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1.7 Java | Assignment Statements & Expressions

An assignment statement designates a value for a variable. An assignment statement can be used as an expression in Java.

After a variable is declared, you can assign a value to it by using an assignment statement . In Java, the equal sign = is used as the assignment operator . The syntax for assignment statements is as follows:

An expression represents a computation involving values, variables, and operators that, when taking them together, evaluates to a value. For example, consider the following code:

You can use a variable in an expression. A variable can also be used on both sides of the =  operator. For example:

In the above assignment statement, the result of x + 1  is assigned to the variable x . Let’s say that x is 1 before the statement is executed, and so becomes 2 after the statement execution.

To assign a value to a variable, you must place the variable name to the left of the assignment operator. Thus the following statement is wrong:

Note that the math equation  x = 2 * x + 1  ≠ the Java expression x = 2 * x + 1

Java Assignment Statement vs Assignment Expression

Which is equivalent to:

And this statement

is equivalent to:

Note: The data type of a variable on the left must be compatible with the data type of a value on the right. For example, int x = 1.0 would be illegal, because the data type of x is int (integer) and does not accept the double value 1.0 without Type Casting .

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Java Program to Perform Assignment Operations

In this tutorial, we will learn how to perform assignment operations by taking input from the user. But before moving further, if you are not familiar with the concept of the assignment operator in java, then do check the article on Operators in Java .

Input: num1=10

Value of num1=30

Value of num1=10

Two cases arise for the above problem:

Case 1: When values are pre-defined

Case 2: When values are user-defined

Let us look at each of these cases separately.

Program 1: To Perform the Assignment Operations

In this program, we will perform the assignment operations when the values are pre-defined in the program.

  • Here, we will use a switch case to choose from different assignment operators like +=, -=, *=, /=, and %=.
  • Declare two variables.
  • Initialize it.
  • Perform all the assignment operators like +=, -=, *=, /=, and %=.
  • Display the result of each assignment operation.

Below is the code for the same.

Initial value of num1 = 10 Initial value of num2 = 20 Value of num1 after += is 30 Value of num1 after -= is 10 Value of num1 after *= is 200 Value of num1 after /= is 10 Value of num1 after %= is 0

Program 2: To Perform the Assignment Operations

In this program, we will see how to perform assignment operations in java when the values are user-defined. Here, firstly we will ask the user to input the values, and then we will perform the assignment operations

  • Declare a variable for the same.
  • Ask the user to initialize it.
  • Based on the operation chosen, declare two variables.
  • Ask the user to initialize the variables.
  • Display the result after performing the assignment operations.

Choose the operation you want to perform Choose 1 for += Choose 2 for -= Choose 3 for *= Choose 4 for /= Choose 5 for %= Choose 6 for EXIT 1 Enter the two numbers to perform operations Enter the first number: Enter the second number: The initial value of x is 5 Value of x after += is 9 Choose the operation you want to perform Choose 1 for += Choose 2 for -= Choose 3 for *= Choose 4 for /= Choose 5 for %= Choose 6 for EXIT 2 Enter the two numbers to perform operations Enter the first number: Enter the second number: The initial value of p is 4 Value of p after -= is 1 Choose the operation you want to perform Choose 1 for += Choose 2 for -= Choose 3 for *= Choose 4 for /= Choose 5 for %= Choose 6 for EXIT 3 Enter the two numbers to perform operations Enter the first number: Enter the second number: The initial value of a is 4 The value of a after *= is 20 Choose the operation you want to perform Choose 1 for += Choose 2 for -= Choose 3 for *= Choose 4 for /= Choose 5 for %= Choose 6 for EXIT 4 Enter the two numbers to perform operations Enter the first number : Enter the second number : The initial value of c is 8 Value of c after /= is 1 Choose the operation you want to perform Choose 1 for += Choose 2 for -= Choose 3 for *= Choose 4 for /= Choose 5 for %= Choose 6 for EXIT 5 Enter the two numbers to perform operations Enter the first number : Enter the second number : The initial value of e is 7 Value of e after %= is 1 Choose the operation you want to perform Choose 1 for += Choose 2 for -= Choose 3 for *= Choose 4 for /= Choose 5 for %= Choose 6 for EXIT 6

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1.4. Expressions and Assignment Statements ¶

In this lesson, you will learn about assignment statements and expressions that contain math operators and variables.

1.4.1. Assignment Statements ¶

Remember that a variable holds a value that can change or vary. Assignment statements initialize or change the value stored in a variable using the assignment operator = . An assignment statement always has a single variable on the left hand side of the = sign. The value of the expression on the right hand side of the = sign (which can contain math operators and other variables) is copied into the memory location of the variable on the left hand side.

Assignment statement

Figure 1: Assignment Statement (variable = expression) ¶

Instead of saying equals for the = operator in an assignment statement, say “gets” or “is assigned” to remember that the variable on the left hand side gets or is assigned the value on the right. In the figure above, score is assigned the value of 10 times points (which is another variable) plus 5.

The following video by Dr. Colleen Lewis shows how variables can change values in memory using assignment statements.

As we saw in the video, we can set one variable to a copy of the value of another variable like y = x;. This won’t change the value of the variable that you are copying from.

coding exercise

Click on the Show CodeLens button to step through the code and see how the values of the variables change.

The program is supposed to figure out the total money value given the number of dimes, quarters and nickels. There is an error in the calculation of the total. Fix the error to compute the correct amount.

Calculate and print the total pay given the weekly salary and the number of weeks worked. Use string concatenation with the totalPay variable to produce the output Total Pay = $3000 . Don’t hardcode the number 3000 in your print statement.

exercise

Assume you have a package with a given height 3 inches and width 5 inches. If the package is rotated 90 degrees, you should swap the values for the height and width. The code below makes an attempt to swap the values stored in two variables h and w, which represent height and width. Variable h should end up with w’s initial value of 5 and w should get h’s initial value of 3. Unfortunately this code has an error and does not work. Use the CodeLens to step through the code to understand why it fails to swap the values in h and w.

1-4-7: Explain in your own words why the ErrorSwap program code does not swap the values stored in h and w.

Swapping two variables requires a third variable. Before assigning h = w , you need to store the original value of h in the temporary variable. In the mixed up programs below, drag the blocks to the right to put them in the right order.

The following has the correct code that uses a third variable named “temp” to swap the values in h and w.

The code is mixed up and contains one extra block which is not needed in a correct solution. Drag the needed blocks from the left into the correct order on the right, then check your solution. You will be told if any of the blocks are in the wrong order or if you need to remove one or more blocks.

After three incorrect attempts you will be able to use the Help Me button to make the problem easier.

Fix the code below to perform a correct swap of h and w. You need to add a new variable named temp to use for the swap.

1.4.2. Incrementing the value of a variable ¶

If you use a variable to keep score you would probably increment it (add one to the current value) whenever score should go up. You can do this by setting the variable to the current value of the variable plus one (score = score + 1) as shown below. The formula looks a little crazy in math class, but it makes sense in coding because the variable on the left is set to the value of the arithmetic expression on the right. So, the score variable is set to the previous value of score + 1.

Click on the Show CodeLens button to step through the code and see how the score value changes.

1-4-11: What is the value of b after the following code executes?

  • It sets the value for the variable on the left to the value from evaluating the right side. What is 5 * 2?
  • Correct. 5 * 2 is 10.

1-4-12: What are the values of x, y, and z after the following code executes?

  • x = 0, y = 1, z = 2
  • These are the initial values in the variable, but the values are changed.
  • x = 1, y = 2, z = 3
  • x changes to y's initial value, y's value is doubled, and z is set to 3
  • x = 2, y = 2, z = 3
  • Remember that the equal sign doesn't mean that the two sides are equal. It sets the value for the variable on the left to the value from evaluating the right side.
  • x = 1, y = 0, z = 3

1.4.3. Operators ¶

Java uses the standard mathematical operators for addition ( + ), subtraction ( - ), multiplication ( * ), and division ( / ). Arithmetic expressions can be of type int or double. An arithmetic operation that uses two int values will evaluate to an int value. An arithmetic operation that uses at least one double value will evaluate to a double value. (You may have noticed that + was also used to put text together in the input program above – more on this when we talk about strings.)

Java uses the operator == to test if the value on the left is equal to the value on the right and != to test if two items are not equal. Don’t get one equal sign = confused with two equal signs == ! They mean different things in Java. One equal sign is used to assign a value to a variable. Two equal signs are used to test a variable to see if it is a certain value and that returns true or false as you’ll see below. Use == and != only with int values and not doubles because double values are an approximation and 3.3333 will not equal 3.3334 even though they are very close.

Run the code below to see all the operators in action. Do all of those operators do what you expected? What about 2 / 3 ? Isn’t surprising that it prints 0 ? See the note below.

When Java sees you doing integer division (or any operation with integers) it assumes you want an integer result so it throws away anything after the decimal point in the answer, essentially rounding down the answer to a whole number. If you need a double answer, you should make at least one of the values in the expression a double like 2.0.

With division, another thing to watch out for is dividing by 0. An attempt to divide an integer by zero will result in an ArithmeticException error message. Try it in one of the active code windows above.

Operators can be used to create compound expressions with more than one operator. You can either use a literal value which is a fixed value like 2, or variables in them. When compound expressions are evaluated, operator precedence rules are used, so that *, /, and % are done before + and -. However, anything in parentheses is done first. It doesn’t hurt to put in extra parentheses if you are unsure as to what will be done first.

In the example below, try to guess what it will print out and then run it to see if you are right. Remember to consider operator precedence .

1-4-15: Consider the following code segment. Be careful about integer division.

What is printed when the code segment is executed?

  • 0.666666666666667
  • Don't forget that division and multiplication will be done first due to operator precedence.
  • Yes, this is equivalent to (5 + ((a/b)*c) - 1).
  • Don't forget that division and multiplication will be done first due to operator precedence, and that an int/int gives an int result where it is rounded down to the nearest int.

1-4-16: Consider the following code segment.

What is the value of the expression?

  • Dividing an integer by an integer results in an integer
  • Correct. Dividing an integer by an integer results in an integer
  • The value 5.5 will be rounded down to 5

1-4-17: Consider the following code segment.

  • Correct. Dividing a double by an integer results in a double
  • Dividing a double by an integer results in a double

1-4-18: Consider the following code segment.

  • Correct. Dividing an integer by an double results in a double
  • Dividing an integer by an double results in a double

1.4.4. The Modulo Operator ¶

The percent sign operator ( % ) is the mod (modulo) or remainder operator. The mod operator ( x % y ) returns the remainder after you divide x (first number) by y (second number) so 5 % 2 will return 1 since 2 goes into 5 two times with a remainder of 1. Remember long division when you had to specify how many times one number went into another evenly and the remainder? That remainder is what is returned by the modulo operator.

../_images/mod-py.png

Figure 2: Long division showing the whole number result and the remainder ¶

In the example below, try to guess what it will print out and then run it to see if you are right.

The result of x % y when x is smaller than y is always x . The value y can’t go into x at all (goes in 0 times), since x is smaller than y , so the result is just x . So if you see 2 % 3 the result is 2 .

1-4-21: What is the result of 158 % 10?

  • This would be the result of 158 divided by 10. modulo gives you the remainder.
  • modulo gives you the remainder after the division.
  • When you divide 158 by 10 you get a remainder of 8.

1-4-22: What is the result of 3 % 8?

  • 8 goes into 3 no times so the remainder is 3. The remainder of a smaller number divided by a larger number is always the smaller number!
  • This would be the remainder if the question was 8 % 3 but here we are asking for the reminder after we divide 3 by 8.
  • What is the remainder after you divide 3 by 8?

1.4.5. FlowCharting ¶

Assume you have 16 pieces of pizza and 5 people. If everyone gets the same number of slices, how many slices does each person get? Are there any leftover pieces?

In industry, a flowchart is used to describe a process through symbols and text. A flowchart usually does not show variable declarations, but it can show assignment statements (drawn as rectangle) and output statements (drawn as rhomboid).

The flowchart in figure 3 shows a process to compute the fair distribution of pizza slices among a number of people. The process relies on integer division to determine slices per person, and the mod operator to determine remaining slices.

Flow Chart

Figure 3: Example Flow Chart ¶

A flowchart shows pseudo-code, which is like Java but not exactly the same. Syntactic details like semi-colons are omitted, and input and output is described in abstract terms.

Complete the program based on the process shown in the Figure 3 flowchart. Note the first line of code declares all 4 variables as type int. Add assignment statements and print statements to compute and print the slices per person and leftover slices. Use System.out.println for output.

1.4.6. Storing User Input in Variables ¶

Variables are a powerful abstraction in programming because the same algorithm can be used with different input values saved in variables.

Program input and output

Figure 4: Program input and output ¶

A Java program can ask the user to type in one or more values. The Java class Scanner is used to read from the keyboard input stream, which is referenced by System.in . Normally the keyboard input is typed into a console window, but since this is running in a browser you will type in a small textbox window displayed below the code. The code below shows an example of prompting the user to enter a name and then printing a greeting. The code String name = scan.nextLine() gets the string value you enter as program input and then stores the value in a variable.

Run the program a few times, typing in a different name. The code works for any name: behold, the power of variables!

Run this program to read in a name from the input stream. You can type a different name in the input window shown below the code.

Try stepping through the code with the CodeLens tool to see how the name variable is assigned to the value read by the scanner. You will have to click “Hide CodeLens” and then “Show in CodeLens” to enter a different name for input.

The Scanner class has several useful methods for reading user input. A token is a sequence of characters separated by white space.

Run this program to read in an integer from the input stream. You can type a different integer value in the input window shown below the code.

A rhomboid (slanted rectangle) is used in a flowchart to depict data flowing into and out of a program. The previous flowchart in Figure 3 used a rhomboid to indicate program output. A rhomboid is also used to denote reading a value from the input stream.

Flow Chart

Figure 5: Flow Chart Reading User Input ¶

Figure 5 contains an updated version of the pizza calculator process. The first two steps have been altered to initialize the pizzaSlices and numPeople variables by reading two values from the input stream. In Java this will be done using a Scanner object and reading from System.in.

Complete the program based on the process shown in the Figure 5 flowchart. The program should scan two integer values to initialize pizzaSlices and numPeople. Run the program a few times to experiment with different values for input. What happens if you enter 0 for the number of people? The program will bomb due to division by zero! We will see how to prevent this in a later lesson.

The program below reads two integer values from the input stream and attempts to print the sum. Unfortunately there is a problem with the last line of code that prints the sum.

Run the program and look at the result. When the input is 5 and 7 , the output is Sum is 57 . Both of the + operators in the print statement are performing string concatenation. While the first + operator should perform string concatenation, the second + operator should perform addition. You can force the second + operator to perform addition by putting the arithmetic expression in parentheses ( num1 + num2 ) .

More information on using the Scanner class can be found here https://www.w3schools.com/java/java_user_input.asp

1.4.7. Programming Challenge : Dog Years ¶

In this programming challenge, you will calculate your age, and your pet’s age from your birthdates, and your pet’s age in dog years. In the code below, type in the current year, the year you were born, the year your dog or cat was born (if you don’t have one, make one up!) in the variables below. Then write formulas in assignment statements to calculate how old you are, how old your dog or cat is, and how old they are in dog years which is 7 times a human year. Finally, print it all out.

Calculate your age and your pet’s age from the birthdates, and then your pet’s age in dog years. If you want an extra challenge, try reading the values using a Scanner.

1.4.8. Summary ¶

Arithmetic expressions include expressions of type int and double.

The arithmetic operators consist of +, -, * , /, and % (modulo for the remainder in division).

An arithmetic operation that uses two int values will evaluate to an int value. With integer division, any decimal part in the result will be thrown away, essentially rounding down the answer to a whole number.

An arithmetic operation that uses at least one double value will evaluate to a double value.

Operators can be used to construct compound expressions.

During evaluation, operands are associated with operators according to operator precedence to determine how they are grouped. (*, /, % have precedence over + and -, unless parentheses are used to group those.)

An attempt to divide an integer by zero will result in an ArithmeticException to occur.

The assignment operator (=) allows a program to initialize or change the value stored in a variable. The value of the expression on the right is stored in the variable on the left.

During execution, expressions are evaluated to produce a single value.

The value of an expression has a type based on the evaluation of the expression.

The Java Tutorials have been written for JDK 8. Examples and practices described in this page don't take advantage of improvements introduced in later releases and might use technology no longer available. See Java Language Changes for a summary of updated language features in Java SE 9 and subsequent releases. See JDK Release Notes for information about new features, enhancements, and removed or deprecated options for all JDK releases.

Assignment, Arithmetic, and Unary Operators

The simple assignment operator.

One of the most common operators that you'll encounter is the simple assignment operator " = ". You saw this operator in the Bicycle class; it assigns the value on its right to the operand on its left:

This operator can also be used on objects to assign object references , as discussed in Creating Objects .

The Arithmetic Operators

The Java programming language provides operators that perform addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. There's a good chance you'll recognize them by their counterparts in basic mathematics. The only symbol that might look new to you is " % ", which divides one operand by another and returns the remainder as its result.

The following program, ArithmeticDemo , tests the arithmetic operators.

This program prints the following:

You can also combine the arithmetic operators with the simple assignment operator to create compound assignments . For example, x+=1; and x=x+1; both increment the value of x by 1.

The + operator can also be used for concatenating (joining) two strings together, as shown in the following ConcatDemo program:

By the end of this program, the variable thirdString contains "This is a concatenated string.", which gets printed to standard output.

The Unary Operators

The unary operators require only one operand; they perform various operations such as incrementing/decrementing a value by one, negating an expression, or inverting the value of a boolean.

The following program, UnaryDemo , tests the unary operators:

The increment/decrement operators can be applied before (prefix) or after (postfix) the operand. The code result++; and ++result; will both end in result being incremented by one. The only difference is that the prefix version ( ++result ) evaluates to the incremented value, whereas the postfix version ( result++ ) evaluates to the original value. If you are just performing a simple increment/decrement, it doesn't really matter which version you choose. But if you use this operator in part of a larger expression, the one that you choose may make a significant difference.

The following program, PrePostDemo , illustrates the prefix/postfix unary increment operator:

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What Is an Assignment Statement in Java?

...

Java programs store data values in variables. When a programmer creates a variable in a Java application, he declares the type and name of the variable, then assigns a value to it. The value of a variable can be altered at subsequent points in execution using further assignment operations. The assignment statement in Java involves using the assignment operator to set the value of a variable. The exact syntax depends on the type of variable receiving a value.

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In Java, variables are strongly typed. This means that when you declare a variable in a Java program, you must declare its type, followed by its name. The following sample Java code demonstrates declaring two variables, one of primitive-type integer and one of an object type for a class within the application: int num; ApplicationHelper myHelp;

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Once a program contains a variable declaration, the kind of value assigned to the variable must be suited to the type declared. These variable declarations could be followed by assignment statements on subsequent lines. However, the assignment operation could also take place on the same line as the declaration.

Assignment in Java is the process of giving a value to a primitive-type variable or giving an object reference to an object-type variable. The equals sign acts as assignment operator in Java, followed by the value to assign. The following sample Java code demonstrates assigning a value to a primitive-type integer variable, which has already been declared: num = 5;

The assignment operation could alternatively appear within the same line of code as the declaration of the variable, as follows: int num = 5;

The value of the variable can be altered again in subsequent processing as in this example: num++;

This code increments the variable value, adding a value of one to it.

Instantiation

When the assignment statement appears with object references, the assignment operation may also involve object instantiation. When Java code creates a new object instance of a Java class in an application, the "new" keyword causes the constructor method of the class to execute, instantiating the object. The following sample code demonstrates instantiating an object variable: myHelp = new ApplicationHelper();

This could also appear within the same line as the variable declaration as follows: ApplicationHelper myHelp = new ApplicationHelper();

When this line of code executes, the class constructor method executes, returning an instance of the class, a reference to which is stored by the variable.

Referencing

Once a variable has been declared and assigned a value, a Java program can refer to the variable in subsequent processing. For primitive-type variables, the variable name refers to a stored value. For object types, the variable refers to the location of the object instance in memory. This means that two object variables can point to the same instance, as in the following sample code: ApplicationHelper myHelp = new ApplicationHelper(); ApplicationHelper sameHelp = myHelp;

This syntax appears commonly when programs pass object references as parameters to class methods.

  • Oracle: The Java Tutorials - Variables
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  • Oracle: The Java Tutorials - Primitive Data Types
  • Oracle: The Java Tutorials - Creating Objects
  • Oracle: The Java Tutorials - What Is an Object?
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Compound assignment operators in Java

Compound-assignment operators provide a shorter syntax for assigning the result of an arithmetic or bitwise operator. They perform the operation on the two operands before assigning the result to the first operand. The following are all possible assignment operator in java:

Implementation of all compound assignment operator

Rules for resolving the Compound assignment operators

At run time, the expression is evaluated in one of two ways.Depending upon the programming conditions:

  • First, the left-hand operand is evaluated to produce a variable. If this evaluation completes abruptly, then the assignment expression completes abruptly for the same reason; the right-hand operand is not evaluated and no assignment occurs.
  • Otherwise, the value of the left-hand operand is saved and then the right-hand operand is evaluated. If this evaluation completes abruptly, then the assignment expression completes abruptly for the same reason and no assignment occurs.
  • Otherwise, the saved value of the left-hand variable and the value of the right-hand operand are used to perform the binary operation indicated by the compound assignment operator. If this operation completes abruptly, then the assignment expression completes abruptly for the same reason and no assignment occurs.
  • Otherwise, the result of the binary operation is converted to the type of the left-hand variable, subjected to value set conversion to the appropriate standard value set, and the result of the conversion is stored into the variable.
  • First, the array reference sub-expression of the left-hand operand array access expression is evaluated. If this evaluation completes abruptly, then the assignment expression completes abruptly for the same reason; the index sub-expression (of the left-hand operand array access expression) and the right-hand operand are not evaluated and no assignment occurs.
  • Otherwise, the index sub-expression of the left-hand operand array access expression is evaluated. If this evaluation completes abruptly, then the assignment expression completes abruptly for the same reason and the right-hand operand is not evaluated and no assignment occurs.
  • Otherwise, if the value of the array reference sub-expression is null, then no assignment occurs and a NullPointerException is thrown.
  • Otherwise, the value of the array reference sub-expression indeed refers to an array. If the value of the index sub-expression is less than zero, or greater than or equal to the length of the array, then no assignment occurs and an ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException is thrown.
  • Otherwise, the value of the index sub-expression is used to select a component of the array referred to by the value of the array reference sub-expression. The value of this component is saved and then the right-hand operand is evaluated. If this evaluation completes abruptly, then the assignment expression completes abruptly for the same reason and no assignment occurs.

Examples : Resolving the statements with Compound assignment operators

We all know that whenever we are assigning a bigger value to a smaller data type variable then we have to perform explicit type casting to get the result without any compile-time error. If we did not perform explicit type-casting then we will get compile time error. But in the case of compound assignment operators internally type-casting will be performed automatically, even we are assigning a bigger value to a smaller data-type variable but there may be a chance of loss of data information. The programmer will not responsible to perform explicit type-casting. Let’s see the below example to find the difference between normal assignment operator and compound assignment operator. A compound assignment expression of the form E1 op= E2 is equivalent to E1 = (T) ((E1) op (E2)), where T is the type of E1, except that E1 is evaluated only once.

For example, the following code is correct:

and results in x having the value 7 because it is equivalent to:

Because here 6.6 which is double is automatically converted to short type without explicit type-casting.

Refer: When is the Type-conversion required?

Explanation: In the above example, we are using normal assignment operator. Here we are assigning an int (b+1=20) value to byte variable (i.e. b) that’s results in compile time error. Here we have to do type-casting to get the result.

Explanation: In the above example, we are using compound assignment operator. Here we are assigning an int (b+1=20) value to byte variable (i.e. b) apart from that we get the result as 20 because In compound assignment operator type-casting is automatically done by compile. Here we don’t have to do type-casting to get the result.

Reference: http://docs.oracle.com/javase/specs/jls/se7/html/jls-15.html#jls-15.26.2

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Java - Assignment Operators

The following programs are simple examples which demonstrate the assignment operators. Copy and paste the following Java programs as Test.java file, and compile and run the programs −

In this example, we're creating three variables a,b and c and using assignment operators . We've performed simple assignment, addition AND assignment, subtraction AND assignment and multiplication AND assignment operations and printed the results.

In this example, we're creating two variables a and c and using assignment operators . We've performed Divide AND assignment, Multiply AND assignment, Modulus AND assignment, bitwise exclusive OR AND assignment, OR AND assignment operations and printed the results.

In this example, we're creating two variables a and c and using assignment operators . We've performed Left shift AND assignment, Right shift AND assignment, operations and printed the results.

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1. How to execute the assignment statement

1. explaining how to execute the assignment statement.

program using assignment statement in java

2. Homework assignment HW1

The first question is easy ---you can copy from the first video or its transcript on the pdf file. Questions 2 and 3 ask about the if-statement and if-else statement. These are the same as in just about any programming language, except for the syntax, of course. So use your knowledge of these statements in whatever programming language you know.

1. Write the algorithm for executing the Java assignment statement <variable>= <expression>; 2. Write the algorithm for executing the Java if-statement               if (<boolean-expression>) <statement 1> 3. Write the algorithm for executing the Java if-else-statement               if (<boolean-expression>) <statement 1> else <statement 2> 4. Tell us in a few words what you thought of the videos on presenting algorithms in English and executing the assignment statement, their message, and the homework.

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Java if...else Statement

In programming, we use the if..else statement to run a block of code among more than one alternatives.

For example, assigning grades (A, B, C) based on the percentage obtained by a student.

  • if the percentage is above 90 , assign grade A
  • if the percentage is above 75 , assign grade B
  • if the percentage is above 65 , assign grade C

1. Java if (if-then) Statement

The syntax of an if-then statement is:

Here, condition is a boolean expression such as age >= 18 .

  • if condition evaluates to true , statements are executed
  • if condition evaluates to false , statements are skipped

Working of if Statement

if the number is greater than 0, code inside if block is executed, otherwise code inside if block is skipped

Example 1: Java if Statement

In the program, number < 0 is false . Hence, the code inside the body of the if statement is skipped .

Note: If you want to learn more about about test conditions, visit Java Relational Operators and Java Logical Operators .

We can also use Java Strings as the test condition.

Example 2: Java if with String

In the above example, we are comparing two strings in the if block.

2. Java if...else (if-then-else) Statement

The if statement executes a certain section of code if the test expression is evaluated to true . However, if the test expression is evaluated to false , it does nothing.

In this case, we can use an optional else block. Statements inside the body of else block are executed if the test expression is evaluated to false . This is known as the if-...else statement in Java.

The syntax of the if...else statement is:

Here, the program will do one task (codes inside if block) if the condition is true and another task (codes inside else block) if the condition is false .

How the if...else statement works?

If the condition is true, the code inside the if block is executed, otherwise, code inside the else block is executed

Example 3: Java if...else Statement

In the above example, we have a variable named number . Here, the test expression number > 0 checks if number is greater than 0.

Since the value of the number is 10 , the test expression evaluates to true . Hence code inside the body of if is executed.

Now, change the value of the number to a negative integer. Let's say -5 .

If we run the program with the new value of number , the output will be:

Here, the value of number is -5 . So the test expression evaluates to false . Hence code inside the body of else is executed.

3. Java if...else...if Statement

In Java, we have an if...else...if ladder, that can be used to execute one block of code among multiple other blocks.

Here, if statements are executed from the top towards the bottom. When the test condition is true , codes inside the body of that if block is executed. And, program control jumps outside the if...else...if ladder.

If all test expressions are false , codes inside the body of else are executed.

How the if...else...if ladder works?

If the first test condition if true, code inside first if block is executed, if the second condition is true, block inside second if is executed, and if all conditions are false, the else block is executed

Example 4: Java if...else...if Statement

In the above example, we are checking whether number is positive , negative , or zero . Here, we have two condition expressions:

  • number > 0 - checks if number is greater than 0
  • number < 0 - checks if number is less than 0

Here, the value of number is 0 . So both the conditions evaluate to false . Hence the statement inside the body of else is executed.

Note : Java provides a special operator called ternary operator , which is a kind of shorthand notation of if...else...if statement. To learn about the ternary operator, visit Java Ternary Operator .

4. Java Nested if..else Statement

In Java, it is also possible to use if..else statements inside an if...else statement. It's called the nested if...else statement.

Here's a program to find the largest of 3 numbers using the nested if...else statement.

Example 5: Nested if...else Statement

In the above programs, we have assigned the value of variables ourselves to make this easier.

However, in real-world applications, these values may come from user input data, log files, form submission, etc.

Table of Contents

  • Introduction
  • Java if (if-then) Statement
  • Example: Java if Statement
  • Java if...else (if-then-else) Statement
  • Example: Java if else Statement
  • Java if..else..if Statement
  • Example: Java if..else..if Statement
  • Java Nested if..else Statement

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  1. Java Assignment Operators with Examples

    Types of Assignment Operators in Java The Assignment Operator is generally of two types. They are: 1. Simple Assignment Operator: The Simple Assignment Operator is used with the "=" sign where the left side consists of the operand and the right side consists of a value.

  2. 1.7 Java

    In Java, an assignment statement is an expression that evaluates a value, which is assigned to the variable on the left side of the assignment operator. Whereas an assignment expression is the same, except it does not take into account the variable. That's why the following statements are legal: System.out.println (x = 1); Which is equivalent to:

  3. Java Program to Perform Assignment Operations

    Program 1: To Perform the Assignment Operations In this program, we will perform the assignment operations when the values are pre-defined in the program. Algorithm: Start Here, we will use a switch case to choose from different assignment operators like +=, -=, *=, /=, and %=. Declare two variables. Initialize it.

  4. 1.4. Expressions and Assignment Statements

    1.4.1. Assignment Statements ¶ Remember that a variable holds a value that can change or vary. Assignment statements initialize or change the value stored in a variable using the assignment operator =. An assignment statement always has a single variable on the left hand side of the = sign.

  5. Assignment, Arithmetic, and Unary Operators (The Java™ Tutorials

    You can also combine the arithmetic operators with the simple assignment operator to create compound assignments. For example, x+=1; and x=x+1; both increment the value of x by 1. The + operator can also be used for concatenating (joining) two strings together, as shown in the following ConcatDemo program:

  6. java

    9 Answers Sorted by: 223 Variables can be assigned but not declared inside the conditional statement: int v; if ( (v = someMethod ()) != 0) return true; Share Improve this answer

  7. What Is an Assignment Statement in Java?

    The assignment statement in Java involves using the assignment operator to set the value of a variable. The exact syntax depends on the type of variable receiving a value. Variables In Java, variables are strongly typed. This means that when you declare a variable in a Java program, you must declare its type, followed by its name.

  8. Compound assignment operators in Java

    1. += (compound addition assignment operator) 2. -= (compound subtraction assignment operator) 3. *= (compound multiplication assignment operator) 4. /= (compound division assignment operator) 5. %= (compound modulo assignment operator) 6. &= (compound Bitwise & assignment operator) 7. |= (compound Bitwise | assignment operator) 8. ^= (compound ...

  9. What is += Addition Assignment Operator in Java?

    What is += Addition Assignment Operator in Java? | DigitalOcean // Tutorial // What is += Addition Assignment Operator in Java? Published on August 3, 2022 Java By Jayant Verma While we believe that this content benefits our community, we have not yet thoroughly reviewed it.

  10. Java

    The following programs are simple examples which demonstrate the assignment operators. Copy and paste the following Java programs as Test.java file, and compile and run the programs − Example 1 In this example, we're creating three variables a,b and c and using assignment operators.

  11. Types of Assignment Operators in Java

    To assign a value to a variable, use the basic assignment operator (=). It is the most fundamental assignment operator in Java. It assigns the value on the right side of the operator to the variable on the left side. Example: int x = 10; In the above example, the variable x is assigned the value 10. Addition Assignment Operator (+=)

  12. 1. How to execute the assignment statement

    Questions 2 and 3 ask about the if-statement and if-else statement. These are the same as in just about any programming language, except for the syntax, of course. So use your knowledge of these statements in whatever programming language you know. 1. Write the algorithm for executing the Java assignment statement <variable>= <expression>; 2.

  13. The Assignment Operator in Java

    Java Programming: The Assignment Operator in Java ProgrammingTopics Discussed:1. Assignment operator in Java.2. Assignment statements in Java.3. Assignment e...

  14. Java Assignment Operators

    Statement 1: x =10; Statement 2: String name = new String ("Amit"); Assignment can be of various types. Let's discuss each in detail. ads Primitive Assignment: The equal (=) sign is used for assigning a value to a variable. We can assign a primitive variable using a literal or the result of an expression.

  15. Compound Assignment Operator in Java

    In Java, assignment operator is used to assign values to a variable. In this section, we will discuss the compound assignment operators in Java. Compound Assignment Operator The compound assignment operator is the combination of more than one operator. It includes an assignment operator and arithmetic operator or bitwise operator.

  16. Assignment Operators in Java with Examples

    As you can see, In the above example, we are using assignment operator in if statement. We did a comparison of value 10 to an assignment operator which resulted in a 'true' output because the return of assignment operator is the value of left operand. Recommended Posts. Arithmetic Operators in Java with Examples; Unary Operators in Java ...

  17. Definite Assignment in Java

    The definite assignment will consider the structure of expressions and statements. The Java compiler will decide that "k" is assigned before its access, like an argument with the method invocation in the code. It is because the access will occur if the value of the expression is accurate.

  18. Shorthand Operator in Java

    Some unique Compound Assignment Operators commonly referred to as Shorthand Assignment Operators are provided by Java. Because it offers a quick way to appoint an expression to a variable, it is known as shorthand. The above operator can be used to link the assignment operator and the algebraic operator. You might, for instance, write: a = a-7 ...

  19. Types of Assignment Operators in Java

    Simple assignment operators handle plain, uncomplicated operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. Compound assignment operators are used when there are more logical operations are required in the code, like ^, &, %, <>, >>, <<, etc. The Assignment Operator is generally of two types. They are: Simple Assignment Operator.

  20. Java Operators: Arithmetic, Relational, Logical and more

    2. Java Assignment Operators. Assignment operators are used in Java to assign values to variables. For example, int age; age = 5; Here, = is the assignment operator. It assigns the value on its right to the variable on its left. That is, 5 is assigned to the variable age. Let's see some more assignment operators available in Java.

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  22. Java if...else (With Examples)

    In programming, we use the if..else statement to run a block of code among more than one alternatives. For example, assigning grades (A, B, C) based on the percentage obtained by a student. if the percentage is above 90, assign grade A if the percentage is above 75, assign grade B if the percentage is above 65, assign grade C 1.

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