll know how to use the 8D method even better and make sure your team gets the best results.

8D Problem-Solving

1. Skipping Steps

Background:.

The 8D problem-solving process is designed as a step-by-step approach to ensure that teams address problems comprehensively and systematically. Each step plays a crucial role in understanding, diagnosing, and resolving the issue at hand.

One common pitfall is the temptation to skip or rush through certain steps. This often occurs because teams believe they have a grasp of the problem based on preliminary observations or past experiences. Especially in the initial stages—where defining and describing the problem is crucial—this oversight can result in a superficial understanding, leading to ineffective or misaligned solutions.

By not giving each step its due diligence, teams risk:

  • Misdiagnosing the real issue
  • Implementing solutions that don’t address the root cause
  • Wasting resources on ineffective strategies

How to Avoid:

To counteract this, it’s vital to treat each step with equal importance, resisting the urge to jump ahead. A thorough understanding of the problem, achieved by diligently following each step, lays the foundation for effective solutions. Regular checkpoints can also be established to ensure that each step has been comprehensively addressed before progressing.

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2. Not Forming a Diverse Team

The essence of the 8D problem-solving approach is collaborative teamwork. The collective insights, experiences, and skills of a team often lead to more innovative and effective solutions than individual efforts.

A frequent oversight is forming teams where members have similar backgrounds, experiences, or perspectives. Such homogeneity can lead to a narrow viewpoint, where potential solutions or root causes might be overlooked.

A homogeneous team can result in:

  • Limited creativity and innovation
  • Overlooking potential solutions or root causes
  • Confirmation bias, where members validate each other’s perspectives without critical evaluation

Team - Learnleansigma

To ensure a holistic understanding of the problem and a diverse range of solution options, teams should be multidisciplinary. This means including members from various departments, roles, and, if necessary, external stakeholders. Such diversity brings a plethora of perspectives, fostering rich discussions, challenging established norms, and ensuring that the problem is viewed from all possible angles.

3. Failing to Document Everything

Documentation is the backbone of a structured problem-solving process like 8D. It provides a tangible trail of the team’s journey, from problem identification to solution implementation.

Teams often become so engrossed in discussions, brainstorming sessions, and solution implementation that they forget or deemphasize the importance of documentation. This oversight can stem from a belief that the issue at hand is straightforward or that team members will remember crucial details.

Neglecting documentation can lead to:

  • Loss of vital information, especially if team members change or are unavailable.
  • Inconsistencies in understanding or approach, as verbal discussions may be interpreted differently by different members.
  • Difficulty in tracking progress or revisiting decisions when needed.
  • Challenges in replicating the solution process for similar problems in the future.

To ensure thoroughness and continuity, teams should maintain detailed records at every stage. This includes documenting:

  • Problem descriptions
  • Data gathered
  • Analysis results
  • Discussions and brainstorming sessions
  • Decisions made and their rationale
  • Implemented solutions and their outcomes

Using collaborative tools or platforms can help streamline this process and provide a centralized repository accessible to all team members.

4. Not Validating Root Causes

Identifying the root cause of a problem is pivotal in the 8D approach. It ensures that solutions address the underlying issue, not just the symptoms.

In their eagerness to resolve the problem, teams sometimes latch onto the first plausible cause they identify. This premature conclusion can stem from confirmation bias, where individuals seek out information that confirms their existing beliefs.

Settling on an unvalidated cause can result in:

  • Implementing solutions that don’t address the real issue.
  • Recurrence of the problem, leading to increased costs and wasted resources.
  • Frustration and reduced morale, as teams feel they are repeatedly addressing the same issues.

Teams should employ a rigorous validation process for identified root causes. This can involve:

  • Asking “Why?” repeatedly (typically five times) to drill down into the underlying cause—a technique known as the “ 5 Whys .”
  • Using structured analytical tools like Fishbone diagram s (also known as Ishikawa or Cause and Effect diagrams) to explore all potential causes in a systematic manner.
  • Testing the hypothesized root cause in real-world scenarios to see if addressing it resolves the problem.

5. Implementing Quick Fixes

In the face of pressing problems, there’s often a natural inclination to find the quickest way to alleviate the immediate pain or visible symptoms. This can lead to teams opting for “band-aid” solutions or quick fixes.

Choosing the path of least resistance or the fastest remedy often means addressing only the surface-level symptoms of a problem, rather than its root cause. This approach can be driven by time constraints, pressure from stakeholders, or a desire for immediate relief.

Relying on quick fixes can lead to:

  • Recurrence of the problem, as the underlying cause remains unaddressed.
  • Wasting resources on repetitive, short-term solutions.
  • Eroding trust and confidence, as stakeholders see the same issues resurface.

To sidestep the pitfalls of quick fixes:

  • Prioritize solutions that address the root cause of the problem, even if they take longer to implement.
  • Educate stakeholders on the importance of sustainable solutions, emphasizing the long-term benefits over short-term relief.
  • Allocate adequate time and resources for comprehensive problem-solving, recognizing that a deeper fix now can prevent repeated issues in the future.

6. Failing to Monitor the Effectiveness of Corrective Actions

The journey of problem-solving doesn’t end with the implementation of a solution. Continuous monitoring is essential to ensure that corrective actions deliver the desired results.

Once a solution is in place, teams might move on to other tasks, assuming that the problem is resolved for good. This complacency can stem from a belief that the implemented solution is foolproof or from a lack of resources dedicated to monitoring.

Not monitoring the effectiveness of corrective actions can result in:

  • Unnoticed failures or inefficiencies in the implemented solution.
  • Missed opportunities for improvement or optimization.
  • Stakeholder dissatisfaction if the problem resurfaces or new issues emerge.

To ensure that corrective actions remain effective:

  • Set up regular review intervals to assess the performance of the implemented solution.
  • Define clear metrics or KPIs to objectively measure the success of the corrective actions.
  • Foster a culture of continuous improvement, where teams are encouraged to iterate and refine solutions based on real-world feedback.
  • Ensure open channels of communication with stakeholders to gather feedback and address any emerging concerns promptly.

7. Not Preventing Recurrence

Solving a problem doesn’t only involve addressing its current manifestation but also entails preventing its reoccurrence. This proactive approach ensures long-term success and stability.

Teams might focus so intently on resolving the immediate issue that they neglect to consider its potential to resurface. This oversight can be due to time constraints, a lack of comprehensive analysis, or simply underestimating the problem’s complexity.

Failing to prevent recurrence can lead to:

  • Repeatedly addressing the same issues, leading to wasted time and resources.
  • Erosion of stakeholder confidence as the problem keeps reappearing.
  • Additional costs and disruptions associated with recurrent problems.

To ensure problems don’t keep reoccurring:

  • Conduct a thorough post-mortem analysis to understand the factors that contributed to the problem’s occurrence.
  • Identify and address any systemic vulnerabilities or gaps that might allow the problem to resurface.
  • Implement preventive measures, which could include training, system upgrades, or process changes.
  • Regularly review and update these measures based on new insights or changing circumstances.

8. Forgetting to Recognize the Team’s Efforts

Behind every problem-solving endeavor is a team of dedicated individuals working collaboratively. Recognizing their efforts is not only a sign of gratitude but also an essential component of team dynamics and motivation.

In the rush to move on to the next task or project, teams might forget to pause and acknowledge the hard work that went into solving the problem. This oversight can be unintentional, but its impact on team morale can be significant.

Not recognizing the team’s efforts can result in:

  • Diminished motivation and engagement among team members.
  • A feeling of being undervalued or overlooked, which can hamper future collaboration.
  • Reduced willingness to go the extra mile in future projects or tasks.

To ensure teams feel valued and motivated:

  • Set aside time at the end of a project or task for reflection and acknowledgment.
  • Celebrate successes, no matter how small, through team gatherings, awards, or simple words of appreciation.
  • Foster a culture where team members regularly acknowledge and praise each other’s contributions.
  • Encourage feedback and provide opportunities for team members to share their experiences and learnings.

In problem-solving, the 8D methodology stands out for its structured and comprehensive approach. However, even within such a robust framework, pitfalls await the unwary. From the temptation of quick fixes to the oversight of not preventing recurrence, these challenges can undermine the effectiveness of solutions. Moreover, the human element—recognizing and valuing the team’s contributions—is just as pivotal as the technical steps. To truly harness the power of 8D, it’s essential to be cognizant of these common mistakes and proactively work to sidestep them. By doing so, teams not only address current issues effectively but also lay the foundation for sustainable success and continuous improvement in their organizations.

  • Zarghami, A. and Benbow, D.W., 2017.  Introduction to 8D problem solving . Quality Press.
  • Camarillo, A., Ríos, J. and Althoff, K.D., 2017.  CBR and PLM applied to diagnosis and technical support during problem solving in the Continuous Improvement Process of manufacturing plants .  Procedia Manufacturing ,  13 , pp.987-994.

Daniel Croft

Daniel Croft

Daniel Croft is a seasoned continuous improvement manager with a Black Belt in Lean Six Sigma. With over 10 years of real-world application experience across diverse sectors, Daniel has a passion for optimizing processes and fostering a culture of efficiency. He's not just a practitioner but also an avid learner, constantly seeking to expand his knowledge. Outside of his professional life, Daniel has a keen Investing, statistics and knowledge-sharing, which led him to create the website learnleansigma.com, a platform dedicated to Lean Six Sigma and process improvement insights.

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8D Problem solving

Using the 8D Problem Solving Process

AEHQ August 13, 2014 Core Automotive Knowledge & Principles Leave a Comment

Working in the engineering world is about analyzing and solving problems that we face with our designs, production lines and even in our environments as we work to build the highest quality automobiles in the industry. When we are faced with a problem, using an established problem solving process will help us to analyze the issue in the most thorough, quick and effective way possible and lead us to implementing a solution that is effective and well analyzed.

The 8 Disciplines or 8D problem solving method was developed by the Ford industry and helps to lead a team through the problem solving process that will identify the root cause of the issue and put controls in place so that it does not occur again. I have used this process many times in my engineering career, and I can say that it is one of the most effective tools to organize a group of people to actually solve a problem. The 8D Problem Solving Process is a tool that any team in any industry can use to solve problems in a quick, thorough and effective manner.

Outlining the 8D Process steps

The 8D problem solving method has 8 general disciplines and a planning phase. Each discipline is an important part of following the 8D process and skipping a step will definitely reduce the effectiveness of this tool. Even if time is short the team needs to follow each process step to reach the solution.

Figure 1 – 8 D Problem Solving Process

8D Problem Solving Process

Discipline 0 – Planning

The first discipline of the process is planning and includes looking at the big picture within your company and what is the best strategy to address the problem. If the problem is a “line down” situation then the resources available will be much higher than if the problem can be contained to one machine and there is a temporary work around that can be put in place.  This must be considered in the kick off phase. During the planning phase you need to establish the time frame, identify the team and the resources the team will need to solve the problem. Once these have been identified then it is time to move to the next discipline.

Discipline 1 – Build the Team

A good team will have all the necessary resources required to solve the problem and have their time made available to actively engage in the team to solve the problem (example, design engineering, manufacturing engineering , welding expert, materials expert, etc.). Once the team members are identified the next step is for the team to meet and establish a charter for the team activities. To build team work it can even be beneficial to try team building activities to encourage better trust and collaboration on the team (only with time of course).

Discipline 2 – Define the Problem

The next step of the process is to clearly identify what the problem is that must be solved. Sometimes problems can be ambiguous and the team must clearly identify the problem at hand using measurable details when possible. For example, a good problem definition is to eliminate dash board cracking during assembly to zero parts per minute (ppm) vs a bad example of ‘increase customer satisfaction’. Always be quantitative and avoid ambiguous statements.  Clearly identifying the problem focuses the team and stops wasted effort.

Discipline 3 – Put a temporary Fix in Place

Damage control is one responsibility of the team which requires putting a temporary fix in place to stop the problem from getting to the customer. This could be a 100% visual inspection to catch a defective part, removing suspect inventory, using a different machine or tool or any combination of these things. These short term solutions must be implemented quickly to avoid more quality issues.

Discipline 4 – Identify the Root Cause

Once the temporary control has been put in place the team can now focus on finding the root cause of the problem. Tools like as a Cause and Effect Analysis or Five Whys are available that can assist them team in doing a deep dive into the problem. It is important to keep digging as the root cause is not always apparent when you first begin analysis and the team must be diligent and persistent. Once the root cause is identified it must be corrected to move on to the next step.

Discipline 5 – Verify the Solution

After the root cause is identified and corrected the next step is to double check that the solution did fix the problem. One way to verify that the root cause has been identified and fixed is if you can create or recreate the problem.   Or the team can conduct a blind spot analysis to make sure that no stone has been left unturned and the true root cause has been identified.

Discipline 6 – Implement a Permanent Solution

When the team is confident that they have found the root cause and identified a solution then a permanent solution must be put in place. This could mean a change is made to the design, a material is changed to avoid a bad chemical interaction or that a process monitor is put in place to stop damage.

Discipline 7 – Prevention

A key to the success of the 8D problem solving process is that it helps prevent the process from occurring again. The team needs to document what happened and all their findings and then put procedures in place that will prevent future engineers from making the same mistakes in the future. These key learnings need to be documented in a secure location within the company so that the knowledge and experience isn’t lost.

Discipline 8 – Celebrate the Team’s Achievement

Problem Solven by Business team

Having the right tools to solve engineering problems when working in the automotive industry is key to building a quality product. The 8D problem solving process has proven successes and is a great tool to have in your arsenal when a problem comes up that must be solved quickly and effectively.

For more information:

http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/8d-problem-solving.htm

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8D Process: Its Importance and Advantages

The 8Ds — also known as the 8 Disciplines — Problem Solving Process is a team-oriented methodology that is mainly used to identify, correct, and eliminate recurring problems.

The methodology focuses on the origin of a problem by determining the root cause and establishes a permanent corrective and preventive action accordingly. It is an 8 tier process with integrated basic problem-solving tools.

This article will help you looks at 8D best practices how it can be helpful for manufacturers to better understand tools and techniques to address nonconformances and reduce risk.

History of 8D Problem Solving Process

There was a dire need for a team-oriented problem-solving strategy based on the use of statistical methods of data analysis. Ford Motors during World War II were manufacturing war vehicles in bulk. To ease up the assembly lines and the entire management in general, the executives of Powertrain Organization wanted a methodology where teams could work on recurring problems.

In 1986, the assignment was given to develop a manual and a course that will teach a new approach to solving tough engineering design and manufacturing defects. The manual for this methodology was documented and defined in “Team Oriented Problem Solving (TOPS)”, published in 1987.

The manual and courses were led at World Headquarters in Dearborn, Michigan. Subsequent changes and revisions were made based on the feedback from pilot sessions. The materials were extensive and the 8D titles were mere chapter headings for the steps in the process. Ford also refer to their current variant of the 8D process as G8D (Global 8D)

Use of 8D Process in Military

The US Government recognized the full caliber of the 8D process. During World War II, they standardized a process as Military Standard 1520 “Corrective Action and Disposition System for Non-confirming Materials”

Their 8D process was used to identify, correct, and eliminate recurring problems, whilst the methodology was useful in product and process improvement. It established a permanent corrective action based on a statistical analysis of the problem. It also focused on the origin of the problem by determining the root cause. 

The 8D approach

The 8D model establishes a permanent corrective action based on statics and data of the problem. It focuses on the origin of the problem by determining its root causes. The earlier 8D models comprised of eight stages, the model got changed as time progressed. It was later expanded by an initial planning stage.

The stages (or Disciplines) are as follow:

D0 — Plan adequately

Proper planning and preparation is of utmost necessity before taking any action. So, before forming a team for the project, you’ll need to consider the following:

  • Problem description
  • Timeframe of the task
  • Amount of resources

D1 — Establish your team

Create a diverse team with extensive portfolios. Make sure they have enough experience so that they can lead to the best quality inputs and complete solutions. For teams to function smoothly, define clear roles and responsibilities.

D2 — Describe the problem

The 8D methodology focuses on describing a problem objectively, capturing every vital information. During the analysis, a loop of 5W1H (why, what, who, where, when, and how) should be applied to develop a clear problem description.

D3 — Contain the problem

Projects that are big and take days to run a single task on them require a temporary problem containment plan to minimize the impact of a problem until a permanent solution is found. On developing the plan based on hypothetical cases, the resources for addressing the main problem can be released.

D4 — Identify the root cause

When the problem is temporarily contained, you can work on identifying the root cause of the nonconformance. You can use the 5W1H framework to understand the problem in-depth, or the Fishbone diagrams to categorize visually, or Pareto Charts to identify the vital causes.

D5 — Identify corrective actions

Once the root cause is recognized, the team can start brainstorming permanent corrections to identify the best long-term solution. Brainstorming with the team along with taking help from tools like affinity diagrams can help in organizing ideas.

D6 — Implement and validate corrective actions

Once a solution is identified, the management needs to implement and verify the corrective action. The PDCA (plan-do-check-act) approach is beneficial in this stage to do small-scale testing. To successfully implement a permanent change, a project plan should incorporate:

  • Project plan development for implementation
  • Communication of the plan with stakeholders
  • Validating improvements using measurements

D7 — Implement preventive actions

A complete solution always provides no reoccurrence of problems. Even if you have created a complete solution, you should still work on preventive measures (after all, better today than tomorrow!).

In this stage, teams must consider actions that include updating audit process questions and verifying corrective actions periodically to reduce risk in processes. Teams can utilize the Poka-Yoke/Error Proofing methodologies to run tests to find defects.

D8 — Recognize team and individual efforts

At the end of the day, everyone wants their work to be recognized. Don’t be shy about that. Celebrate the team’s success and congratulate individuals for their work contribution. Doing such will facilitate motion and employee engagement while helping the organization to improve quality control.

Six Sigma tools that synergize with 8D

8D has become one of the leading frameworks for process improvement. It is robust and can mix easily with other prominent methodologies such as Six Sigma.

The following are improvement tools often used in Six Sigma processes. Learn how the addition of 8D can improve the process even further.

DMAIC – Lean Six Sigma

The DMAIC process is a data-driven cycle for process improvement. It is designed for businesses to identify flaws, errors, defects, or inefficiencies in a process.

Learn more on DMAIC and the process here .

In terms of combining 8D:

  • One can use DMAIC to identify the root cause as in step D4
  • One can implement the same technique to better understand prospects for corrective actions in steps D5 & D6

FMEA – Failure Mode & Effects Analysis

FMEA helps in understanding the potential for problems and making preemptive preparations to avoid them. This methodology is used majorly by Risk Management teams.

FMEA & 8D:

  • 8D can use information gathered during an FMEA process to identify potential problems and the root causes. 
  • The information gathered during the FMEA process can be reused to feed into representational diagrams like Ishikawa (Fishbone) diagram.
  • 8D brainstorming data can be used for new design processes. This allows the FMEA to take actual failures into account, thus producing effective results.
  • Database from previous FMEA can be used as a benchmark for root causes of the problem to inform on 8D process development.

Pareto Charts

Pareto charts are majorly used to analyze data on the frequency of problems/causes in a process. It helps in understanding the impact of different variations of input and outputs via data and graphical representation.

  • In relation to 8D, Pareto charts help in prioritizing which root cause to target based on which will have the greatest impact on the improvement process.

The 5 Whys is a deductive reasoning technique that asks “Why?” five times. The logic here is to ask the same question (WHY?) over and over again, making the reasoning process dig deeper into the complexity of a problem from a single point of focus.

When someone reaches the “5th Why?”, they should have something that has a high likelihood of being a root cause.

Benefits of 8D Problem Solving

8D focuses on teamwork. The framework’s philosophy is to encourage teams as a whole and individually. It’s a pragmatic methodology, i.e. a fact-based problem-solving process. 

One of the main strengths of 8D is its focus on teamwork. 8D philosophy encourages the idea that teams, as a whole, are more powerful than the sum of the individual qualities of each team member.

Here are a few of the benefits that you can expect from the 8D problem-solving process:

  • Institutes a structured and consistent problem-solving approach within an organization
  • Enables individuals to become more effective at problem-solving
  • Encourages team-based approach
  • Helps ensure customers receive a timely and effective response to any concern
  • Supports the requirements of quality management systems for corrective action, problem-solving, and continual improvement
  • Helps in avoiding future problems by solving them in the present time
  • Reduces Cost of Poor Quality (COPQ) by using the lessons learned in process improvement actions
  • Assists organizations to comply with the customer-specific requirement for management concerns

SixSigma.com offers both Live Virtual classes as well as Online Self-Paced training. Most option includes access to the same great Master Black Belt instructors that teach our World Class in-person sessions. Sign-up today!

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8D Problem Solving Process

Home » 8D Problem Solving Process

The 8D problem solving process is team structured, consisting of 8 steps (the ‘8 disciplines’). It is a methodology to find the root cause of a problem, put in an interim fix while a deeper investigation is carried out, and then put in place a permanent solution that prevents the problem from being repeated.

Here’s what the 8D process steps look like:

The Eight ‘8D Problem Solving Process’ Steps

The 8D problem solving process is team structured, consisting of 8 ‘8D steps’ (or disciplines) which are:

1. TEAM: The best team would consist of people who have; specific knowledge of a product or process, time to dedicate to the effort, the skill set to apply to solve the problem, authority to make decisions. Collectively, the team would be ‘the subject matter experts’ on this particular problem. Bear in mind, the team may change for each particular problem being solved.

2. DEFINITION: At this stage, the team starts to understand the problem in more detail. It would include using analytical tools (risk analysis, SWOT analysis…). It is critical the team builds a clear picture of the problem and reports this to the stakeholders so that they have a full understanding of the implications of the problem.

3. INTERIM FIX: Implementation of a short-term fix will stop the problem escalating until a permanent corrective action can be implemented. The main objective here is to stop defective products from reaching the customer or end-user.

4. ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS: Identifying the root cause of the problem is essential. Ideally, the team can verify the root cause has been found by being able to turn the problem on and off at will. There are a number of tools used during this process such as Brainstorming, Five Whys, FMEA, Fault Tree, Fishbone Diagram, Flowcharts, and Affinity Diagrams to name a few.

5. CORRECTIVE ACTION: Once the root cause has been identified, the team should be able to generate corrective actions that can be tested for verification. Guidelines to consider for implementation are:

  • The solution should be practical
  • The solution should be feasible
  • The solution should be cost-effective
  • The solution should be stable and not fail after implementation

6. VALIDATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF CORRECTIVE ACTION: A key step is to verify and validate the corrective action/s to ensure the problem is solved without having any other side effects or knock-on effects. Examples of tests that can be utilized in this step are the HALT (highly accelerated life test) or the HASS (highly accelerated stress screening) test.

7. PREVENT RECURRENCE: Here the team are ensuring the problem does not reoccur. They will be updating processes and procedures, training and sharing the knowledge of what they discovered during the process, and ensuring all documentation is up-to-date.

8. TEAM ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: It is important that the team get recognized for their efforts in resolving the problem. This will motivate other staff and potential future team members.

Note: The 8D template has to be adapted in the medical industry, for example. The company needs to add a step (assessing the impact of the countermeasure/s on the safety and effectiveness of the device), as requested by ISO 13485.

How to complete an 8D?

You may also find this video about how to complete an 8D report useful:

The 8D is a type of corrective action plan . We also wrote about why to use a corrective action plan like the 8D report in this post over on QualityInspection.org: Use a Corrective Action Plan after a Failed Inspection

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Workers clean debris outside the damaged Lviv National University of Nature Management, after a drone attack on Monday.

Russia-Ukraine war at a glance: what we know on day 678

Putin says Russia will ‘intensify’ strikes on military targets in Ukraine; Zelenskiy says Moscow is suffering major losses

Russian president Vladimir Putin said that his forces would intensify strikes on military targets in Ukraine , after an unprecedented Ukrainian attack over the weekend on the Russian city of Belgorod. “We’re going to intensify the strikes. No crime against civilians will rest unpunished, that’s for certain,” Putin said during a visit to a military hospital on Monday. “We are doing that today and tomorrow we will continue doing it,” he said.

The death toll following Ukrainian strikes on Belgorod has risen to 25 , according to the region’s governor. Vyacheslav Gladkov said on Monday a four-year-old girl died from injuries sustained in the attack. The attack on Saturday came after Moscow launched a large-scale attack on Ukrainian cities on Friday.

Ukraine claims Russia has launched a ‘record number’ of attack drones on New Year’s Day. Ukraine’s air force said 87 out of 90 drones had successfully been shot down.

Russian drones attacked a university and a museum linked to two of the most prominent 20th century defenders of Ukrainian national identity on Monday, leaving locals vowing to repair the damage. The first smashed windows and much of the roof at the National Agrarian University, outside the western Ukrainian city of Lviv, where Stepan Bandera – a hero in Ukraine but a villain according to the Kremlin – studied. The second ravaged a nearby museum devoted to Roman Shukhevych.

Ukrainian president Volodymyr Zelenskiy told the Economist that the notion that Russia was winning the nearly two-year-old war was only a “feeling” and that Moscow was still suffering heavy battlefield losses. Zelenskiy, in an interview published on Monday, provided no substantiation of his allegation on Russian losses. He said Ukraine’s priorities in 2024 included hitting Russia’s strengths in Crimea to reduce the number of attacks on his country as well as protecting key cities on the eastern front.

In the interview, Zelenskiy rejected any suggestion that Moscow was interested in peace talks, pointing to Moscow’s repeated waves of aerial strikes. “I see only the steps of a terrorist country,” he said.

Reuters, Agence France-Presse and Associated Press contributed to this report

  • Russia-Ukraine war at a glance
  • Vladimir Putin

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COMMENTS

  1. What is 8D? Eight Disciplines Problem Solving Process

    The Eight Disciplines (8D) are a problem solving tool used to correct, identify and remove recurring issues halting the production process. Learn more about 8D analysis at ASQ.org.

  2. 8D Problem Solving Process

    Figure 1: The 8D Problem Solving Process The 8D Process works best in teams tasked with solving a complex problem with identifiable symptoms. However, you can also use this process on an individual level, as well. Applying the Tool To use the 8D Process, address each of the disciplines listed below, in order.

  3. What is 8D? A template for efficient problem-solving

    The eight disciplines (8D) method is a problem-solving approach that identifies, corrects, and eliminates recurring problems. By determining the root causes of a problem, managers can use this method to establish a permanent corrective action and prevent recurring issues.

  4. 8D

    The 8D problem solving process is a detailed, team oriented approach to solving critical problems in the production process. The goals of this method are to find the root cause of a problem, develop containment actions to protect customers and take corrective action to prevent similar problems in the future.

  5. Eight disciplines problem solving

    Eight Disciplines Methodology ( 8D) is a method or model developed at Ford Motor Company used to approach and to resolve problems, typically employed by quality engineers or other professionals. Focused on product and process improvement, its purpose is to identify, correct, and eliminate recurring problems. [1]

  6. The 8D Problem-Solving Method: What It Is And How To Use It

    The 8D Problem-Solving Method is the process of teaching and improving quality and eliminating problems. Here we will show you a step-by-step troubleshooting tool to help you identify the problem and identify issues and errors. It also helps identify root causes and take steps to resolve and prevent problems identified in the process.

  7. 8D Problem-Solving Process: How To Apply the 8 Disciplines

    What is 8D problem-solving? 8D problem-solving is an approach that quality engineers and manufacturers use to identify and address challenges throughout a project. 8D refers to the eight different disciplines, or steps, that the process entails.

  8. 8 Disiplines Of Problem Solving (8D)

    The 8D Problem Solving methodology is commonly known as "Eight Disciplines of Problem Solving" or simply "8D." It is a structured, team-based approach to identifying, analyzing, and resolving problems, particularly in the areas of product quality and process efficiency. Learn Lean Sigma 8 Disiplines of Problem Solving (8D)

  9. What is the 8D Problem Solving? And How to use the 8D Report

    The 8D problem-solving process (also known as the 8 Disciplines) is very different from previous processes we explored previously, such as the Double Diamond process or the IBM Design Thinking. The 8D process works in a rigid standardised nature to address the crisis caused by problems.

  10. 8D Chess: How to Use The 8 Disciplines for Problem Solving

    8D (sometimes Global 8D or G8D) stands for eight disciplines, and is a problem solving methodology. It's basically a process for understanding and preventing problems. Much like how risk management seeks to take a proactive, preventative stance, 8D aims to gain insight into the root causes of why the problems happen, so they won't happen again.

  11. The Evolution of 8D Problem-Solving: From Basics to Excellence

    The Evolutionary Milestones of 8D Problem-Solving Modern-Day Applications and Case Studies of 8D Problem-Solving Conclusion References The Genesis: Where It All Began The Military Origins The very first seeds of the 8D Problem-Solving methodology were sown during World War II.

  12. PDF Root Cause Corrective Action Guidebook

    Root Cause Corrective Action Using the 8D Process Eight Disciplines (8D) Problem Solving is a method developed at Ford Motor Company used to approach and to resolve problems, typically . employed by engineers and quality professionals. Focused on product and process improvement, its purpose is to identify, correct, and

  13. 8D Problem Solving: A Guide for Businesses

    One of the most powerful and proven problem-solving methodologies is 8D problem solving. 8D stands for eight disciplines, which are a series of steps that guide teams through the process of identifying, analyzing, resolving, and preventing problems. 8D problem solving can help businesses improve their quality, reduce their costs, and enhance the...

  14. 8D: Tools And Techniques

    The first step in the 8D Problem-Solving Methodology is to form a cross-functional team. A well-assembled team is the backbone of any successful problem-solving initiative. While it may be tempting to rush through this step, investing time and effort here can pay dividends later.

  15. PDF 8d Process

    There are different problem-solving tools that are shown in the problem - solving pyramid depending on time/complexity and the percentage of problems. 5 Why Figure 1: problem-solving pyramid 8D is one of these systematic methods used to tackle and solve problems. The primary aims of the 8D methodology are to identify the root cause, correct and

  16. Understanding 8D Principle of Problem Solving

    8D Stands for the Eight Disciplines of team-oriented problem-solving. It is a step-by-step process of identifying the root cause of a problem, providing corrective solutions, and preventive solutions to eliminate the recurring problems permanently. 8D follows the logic of PDCA (Plan-Do-Check-Adjust). And the 8D was developed and implemented in ...

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    The 8D method, which stands for eight disciplines, is a problem solving process developed by Ford Motor Company in the 1980s. It is based on earlier quality tools such as PDCA and DMAIC and...

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    When to use 8D problem solving -. How to apply eight disciplines of (8D) problem-solving -. D0 - Prepare and plan for 8D -. D1-Grab a team. D2-Understand the problem. D3-Take containment action. D4- Find the Root cause. D5- Choose permanent corrective action. D6- Implement and validate corrective action.

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    8D Problem-Solving: Common Mistakes to Avoid. In today's competitive business landscape, effective problem-solving is the cornerstone of organizational success. The 8D Problem-Solving methodology offers a structured, team-based approach to tackle challenges head-on. Yet, while many rush to employ its eight disciplines, few navigate its ...

  20. Using the 8D Problem Solving Process

    Discipline 1 - Build the Team. A good team will have all the necessary resources required to solve the problem and have their time made available to actively engage in the team to solve the problem (example, design engineering, manufacturing engineering, welding expert, materials expert, etc.). Once the team members are identified the next ...

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    History of 8D Problem Solving Process. There was a dire need for a team-oriented problem-solving strategy based on the use of statistical methods of data analysis. Ford Motors during World War II were manufacturing war vehicles in bulk. To ease up the assembly lines and the entire management in general, the executives of Powertrain Organization ...

  22. 8D Problem solving

    What all are the disciplines (or steps) of 8D. D0 - Elaboration of a plan to solve the problem. D1 - Building a team to work on the problem. D2 - Description of the problem. D3 - Development of an provisional plan to contain the problem. D4 - Identification and elimination of the root cause of the problem.

  23. 8D Problem Solving Process

    The 8D problem solving process is team structured, consisting of 8 '8D steps' (or disciplines) which are: 1. TEAM: The best team would consist of people who have; specific knowledge of a product or process, time to dedicate to the effort, the skill set to apply to solve the problem, authority to make decisions. Collectively, the team would ...

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