Punjabi Essay on “Rabindranath Tagore”, “ਰਵਿੰਦਰ ਨਾਥ ਟੈਗੋਰ”, Punjabi Essay for Class 10, Class 12 ,B.A Students and Competitive Examinations.

ਰਵਿੰਦਰ ਨਾਥ ਟੈਗੋਰ.

Rabindranath Tagore

ਲੇਖ ਨੰਬਰ:੦੧ 

ਜਾਣ-ਪਛਾਣ : ਭਾਰਤ ਦੀ ਧਰਤੀ ਬੜੀ ਮਹਾਨ ਅਤੇ ਪਵਿੱਤਰ ਹੈ। ਇੱਥੇ ਗਰਆਂ ਪੀਰਾਂ, ਪੈਗੰਬਰਾਂ, ਪਸਿੱਧ ਕਵੀਆਂ ਅਤੇ ਲੇਖਕਾਂ ਨੇ ਜਨਮ ਲਿਆ ਹੈ। ਗੁਰਦੇਵ ਰਵਿੰਦਰ ਨਾਥ ਟੈਗੋਰ ਵੀ ਸੰਸਾਰ ਦੇ ਇਕ ਮਹਾਨ ਕਵੀ ਹੋਏ ਹਨ। ਉਹਨਾਂ ਨੂੰ ਆਪਣੀ ਕਾਵਿ ਪੁਸਤਕ ਗੀਤਾਂਜਲੀ ਤੇ ਸੰਸਾਰ ਦਾ ਸਭ ਤੋਂ ਵੱਡਾ ਇਨਾਮ ਨੋਬਲ ਪੁਰਸਕਾਰ ਮਿਲਿਆ ਸੀ। ਅੰਗਰੇਜ਼ ਸਰਕਾਰ ਨੇ ਉਹਨਾਂ ਨੂੰ ‘ਸਰ’ ਦੀ ਪਦਵੀ ਵੀ ਦਿੱਤੀ ਸੀ। ਇਹ ਖਿਤਾਬ ਗੁਰਦੇਵ ਨੇ ਅੰਗਰੇਜ਼ ਸਰਕਾਰ ਨੂੰ ਉਸ ਵੇਲੇ ਗੁੱਸੇ ਵਜੋਂ ਮੋੜ ਦਿੱਤਾ ਸੀ ਜਦੋਂ ਉਹਨਾਂ ਨੇ ਜਲਿਆਂ ਵਾਲੇ ਕਾਂਡ ਬਾਰੇ ਸੁਣਿਆ ਸੀ।ਉਹ ਮਹਾਨ ਕਵੀ, ਉੱਚ ਪਾਏ ਦੇ ਕਹਾਣੀਕਾਰ, ਸੱਚੇ ਦੇਸ਼ ਭਗਤ, ਧਰਮ ਤੇ ਪੂਰੀ ਤਰਾਂ ਕਾਇਮ ਰਹਿਣ ਵਾਲੇ, ਆਤਮ-ਸਨਮਾਨ ਵਾਲੇ ਅਤੇ ਗੌਰਵਸ਼ਾਲੀ ਭਾਰਤੀ ਸਨ।

ਜਨਮ : ਮਹਾਂਕਵੀ ਰਵਿੰਦਰ ਨਾਥ ਟੈਗੋਰ ਦਾ ਜਨਮ 7 ਮਈ, ਸੰਨ 1861 ਨੂੰ ਕਲਕੱਤਾ ਦੇ ਇਕ ਉੱਚ ਘਰਾਣੇ ਵਿਖੇ ਹੋਇਆ। ਟੈਗੋਰ ਨੂੰ ਬਚਪਨ ਤੋਂ ਹੀ ਕੁਦਰਤ ਅਤੇ ਕੁਦਰਤੀ ਨਜ਼ਾਰਿਆਂ ਨਾਲ ਡੂੰਘਾ ਪਿਆਰ ਸੀ। ਉਹ ਅਕਸਰ ਉਹਨਾਂ ਥਾਵਾਂ ਉੱਤੇ ਵਾਰਵਾਰ ਜਾਣਾ ਚਾਹੁੰਦੇ ਸਨ ਜਿੱਥੇ ਕੁਦਰਤੀ ਨਜ਼ਾਰਿਆਂ ਦੀ ਭਰਮਾਰ ਹੋਵੇ। ਉਹਨਾਂ ਦੀ ਹਰ ਕਵਿਤਾ ਅਤੇ ਗਲਪ ਉੱਤੇ ਵੀ ਕੁਦਰਤ ਜਿਵੇਂ ਸਵਾਰ ਹੈ। ਟੈਗੋਰ ਨੂੰ ਫੁੱਲਾਂ, ਝਰਨਿਆਂ, ਵੱਸਦੇ ਬੱਦਲਾਂ, ਤਾਰਿਆਂ ਭਰੋ ਅਸਮਾਨ ਅਤੇ ਅਕਾਸ਼ ਵਿੱਚ ਉੱਡਦੇ ਪੰਛੀਆਂ ਵਾਲੇ ਨਜ਼ਾਰੇ ਬਹੁਤ ਚੰਗੇ ਲੱਗਦੇ ਸਨ।

ਮੁੱਢਲੀ ਵਿੱਦਿਆ : ਉਹਨਾਂ ਦੀ ਆਰੰਭਿਕ ਵਿੱਦਿਆ ਘਰ ਵਿੱਚ ਹੀ ਹੋਈ।ਉਹਨਾਂ ਨੂੰ ਸਕਲਾਂ ਵਿਚ ਪੜਾਉਣ ਦਾ ਢੰਗ ਬਿਲਕੁਲ ਹੀ ਪਸੰਦ ਨਹੀਂ ਸੀ। ਉਹਨਾਂ ਨੂੰ ਬੱਚਿਆਂ ਨੂੰ ਸਜ਼ਾ ਦੇਣਾ ਉੱਕਾ ਹੀ ਚੰਗਾ ਨਹੀਂ ਸੀ ਲੱਗਦਾ। ਉਹਨਾਂ ਨੇ ਆਪਣੇ ਸਾਹਿਤ ਦੁਆਰਾ ਵੀ ਇਸ ਗੱਲ ਦਾ ਪ੍ਰਚਾਰ ਕੀਤਾ ਹੈ। ਅਸਲ ਵਿਚ ਉਹ ਕੁਦਰਤ ਦੇ ਰੰਗ ਵਿਚ ਰੰਗੇ ਇਕ ਵੱਖਰੀ ਕਿਸਮ ਦੇ ਲੇਖਕ ਅਤੇ ਇਨਸਾਨ ਸਨ। ਉਹਨਾਂ ਨੇ ਜਿੰਨਾ ਵੀ ਸਾਹਿਤ ਰਚਿਆ, ਉਹ ਸਾਰਾ ਹੀ ਇਨਸਾਨੀ ਪੱਖ ਤੋਂ ਲਾਭਦਾਇਕ ਹੈ। ਉਹਨਾਂ ਨੇ ਨਾਵਲ, ਕਹਾਣੀ ਅਤੇ ਕੁਝ ਲੇਖ ਵੀ ਲਿਖੇ ਸਨ, ਪਰ ਉਹਨਾਂ ਦੀ ਬਹੁਤੀ ਪਛਾਣ ਤਾਂ ਕਵੀ ਵਜੋਂ ਹੀ ਹੋਈ ਹੈ। ਉਹਨਾਂ ਦੀ ਗੀਤਾਂਜਲੀ ਨੂੰ ਆਪਣੇ ਵੇਲੇ ਦੀ ਸਭ ਤੋਂ ਮਹਾਨ, ਪ੍ਰਭਾਵਸ਼ਾਲੀ ਅਤੇ ਨਵੀਂ ਕਵਿਤਾ ਮੰਨਿਆ ਗਿਆ ਸੀ। ਉਹਨਾਂ ਬੱਚਿਆਂ ਲਈ ਵੀ ਕਾਫ਼ੀ ਸਾਰਾ ਸਾਹਿਤ ਰਚਿਆ ਹੈ। ਉਹਨਾਂ ਦੀ ਇੱਕ ਕਹਾਣੀ ‘ਕਾਬੁਲੀ ਵਾਲਾ ਤਾਂ ਬੱਚਿਆਂ ਵਿਚ ਬਹੁਤ ਹੀ ਲੋਕਪ੍ਰਿਯ ਹੋਈ। ਇਸ ਕਹਾਣੀ ਉੱਪਰ ਹਿੰਦੀ ਵਿਚ ਇਕ ਸ਼ਾਨਦਾਰ ਫ਼ਿਲਮ ਵੀ ਬਣੀ ਹੈ। ਉਹਨਾਂ ਦੀਆਂ ਹੋਰ ਰਚਨਾਵਾਂ ਵਿਚ ‘ਗੋਰਾ’, ‘ਆਂਖ ਕੀ ਕਿਰਕਿਰੀ`, ਅਤੇ ਜੁਦਾਈ ਸ਼ਾਮ’ ਨਾਵਲਾਂ ਤੋਂ ਇਲਾਵਾ (ਡਾਕਘਰ’ ਨਾਟਕ ਵੀ ਬੜਾ ਮਸ਼ਹੂਰ ਹੈ। ਟੈਗੋਰ ਨੂੰ ਸਾਹਿਤ ਤੋਂ ਇਲਾਵਾ ਚਿੱਤਰਕਾਰੀ ਅਤੇ ਸੰਗੀਤ ਦਾ ਵੀ ਬਹੁਤ ਸ਼ੌਕ ਸੀ। ਸੰਗੀਤ ਵਿਚ ਉਹਨਾਂ ਦੀਆਂ ਧੁਨਾਂ ਨੂੰ ਰਵਿੰਦਰ ਸੰਗੀਤ ਦੇ ਨਾਂ ਨਾਲ ਜਾਣਿਆ ਜਾਂਦਾ ਹੈ।

ਬੱਚਿਆਂ ਨੂੰ ਸਿੱਖਿਆ ਦੇਣ ਬਾਰੇ ਵਿਚਾਰ : ਬੱਚਿਆਂ ਨੂੰ ਸਿੱਖਿਆ ਦੇਣ ਬਾਰੇ ਟੈਗੋਰ ਜੀ ਦੇ ਆਪਣੇ ਹੀ ਵਿਚਾਰ ਸਨ। ਚਿਰਾਂ ਤੋਂ ਹੀ ਉਹਨਾਂ ਦੇ ਮਨ ਵਿਚ ਇਹ ਵਿਚਾਰ ਸੀ ਕਿ ਪੜਾਈ ਨੂੰ ਮਨੁੱਖੀ ਪੱਖ ਨਾਲ ਜੁੜਿਆ ਹੋਣਾ ਚਾਹੀਦਾ ਹੈ। ਪੜਾਈ ਨੂੰ ਬੱਚੇ ਸ਼ੌਕ ਸਮਝਣ, ਬੋਝ ਨਹੀਂ। ਉਹ ਪ੍ਰਾਚੀਨ ਭਾਰਤੀ ਰਵਾਇਤ ਤਹਿਤ ਬੱਚਿਆਂ ਨੂੰ ਗੁਰੂ ਚੇਲੇ ਪਰੰਪਰਾ ਨਾਲ ਪੜਾਉਣ ਦੇ ਹੱਕ ਵਿਚ ਸਨ। ਉਹਨਾਂ ਦੇ ਮਨ ਵਿਚ ਇਹ ਸੁਪਨਾ ਸਦਾ ਹੀ ਪਾਸੇ ਵੱਟਦਾ ਸੀ ਕਿ ਬੱਚੇ ਬਿਨਾਂ ਡਰ ਪੜਾਈ ਕਰਨ। ਉਹਨਾਂ ਨੇ ਆਪਣੇ ਵਿਚਾਰਾਂ ਨੂੰ ਸਾਕਾਰ ਰੂਪ ਦਿੰਦਿਆਂ ਸੰਨ 1901 ਵਿਚ ਸ਼ਾਂਤੀ ਨਿਕੇਤਨ ਦੀ ਸਥਾਪਨਾ ਕੀਤੀ। ਇੱਥੇ ਦਿੱਤੀ ਜਾਣ ਵਾਲੀ ਵਿਦਿਆ ਵਿਚ ਕੁਦਰਤ ਦੀ ਗੋਦ ਵਿਚ ਜੀਵਨ ਬਿਤਾਉਣਾ, ਮਾਂ ਬੋਲੀ ਬੰਗਾਲੀ ਵਿਚ ਪੜ੍ਹਾਈ ਕਰਵਾਉਣਾ ਅਤੇ ਪੜ੍ਹਾਈ ਵਿਚ ਵੱਖ-ਵੱਖ ਕਲਾਵਾਂ ਦੀ ਸਿੱਖਿਆ ਦੇਣਾ ਆਦਿ ਸ਼ਾਮਲ ਸੀ। ਇਕ ਨਿੱਕੇ ਜਿਹੇ ਸਕੂਲ ਤੋਂ ਸ਼ੁਰੂ ਹੋਈ ਸ਼ਾਂਤੀ ਨਿਕੇਤਨ ਅੱਜ ਇਕ ਸੰਸਾਰ ਪ੍ਰਸਿੱਧ ਯੂਨੀਵਰਸਿਟੀ ਹੈ। ਇੱਥੇ ਬੱਚੇ ਇਕ ਪਰਿਵਾਰਿਕ ਵਾਤਾਵਰਣ ਵਿਚ ਰਹਿ ਕੇ ਪੜਾਈ ਕਰਦੇ ਹਨ। ਇੱਥੇ ਬੱਚਿਆਂ ਨੂੰ ਸਰੀਰਕ ਸਜ਼ਾ ਬਿਲਕੁਲ ਹੀ ਨਹੀਂ ਦਿੱਤੀ ਜਾਂਦੀ।

ਧਰਮ ਭਾਸ਼ਾ ਅਤੇ ਵਿਦਿਆ ਬਾਰੇ ਵਿਚਾਰ : ਟੈਗੋਰ ਦੀ ਧਰਮ, ਭਾਸ਼ਾ ਅਤੇ ਵਿੱਦਿਆ ਬਾਰੇ ਆਪਣੀ ਨਰੋਈ ਸੋਚ ਹੀ ਸੀ। ਅੰਮ੍ਰਿਤਸਰ ਵਿਖੇ ਆਪ ਸ੍ਰੀ ਦਰਬਾਰ ਸਾਹਿਬ ਵਿਖੇ ਬੈਠ ਕੇ ਬੜੀ ਦੇਰ ਤੱਕ ਗੁਰਬਾਣੀ ਦਾ ਰਸ ਮਾਣਦੇ ਰਹੇ ਸਨ। ਭਾਸ਼ਾ ਪ੍ਰਤੀ ਉਹਨਾਂ ਦੀ ਸੋਚ, ਸਿੱਧੀ ਅਤੇ ਸਪੱਸ਼ਟ ਸੀ।ਉਹ ਕਿਹਾ ਕਰਦੇ ਸਨ ਕਿ ਬੱਚਿਆਂ ਨੂੰ ਆਪਣੀ ਸਾਰੀ ਪੜਾਈ ਆਪਣੀ ਮਾਂ ਬੋਲੀ ਵਿਚ ਕਰਨੀ ਚਾਹੀਦੀ ਹੈ। ਉਹਨਾਂ ਨੇ ਆਪਣਾ ਸਾਰਾ ਸਾਹਿਤ ਬੰਗਲਾ ਵਿਚ ਹੀ ਲਿਖਿਆ ਸੀ। ਉਹਨਾਂ ਦੇ ਸੰਪਰਕ ਵਿਚ ਜਿਹੜਾ ਵੀ ਲੇਖਕ ਜਾਂ ਸਾਹਿਤਕਾਰ ਆਇਆ, ਉਹਨਾਂ ਨੇ ਉਸਨੂੰ ਮਾਂ ਬੋਲੀ ਵਿਚ ਹੀ ਰਚਨਾ ਰਚਨ ਲਈ ਪ੍ਰੇਰਿਤ ਕੀਤਾ।ਉਹ ਅਕਸਰ ਕਿਹਾ ਕਰਦੇ ਸਨ ਕਿ ਮਾਤਰੀ ਭਾਸ਼ਾ ਵਿਚ ਦਿੱਤੀ ਗਈ ਸਿੱਖਿਆ ਹੀ ਠੀਕ ਅਤੇ ਪ੍ਰਭਾਵਸ਼ਾਲੀ ਹੋ ਸਕਦੀ ਹੈ।

ਧਰਮ ਨਿਰਪੱਖ ਇਨਸਾਨ : ਟੈਗੋਰ ਇਕ ਧਰਮ ਨਿਰਪੱਖ ਅਤੇ ਜਮਹੂਰੀਅਤ ਪਸੰਦ ਇਨਸਾਨ ਸਨ।ਉਹ ਛਤਛਾਤ ਅਤੇ ਉੱਚੇ-ਨੀਵੇਂ ਦੇ ਭੇਦ ਤੋਂ ਉੱਪਰ ਸਨ।ਉਹ ਸਿਰਫ ਮਨੁੱਖ ਨੂੰ ਮਨੁੱਖ ਕਰਕੇ ਹੀ ਪਿਆਰ ਕਰਦੇ ਸਨ। ਉਹਨਾਂ ਨੇ ਕਦੇ ਵੀ ਰਾਜਨੀਤੀ ਵਿਚ ਸਿੱਧਾ ਹਿੱਸਾ ਨਹੀਂ ਲਿਆ, ਫਿਰ ਵੀ ਉਹਨਾਂ ਨੂੰ ਭਾਰਤ ਦੀ ਪਰਤੰਤਰਤਾ ਦੁੱਖ ਦਿੰਦੀ ਸੀ। ਉਹ ਕਿਹਾ ਕਰਦੇ ਸਨ ਕਿ ਮਨੁੱਖ ਨੂੰ ਮਨੁੱਖ ਗੁਲਾਮ ਕਦੇ ਨਾ ਬਣਾਵੇ। ਉਹਨਾਂ ਦੀ ਮਾਨਵਤਾ ਅਤੇ

ਸਿਆਣਪ ਤੇ ਹਰ ਕੋਈ ਮਾਣ ਕਰਦਾ ਸੀ। ਮਹਾਤਮਾ ਗਾਂਧੀ ਉਹਨਾਂ ਦੇ ਗੁਣਾਂ ਤੋਂ ਬੜੇ ਕਾਵਿਤ ਹੋਏ ਸਨ। ਉਹ ਉਹਨਾਂ ਦੀ ਮਹਾਨਤਾ ਸਦਕਾ ਹੀ ਉਹਨਾਂ ਨੂੰ ਵਿਸ਼ਵ ਕਵੀ ਅਤੇ ਗੁਰਦੇਵ ਕਿਹਾ ਕਰਦੇ ਸਨ। ਭਾਰਤ ਦਾ ਇਹ ਮਹਾਨ ਸਪੂਤ ਸੰਨ 1941 ਵਿਚ ਚੱਲ ਵੱਸਿਆ। ਉਹਨਾਂ ਦੀ ਮੌਤ ਤੇ ਸੰਸਾਰ ਦੇ ਸਾਰੇ ਲੇਖਕਾਂ ਨੇ ਦੁੱਖ ਪ੍ਰਗਟਾਇਆ ਸੀ। ਰਵਿੰਦਰ ਨਾਥ ਟੈਗੋਰ ਵਰਗੀ ਹਸਤੀ ਕਦੇ-ਕਦੇ ਹੀ ਇਸ ਧਰਤੀ ਤੇ ਅਵਤਾਰ ਧਾਰਿਆ ਕਰਦੀ ਹੈ। ਉਹ ਮਰ ਕੇ ਵੀ ਅਮਰ ਹਨ।

ਲੇਖ ਨੰਬਰ:੦੨ 

“ਹੇ ਗੁਰਦੇਵ ਟੈਗੋਰ ਪਿਆਰੇ , ਤੈਨੂੰ ਪੂਜਾਂ ਤੇ ਸਤਿਕਾਰਾਂ। ਤੋੜਨ ਲਈ ਕੁੜੀਆਂ , ਜੰਜੀਰਾਂ , ਤੇਰੇ ਗੀਤ ਬਣੇ ਵੰਗਾਰਾਂ। ਤੈਥੋਂ ਨਹੀਂ ਸੀ ਜਰੀਆਂ ਗਈਆਂ , ਭਾਰਤ ਮਾਂ ਦੀਆਂ ਚੀਕ ਪੁਕਾਰਾਂ। ਸਦੀਆਂ ਤੋਂ ਹੀ ਪੂਰਬ ਵਿਚੋਂ ਹੁੰਦਾ ਆਇਆ ਸੋਨ-ਸਵੇਰਾ। ਭਾਰਤ ਮਾਂ ਨੇ ਕੁੱਖੋਂ ਜਾਇਆ , ਸੁੰਦਰਤਾ ਦਾ ਇਕ ਚਿਤੇਰਾ।“

ਭੂਮਿਕਾ- ਅੱਜ ਤੋਂ ਲਗਭਗ ਸਵਾ ਸੌ ਸਾਲ ਪਹਿਲਾਂ ਬੰਗਾਲ ਦੀ ਕਾਲਾਂ ਦੀ ਮਾਰੀ ਧਰਤੀ ਉੱਤੇ ਇਕ ਗੁੰਚਾ ਖਿੜਿਆ ਜਿਸ ਦੀ ਮਹਿਕ ਨੇ ਉਸ ਦੀ ਬਾਲ ਵਰੇਸ ਵਿਚ ਬੰਗਾਲ ਦਾ ਕੋਨਾ-ਕੋਨਾ ਨਸ਼ਿਆ ਦਿੱਤਾ।ਉਸ ਦੇ ਬਲਵਾਨ ਚਿੰਤਨ ਨੇ ਬੰਗਾਲ ਦਾ ਹੀ ਨਹੀਂ ਸਗੋਂ ਸਾਰੇ ਵਿਸ਼ਵ ਦਾ ਮਨ ਮੋਹ ਲਿਆ। ਹਰ ਕੋਈ ਉਸਨੂੰ ਆਪਣਾ ਦਿੱਸਣ ਲੱਗਾ।ਆਪ ਮਹਾਨ ਕਵੀ, ਲਿਖਾਰੀ, ਸੰਗੀਤਕਾਰ, ਨਾਟਕਰਾਰ ਅਤੇ ਪ੍ਰਕਿਰਤੀ ਦੇ ਪ੍ਰੈਸੀ ਹੋਣ ਦੇ ਨਾਲ-ਨਾਲ ਇਕ ਮਹਾਨ ਸੂਖ਼ਮਦਰਸ਼ੀ ਚਿੱਤਰਕਾਰ ਸਨ। ਆਪ ਜੀ ਦੀ ਪ੍ਰਤਿਭਾ ਬਾਲਪਨ ਵਿਚ ਹੀ ਉਜਾਗਰ ਹੋ ਚੁੱਕੀ ਸੀ। ਮਿਲਟਨ Paradise Regained ਵਿਚ ਲਿਖਦਾ ਹੈ, “ਬਾਲ ਅਵਸਥਾ ਤੋਂ ਵਿਕਸਤ ਹੋਣ ਵਾਲੇ ਮਨੁੱਖ ਦੇ ਅਨੁਮਾਨ ਉਸੇ ਤਰ੍ਹਾਂ ਲਗਾਇਆ ਜਾ ਸਕਦਾ ਹੈ, ਜਿਵੇਂ ਸਵੇਰ ਤੋਂ ਆਉਣ ਵਾਲੇ ਦਿਨ ਦਾ।”

(“The childhood shows the man, as morning shows the day.”)

ਜੀਵਨ ਬਾਰੇ ਜਾਣਕਾਰੀ- ਆਪ ਜੀ ਦਾ ਜਨਮ 7 ਮਈ, 1861 ਈ.ਨੂੰ ਕੋਲਕਾਤਾ ਦੇ ਕਿ ਅਮੀਰ ਘਰਾਣੇ ਵਿਚ ਹੋਇਆ। ਆਪ ਜੀ ਦੇ ਪਿਤਾ ਦਾ ਨਾਂ ਦਵਿੰਦਰ ਨਾਥ ਠਾਕੁਰ ਸੀ। ਆਪ ਜੀ ਬੰਗਾਲ ਦੇ ਪ੍ਰਸਿੱਧ ਬੈਨਰਜ਼ੀ ਬ੍ਰਾਹਮਣ ਘਰਾਣੇ ਵਿਚੋਂ ਸਨ। ਸਨਮਾਨ ਨਾਲ ਆਪ ਜੀ ਨੂੰ ਠਾਕੁਰ ਬੁਲਾਇਆ ਜਾਂਦਾ ਸੀ। ਅਰੰਭ ਤੋਂ ਹੀ ਖੁਲ੍ਹੇ, ਧਾਰਮਿਕ ਅਤੇ ਸਾਹਿਤਕ ਵਾਤਾਵਰਨ ਵਿਚ ਪਲੇ। ਆਪ ਜੀ ਆਜ਼ਾਦ ਸੁਭਾਅ ਦੇ ਮਾਲਕ ਸਨ। ਇਸੇ ਲਈ ਖੁਲ੍ਹੀਆਂ ਅਤੇ ਕੁਦਰਤੀ ਨਜ਼ਾਰਿਆਂ ਵਾਲੀਆਂ ਥਾਂਵਾਂ ਦੇਖਣ ਦੇ ਚਾਹਵਾਨ ਸਨ। ਆਪ ਜੀ ਦੇ ਪਿਤਾ ਨੇ ਬ੍ਰਾਹਮਣ ਹੁੰਦੇ ਹੋਏ ਛੂਤ-ਛਾਤ ਤਿਆਗ ਦਿੱਤੀ ਅਤੇ ਪਰਦੇਸ ਜਾਣ ਦੀਆਂ ਰੋਕਾਂ ਵੀ ਤੋੜ ਦਿੱਤੀਆਂ। ਘਰ ਵਿਚ ਸਦਾ ਭਜਨ, ਧਿਆਨ, ਪ੍ਰਾਰਥਨਾ ਤੇ ਸੀਤਲ ਕਲਾ ਦਾ ਵਾਤਾਵਰਨ ਬਣਿਆ ਰਹਿੰਦਾ ਹੈ। ਇਨ੍ਹਾਂ ਗੱਲਾਂ ਦਾ ਆਪ ਜੀ ਤੇ ਬਹੁਤ ਪ੍ਰਭਾਵ ਪਿਆ।ਆਪ ਜੀ ਅਮ੍ਰਿਤਸਰ ਆਏ ਅਤੇ ਹਰਿਮੰਦਰ ਸਾਹਿਬ ਦੇ ਵਾਤਾਵਰਨ ਤੋਂ ਬਹੁਤ ਪ੍ਰਭਾਵਿਤ ਹੋਏ।

ਵਿਦਿਆ- ਆਪ ਜੀ ਨੇ ਮੁੱਢਲੀ ਵਿਦਿਆ ਘਰ ਵਿਚ ਹੀ ਅਧਿਆਪਕਾਂ ਦੁਆਰਾ ਪ੍ਰਾਪਤ ਕੀਤੀ। ਆਪ ਉੱਚ-ਵਿਦਿਆ ਪ੍ਰਾਪਤ ਕਰਨ ਲਈ ਇੰਗਲੈਂਡ ਗਏ, ਪਰ ਆਪ ਜੀ ਦਾ ਝੁਕਾ ਸਾਹਿਤ ਅਤੇ ਕਲਾ ਵੱਲ ਸੀ। ਇਸ ਲਈ ਆਪ ਜੀ ਨੇ ਆਪਣੀ ਪੜ੍ਹਾਈ ਵਿਚੋਂ ਹੀ ਛੱਡ ਦਿੱਤੀ। 1893 ਈ: ਵਿਚ ਆਪ ਜੀ ਦਾ ਵਿਆਹ ਇਕ ਸੁੰਦਰ ਕੰਨਿਆ ਮਿਣਾਲਿਨੀ ਦੇਵੀ ਨਾਲ ਹੋ ਗਿਆ, ਜਿਸ ਨਾਲ ਆਪ ਜੀ ਦੇ ਜੀਵਨ ਵਿਚ ਬੜੀ ਤਬਦੀਲੀ ਆਈ।

ਸਾਹਿਤ ਰਚਨਾ— ਰਵਿੰਦਰ ਨਾਥ ਜੀ ਨੇ ਅੰਗਰੇਜ਼ੀ ਅਤੇ ਬੰਗਲਾ ਵਿਚ ਕਵਿਤਾਵਾਂ, ਕਹਾਣੀਆਂ, ਨਾਟਕਾਂ ਅਤੇ ਨਾਵਲਾਂ ਦਾ ਹੜ੍ਹ ਵਗਾ ਦਿੱਤਾ।‘ਸ਼ਾਮ ਦੇ ਗੀਤ’ ‘ਪ੍ਰਭਾਤ ਦੇ ਗੀਤ’, ‘ਤਸਵੀਰਾਂ ਦਾ ਰਾਗ’ ‘ਨਵਾਂ ਚੰਨ’ ‘ਡਾਕਖਾਨਾ’ ‘ਭੁਖੇ ਪੱਥਰ’ ‘ਗੋਰਾ’ ਆਦਿ ਆਪ ਦੀਆਂ ਪ੍ਰਸਿੱਧ ਰਚਨਾਵਾਂ ਸਨ, ਪਰ ‘ਗੀਤਾਂਜਲੀ’ ਵਿਚ ਤਾਂ ਜਿੱਥੇ ਆਪ ਜੀ ਨੇ ਬੱਚਿਆ ਲਈ ਸਾਹਿਤ ਦੀ ਰਚਨਾ ਕੀਤੀ, ਉੱਥੇ ਆਪ ਜੀ ਬਹੁਤ ਹਰਮਨ ਪਿਆਰੇ ਹੋਏ। ਉਨ੍ਹਾਂ ਦੀ ਸੰਸਾਰ ਪ੍ਰਸਿੱਧ ਕਹਾਣੀ ਕਾਬਲੀ ਵਾਲਾ, ਦੇ ਅਧਾਰ ਤੇ ਫਿਲਮ ਵੀ ਬਣ ਚੁੱਕੀ ਹੈ।

ਮਾਂ ਬੋਲੀ ਲਈ ਪਿਆਰ— ਟੈਗੋਰ ਨੂੰ ਆਪਣੀ ਮਾਂ ਬੋਲੀ ਬੰਗਾਲੀ ਨਾਲ ਬਹੁਤ ਪਿਆਰ ਸੀ। ਆਪ ਜੀ ਨੇ ਹੋਰਨਾਂ ਪ੍ਰਾਂਤਾਂ ਦੇ ਲੇਖਕਾਂ ਨੂੰ ਵੀ ਆਪੋ-ਆਪਣੀ ਮਾਂ ਬੋਲੀ ਵਿਚ ਲਿਖਣ ਦੀ ਪ੍ਰੇਰਣਾ ਕੀਤੀ। ਆਪ ਜੀ ਦਾ ਪੱਕਾ ਵਿਸ਼ਵਾਸ ਸੀ ਕਿ ਮਾਂ ਬੋਲੀ ਵਿਚ ਦਿੱਤੀ ਸਿਖਿਆ ਹੀ ਸਭ ਤੋਂ ਵਧੇਰੇ ਪ੍ਰਭਾਵਸ਼ਾਲੀ ਹੁੰਦੀ ਹੈ।

ਸ਼ਾਂਤੀ ਨਿਕੇਤਨ ਦੀ ਨੀਂਹ- ਆਪ ਜੀ ਨੇ ਬੋਲਪੁਰ ਦੇ ਸੁੰਦਰ ਅਸਥਾਨ ਤੇ ਸ਼ਾਂਤੀ ਨਿਕੇਤਨ ਦੀ ਨੀਂਹ ਰੱਖੀ। ਇਹ ਆਸ਼ਰਮ ਠਾਕੁਰ ਜੀ ਦੇ ਜੀਵਨ ਕਾਲ ਵਿਚ ਹੀ ਪ੍ਰਸਿੱਧ ਮਹਾ ਵਿਦਿਆਲਾ ਬਣ ਗਿਆ ਅਤੇ ਸਾਰੇ ਦੇਸਾਂ ਵਿਚੋਂ ਵਿਦਿਆਰਥੀ ਇੱਥੇ ਨਵੀਨ ਕਿਸਮ ਦੀ ਵਿਦਿਆ ਪ੍ਰਾਪਤ ਕਰਨ ਲਈ ਆਉਣ ਲੱਗੇ।

ਰਾਸ਼ਟਰੀ ਅੰਦੋਲਨ ਵਿਚ ਯੋਗਦਾਨ- ਆਪ ਜੀ ਨੇ ਭਾਵੇਂ ਸਰਗਰਮ ਰਾਸ਼ਟਰੀ ਅੰਦੋਲਨ ਵਿਚ ਹਿੱਸਾ ਨਹੀਂ ਲਿਆ, ਪਰ ਆਪਣੀਆਂ ਰਚਨਾਵਾਂ ਦੁਆਰਾ ਅਜ਼ਾਦੀ ਦੇ ਘੋਲ ਵਿਚ ਪੂਰਾ-ਪੂਰਾ ਯੋਗਦਾਨ ਦਿੱਤਾ। ਜਲ੍ਹਿਆਂਵਾਲੇ ਬਾਗ ਦੇ ਖੂਨੀ ਸਾਕੇ ਤੋਂ ਪ੍ਰਭਾਵਤ ਹੋ ਕੇ ਆਪ ਜੀ ਨੇ ਆਪਣੇ ਰਸਾਲੇ ਭਾਰਤੀ ਵਿਚ ਲੇਖ ਲਿਖ ਕੇ ਭਾਰਤ ਦੇ ਕੋਨੇ-ਕੋਨੇ ਵਿਚ ਸੁੱਤੀ ਜਨਤਾ ਨੂੰ ਹਲੂਣ ਕੇ ਜਗਾ ਦਿੱਤਾ। ਮਹਾਤਮਾ ਗਾਂਧੀ ਦੇ ਨਾ-ਮਿਲਵਰਤਨ ਅੰਦੋਲਨ ਤੇ ਅਮਲ ਕਰਦਿਆਂ ਆਪ ਜੀ ਨੇ ਅੰਗਰੇਜ਼ ਸਰਕਾਰ ਨੂੰ ‘ਸਰ’ ਦਾ ਖਿਤਾਬ ਵੀ ਵਾਪਸ ਕਰ ਦਿੱਤਾ।ਆਪ ਜੀ ਦੇਸ ਨੂੰ ਛੇਤੀ ਤੋਂ ਛੇਤੀ ਅਜ਼ਾਦ ਹੋਇਆ ਦੇਖਣਾ ਚਾਹੁੰਦੇ ਸਨ।

ਚਲਾਣਾ- 80 ਵਰ੍ਹੇ ਦੀ ਉਮਰ ਵਿਚ 1941 ਈ. ਵਿਚ ਆਪ ਭਾਰਤ ਦਾ ਨਾਂ ਪ੍ਰਸਿੱਧੀ ਦੀ ਟੀਸੀ ਤੋਂ ਪੁਚਾ ਕੇ ਇਸ ਸੰਸਾਰ ਤੋਂ ਚਲਾਣਾ ਕਰ ਗਏ।

ਸਾਰਾਂਸ਼ – ਟੈਗੋਰ ਜੀ ਨੇ ਸਰਵ-ਸ਼ਾਂਤੀ ਮਨੁੱਖਤਾ ਦੇ ਸਾਂਝੇ ਪਿਆਰ ਲਈ ਆਪਣਾ ਸਾਰਾ ਜੀਵਨ ਅਰਪਨ ਕਰ ਦਿੱਤਾ। ਆਪ ਜੀ ਨੇ ਨਾ ਕੇਵਲ ਭਾਰਤੀ ਸਭਿਅਤਾ ਤੇ ਸੰਸਕ੍ਰਿਤੀ ਨੂੰ ਉੱਨਤ ਕੀਤਾ ਸਗੋਂ ਸਰਵ-ਸੰਸਾਰ ਸਭਿਅਤਾ ਤੇ ਸਦਾਚਾਰ ਨੂੰ ਉਚਿਆਇਆ। ਆਪ ਜੀ ਦੀ ਮਹਾਨਤਾ ਇਸ ਗੱਲ ਤੋਂ ਵੀ ਉਜਾਗਰ ਹੁੰਦੀ ਹੈ ਕਿ ਮਹਾਤਮਾ ਗਾਂਧੀ ਜੀ ਆਪ ਜੀ ਨੂੰ ‘ਗੁਰਦੇਵ’ ਆਖ ਕੇ ਪੁਕਾਰਦੇ ਸਨ। ਆਪ ਜੀ ਦੀਆਂ ਰਚਨਾਵਾਂ ਵਿਚ ਨਵੀਨ ਭਾਰਤ ਦੀ ਆਤਮਾ ਬਲਦੀ ਹੈ।

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Rabindranath Tagore Biography: Early Life, Education, Literary Work, Achievements & More

Rabindranath tagore jayanti 2023: he was a great scholar, novelist, essayist, song composer, and playwright. rabindranath tagore jayanti marks the birth anniversary of the famous writer rabindranath tagore. he was born on 7 may, 1861. let us read more about rabindranath tagore, his early life, childhood days, works, family, awards, and achievements..

Shikha Goyal

Rabindranath Tagore Jayanti 2023: The birth anniversary of Rabindranath Tagore is observed on 7 May according to the Gregorian calendar but according to the Bengali calendar, he was born on the 25th day of Boishakh month. So, in West Bengal, his birthday as per the Bengali calendar is being celebrated this year on 9 May. In the article below, know all about Tagore's early life, his family, education, career and more. 

Rabindranath Tagore: Early life and Childhood Days

He was born on 7 May, 1861 to Debendranath Tagore and Sarada Devi in the Jorasanko mansion which is the ancestral home of the Tagore family in Kolkata (Calcutta). Among his siblings, he was the youngest. He lost his mother when he was very young, his father was a traveller and so, he was mostly raised by his servants and maids. At a very young age, he was part of the Bengal renaissance and his family also took active participation in it. At the age of 8, he started writing poems and by the age of sixteen, he also started composing artworks and started publishing his poems under the pseudonym Bhanusimha. In 1877 he wrote the short story 'Bhikharini' and in 1882 the collection of poems 'Sandhya Sangit'.

He was influenced by the classical poetry of Kalidasa and started writing his own classical poems. His sister Swarnakumari was a well-known novelist. In 1873, he toured with his father for several months and gained knowledge on several subjects. He learned Sikhism when he stayed at Amritsar and pen down around six poems and many articles on the religion.

Rabindranath Tagore: Education

His traditional education began in Brighton, East Sussex, England, at a public school. In 1878, he went to England to become a barrister to fulfill his father's wish. He was not much interested in school learning and later also he joined University College in London to learn law but he dropped this and learned various works of Shakespeare on his own. He also learned the essence of English, Irish and Scottish literature and music; he returned to India and married Mrinalini Devi.

Rabindranath Tagore: Established Shantiniketan

rabindranath tagore biography in punjabi

Let us tell you that Rabindranath Tagore envisioned a centre of learning which would have the best of both the east and the west. He established the Visva Bharati University in West Bengal. It consists of two campuses one at Shantiniketan and the other at Sriniketan. Sriniketan focuses on agriculture, adult education, village, cottage industries, and handicrafts.

Rabindranath Tagore: Literary Works

Japajog: Published in 1929, His novel is a compelling take on marital rape.

Nastanirh: Published in 1901. This novel is about relationships and love, both requited and unrequited.

Ghare Baire: Published in 1916. It is a story about a married woman constricted in her household trying to find her own identity.

Gora: In the 1880s, it is an expansive, exhaustive, and extremely relevant novel that deals with several themes like religion, gender, feminism, and also tradition against modernity.

Chokher Bali: In 1903, a novel which consists of various facets of relationships.

His short stories are Bhikarini, Kabuliwala, Kshudita Pashan, Atottju, Haimanti and Musalmanir Golpo etc.

Poems are Balaka, Purobi, Sonar Tori and Gitanjali.

No doubt he has changed the dimensions of Bengali literature as it was earlier viewed. Many countries have even erected their statues to pay tribute to the legendary writer. Around five museums are dedicated to Tagore out of which three are situated in India and the remaining two in Bangladesh.

He spent his last years in severe pain and even in 1937, he went into a comatose condition. After a lot of suffering, he died on 7 August 1941 in the Jorasanko mansion where he was brought up. 

Mahatma Gandhi Biography: Family, History, Movements, and Facts

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Rabindranath Tagore

Rabindranath Tagore

Rabindranath Tagore was a Bengali poet, novelist and painter best known for being the first non-European to be awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913 with his book Gitanjali, Song Offerings . He was highly influential in introducing Indian culture to the West and is generally regarded as the outstanding creative artist of modern India. He was hailed by W.B Yeats and André Gide.

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  • Article Title: Rabindranath Tagore Biography
  • Author: Biography.com Editors
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  • Url: https://www.biography.com/authors-writers/rabindranath-tagore
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  • Last Updated: June 24, 2021
  • Original Published Date: April 2, 2014

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rabindranath tagore biography in punjabi

From Nobel Lectures, Literature 1901-1967, Editor Horst Frenz, Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1969

Acknowledgement: This autobiography/biography was written at the time of the award and first published in the book series Les Prix Nobel. It was later edited and republished in Nobel Lectures. For more details, visit the Tagore's biography page in Nobelprize.Org.

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Rabindranath Tagore: Biography

Last updated on February 20, 2022 by ClearIAS Team

rabindranath tagore

Rabindranath Tagore was an iconic figure in the Indian cultural renaissance. He was a polymath poet, philosopher, musician, writer, and educationist.

Rabindranath Tagore became the first Asian to win the Nobel Prize in 1913 for his collection of poems, Gitanjali.

He was called Gurudev, Kabiguru, and Biswakabi affectionately and his songs are popularly known as Rabindrasangeet.

The national anthems of India and Bangladesh – the Jana Gana Mana and the Amar Shonar Bangla respectively are from the Rabindrasangeet.

Table of Contents

The early life of Rabindranath Tagore

Rabindranath Tagore was born on 7 th May 1861 in Calcutta as the youngest son of Debendranath Tagore and Sarada Devi.

His grandfather Dwarkanath Tagore was a rich landlord and social reformer. His father, Debendranath Tagore was a leader of the Brahmo Samaj , a new religious sect in nineteenth-century Bengal which attempted a revival of the ultimate monistic basis of Hinduism as laid down in the Upanishads.

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The Tagore family was a treasure trove of talent in every field. They hosted the publication of literary magazines; theatre and recitals of Bengali and Western classical music featured there regularly. Tagore’s father invited several professional musicians to stay in the house and teach Indian Classical music to the children.

Tagore’s oldest brother Dwijendranath was a philosopher and poet. Another brother, Satyendranath, was the first Indian appointed to the formerly all-European Indian Civil Service. Another brother, Jyotitindranath, was a musician, composer, and playwright. His sister Swarnakumari became a novelist.

Rabindra Nath Tagore had his initial education in Oriental Seminary School. But he did not like the conventional education and started studying at home under several teachers. He was mostly trained by his siblings both in literary as well as physical activities like gymnastics and martial arts.

Tagore was a child prodigy when it comes to writing as he has started writing and publishing poetry by the age of eight.

In 1873, at the age of eleven, Tagore and his father left Calcutta to tour India for several months. He visited his father’s Santiniketan estate and Amritsar before reaching the Himalayan hill station of Dalhousie where he read biographies, studied history, astronomy, modern science, and Sanskrit, and examined the classical poetry of Kalidasa.

At the age of seventeen, he was sent to England for formal law schooling but he did not finish his studies there. He rather took up independent studies of Shakespeare.

He returned from England in 1880 and regularly published poems, stories, and novels in Bengali, slowly starting to transform Bengali literature.

In 1883, he married Mrinalini Devi, a child bride as was the tradition in those times.

Rabindranath Tagore in Santiniketan

Tagore moved to Santiniketan ashram in 1901, where he started an experimental school based on traditional guru-shishya teaching methods from the Upanishads. He hoped that the revival of the ancient methods of teaching will be more beneficial than the British imparted modern education system.

His wife and two of their children died during this time which left him distraught.

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After his return from England and during his stay in Santiniketan, Tagore wrote several literary works of poetry, stories, and novels. His works had started gaining immense popularity in India as well as abroad.

In 1909, Rabindranath Tagore started writing Gitanjali. In 1912, Tagore went to Europe for the second time. On the journey to London, he translated some of his poems/songs from Gitanjali to English. He met William Rothenstein, a noted British painter, in London who was impressed by the poems, made copies, and gave to Yeats and other English poets. Yeats was enthralled and later wrote the introduction to Gitanjali when it was published in September 1912 in a limited edition by the India Society in London. And in 1913, this collection of poems won the Nobel Prize in Literature. He was the first non-European to receive the prestigious award.

In 1915, he was awarded a knighthood by King George V.

Rabindranath Tagore in Independence movement

Tagore participated in the Indian nationalist movement from time to time, though in his own non-sentimental and visionary way; and Gandhi, the political father of modern India , was his devoted friend. Tagore came to be recognized as one of the architects of modern India.

India’s first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru , wrote in  Discovery of India , “Tagore and Gandhi have undoubtedly been the two outstanding and dominating figures in the first half of the twentieth century. Tagore’s influence over the mind of India, and especially of successive rising generations has been tremendous. Not Bengali only, the language in which he wrote, but all the modern languages of India have been molded partly by his writings. More than any other Indian, he has helped to bring into harmony the ideals of the East and the West, and broadened the bases of Indian nationalism.”

In 1905, Viceroy Curzon decided to divide Bengal into two parts. Rabindranath Tagore strongly protested against this decision. Tagore wrote many national songs and attended protest meetings. He initiated the Rakhibandhan ceremony, symbolizing the underlying unity of undivided Bengal.

In 1919, following the Jallianwala Bagh massacre , Tagore renounced his knighthood condemning the act. He was a supporter of Gandhiji but he stayed out of politics. He was opposed to nationalism and militarism as a matter of principle, and instead promoted spiritual values and the creation of a new world culture founded in multi-culturalism, diversity, and tolerance.

Tagore the educationalist

1n 1921, Rabindranath Tagore established Viswabharati University and gave all his money from Nobel Prize and royalty money from his books to this University.

Tagore was quite knowledgeable of Western culture, especially Western poetry and sciences. Tagore had a good grasp of modern – post-Newtonian – physics and was well able to hold his own in a debate with Einstein in 1930 on the newly emerging principles of quantum mechanics and chaos. His meetings and tape-recorded conversations with his contemporaries such as Albert Einstein and H.G. Wells, epitomize his brilliance.

In 1940 Oxford University arranged a special ceremony in Santiniketan and awarded Rabindranath Tagore with a Doctorate of Literature.

Literary works of Rabindranath Tagore

Although Tagore wrote successfully in all literary genres, he was, first of all, a poet. Among his fifty and odd volumes of poetry are:

Manasi  (1890) (The Ideal One),  Sonar Tari  (1894) (The Golden Boat),  Gitanjali (1910) (Song Offerings), Gitimalya  (1914) (Wreath of Songs), and  Balaka  (1916) (The Flight of Cranes).

The English renderings of his poetry, which include  The Gardener  (1913),  Fruit-Gathering  (1916), and  The Fugitive  (1921), do not generally correspond to particular volumes in the original Bengali.

Tagore’s major plays are  Raja  (1910) [The King of the Dark Chamber],  Dakghar  (1912) [The Post Office] ,   Achalayatan  (1912) [The Immovable],  Muktadhara  (1922) [The Waterfall], and  Raktakaravi  (1926) [Red Oleanders].

He is the author of several volumes of short stories and many novels, among them Gora  (1910),  Ghare-Baire  (1916) [ The Home and the World ], and  Yogayog  (1929) [Crosscurrents].

Besides these, he wrote musical dramas, dance dramas, essays of all types, travel diaries, and two autobiographies, one in his middle years and the other shortly before his death in 1941. Tagore also left numerous drawings and paintings, and songs for which he wrote the music himself.

He also played the title role in his first original dramatic piece- Valmiki Pratibha.

After an extended period of suffering, Tagore died on August 7, 1941, in the same mansion in which he was brought up.

Legacy of Rabindranath Tagore:

Rabindranath Tagore changed the way Bengali literature was perceived as he left an everlasting impression on the readers.

Many countries have his statues erected and host many yearly events to pay tribute to the legendary writer.

Many of his works have been made global, thanks to a host of translations by many famous international writers.

There are five museums dedicated to Tagore. While three of them are situated in India, the remaining two are in Bangladesh. The museums’ house his famous works, and are visited by millions every year.

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Biography Online

Biography

Rabindranath Tagore

Poet, writer and humanitarian, Rabindranath Tagore was the first Indian to be awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature and he played a key role in the renaissance of modern India. Tagore is most widely known for his poetry, but he was also an accomplished author of novels, short stories, plays and articles. He took an active interest in a widespread range of social, cultural and artistic endeavours. He has been described as one of the first Twentieth Century’s global man.

“So I repeat we never can have a true view of man unless we have a love for him. Civilisation must be judged and prized, not by the amount of power it has developed, but by how much it has evolved and given expression to, by its laws and institutions, the love of humanity.”

— Sadhana: The Realisation of Life, (1916)

Short Biography Rabindranath Tagore

rabindranath-tagore

Rabindranath began writing from an early age and impressed with his free-flowing style and spontaneous compositions. He mostly rejected formal schooling; he spent much time being taught at home. In 1878 he travelled to England and sought to study law at University College, London, but he left before finishing the degree.

After returning to India, in 1901, Tagore moved to Shantiniketan to found an ashram which became his focal point for writing and his view on schooling. He chose the name for the ashram – Shantiniketan meaning ‘Abode of Peace.’

“Love is the ultimate meaning of everything around us. It is not a mere sentiment; it is truth; it is the joy that is at the root of all creation.”

– Tagore, Sādhanā : The Realisation of Life (1916)

Friendship with Gandhi

Tagore was firm friends with Gandhi and admired him very much. But, despite this friendship, he could be critical of his views. For example, he disagreed with Gandhi’s views on Swaraj protests and upbraided Gandhi when Gandhi claimed an earthquake was ‘divine retribution for the mistreatment of Dalits in India.’ Yet despite the frequent divergence of opinions, they could admire each other. When Gandhi went on a fast unto death, it was Tagor who was able to persuade Gandhi to give up his fast and look after his health.

Nobel Prize for Literature 1913

In 1913, Tagore was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature for his work ‘ Gitanjali ‘ This made his writings internationally known and his fame spread throughout the world.

“My debts are large, my failures great, my shame secret and heavy; yet I come to ask for my good, I quake in fear lest my prayer be granted.” – Gitanjali

Rabindranath_with_Einstein

Rabindranath Tagore with Einstein

This gave Tagore the opportunity to travel extensively giving lectures and recitals in many different countries. He also became acquainted with many of the leading cultural contemporaries of the day; this included W.B.Yeats, George Bernard Shaw , Romain Rolland, Robert Frost and Albert Einstein .

Tagore had a great love for nature and many of his poems invoke the simple beauties of the natural world. For Tagore, his religion could be found in the wonders and mysteries of nature – as much as in temples and sacred books.

tagore-poem

Tagore was a prolific composer of music. He composed over 2,000 songs which have been popularised and sung widely across Bengal. Like his literature, he broke away from classical constraints to offer a great emotive and spiritual appeal. Tagore is unique for being the official composer for the national anthem of two countries – India’s Jana Gana Mana and Bangladesh’s Amar Shonar Bangla .

Tagore was an opponent of British imperialism, though he also felt Indians had a duty to improve their self-education; he said that British rule was partly due to the state India had fallen into. In particular, he was very denigrating about India’s obsession with caste.

‘the ultimate truth in man is not in his intellect or his possessions; it is in his illumination of mind, in his extension of sympathy across all barriers of caste and colour, in his recognition of the world, not merely as a storehouse of power, but as a habitation of man’s spirit, with its eternal music of beauty and its inner light of the divine presence.’ – Tagore, The Poet’s Religion’ in Creative Unity (1922) [ 1 ]

In 1919, Tagore returned his knighthood in protest at the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre, in which many peaceful Indian protesters were killed.

Tagore was a polymath, and towards the end of his life he took up art and also pursued an interest in science. Tagore was also very much an internationalist, criticising nationalism, though also writing songs and articles in support of the general principle of the Indian independence movement.

“Patriotism cannot be our final spiritual shelter; my refuge is humanity. I will not buy glass for the price of diamonds, and I will never allow patriotism to triumph over humanity as long as I live. “

– Rabindranath Tagore

Tagore view on Religion

Tagore had mixed views on religion. He was brought up in a traditional Hindu family and taught to pray and meditate from an early age. He remembers the peace of mind he developed from chanting the Gayatri Mantra, but at the same time was detached from the more formalistic aspects of religion. He tended to see religion as not scriptures and places of worship but the life we lead. As he explained:

“My religion is my life – it is growing with my growth – it has never been grafted on me from outside.” ~ Tagore to Robert Bridges, 8 July 1914.

He was keen to avoid any fanaticism and saw the strength of his own Hindu religion as its ability to see more than one path to the goal. His life-long aspiration was to see a harmony of religions flourish in India – not from mere tolerance but an appreciation of the different merits other religions had.

‘The Idea of freedom to which India aspired was based upon realization of spiritual unity…India’s great achievement, which is still stored deep within her heart, is waiting to unite within itself Hindu, Moslem, Buddhist and Christian, not by force, not by the apathy of resignation, but in the harmony of active cooperation.’ ~ Tagore in Berlin, 1921.

However, he was also critical of the Hindu caste system.

Tagore’s poetry frequently hint at a mystical view of the world.

“In this playhouse of infinite forms I have had my play, and here have I caught sight of him that is formless.” – Gitanjali “The human soul is on its journey from the law to love, from discipline to liberation, from the moral plane to the spiritual.” Sādhanā : The Realisation of Life (1916)

Tagore died on 7th August 1941, after a long and painful illness, aged 80. He died in his family home.

Citation: Pettinger, Tejvan . “ Rabindranath Tagore ”, Oxford, UK www.biographyonline.net , 1st Jun. 2009. Last updated 1 March 2019.

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Introduction

Rabindranath Thakur was a man of various talents. He was recognized by people all over the globe for his literary works - poetry, philosophies, plays, and especially his songwriting. Rabindranath Tagore was the man who gave India, its National Anthem. He was one of the greatest entities of all time and the only Indian to receive a Nobel Prize.

Rabindranath Tagore was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1913, becoming the first non-European to receive the honour. He was only sixteen years old when he was to publish his first short story called “Bhanisimha”, was published. Rabindranath Tagore was born on the 07th of May, 1861 in Kolkata. Rabindranath Tagore was the son of Debendranath Tagore, one of Brahmo Samaj’s active members, a known and celebrated philosopher, and literate. R.N Tagore died after a prolonged illness on the 07th of August, 1941.

Rabindranath Tagore Childhood and Education

While growing up, R.N Tagore shared a very intimate relationship with his elder brother and his sister-in-law. Rabindranath Tagore's father's name is Debendranath Tagore, and his mother’s name is Sarada Devi. Rabindranath Tagore's birthday is on the 7th of May, 1861, and he was born in Calcutta, Bengal Presidency then. It is believed that they did everything together. Rabindranath Tagore's education didn’t seem too impressive. 

R.N Tagore did not enjoy schooling, and he was mostly found procrastinating and pondering for hours. He went to one of the most prestigious St. Xavier’s School, and later, he went to the University of London in Bridgton, England, to study law and become a barrister. Still, as we know, he did not enjoy schooling much; he returned home in two years but without a degree. Even though he did not enjoy schooling much, he was always found with books, pen, and ink. He would always be scribbling things in his notebook; however, he was shy to reveal his writings.

Growing Years and Career

R.N Tagore was only eight years old when he first wrote a poem. By the age of sixteen, his short story got published, titled “Bhanusimha”. R.N Tagore’s contribution to literature is beyond any measure. He was the one who had introduced new verses and prose and also lingua franca in his mother tongue, which is Bangla. R.N Tagore after returning to India after leaving his education, but he did not leave literature. 

R.N Tagore published several books of Rabindranath Tagore poems and short stories, plays, and songs. His most renowned work, called “Gitanjali”, was very well received all over India and England. He is the author of two National Anthems, which are “Amar Sonar Bangla” for Bangladesh and  “Jana Gana Mana” for India. He worked with very unfamiliar and different styles in Bangla Language. Some of them are heavily immersed in social and political satire. He was one of those who believed in global peace and equality. He is one of the pioneers of contemporary Bengali literature. 

After returning to India, he completed and published his book of poems called “Manasi” which was believed to contain his best poems. “Manasi” contained several verse forms which were fresh to contemporary Bengali literature, and it also contained some political and social satire that questioned and mocked R.N Tagore’s fellow Bengalis. 

Besides writing and working on literature, R.N Tagore also participated in the family business. In 1891, he went to East Bengal, which is now in Bangladesh, to look after his ancestral estates and lands at Shahzadpur and Shilaidaha for almost 10 years. He spent some time in a houseboat at Padma river, and his sympathy for village folk became the keynote of most literature later in his life. In East India, poems and other works of Rabindranath Tagore were published as a collection in the book called “Sonar Tari” and a very notable and celebrated play called “Chitrangada”. He has written over two thousand songs which are very popular in Bengal until now. When R.N Tagore was in his 60s, he tried his hand at painting, and for the talented man he was, his works won him a good name among India’s topmost contemporary artists.

Rabindranath Tagore and Shantiniketan

Rabindranath Tagore received his nickname “Gurudev”, out of respect by his pupils at his very unique and special school, which he established in Shantiniketan, called “Visva Bharati University” Santiniketan was developed and founded by the Tagore family. This little town was very close to Rabindranath Tagore. 

R.N Tagore wrote several poems and songs about this place. Unlike other universities, “Visva Bharati” University was open to each student who was eager to learn. The classrooms and the scope for learning in this university were not confined within four walls. Instead, classes took place in open space, beneath the massive banyan trees on the university grounds. To this date, this ritual of attending classes in open spaces is practiced by the students and the teachers. R.N Tagore permanently moved to the school after.

Rabindranath Tagore Death and His Encounters with Death

R.N Tagore was only fourteen years old when Sharada Devi, his mother, passed away. After his mother's sudden and heartbreaking demise, R.N Tagore was mostly seen avoiding classrooms and schooling. Instead, he would roam about his town Bolpur. He had to face the death of several of his loved ones, that too, one after the other, which left him devastated and heartbroken. After his mother, R.N Tagore lost a very close friend and a very significant influence, Kadambari Devi, his sister-in-law. It is presumed that R.N Tagore’s novella called “Nastanirh” was about Kadambari Devi.

It is also believed that she had committed suicide four months after R.N Tagore’s marriage to Mrinalini Devi. There are some serious speculations made about R.N Tagore, and his sister-in-law sharing a very intimate relationship and that maybe the two were in love; however, there has been no confirmation on the same. Later, his wife, Mrinalini Devi, too died due to an illness. He lost his two daughters, Madhurilata, who R.N Tagore adored and was fond of the most due to tuberculosis, and Renuka and his son Shamindranath due to cholera. These deaths shook him to the core, but he never failed to pick up his pen again. Even though all these encounters with death gave him shaping his personality and writing style, he kept longing for a companion who shares the same interests as he does. 

Life was a little less cruel to him at this point. When he found that companion, he had been longing for - his niece Indira Devi, who was highly educated and well-read. R.N Tagore wrote to her about some sensitive details about his life. These letters to Indira Devi witnessed the sheer vulnerability of his emotional state, sensibilities, and experiences. Since Indira Devi had copied all his letters in a notebook; it eventually got published. “Chinnapatra” can give one a glimpse of Tagore’s growth as a human and as an artist. Grief had been a constant part of R.N Tagore’s life, which is often reflected in his literary works; after losing Rabindranath Tagore's wife and daughters, he lost his father too. These years of sadness and sorrow, which were very actively reflected in his literary works, were introduced as “Gitanjali” which won him the Nobel Prize.

Rabindranath Tagore and His Nationalism

R.N Tagore was politically very aware and very critical at the same time, he not only criticized the British Raj, but he was also very vocal about the mistakes his fellow Bengalis and Indians made. These were reflected in the socio-political satires he wrote and published. When R.N Tagore had been awarded a knighthood, as a sign of protest against the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre, he repudiated the award. Recognition, fame, money nothing mattered to him when it came to his country. He loved his country, the lands, rivers, and the people of his country very much. 

It is thus quite right to say that Tagore opposed European colonialism and supported Indian nationalists. He also shunned the Swadeshi Movement and urged Indians to accept that education is the way forward. A blind revolution will only lead to the loss of lives and unwanted and unnecessary loss of life.

Rabindranath Tagore and His Love For Literature, Art, and Music

Some of the most renowned works of Tagore which are highly recommended works of literature are “Noukadubi'', “Shesher Kobita”, “Chaturanga”, “Gora”, “Char Adhyay”, “Jogajog”, “Ghare Baire”. “Ghare Baire'' was also produced as a film by another precious talent Satyajit Ray. His novels were very underappreciated in his time but gained a lot of respect after film directors like Tapan Sinha, Tarun Majumdar and of course, Satyajit Ray adapted and made feature films based on his novels. In popular culture, even his songs, poems and novels are employed in Movies and as background scores. The genre of the songs by Rabindranath Tagore are known as “Rabindra Sangeet'' and movies have been adapted and made out of his novels “Noukadubi” and “Chokher Bali”. It is highly recommended to read “Gitanjali'' to appreciate Tagore's poetic style and to appreciate some very heartfelt and moving songs that he wrote, it is recommended to listen to “Tobu Mone Rekho”. 

In addition to all this, Rabindranath Tagore was a commendable artist and musician too. His paintings are celebrated both nationally and internationally and have received wide acclaim. His songs are considered to be at the heart of Bengal culture and his compilations are fondly termed Rabindra Sangeet. These songs elaborate on themes of love, worship, devotion, and so on. RN Tagore started painting at the age of 60. His brilliant artwork is displayed to this day in several museums globally.

Rabindranath Tagore And His Last Days

Rabindranath Tagore died in the place he loved the most. However, the last few years of his life were quite painful.  He was affected by chronic illness during the last 4 years of his life. In 1937, he went into a comatose condition due to this prolonged suffering he was enduring. On August 7th in 1941, this great novelist, poet, musician, and painter passed away quietly in the same Jorasanko mansion in which he was brought up.

Conclusion 

Here is everything students should know about Rabindranath Tagore, his life, his works and his achievements in life.

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FAQs on Rabindranath Tagore Biography

1. What are the Famous Books Written by Rabindranath Tagore?

We all know that Rabindranath Tagore took a keen liking to write from a young age. Although he was frequently seen skipping school, you could always find him scribbling something in his notebook. This paved the way for a great future novelist who even received the Nobel Prize for Literature. His works talked about nationalism, social evils, and the need for harmony between Indians. Gitanjali is RN Tagore’s most acclaimed work. It has received critical praise internationally and is loved by all literary aficionados. Here are some famous books are written by Rabindranath Tagore: 

The Home and the world

The Post Office

2. Why is Rabindranath Tagore so Famous?

Rabindranath Tagore is famous for the Nobel Prize Award for literature and he was the first Indian to achieve such huge respect and honour. He had many talents apart from writing great poems. It should be noted that RN Tagore’s popularity in English speaking nations grew in leaps and bounds after the publication of his book Gitanjali. Later in 1913, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature for this critically acclaimed book. Another huge factor contributing to Tagore’s growing popularity was the renunciation of his knighthood. He did not accept this honour conferred by the British crown on him in protest against the Jalianwala Bagh massacre. This great poet also toured extensively around Japan and the U.S., where he talked about the importance of nationalism. This helped him earn deep admiration and respect from foreigners all over the world.

3. Why Did Rabindranath Tagore Receive the Nobel Prize for Literature?

The Nobel Prize award was awarded to Rabindranath Tagore in the year 1913 because of his sensitive, impeccable, fresh, unique, and beautiful verse. He expressed his poetic thoughts in his own words that are mostly followed in the West. Rabindranath Tagore is considered responsible for the modernization of Bengali literature. He preserved the cultural heritage of this beautiful language all while breathing some new life into it. Gitanjali is a collection of song offerings that have been penned down by this legendary novelist and poet. It was this book that won him the revered Nobel Prize in Literature. In total, there were 157 poems in that book that touched upon various themes such as devotion, nationalism, worship, etc.

4. What was Tagore’s Stint as an Actor?

We all know that Rabindranath Tagore is famous for writing many dramas that have derived inspiration from Indian mythology and contemporary social issues facing society in those days. He began his drama career writing alongside his brother when he was only a young teenager. At 20 years of age, RN Tagore penned a drama named ‘Valmiki Pratibha’ and also played the lead role of the titular character in it. The drama was based on stories about the legendary dacoit named Valmiki. It is Valmiki who later changed his ways and wrote one of the two greatest Indian epics – Ramayana. This was Tagore’s short stint as an actor.

5. Did RN Tagore Receive a Formal Education?

Rabindranath Tagore’s family always wished that he became a barrister. They sent him to elite schools and universities, in the hopes that he would pursue a career in law. However, young Rabindranath always shied away from rote learning and spent most of his time scribbling down ideas in his notebook. RN Tagore was also enrolled in the University College in London but he dropped out without completing his formal education. However, his love for English, Irish, and Scottish literature soon helped him morph into the much revered and loved novelist he is known as today.

Rabindranath Tagore Wiki, Age, Death, Wife, Children, Family, Biography & More

Rabindranath Tagore

Poet, playwright, novelist, artist, essayist, short story writer, painter, educationist, spiritualist, lyricist, composer, and singer – Rabindranath Tagore was, in fact, a true polymath whose creative works and philosophies not only inspired the people of the 19th and the 20th century but which still influence billions of people globally. A Bengali literary giant and Nobel laureate, Tagore was born, grew up, worked, and died in Bengal.

I slept and dreamt that life was joy. I awoke and saw that life was service. I acted and behold, service was joy.” – Tagore

Wiki/Biography

Rabindranath Tagore was born as Robindronath Thakur [1] Colloquial Bengali By Mithun B. Nasrin, W.A.M Van Der Wurff on Tuesday, 7 May 1861 ( age 80 years; at the time of death ) in his ancestral home “Jorasanko mansion” (Jorasanko Thakur Bari), Calcutta, Bengal Presidency, British India (present-day Kolkata, West Bengal, India).

Rabindranath Tagore in his childhood

Rabindranath Tagore in his childhood

His forefathers had migrated from their native place to Govindpur (now Gobindapur), one of the three villages that later constituted the city of Calcutta (now Kolkata), where they went on to become an affluent family after acquiring several properties in the area through commercial and banking activities. Reportedly, the Tagore family was benefitted from the growing influence of the British East India Company. Rabindranath grew up in Jorasanko Thakur Bari that was filled with musical, literary, and dramatic pursuits as most of his family members were poets, musicians, playwrights, and novelists.

Jorasanko Thakur Bari, where Rabindranath Tagore grew up

Jorasanko Thakur Bari, where Rabindranath Tagore grew up

By the time he was growing up, primary schools were set up by the colonial administration in India. Tagore was mostly home-tutored; it was a regular norm for affluent Bengali families to hire private tutors for their children in those times. [2] OpenEdition He attended one of the Bengali-medium schools established by Iswar Chandra Vidyasagar (an Indian educator and social reformer of the 19th century), and later in his life, Tagore said that he owed his love of Bengali language and literature to this school. Although he attended a number of English-speaking schools, he never liked their teaching method; moreover, he never wished to be taught in a foreign language. By the age of 14, Tagore had gradually started withdrawing himself from formal schooling, and for the rest of his education, he preferred home-tutoring and his own personal efforts to learn various subjects. He also learned lessons in wrestling, music, and drawing from professionals. His father, Devendranath, gave him lessons in Sanskrit, astronomy, and the scriptures, which formed the basis of Tagor’s reformed religion. In 1878, after his matriculation, the 17-year-old Rabindranath Tagore was sent to London to qualify for the Indian Civil Service or as a lawyer, where he joined University College. Earlier, he had enrolled at a public school in Brighton, East Sussex, England, where he stayed at a house owned by the Tagore family near Brighton and Hove in Medina Villas. [3] Hindustan Times While studying at University College, London, Tagore became exposed to British social life and Western music, and he enjoyed both.

Rabindranath Tagore in England in 1879

Rabindranath Tagore in England in 1879

However, he didn’t complete his education in London and returned home after eighteen months. Back at home, he continued brushing himself in creative writing and music. In 1940, he was awarded an honorary doctorate by Oxford University. [4] The Economic Times

Parents & Siblings

His father, Debendranath Tagore, was a Bengali philosopher and religious savant who founded the Brahmo religion in 1848. His father died on 19 January 1905 at the age of 87.

Rabindranath Tagore's father, Debendranath Tagore

Rabindranath Tagore’s father, Debendranath Tagore

His father was well versed in European philosophy, and he was considered an influential figure of the newly awakened phase of Bengali society. Although his father was deeply religious, he did not accept all aspects of Hinduism, a trait carried by Rabindranath in the coming years. His mother, Sarada Devi, was a homemaker who died in 1875.

Rabindranath Tagore's mother, Sarada Devi

Rabindranath Tagore’s mother, Sarada Devi

Rabindranath Tagore’s paternal grandfather, Dwarkanath Tagore, is considered one of the first Indian industrialists and entrepreneurs who significantly contributed to the Bengal Renaissance.

Rabindranath Tagore's grandfather, Dwarkanath Tagore

Rabindranath Tagore’s grandfather, Dwarkanath Tagore

In 1828, Dwarkanath Tagore joined the nineteenth-century social and religious reformer Raja Rammohan Roy in his religious reform movement called the Brahma Samaj Movement, a movement that was meant to reform Hindu society. Later, Debendranath Tagore (Rabindranath’s father) also joined the Brahma Samaj Movement, and in 1863, he established a meditation centre called ‘Santiniketan’ (the Abode of Peace) on some land about 100 miles from Calcutta. Rabindranath had 13 siblings. Reportedly, Rabindranath was the youngest and the fourteenth child of his parents. His oldest brother, Dwijendranath (1840–1926), was a poet, music composer, and an accomplished scholar.

Rabindranath Tagore (right) with his eldest brother, Dwijendranath Tagore

Rabindranath Tagore (right) with his eldest brother, Dwijendranath Tagore

Dwijendranath is believed to have initiated shorthand and musical notations in Bengali, and he also translated Kalidasa’s Meghdoot into Bengali. Tagore’s second oldest brother, Satyendranath (1842–1923), was the first Indian to join the elite and formerly all-European Indian Civil Service.

Rabindranath Tagore's elder brother Satyendranath Tagore

Rabindranath Tagore’s elder brother Satyendranath Tagore

His third oldest brother, Hemendranath (1844–1884), was a spiritual seer and Yogi who contributed substantially to the development of modern Brahmoism, which is now termed as “Adi Dharm” religion.

Rabindranath Tagore's elder brother Hemendranath Tagore

Rabindranath Tagore’s elder brother Hemendranath Tagore

His fourth oldest brother was Birendranath (1845–1915). Tagore’s elder brother Jyotirindranath (1849–1925) was a scholar, music composer, artist, and theatre personality.

Rabindranath Tagore (left) with his elder brother Jyotirindranath Tagore

Rabindranath Tagore (left) with his elder brother Jyotirindranath Tagore

The names of his other brothers are Punyendranath, Budhendranath, and Somendranath. Tagore’s eldest sister, Soudamini, was a gifted writer and one of the first students of Bethune School. His elder sister Swarnakumari (1855–1932) was also a gifted writer, song-composer, editor, and social worker.

Rabindranath Tagore's elder sister Swarnakumari

Rabindranath Tagore’s elder sister Swarnakumari

The names of his other elder sisters are Sukumari and Saratkumari. All his sisters were known for their beauty and education.

Wife & Children

On 9 December 1883, the 22-year-old Tagore got married to an 11-year-old Mrinalini Devi (born Bhabatarini). [5] Feminism In India Mrinalini Devi was born in 1873 and died in 1902. Mrinalini died within a span of 19 years of their marriage, and since then, Tagore never married in his life. In a letter that Tagore had once written to his wife, he expressed his feelings for Mrinalini, he wrote –

If you and I could be comrades in all our work and in all our thoughts it would be splendid, but we cannot attain all that we desire.” [6] The Economic Times Rabindranath Tagore with his wife, Mrinalini Devi, in 1883

The couple had five children – two sons, Rathindranath Tagore and Shamindranath Tagore, and three daughters, Renuka Tagore, Madhurilata Tagore, and Meera Tagore.

Rabindranath Tagore’s son Rathindranath and daughters Madhurilata Devi (Bela), Mira Devi, and Renuka Devi

Rabindranath Tagore’s son Rathindranath and daughters Madhurilata Devi (Bela), Mira Devi, and Renuka Devi

Rabindranath Tagore at the wedding of his Son Rathindranath Tagore (second from left) - his Daughter-in-law Pratima (second from right), and two Daughters, in 1909

Rabindranath Tagore at the wedding of his Son Rathindranath Tagore (second from left) – his Daughter-in-law Pratima (second from right), and two Daughters, in 1909

His son Rathindranath Tagore (1888-1961) was an Indian educationist and agronomist who was also the first vice-chancellor of Visva-Bharati University, founded by Rabindranath Tagore in 1921.

Rathindranath Tagore

Rathindranath Tagore

Tagore’s daughter Madhurilata (1886-1918) was also called “Bela.” Bela was the first child of Rabindranath and Mrinalini Devi.

Rabindranath Tagore with his daughter Madhurilata

Rabindranath Tagore with his daughter Madhurilata

Reportedly, Bela was very beautiful, and she was the most dearly loved daughter to Rabindranath. Once, Tagore said about her –

My eldest daughter Bela… was exceptionally beautiful in body and mind.” [7] The Scottish Centre of Tagore Studies Rabindranath Tagore and Mrinalini Devi with their first child, Bela, in 1886

Tagore’s daughter Renuka Tagore (1890-1904) died when she was only thirteen years old. Tagore was very close to Renuka, and when Renuka was suffering from tuberculosis, he took her to the Himalayas in May 1903, so that she could get a fresh climate. It was a long and difficult journey to the Himalayas, and during this journey, Tagore wrote many poems for children and published them as Sisu (The Child, 1903); the book later became popular with the title ‘The Crescent Moon.’ [8] The Scottish Centre of Tagore Studies Tagore’s third and the youngest daughter’s name was Mira (1892-1962), who was also called Atasi. Mira had a broken marriage as her husband turned out to have temperamental and drug addiction issues. Once, Tagore lamented over the wrong choice of husband for his daughter Mira, he wrote –

How can I be so cruel to Mira when it was I who had dealt the first blow in her life by marrying her off without thinking carefully enough about it? … There is a barbarity about Nagen which Mira has come to dread. … Her life is already destroyed, now it is for me to protect her and make her as happy as possible. I must bear as much pain for it as I can because I am responsible for her misery.” [9] The Scottish Centre of Tagore Studies Rabindranath Tagore’s daughter Mira

Tagore’s youngest child was his son Shamindranath Tagore who was born in 1896 and died in 1907.

Other Relatives

Bollywood actress Sharmila Tagore ‘s maternal grandmother, Latika Tagore, was the granddaughter of Rabindranath Tagore’s brother Dwijendranath. In an interview, while talking about her surname, the actress said,

I don’t have that much authority on Tagore but yes I have a wonderful surname. It’s my heritage and it has opened many doors for me. It’s a privilege to be born in such a household. He unfortunately died three years before I was born so I could not have any direct interaction with him. But I have heard great stories from my mother.” [10] The Indian Express

The Untold Love Story

Reportedly, his sister-in-law Kadambari Devi (wife of Tagore’s elder brother Jyotirindranath) was his muse. Kadambari was two years younger than Tagore. Even today, their love story still remains enigmatic. In his masterpiece autobiography “Chelebela” (My Boyhood Days), Tagore depicts his first glimpse of Kadamabari. He writes,

A new bride came to the house, slender gold bracelets on her delicate brown hands…I circled around her at a safe distance, but I did not dare to go near. She was enthroned at the centre of affection and I was only a neglected, insignificant child …” [11] Feminism In India Kadambari Devi

Although Kadambari was not an educated woman, it is said that she understood poetry better than the poet himself. It is believed that Kadambari played a significant part in Tagore’s life. It was Kadambari who inspired Tagore in composing many of his poems, and she also used to give her creative feedback and comments to Tagore. Tagore even nicknamed her after Hecate, the Greek goddess of night, moon, and magic. When Tagore was 19 years old, he dedicated his famous lyrics to Kadambari –

Tomarei koriachhi jibaner dhrubo tara (Thou art the guiding beacon of my life)” [12] Feminism In India

Kadambari committed suicide on 21 April 1884 in mysterious circumstances. Kadambari’s death left Tagore completely broken. After her death, Tagore wrote a letter to his close associate C. F. Andrews in which he expressed his grief for Kadambari, he wrote –

But where is the sweetheart of mine who was almost the only companion of my boyhood and with whom I spent my idle days of youth exploring the mysteries of dreamland? She, my Queen, has died and my world has shut against the door of its inner apartment of beauty which gives on the real taste of freedom.” [13] Feminism In India

Tagore went on to write many poems and songs in her memory. In one such lyrics, which is also a popular Rabindra Sangeet, Tagore wrote –

Tobu Mone Rekho (Pray, love, remember)”

In another song that he composed in Kadambari’s memory, he wrote –

Amaar praner pore chole gelo ke (The one who went out of my life)” [14] Feminism In India

A Complicated Relationship

Rabindranath Tagore had a brief romantic encounter with an Argentine writer and intellectual, Victoria Ocampo (born on 7 April 1890; died on 27 January 1979). [15] The Week

Rabindranath Tagore and Victoria Ocampo (both sitting)

Rabindranath Tagore and Victoria Ocampo (both sitting)

Victoria was a great admirer of Tagore’s literary works. In November 1924, while Tagore was on his way to Peru to attend the centenary celebrations of independence, he had to stop in Buenos Aires for medical rest on 6 November 1924. When Victoria came to know about Tagore’s arrival in Buenos Aires, she offered to take care of him, and she took care of Tagore during his 58-day stay in the city. Reportedly, it was during this time that Tagore developed a romantic relationship with Ocampo.

Rabindranath Tagore with Victoria Ocampo

Rabindranath Tagore with Victoria Ocampo

At the time of Tagore’s visit, Ocampo was going through a state of transition after the break up with her husband and having a love affair with her cousin. Amid this mental turmoil, Ocampo looked up to Tagore as a Guru from the East who might enlighten her soul and pave a new path for her; however, the 63–year-old widower poet mistook the 34-year-old Ocampo’s devotion as inviting signals. For Tagore, it was a kind of love that he had been waiting for a long time to vanish his intellectual loneliness; Tagore expressed this feeling in his poem Shesh Basanth (the last spring) that he wrote on 21 November 1924 during his stay as the guest of Ocampo. Tagore wrote,

While walking on my solitary way I met you at the dusk of nightfall I was about to ask you take my hand When I gazed at your face and was afraid For I saw there the glow of the fire that lay asleep In the deep of your heart’s dark silence”

In her autobiography, Ocampo described Tagore’s advances. She wrote,

One afternoon, as I came into his room while he was writing, I leaned towards the page which was on the table. Without lifting his head towards me he stretched his arm, and in the same way as one gets hold of a fruit on a branch, he placed his hand on one of my breasts. I felt a kind of shudder of withdrawal like a horse whom his master strokes when he is not expecting it. The animal cried at once within me. Another person who lives inside me warned the animal, ‘ be calm… fool’ It is just a gesture of pagan tenderness. The hand left the branch after that almost incorporeal caress. But he never did it again. Every day he kissed me on the forehead or the cheek and took one of my arms, saying “such cool arms.”

Victoria Ocampo gifted Tagore an armchair to take to India from Buenos Aires. Tagore used to sit on the chair for about two months during November-December in 1924 during his stay in Buenos Aires as Ocampo’s guest; the chair is still preserved in Shantiniketan. Reportedly, in his last years, Tagore used to relax in that chair, and he even wrote a poem about it in April 1941. He wrote,

Yet again, if I can, will l look for that seat On the top of which rests, a caress from overseas I knew not her language Yet her eyes told me all Keeping alive forever A message of pathos” Rabindranath Tagore sitting on the armchair gifted by Victoria Ocampo

On Tagore’s demise, Ocampo sent a telegram to Tagore’s son that read ‘Thinking of him’ (pensando en el); this inspired the title of the 2018 Argentine film ‘Thinking of Him’ that explores the relationship between Rabindranath Tagore and Victoria Ocampo.

Thinking of Him film poster

Thinking of Him film poster

Religion/Religious Views

Although Rabindranath Tagore adhered to Brahmoism, a philosophy of Brahmo Samaj founded by Raja Rammohan Roy, he never believed in any religious institutions or practices, whether they constituted Hinduism, Islam, or Christianity . Tagore’s religion was, in fact, based on the ‘divinization of man’ and the ‘humanization of God.’ While explaining the meaning of the ‘humanization of God,’ Tagore said,

Humanization of God does not merely mean that God is God of humanity but also it mean that it is the God in every human being.”

Tagore’s conception of God, unity, and equality found spontaneous expression in several of his addresses, poems, and novels. Tagore was born when India was transitioning from medieval to modern times. He grew up in an atmosphere of religious fervor. While growing up, among Tagore’s greatest influences was the liberalism of the Brahmo Samaj, founded by Raja Rammohan Roy on the basis of a synthesis of all religions. He was also greatly impressed by the Baul singers of Bengal; Baul singers are wandering saints who do not belong to any religious establishment nor do they go to any place of worship. In the article ‘An Indian Folk Religion’ in his book Creative Unity, Tagore formally interprets the humanistic philosophy of Baul singers. Tagore was also influenced by the philosophy of Kabir, and he translated almost one hundred couplets of Kabir into English; in Kabir, he found religious philosophy of love, a unbiased view of religion, and a spiritualist faith in man. Tagore quoted Kabir’s philosophy in Gitanjali. He wrote,

He is there where the tiller is tilling the hard ground and where the path-maker is breaking stones.”

A major influence on Tagore’s approach to religion was the Upanishads and the Bhagavad Gita. In the preface of his book Sadhana, a book on spirituality, Tagore wrote,

To me, the verses of the Upanishads and the teachings of Buddha have ever been things of the spirit and therefore endowed with boundless vital growth, and I have used them, both in my own life and in my preaching as being instinct with special meaning for me.”

Despite the fact that Tagore was heavily influenced by Upanishad thinkers, the humanistic teachings of Lord Buddha and the Bauls, and the mystic teachings of saints, his philosophy of religion is the product of his own thought process. [16] International Journal of English Language, Literature in Humanities – Volume 6, Issue 1

According to Prabhat Kumar Mukhopadhyaya, one of the biographers of Rabindranath Tagore, the Tagores were Rarhi Brahmins who belonged to a village named Kush in the Burdwan district of West Bengal, and their original surname was Kushari. Prabhat Kumar Mukhopadhyaya wrote in the first volume of his book Rabindrajibani O Rabindra Sahitya-prabeshak that,

The Kusharis were the descendants of Deen Kushari, the son of Bhatta Narayana; Deen was granted a village named Kush (in Burdwan zilla) by Maharaja Kshitisura, he became its chief and came to be known as Kushari. [17] Rabindrajibani O Rabindra Sahitya-prabeshak by Prabhat Kumar Mukhopadhyaya

Some sources claim that Rabindranath Tagore belonged to the inferior caste of Pirali Brahmans, which was considered to be polluted because of their social interactions with Muslims. [18] Sahapedia

Rabindranath Tagore's Signature

Initial Literary Works

The highly cultural and literary environment in the Tagore family inspired Rabindranath to start writing poetry at a very early age. Initially, he published many poems; some anonymously and some under his pen name “Bahanusingha.” Soon, Tagore started contributing to various Bengali magazines, including “Balak” and “Bharati.” Rabindranath Tagore debuted in the world of literature by writing a short story, “Bhikharini” (The Beggar Woman), in 1877. When the 16-year-old Tagore wrote Bhikharini,” it became the first short story in Bengali-language.

Bhikharini by Rabindranath Tagore

Bhikharini by Rabindranath Tagore

In 1882, he published a volume of Bengali verse, Sandhya Sangeet, and it included his famous poem Nirjharer Swapna Bhanga (The awakening of the fountain).

Title page of the first edition of Sandhya Sangeet by Rabindranath Tagore

Title page of the first edition of Sandhya Sangeet by Rabindranath Tagore

Between 1884 and 1890, Tagore wrote many poems, prose articles, criticism, plays, and novels.

Shelaidaha (1878–1901) – The period of his Sadhana

In 1890, Tagore visited the United Kingdom for the second time; however, he came back just after a month to look after the family estate, Kuthibari, a three-storied pyramid-shaped terraced bungalow in eleven acres of land, in Shelaidaha (now a region of Bangladesh), where he intimately experienced the wretched life led by the poor Bengali peasants.

Rabindranath Tagore’s Kuthibari or family estate in Bangladesh

Rabindranath Tagore’s Kuthibari or family estate in Bangladesh

Tagore’s wife and children joined him at Shelaidaha in 1898. During his stay in Shelaidaha, he was overwhelmed by the social, political, and economic misery in which the peasants lived. In an article, Tagore described the peasants’ misery, he wrote,

Our so-called responsible classes live in comfort because the common man has not yet understood his situation. That is why the landlord beats him. The money-lender holds him in his clutches; the foreman abuses him; the policeman fleeces him; the priest exploits him; and the magistrate picks his pocket.” Rabindranath Tagore having lunch at Kuthibari in Bangladesh

While managing his family’s ancestral estate in Shelaidaha as a young landlord, Rabindranath Tagore realized that rural life can be transformed by introducing education and co-operation. While speaking on ‘The Vicissitudes of Education,’ he strongly campaigned for the use of the mother-tongue. Reportedly, it was this time that his experiments in teaching came for the first time. Soon, Tagore started his own school in Seliadah, where he sent his own children to study under the tutelage of many skilled teachers including an Englishman who taught them the English language. [19] Tagore’s School and Methodology by Thomas B. KANE, Edinburgh Napier University Apart from starting a school, he also organized co-operatives and hospitals in the villages of his family estate and tried to introduce new and improved farming methods. While pursuing these rural reforms, he continued his creative writing. The greenery, the rivers, and the simplicity of rural Bengal inspired Tagore to write many of his famous essays, short stories, and poems including Sonar Tori, Kotha o Kahini, Chitra, and Chaitali. In 1890, he published Manasi, a collection of poems, which is considered one of his best-known literary works.

Manasi by Rabindranath Tagore

Manasi by Rabindranath Tagore

In 1900, he came out with another masterpiece Galpaguchchha, a three-volume composition of 84 stories.

Hardcover of Galpaguchchha by Rabindranath Tagore

Hardcover of Galpaguchchha by Rabindranath Tagore

During this time, he wrote many letters to his niece, which were subsequently published as Chhinnapatra (Torn letters) and Chhinnapatravali (A collection of torn letters). Most of the poems of Kheya and Naibedya, and many songs, which formed part of Gitanjali and Geetimalya, were also written during his stay in Shelaidaha. It was here in Shelaidaha that he started translating Gitanjali into English in 1912. [20] National Herald These literary works are considered to be landmarks in the writing of Bengali prose and in describing the countryside of Bengal. According to Tagore, the period 1891–1895 was the period of his Sadhana; this period is considered to be his most productive. During his stay in Shelaidaha, Tagore used the family boat (bajra or budgerow), Padma, to criss-cross the Padma River to visit villages to collect token rents. During these visits, he would talk to villagers and listen to their problems; this experience paved the way for Tagore’s later educational experiments.

Tagore family boat, Padma

Tagore family boat, Padma

Santiniketan (1901–1932) – Middle years of Rabindranath Tagore

A map of Tagore's Santiniketan

A map of Tagore’s Santiniketan

Boarding School

In 1901, Tagore left Shelaidaha and moved to Santiniketan, where he started a boarding school, Brahamacharyashram (or Ashram) School, which was inaugurated on 22 December 1901 with only a few pupils, his son being one of them. The theme of the school was to encourage a close bonding between teachers and pupils as they lived together, willingly accepting an austere standard of living. Tagore didn’t accept fees from students and bear all expenses by himself. Later, this Ashram School expanded, growing the poet’s reputation.

Rabindranath Tagore (seated, to left of man at blackboard) at an open-air classroom, Shantiniketan, West Bengal

Rabindranath Tagore (seated, to the left of man at blackboard) at an open-air classroom, Shantiniketan, West Bengal

Literary Work

While living at Santiniketan, Tagore wrote about India’s past and present, and stories of noble self-sacrifice. During this time, he published some of his most popular realistic novels including Choker Bali (1901), Naukadubi (1903), and Gora (1910).

The cover of Naukadubi by Rabindranath Tagore

The cover of Naukadubi by Rabindranath Tagore

Nobel Prize

The well-known English painter Sir William Rothenstein and the poet W. B. Yeats became highly impressed by some of Tagore’s poems and writings, which had already been translated into English. In 1912, during his third visit to the United Kingdom, Tagore was accepted as a great poet and intellectual. In November 1913, Rabindranath Tagore was awarded that year’s Nobel Prize in Literature for Gitanjali, Tagore’s best-known collection of poetry, making him the first Asian and first non-European to receive a Nobel Prize in Literature. The Swedish Academy, in its statement, said,

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1913 was awarded to Rabindranath Tagore “because of his profoundly sensitive, fresh and beautiful verse, by which, with consummate skill, he has made his poetic thought, expressed in his own English words, a part of the literature of the West.” Rabindranath Tagore Nobel Prize in Literature 1913

In the 1915 Birthday Honours, Rabindranath Tagore was awarded a knighthood by King George V; however, after the Jallianwala Bagh massacre in 1919, Tagore renounced the knighthood by writing a letter to the then British Viceroy of India, Lord Chelmsford. In the letter, Tagore wrote,

The disproportionate severity of the punishments inflicted upon the unfortunate people and the methods of carrying them out, we are convinced, are without parallel in the history of civilised governments…The time has come when badges of honour make our shame glaring in their incongruous context of humiliation, and I for my part wish to stand, shorn of all special distinctions, by the side of my country men.” Rabindranath Tagore’s letter to renounce his knighthood

Visva Bharati

In 1916, Tagore visited Japan and the United States of America, where he delivered lectures, which were later published in two volumes as Nationalism (1917b) and Personality (1917c). Between 1878 and 1932, Tagore travelled more than thirty countries on five continents. This international experience inspired him to establish an institution that emphasized the unity of the world’s cultures and streams of knowledge. On 24 December 1918, he laid the foundation of Visva Bharati in Shantiniketan, West Bengal; Visva Bharati went on to become an international centre of culture and humanistic studies.

Rabindranath Tagore's Visva Bharati University

Rabindranath Tagore’s Visva Bharati University

Sri Niketan – Abode of Welfare

From 1901 to 1921, Santiniketan developed continuously; however, Tagore wanted some new form of schooling for the village children in India based on life in the countryside. In 1921, Tagore, along with agricultural economist Leonard Elmhirst, started a new school called Shikshasastra in Surul at Sri Niketan to provide an all-round education for village children; the main emphasis of this new school was on agricultural research. At Sri Niketan, handicraft became an essential thing, and it was compulsory for all students to learn a trade.

Rabindranath Tagore's dream project Sri Niketan

Rabindranath Tagore’s dream project Sri Niketan

Tagore and Mahatma Gandhi

Rabindranath Tagore and Mahatma Gandhi, the two great representatives of Modern India, shared a great rapport with each other, in fact, the two giants of Modern India are best known by the monikers “Mahatma” (given to Gandhi by Tagore) and “Gurudev” (given to Tagore by Gandhi). Reportedly, Tagore was the first to refer to Gandhi as “Mahatma,” and in respect, Gandhi called him “Gurudev.” It was an Englishman, Charles Freer Andrews, who acted as the link between these two. On Mahatma Gandhi’s return to India, Andrews suggested Tagore invite the members of Mahatma Gandhi’s “Phoenix family” at Santiniketan. In March 1915, Mahatma Gandhi and Rabindranath Tagore met for the first time at Santiniketan.

Rabindranath Tagore and Mahatma Gandhi at Santiniketan in March 1915

Rabindranath Tagore and Mahatma Gandhi at Santiniketan in March 1915

After their first meeting, they went on to meet many times. Apart from politics and philosophy, they used to discuss other things like food and diet. Once, Mahatma Gandhi, who was a strict fruitarian, told Tagore,

To fry bread in ghee or oil to make puris is to turn good grain into poison. It must be a slow poison.”

To this, Tagore replied,

I have been eating puris all my life and it has not done me any harm so far.” [21] mkgandhi.org A rare photo of Rabindranath Tagore and Mahatma Gandhi

Although they had developed a good rapport, both had their ideological differences and had different views on science, social and economic development, nationalism, and patriotism. [22] The Economic Times Tagore was sceptical about Mahatma Gandhi’s Non-cooperation Movement and didn’t agree with Gandhi’s philosophy towards “Charkha.” Tagore also criticized Gandhi for linking the Bihar earthquake to the sin of untouchability. Gandhi always took Tagore’s criticisms positively, and they never let their mutual respect for each other to diminish. On his differences with Tagore, Mahatma Gandhi once said,

I started with a disposition to detect a conflict between Gurudev and myself, but ended with a glorious discovery that there was none.” [23] mkgandhi.org Rabindranath Tagore and Mahatma Gandhi greeting each other

In 1940, when Mahatma Gandhi visited Santiniketan along with his wife, Kasturba, it proved to be his last meeting with Tagore. During their meeting, when Tagore requested Gandhi to take Santiniketan under his protection, Gandhi replied,

Who am I to take this institution under my protection?… It carries God’s protection because it is the creation of an earnest soul.” [24] mkgandhi.org Rabindranath Tagore and Mahatma Gandhi

In 1945, Mahatma Gandhi visited Santiniketan for the last time in his life; however, Tagore was not there to host him that time as he had died back in 1941. In his address to the Santiniketan community, Mahatma Gandhi said,

It is my conviction arrived at after a long and laborious struggle that Gurudev as a person was much bigger than his works; bigger even than this institution.” [25] mkgandhi.org

Literary and Artistic Works

Although Tagore is mostly known for his poetry, his dramas, short stories, essays, novels, travelogues, and songs are equally popular. In most of his literary works, the reflection of the lives of common people is very prominent.

The best-known work in poetry by Tagore is Gitanjali that made him the first Asian to win a Nobel Prize in Literature in 1913. Besides Gitanjali, Tagore delivered many more masterpieces including Manasi, Sonar Tori (Golden Boat), and Balaka (Wild Geese). Tagore’s poetic style has a variety of ranges from classical formalism to the comic, visionary, and ecstatic. Tagore’s poetic style is influenced by the works of Vyasa, Kabir, and Ramprasad Sen. The mystic Baul ballads like those of the bard Lalon also influenced Tagore’s poetic style.

Title page of the 1913 Macmillan edition of Tagore's Gitanjali

Title page of the 1913 Macmillan edition of Tagore’s Gitanjali

Rabindranath Tagore published eight novels, Nastanirh (The Broken Nest) in 1901, Chokher Bali in 1903, Noukadubi in 1906, Gora (Fair-Faced) in 1910, Ghare Baire (The Home and the World) in 1916, Chaturanga in 1916, Shesher Kabita in 1928, and Jogajog or Yogayog (Crosscurrents) in 1929. Through these novels, Tagore explained Indian nationalism, Indian identity, self-identity, personal freedom, loneliness, etc.

When Tagore was just sixteen, he began his experiences with drama with his brother Jyotirindranath. At the age of twenty, Tagore wrote his first original dramatic piece, Valmiki Pratibha. Tagore’s 1890 drama Visarjan is considered to be his finest drama. Most of his dramas used more philosophical and allegorical themes. Some of his popular dramas are Dak Ghar (1912), Raktakarabi (1926), and Chandalika (1933). His dance-drama adaptations Chitrangada, Chandalika, and Shyama together are known as Rabindra Nritya Natya.

Short Stories

In 1877, when 16-year-old Tagore wrote Bhikharini, it began his short story writing spree. Tagore is credited to invent the Bengali-language short story genre. Most of his short stories reflect the lives of India’s poor and common people. Some of his most popular short stories are Kabuliwala (published in 1892), Kshudita Pashan (published in 1895), and Atithi (published in 1895).

Songs – Rabindra Sangeet

Tagore was an accomplished song-writer and composer. With around 2,230 songs to his credit, he gave a new category to songs known as Rabindra Sangeet. Most of his songs are influenced by the thumri style of Hindustani music. Tagore’s songs are known to express the entire gamut of human emotion. It is said that –

In Bengal no cultured home where Rabindranath’s songs are not sung or at least attempted to be sung… Even illiterate villagers sing his songs.”

Painting and Drawing

Apart from his literary works, Tagore is also known for his artworks including drawing and painting that he took up at the age of sixty. He made debut appearances in many art galleries in Paris and throughout Europe.

Rabindranath Tagore as a painter

Rabindranath Tagore as a painter

Controversies

Hypocrisy in child marriage.

Tagore is heavily criticized for marrying his three daughters when they were still in their childhood. This is surprising as Tagore had started speaking against child marriages as early as 1887. Bizarrely, Tagore, in his Bengali novella Nashtanirh (The Broken Nest) he wrote at the same time when he was arranging his daughters’ marriages, describes the agony of child marriages. [26] The Scottish Centre of Tagore Studies

German funds against the British Raj

He was allegedly implicated in overthrowing the British Raj from India through German funds, these allegations were based on his dealings with Indian nationalists Subhas Chandra Bose and Rash Behari Bose, and papers confiscated from Indian nationalists in New York. [27] CNN

Aggressive lectures on nationalism

Tagore’s aggressive lectures on nationalism attracted severe criticism from the press, and in 1916, when he visited the USA, a group of radical Indians even conspired to assassinate him; however, he escaped assassination narrowly as his would-be assassins fell into an argument. [28] The Statesman

Waning Years (1932-1941)

During his waning years, Tagore developed more respect for scientific laws, and he used various concepts of biology, physics, and astronomy in his poetry. His stories Se (1937), Tin Sangi (1940), and Galpasalpa (1941) also incorporated scientific intellect in them. Although the last five years of Tagore’s life were marked by chronic pain and illness, the poetry that he wrote during this period is considered among his finest including his politically charged compositions “Chitto Jetha Bhayshunyo” and “Ekla Chalo Re.”

Rabindranath Tagore's Ekla Chalo Re

Rabindranath Tagore’s Ekla Chalo Re

In late 1940, Tagore became unconscious and remained comatose for a long time, and after a prolonged agony, the 80-year-old Tagore died on 7 August 1941 in an upstairs room of the Jorasanko mansion, where he was raised in.

The room at Jorasanko Thakur Bari where Rabindranath Tagore breathed his last

The room at Jorasanko Thakur Bari where Rabindranath Tagore breathed his last

Earlier, he had experienced a similar spell of comatose in late 1937 and also underwent a kidney operation. According to some sources, one of the reasons behind his death was prostate cancer. [29] The Times of India

Rabindranath Tagore's death news in The New York Times

Rabindranath Tagore’s death news in The New York Times

On 30 July 1941, almost a week before his death, Tagore dictated a few lines to A. K. Sen (brother of  Sukumar Sen who was the first chief election commissioner of India), which probably became his last poem –

I’m lost in the middle of my birthday. I want my friends, their touch, with the earth’s last love. I will take life’s final offering, I will take the human’s last blessing. Today my sack is empty. I have given completely whatever I had to give. In return if I receive anything—some love, some forgiveness—then I will take it with me when I step on the boat that crosses to the festival of the wordless end.”

Rabindranath Tagore's last photo clicked in 1941

Rabindranath Tagore’s last photo clicked in 1941

Tagore’s Legacy

After his demise in 1941, Tagore left behind a legacy of literary intellect, and there are many festivals, awards, buildings, places, and institutions named after him.

There are many festivals named after Tagore that are held every year across the globe including Rabindra Jayanti, an annual cultural festival, prevalent among people who love Tagore and his works; the festival is celebrated in early May, on the 25th day of the Bengali month of Boishakh. Tagore International Literature and Arts Festival is another such annual festival that is celebrated across the globe. On important anniversaries, a procession called Rabindra Path Parikrama takes place during which followers of Tagore walk from Kolkata to Santiniketan reciting his poetry and verses.

Awards & Prizes

There are many awards and honours named after this great polymath including Rabindranath Tagore Literary Prize that was founded in 2018 by US-based independent and non-profit publishing house Maitreya Publishing Foundation (MPF). In 2011, the Government of India established the Tagore Award that carries an amount of Rupees One Crore, a Citation in a Scroll, a Plaque as well as an exquisite traditional handicraft/handloom item. The Rabindra Puraskar or the Rabindra Smriti Puraskar is the highest honorary literary award in West Bengal administered by the Government of West Bengal. In 2011, Sangeet Natak Akademi sponsored Tagore Ratna and Tagore Puraskar; these awards were conferred on the occasion to commemorate 150 birthday of Rabindranath Tagore.

In May 2020, Israel named a street, Rehov Tagore, in Tel Aviv after Rabindranath Tagore on the occasion of the poet’s 159th birthday.

Rehov Tagore, the street named after Rabindranath Tagore in Tel Aviv, Israel

Rehov Tagore, the street named after Rabindranath Tagore in Tel Aviv, Israel

In July 2017, an area in Prague, the capital of the Czech Republic, was named after Rabindranath Tagore; the area is named Thakurova and has a bust of the Nobel laureate.

A bust of Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore in Thakurova area of Prague, the Czech Republic

A bust of Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore in Thakurova area of Prague, the Czech Republic

The Tagore Garden Metro Station, located on the Blue Line of the Delhi Metro, is named after Tagore, and it was opened on 31 December 2005.

The Tagore Garden Metro Station

The Tagore Garden Metro Station

Rabindranath Tagore Nagar or simply R. T. Nagar is an area in Bangalore, India, that was developed by Bangalore Development Authority (BDA) in the 1970s.

RT Nagar Bengaluru

RT Nagar Bengaluru

Rabindra Sarobar (previously known as Dhakuria Lake) is an artificial lake in South Kolkata, which was named after Rabindranath Tagore by the Calcutta Improvement Trust (CIT) in 1958.

Rabindra Sarobar, an artificial lake in South Kolkata

Rabindra Sarobar, an artificial lake in South Kolkata

Tagore Town, a neighborhood in Allahabad, India, is named after Rabindranath Tagore; it was built in 1909.

Many universities and institutes have been named after Rabindranath Tagore in various cities across the globe including Rabindra Bharati University in Kolkata, India, Rabindranath Tagore Medical College in Udaipur, Rajasthan, Rabindranath Tagore University in Hojai, Assam, India, Rabindra Srijonkala University in Keraniganj, Dhaka, Bangladesh, and Rabindranath Tagore Secondary School in Mauritius.

There are many buildings in various cities across the globe that are named after Rabindranath Tagore including Rabindra Sadan, a cultural centre and theatre in Kolkata, Rabindra Library (Central) in Assam University, India, Rabindra Nazrul Art Building, Arts Faculty, in Islamic University, Bangladesh, Rabindra Parishad, a multi-purpose cultural centre in Patna, Bihar, India, Tagore Theatre in Chandigarh, India, and Rabindranath Tagore Memorial Auditorium, in Sri Lanka.

Rabindra Sadan in Kolkata

Rabindra Sadan in Kolkata

Some of the popular museums named after Rabindranath Tagore are Rabindra Bharati Museum, at Jorasanko Thakur Bari in Kolkata, India, Tagore Memorial Museum, at Shilaidaha Kuthibadi in Shilaidaha, Bangladesh, Rabindra Memorial Museum at Shahzadpur Kachharibari in Shahzadpur, Bangladesh, and Rabindra Bhavan Museum, in Santiniketan, India.

The popular Howrah Bridge over the Hooghly River in West Bengal was renamed Rabindra Setu after Rabindranath Tagore on 14 June 1965.

Rabindra Setu

Rabindra Setu

B. tagorei. Barapasaurus, the only species of a genus of basal sauropod dinosaur from Early Jurassic rocks of India, is named after Rabindranath Tagore.

Facts/Trivia

  • His paternal grandfather, Dwarkanath Tagore, was the first Indian to travel to Europe, defying the Hindu religious ban of those times that had imposed a ban on travel to Europe.
  • During his second visit to London, the manuscript of Gitanjali went missing in the London Tube. This thrilling adventure happened when he was on a visit to London to show the English translation of his book Gitanjali to the English painter and art critic William Rothenstein, anticipating he could lobby William Butler Yeats to write an introduction. Tagore took the Tube to Rothenstein’s Hampstead residence and mid-way, he lost the briefcase in which he carried the manuscript. Later, when his son, Rathindranath, inquired with the London Tube authorities, the briefcase was recovered, and thus, the book that brought India its first Nobel saw the light of day. [30] The Hindu
  • On 25 March 2004, Tagore’s Nobel Prize was stolen from the safety vault of the Visva-Bharati University. Later, the Swedish Academy issued two replicas of Tagore’s Nobel Prize. In 2016, the stolen Nobel Prize was recovered after a baul singer named Pradip Bauri accused of sheltering the thieves was arrested. [31] The Hindu
  • The 2012 Bengali language film Nobel Chor is inspired by the theft of Tagore’s Nobel Prize.

Rabindranath Tagore in Natir Puja

Rabindranath Tagore in Natir Puja

  • During India’s struggle for independence, when Mahatma Gandhi and B. R. Ambedkar had a dispute involving separate electorates for untouchables, it was Tagore who intervened and resolved the dispute.
Was the gown lying in the post office or was it really missing, with the post office lying about its disappearance?” [34] Selected Letters of Rabindranath Tagore
  • Even after religiously following Islamic and Hindu traditions, Tagore’s family played a significant role to introduce Western education in India. They opened many schools and colleges for the study of science and medicine. This amalgamation of tradition and science significantly characterized Tagor’s attitude towards life.
The golden temple of Amritsar comes back to me like a dream. Many a morning have I accompanied my father to this Gurudarbar of the Sikhs in the middle of the lake. There the sacred chanting resounds continually. My father, seated amidst the throng of worshippers, would sometimes add his voice to the hymn of praise, and finding a stranger joining in their devotions they would wax enthusiastically cordial, and we would return loaded with the sanctified offerings of sugar crystals and other sweets.” [35] Mainstream Weekly
  • Tagore was so inspired by Sikhism that he went on to write six poems on Sikh heroism and martyrdom. He also wrote numerous articles about Sikhism in a Bengali child magazine. [36] Mainstream Weekly
  • The first time when Tagor was in close proximity to nature was when his father took him to Dalhousie, where they stayed in the Himalayan foothills. At that time, Tagore was in his teenage.
  • Tagore’s son, Rathindranath wrote in his memoir, On the Edges of Time (1958), that throughout his life, his father “felt lonely.” Rathindranath termed his father’s condition as “intellectual loneliness.” [37] The Statesman

Tagore Memorial and Museum in Bangladesh

Tagore Memorial and Museum in Bangladesh

Boat used by Rabindranath Tagore at the pond of Shelaidaha Kuthibari, Kushtia

The boat used by Rabindranath Tagore at the pond of Shelaidaha Kuthibari, Kushtia

  • After the death of his father in 1905, the Maharaja of Tripura issued him monthly payments as part of his inheritance and income. Besides, he was also benefitted from sales of his family’s jewellery, his seaside bungalow in Puri, and a derisory Rs. 2,000 in book royalties.  [38] Rabindranath Tagore: The Myriad-Minded Man by Krishna Dutta, Andrew Robinson
  • Rabindranath Tagore’s second experiment with the education that he initiated with the inception of Sri Niketan was so future-oriented that the entire programme followed at Sri Niketan for rural development was adopted by India’s five-year plans.
Our passions and desires are unruly, but our character subdues these elements into a harmonious whole. Does something similar to this happen in the physical world? Are the elements rebellious, dynamic with individual impulse? And is there a principle in the physical world which dominates them and puts them into an orderly organization?” Rabindranath Tagore with Albert Einstein
  • On 5 May 1930, Tagore sent a message to America in which he quoted that the shrinking of the distance between countries should be used to promote spiritual values, not just commerce.

The Essential Tagore

The Essential Tagore

  • Tagore had a partial colour vision deficiency, and he was likely red-green colour blind. [40] Natsy by Design
  • Rabindranath Tagore is the only person in the world whose songs have been adapted as the national anthem in three countries – Jana Gana Mana (India’s national anthem; adopted in 1950), Sri Lanka Matha (Sri Lanka’s national anthem; adopted in 1951), and Amar Shonar Bangla (Bangladesh’s national anthem; adopted in 1971).

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Rabindranath Tagore Biography,Literary Work, Achievements

Biography of Rabindranath Tagore: He was a poet, philosopher and composer. He wrote the Indian National Anthem and received the Nobel Prize in Literature.

Rabindranath Tagore

Table of Contents

Biography of Rabindranath Tagore

Rabindranath Tagore, who wrote the Indian National Anthem and received the Nobel Prize in Literature, was a multifaceted individual in every aspect. He was a Bengali poet, philosopher associated with the Brahmo Samaj, visual artist, playwright, novelist, painter, and composer. He was also a cultural reformer who freed Bengali art from the limitations that kept it within the realm of traditional Indian traditions. Despite being a polymath, his literary accomplishments alone are enough to qualify him for the top tier of all-time greats. Rabindranath Tagore is still renowned for his poetry and lyrics that are passionate and spiritual. He was one of those brilliant individuals who were well ahead of their time, and it is for this reason that his encounter with Albert Einstein is viewed as a confrontation between science and spirituality. In order to share his ideas with the rest of the world, Tagore went on a globe-tour and gave lectures in nations like Japan and the United States.

Rabindranath Tagore: Childhood and Early Life

Debendranath Tagore and Sarada Devi gave birth to Rabindranath Tagore on May 7, 1861 in the Jorasanko palace, the Tagore family’s ancestral home in Calcutta. Out of thirteen children, he was the youngest son. Although there were many people in the Tagore family, he was largely reared by maids and servants because his father travelled extensively and his mother passed away when he was still a young child. Rabindranath Tagore was a young participant in the Bengal renaissance, in which his family actively participated. He was a child prodigy as well, because he began writing poetry at the age of 8. He also began creating art at a young age, and by the time he was sixteen, he had begun writing poetry under the pseudonym Bhanusimha. Additionally, he published the poem collection “Sandhya Sangit” in 1882 and the short story “Bhikharini” in 1877.

By reading Kalidasa’s classical poetry, he found motivation to write his own classical poetry. His siblings served as some of his other sources of inspiration and influence. His other brother, Satyendranath, was in a very prestigious position, whereas his older brother, Dwijendranath, was a poet and philosopher. His sister Swarnakumari was a very well-known novelist.   In addition to receiving instruction from his siblings in a variety of topics, including gymnastics, martial arts, art, anatomy, literature, history, and mathematics, Tagore received most of his education at home. He travelled the nation for several months in 1873 with his father. He learned a lot about many different topics on this journey. He learned about Sikhism during his time in Amritsar, and he later used this knowledge to write up to six poems and numerous articles about the religion.

Rabindranath Tagore: Education

The traditional education of Rabindranath Tagore began in a public school in Brighton, East Sussex, and England. His father intended him to become a barrister, therefore he was sent to England in 1878. Later, he was joined by some of his family members to help him during his stay in England, including his nephew, niece, and sister-in-law. Rabindranath had never been a fan of formal education and as a result, he had little interest in attending his school. Later, he was enrolled at the University College of London, where he was invited to study law. But he abandoned his studies once more and studied several Shakespearean plays on his own. After studying the fundamentals of English, Irish, and Scottish literature and music, he returned to India and married Mrinalini Devi when she was just 10 years old.

Establishment of Santiniketan by Rabindranath Tagore

In Santiniketan, the father of Rabindranath had purchased a huge property. In 1901, he relocated to Santiniketan and established an ashram with the intention of opening an experimental school on his father’s property. The classes there were held under trees and used the conventional Guru-Shishya method of instruction. It was a prayer hall with marble flooring and was called “The Mandir.” Rabindranath Tagore felt that the rebirth of this ancient method of education would be advantageous in comparison to the modern approach.

Literary Works of Rabindranath Tagore

When Tagore was just a teenager, he started to compose short stories. His first published work was “Bhikharini.” His stories during the early years of his writing career represented the environment in which he was raised. Among many more stories, some of his most well-known short stories are “Kabuliwala,” “Kshudita Pashan,” “Atottju,” “Haimanti,” and “Musalmanir Golpo.”

It is said that among his works, his novels receive the least amount of attention. One of the causes of this might be his distinct narrative style, which is still challenging for readers today. His writings addressed future threats of nationalism as well as other important societal problems. His book, “Shesher Kobita” presented its tale through poetry and the rhythmic narration of the main character. Rabindranath Tagore was a dated poet, so he added a sarcastic touch to it by having his characters make fun of him! His other well-known books include “Noukadubi,” “Gora,” “Chaturanga,” “Ghare Baire,” and “Jogajog.”

Rabindranath was influenced by classical poets from the 15th and 16th centuries, including Ramprasad Sen and Kabir, and his work is frequently compared to theirs. He advised the future poet to think of Tagore and his writings while they read the poem. His best works include “Balaka,” “Purobi,” “Sonar Tori,” and “Gitanjali,” among others.

Rabindranath Tagore: Political view

The political stance of Tagore was a little ambiguous. Despite his criticism of imperialism, he backed the continuation of British rule in India. In his essay “The Cult of the Charka,” which was published in September 1925, he opposed Mahatma Gandhi’s “Swadeshi Movement.” He thought that the British and Indians should coexist and claimed that the British occupation of India was a “political symptom of our social disease.”

He opposed nationalism and said it was one of the worst problems humanity had ever faced. Although he occasionally supported the “Indian Independence Movement,” he once said that “a nation is that aspect which a whole population assumes when organized for a mechanical purpose.” He even renounced his knighthood on May 30, 1919, in the wake of the “Jallianwala Bagh massacre.” Overall, his vision of a free India was based not on its independence from foreign rule, but on the inhabitants’ freedom of conscience, behavior, and thinking.

Awards & Achievements of Rabindranath Tagore

On November 14, 1913, Tagore received the “Nobel Prize in Literature” in recognition of his significant and groundbreaking literary achievements. In 1919, following the “Jallianwala Bagh massacre,” he renounced his 1915 knighthood. In 1940, “Oxford University” presented him with a Doctorate of Literature during a special ceremony held at Shantiniketan.

Death of Rabindranath Tagore

The final four years of Rabindranath Tagore’s life were spent in excruciating suffering, and he battled two protracted illnesses. He fell into a comatose state in 1937, which returned three years later. After suffering a prolonged period of illness, Tagore passed away on August 7, 1941, in the same Jorasanko mansion where he was raised.

Rabindranath Tagore: Legacy

Rabindranath Tagore had an everlasting impact on many people because he altered how Bengali literature was perceived. Numerous annual events honor the eminent author in addition to the other statues and sculptures that have been created in numerous nations. Many translations into other languages by well-known authors, around the world helped make many of his works more widely known. There are five Tagore-specific museums. Three of them are in India, and the other two are in Bangladesh. The museums house his famous works, and millions of people visit them each year.

Rabindranath Tagore: FAQs

Q Why did Tagore win the Nobel Prize?

Ans. The literary anthology Gitanjali, which poet Rabindranath Tagore published in London in 1912, earned him the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1913. By going to an Indian for the first time, the reward took on even greater significance. The prize gained even more significance by being given to an Indian for the first time. This honour established Tagore’s literary reputation worldwide.

Q Why is Rabindranath Tagore famous?

Ans. Rabindranath Tagore (1861 – 1941) is best known as a poet and, in 1913 was the first non-European writer to be awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature.

Q What language did Tagore write in?

Ans. Millions of songs were also written by Tagore in addition to books, essays, short stories, travelogues, and dramas. It’s possible that Tagore’s short stories, for which he is in fact credited with creating the Bengali-language version of the genre, are his most well-regarded works of literature.

Q What is Rabindranath Tagore’s most famous poem?

Ans. The poetry book Gitanjali, for which Tagore received the Nobel Prize in 1913, is his most well-known work internationally.

Q What is the famous slogan of Rabindranath Tagore?

Ans. The renowned proverb, “You cannot cross the sea by merely standing and gazing at the ocean,” was coined by Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore and conveys the message that we should not engage in foolish wishes.

Q Why is Gitanjali so famous?

Ans. Gitanjali, a collection of poetry by Rabindranath, is also referred to as “Song Offerings” and was first written in Bengali before being translated into English. As a result, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature. The powerful prose lines of Gitanjali convey his immeasurable suffering and unwavering commitment to God.

Other Famous Personalities Biography

Sharing is caring!

Why did Tagore win the Nobel Prize?

The literary anthology Gitanjali, which poet Rabindranath Tagore published in London in 1912, earned him the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1913. By going to an Indian for the first time, the reward took on even greater significance. The prize gained even more significance by being given to an Indian for the first time. This honour established Tagore's literary reputation worldwide.

Why is Rabindranath Tagore famous?

Rabindranath Tagore (1861 – 1941) is best known as a poet and, in 1913 was the first non-European writer to be awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature.

What language did Tagore write in?

Millions of songs were also written by Tagore in addition to books, essays, short stories, travelogues, and dramas. It's possible that Tagore's short stories, for which he is in fact credited with creating the Bengali-language version of the genre, are his most well-regarded works of literature.

What is Rabindranath Tagore's most famous poem?

The poetry book Gitanjali, for which Tagore received the Nobel Prize in 1913, is his most well-known work internationally.

What is the famous slogan of Rabindranath Tagore?

The renowned proverb, "You cannot cross the sea by merely standing and gazing at the ocean," was coined by Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore and conveys the message that we should not engage in foolish wishes.

Why is Gitanjali so famous?

Gitanjali, a collection of poetry by Rabindranath, is also referred to as "Song Offerings" and was first written in Bengali before being translated into English. As a result, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature. The powerful prose lines of Gitanjali convey his immeasurable suffering and unwavering commitment to God.

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Rabindranath Tagore Biography : Early Life, Education, Literary Work, Achievements & More

rabindranath tagore biography in punjabi

Discover the legacy of Rabindranath Tagore, a versatile genius known for his poetry, novels, painting, and the composition of India's National Anthem. Explore his profound impact on literature, arts, and culture.

Rabindranath Tagore Biography : Early Life, Education, Literary Work, Achievements & More

Rabindranath Tagore Biography

Rabindranath Tagore, born on May 7, 1861, in Kolkata, India, and passing away on August 7, 1941, was a multifaceted talent. Hailing from Bengal, he was a poet, short-story writer, music composer, playwright, novelist, and painter. His innovative approach introduced fresh prose and verse styles along with colloquial language, liberating Bengali literature from the confines of classical Sanskrit norms. Notably, he bridged the gap between Indian and Western cultures, enriching both sides through his contributions.

Recognized as a towering presence, Tagore is often hailed as the paramount creative force of India during the early twentieth century. His monumental achievement came in 1913 when he became the first non-European to be honored with the Nobel Prize in Literature. Tagore’s legacy is a testament to his profound impact on literature, cultural exchange, and the world at large.

Rabindranath Tagore Birth

Rabindranath Tagore was born on May 7, 1861, in Kolkata, India. He was born into a distinguished family in Kolkata (formerly Calcutta), West Bengal, India. He was the youngest of thirteen children born to Debendranath Tagore and Sarada Devi. Debendranath Tagore was a prominent philosopher, religious leader, and reformer, while Sarada Devi was deeply engaged in cultural and social activities.

Rabindranath Tagore’s childhood and upbringing were greatly influenced by the cultural and literary environment of his family. He showed an early interest in literature, music, and art, and his talents were nurtured in a nurturing and intellectually stimulating household.

Rabindranath Tagore’s Early Life

Rabindranath Tagore’s early life was marked by his birth into a culturally enriched family in Kolkata (formerly Calcutta), India, on May 7, 1861. He was the youngest of thirteen children born to his parents, Debendranath Tagore and Sarada Devi. His family was well-known for their contributions to literature, arts, and social reform.

Growing up in a nurturing and intellectually stimulating environment, Tagore was exposed to various forms of art and literature from an early age. His family’s strong cultural background played a pivotal role in shaping his creative inclinations.

His formal education began at home under the guidance of private tutors. He also attended various schools in Kolkata, where his unconventional approach to learning set him apart. Tagore was more interested in exploring his own interests and curiosities than adhering to traditional educational methods.

By the age of sixteen, Tagore had already written his first collection of poems, “Kabi Kahini” (Tales of a Poet). This marked the beginning of his journey as a poet, and he soon began experimenting with various literary forms, infusing his work with his unique insights into human emotions and nature.

Tagore’s family introduced him to a diverse range of cultural experiences, including music, literature, and theater. These early exposures deeply influenced his artistic development and fostered his ability to think creatively and unconventionally.

His relationship with nature also played a significant role in shaping his worldview and artistic expressions. Tagore’s close connection to the natural world is often reflected in his poetry, where he seamlessly weaved elements of nature with human emotions.

Despite his family’s prominence, Tagore’s childhood was not devoid of personal challenges. He lost his mother at a young age, which had a profound impact on him and influenced his exploration of themes related to loss and longing in his poetry.

Overall, Rabindranath Tagore’s early life was characterized by an environment of intellectual curiosity, artistic exploration, and a close bond with nature. These formative years laid the foundation for his later accomplishments as a poet, philosopher, musician, and cultural icon.

Rabindranath Tagore Education

Rabindranath Tagore’s educational journey took a traditional turn when he enrolled in a public school in Brighton, East Sussex, England. His father had a plan for him to become a barrister, so he made the journey to England in 1878 for further studies. During his time there, he was joined by various family members, including his nephew, niece, and sister-in-law, who offered support throughout his stay.

However, Rabindranath wasn’t particularly enthusiastic about his schooling in England. He held a strong aversion to conventional education methods. Despite attending school, he didn’t find himself engaged in the learning process. Later on, he secured admission to the University College of London, where he was expected to pursue a legal education. Yet, his lack of interest in traditional classroom settings persisted. Instead, he took it upon himself to study Shakespearean plays independently.

Following his time abroad, Rabindranath returned to India. It was during this period that he immersed himself in the essence of English, Irish, and Scottish literature and music. His exposure to these cultural facets significantly influenced his artistic development. It was also around this time that he entered into matrimony with Mrinalini Devi, who was merely ten years old at the time.

Rabindranath Tagore’s educational journey was a blend of both conventional schooling and his own passionate pursuit of literature and the arts, ultimately shaping his unique and creative perspective that would go on to influence his remarkable contributions to the world of culture and literature.

Rabindranath Tagore At Shantiniketan

Rabindranath Tagore’s association with Shantiniketan marked a significant chapter in his life. Shantiniketan, located in Birbhum district of West Bengal, India, became a hub of learning, creativity, and cultural exchange under his guidance.

In 1901, Tagore established an experimental school named “Patha Bhavana” in Shantiniketan, which later grew into Visva-Bharati University. His vision for education was unconventional, emphasizing a holistic approach that harmonized nature, arts, and intellectual pursuits. He aimed to break away from rote learning and cultivate a sense of free thought and creativity among students.

The open-air classrooms at Shantiniketan showcased Tagore’s belief in the symbiotic relationship between education and nature. Underneath the trees, students engaged in discussions, imbibing knowledge in a serene environment. The curriculum encompassed a fusion of Western and Indian educational philosophies, encouraging students to explore a wide spectrum of disciplines.

Tagore invited scholars, artists, and thinkers from around the world to Shantiniketan, fostering a global exchange of ideas and cultural influences. This unique approach enriched the educational experience, exposing students to diverse perspectives.

Integral to Shantiniketan was Tagore’s concept of “Gurudev” or the teacher-student relationship based on mutual respect and learning. He considered education a lifelong journey and envisioned Shantiniketan as a center for the cultivation of the mind, spirit, and character.

Tagore’s own contributions to literature, music, and art deeply influenced the atmosphere at Shantiniketan. His compositions, known as Rabindrasangeet, were taught and performed with zeal, echoing his belief in the power of art to connect individuals and communities.

Today, Shantiniketan stands as a testament to Tagore’s progressive educational philosophy and enduring legacy. It continues to draw students, artists, and scholars, nurturing an environment of creativity, open thought, and cultural exploration, much like the vision Rabindranath Tagore envisioned over a century ago.

Nationalism And Rabindranath Tagore

Rabindranath Tagore’s views on nationalism were complex and thought-provoking. While he was a fervent advocate for the cultural and spiritual upliftment of India, his approach to nationalism was distinct from the mainstream political notions of his time.

Tagore expressed concerns about the aggressive and narrow forms of nationalism that were emerging, both in India and around the world. He believed that such nationalism could lead to divisions, conflicts, and a suppression of individual freedom. In his view, narrow nationalism often disregarded the broader human connections that transcended borders.

His famous work, “Nationalism,” consists of two essays: “Nationalism in the West” and “Nationalism in India.” In these essays, Tagore criticized the negative aspects of nationalism while emphasizing the importance of promoting mutual understanding and preserving cultural diversity.

Tagore believed in a more inclusive and universalistic approach to nationalism. He envisioned a world where different cultures could coexist, enriching each other without succumbing to superiority or dominance. He emphasized the need for a harmonious relationship between nations, highlighting the dangers of fanaticism and aggressive patriotism.

His vision of nationalism was closely tied to humanism, emphasizing the value of human beings over the rigid lines of nationality. He cautioned against blind allegiance to the nation and stressed the importance of cultivating a sense of humanity and empathy.

Tagore’s stance on nationalism drew both praise and criticism. Some appreciated his holistic perspective, while others accused him of being detached from the pressing political struggles of the time. Regardless, his ideas remain relevant in the context of today’s global challenges, emphasizing the importance of unity, understanding, and a broader perspective beyond national boundaries.

In essence, Rabindranath Tagore’s approach to nationalism was characterized by a deep concern for humanity, cultural preservation, and the need to transcend narrow divisions for the betterment of society as a whole.

Literary works of Rabindranath Tagore

Rabindranath Tagore’s literary works span a vast and diverse range of genres, including poetry, prose, fiction, drama, and songs. His creative output is celebrated for its profound philosophical insights, emotional depth, and innovative exploration of human experiences. Here are some of his notable literary contributions:

1. Poetry: Tagore’s poetry is perhaps his most celebrated literary form. His collection “Gitanjali” (Song Offerings) earned him the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1913. His poems are characterized by their spiritual essence, deep connection to nature, and exploration of human emotions.

2. Prose: Tagore’s prose writings encompass essays, short stories, and philosophical discourses. His essays often delve into topics such as education, culture, and social issues. His short stories, like those in “Galpaguchchha” (Bunch of Stories), capture a wide range of human experiences and emotions.

3. Novels: Tagore’s novels are known for their psychological depth and intricate character studies. Works like “Gora” and “Ghare-Baire” (The Home and the World) explore complex themes of identity, nationalism, and love in the context of changing social and political dynamics.

4. Plays: Tagore was a prolific playwright, and his plays are notable for their exploration of societal norms, relationships, and philosophical dilemmas. “Chitra,” “Raja,” and “Dak Ghar” (The Post Office) are some of his famous plays that highlight his versatility as a writer.

5. Short Stories: Tagore’s short stories are a treasure trove of human experiences. He captured everyday life and emotions in stories like “Kabuliwala” and “The Postmaster,” showcasing his ability to find beauty and depth in the ordinary.

6. Songs: Tagore’s songs, known as Rabindrasangeet, are an integral part of his literary legacy. These songs combine poetry and music to create a unique artistic form that touches the soul. They often celebrate nature, love, and spirituality.

7. Essays and Philosophical Works: Tagore’s essays and philosophical writings reflect his thoughts on education, nationalism, spirituality, and the relationship between humans and nature. His works like “Sadhana” and “Nationalism” offer profound insights into these subjects.

Tagore’s literary creations transcend boundaries and languages, resonating with people from various cultures and backgrounds. His ability to capture the essence of human emotions and his deep philosophical reflections continue to inspire and influence generations of readers and thinkers worldwide.

List of Awards won by Rabindranath Tagore

Rabindranath Tagore’s prolific contributions to literature, arts, and philosophy earned him numerous awards and honors throughout his life. Here is a list of some of the most notable awards won by Tagore:

  • Nobel Prize in Literature (1913): Tagore became the first Asian to win the Nobel Prize in Literature for his collection of poems, “Gitanjali” (Song Offerings). The Nobel Committee recognized his profoundly sensitive, fresh, and beautiful verse that conveyed his deeply spiritual and artistic thoughts.
  • Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire (1915): Tagore was bestowed with this honor by the British Crown in recognition of his literary achievements and his efforts to promote international understanding.
  • Gold Medal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Bengal (1917): Tagore was awarded this medal for his outstanding contribution to Bengali literature and his efforts to bridge cultural gaps.
  • Knighthood (1919): Although Tagore declined the knighthood in protest against the Jallianwala Bagh massacre, this award showcases his stature on the global stage.
  • Freedom of the City of London (1921): Tagore was granted the Freedom of the City of London in recognition of his outstanding contributions to literature and culture.
  • Pride of India (2019): In 2019, Tagore was posthumously awarded the “Pride of India” award by the Calcutta Chamber of Commerce, recognizing his immense contributions to the nation.

These awards are just a glimpse of the recognition Rabindranath Tagore received for his exceptional literary and cultural achievements. His influence extended far beyond accolades, as his works continue to touch hearts and inspire minds worldwide.

Rabindranath Tagore’s journey on this earth came to an end on August 7, 1941. He passed away in Calcutta (now Kolkata), India, leaving behind a legacy that continues to inspire and resonate with people across the globe. His contributions to literature, arts, philosophy, and cultural exchange remain as vibrant and impactful as ever, ensuring that his influence lives on through his works and the institutions he founded, such as Visva-Bharati University in Shantiniketan. Tagore’s departure marked the end of a remarkable life, but his ideas and creations continue to illuminate the world.

Legacy of Rabindranath Tagore

The legacy of Rabindranath Tagore is profound and enduring, spanning literature, music, art, education, and the broader realm of culture. His contributions have left an indelible mark on India and the world, shaping the course of thought, creativity, and social change. Here are some aspects of Tagore’s legacy:

1. Literature and Poetry: Tagore’s literary works, including poems, novels, short stories, and essays, have had a lasting impact on world literature. His poetic expressions, infused with spirituality and deep insights into human emotions and nature, continue to resonate with readers across generations.

2. Rabindrasangeet: Tagore’s musical compositions, known as Rabindrasangeet, have become an integral part of Bengali culture. These songs blend poetry with melody and carry messages of love, spirituality, and universal harmony. They continue to be sung and cherished by millions.

3. Education: Tagore’s educational philosophy, as exemplified by Visva-Bharati University in Shantiniketan, emphasizes holistic learning, cultural exchange, and the harmony between nature and education. His approach to education inspired alternative pedagogical methods and institutions globally.

4. Nationalism and Internationalism: Tagore’s nuanced views on nationalism, emphasizing humanism, cultural diversity, and understanding among nations, continue to guide discussions on identity and nationhood. His vision of a world united through cultural exchange and mutual respect remains relevant.

5. Social Reforms: Tagore’s works addressed social issues, advocating for gender equality, women’s rights, and social justice. His writings challenged traditional norms and contributed to discussions on modernization and progress.

6. Global Recognition: His Nobel Prize in Literature not only brought international acclaim to him but also shone a spotlight on Indian literature and culture. Tagore’s recognition as a global figure enriched cross-cultural understanding and dialogue.

7. Artistic Expressions: Beyond literature and music, Tagore’s artistic talents extended to painting and theater. His paintings captured his unique perspective on life, nature, and spirituality, while his plays delved into intricate human emotions and social dynamics.

8. Philosophical Insights: Tagore’s philosophical ideas on spirituality, the interconnectedness of all life, and the pursuit of truth continue to inspire seekers and thinkers worldwide.

Tagore’s legacy is multifaceted, touching various aspects of human experience. His ideas, values, and creative works continue to transcend borders, enrich lives, and foster a deeper understanding of the world and our place in it. As we engage with his legacy, we’re reminded of the power of creativity, the pursuit of knowledge, and the potential for positive change through art and thought.

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rabindranath tagore biography in punjabi

Literopedia

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Rabindranath Tagore Biography and Works

Rabindranath Tagore Biography and Works

Table of Contents

Rabindranath Tagore biography in english,What is the biography of Rabindranath Tagore in detail?,What religion was Tagore?,When Rabindranath Tagore wrote national anthem?,Why is Rabindranath called Tagore?,What is the original name of Rabindranath Tagore?,What is the famous work of Rabindranath Tagore?,How many poems Rabindranath Tagore wrote?,Why did Tagore call Gandhi Mahatma?,Rabindranath Tagore, born on May 7, 1861, in Calcutta, India, emerges as an iconic figure in literature, poetry, music, and philosophy. This comprehensive biography endeavors to unveil the multifaceted layers of Tagore’s life, unraveling his artistic and philosophical endeavors, and examining the profound impact of his enduring legacy. Rabindranath Tagore Biography and Works

Early Years and Upbringing:  

Rabindranath Tagore hailed from a distinguished Bengali family with a rich legacy in literature, art, and social reform. His father, Debendranath Tagore, a philosopher and leader in the Brahmo Samaj movement, exposed Tagore to the worlds of spirituality and social ideals. The early loss of his mother at a tender age left an indelible mark on Tagore, influencing his later works that delved into societal injustices.

Tagore’s formal education commenced under private tutors, fostering his early creativity and interest in the arts. Despite not completing conventional schooling, his exposure to literature, philosophy, and the natural beauty of Bengal profoundly shaped his intellectual and artistic development.

Educational Exploration:  

In 1878, Tagore embarked on a journey to England for formal education but found the structured environment stifling, returning to India without completing his studies. This period of self-discovery ignited his creative energies, leading to the composition of his first poems and a deeper exploration of literature.

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In 1901, Tagore established a school in Santiniketan, reflecting his vision for an unconventional educational institution celebrating the integration of nature, arts, and spirituality. This institution evolved into Visva-Bharati University, a unique center of learning attracting scholars and artists worldwide.

Gitanjali and International Acclaim:  

Tagore’s international acclaim peaked with the publication of Gitanjali in 1910, a collection of poems translated into English by Tagore himself. The spiritual depth and lyrical beauty of Gitanjali earned him the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1913, making him the first non-European laureate. This recognition propelled him to global prominence, and his poetry resonated with readers across continents.

Rabindranath Tagore's Paintings Reveal His Quest For The World Beyond Words

Philosophical Writings and Prose Works:  

Beyond poetry, Tagore’s literary repertoire included prose works, essays, and philosophical treatises. His writings delved into human relationships, spirituality, nationalism, and the synthesis of Eastern and Western thought. Notable works such as The Home and the World, Sadhana, and Creative Unity showcased his intellectual depth.

Musical Compositions and Artistic Pursuits:  

Tagore’s artistic pursuits extended beyond literature. An accomplished musician and composer, he created a vast body of music, including the national anthems of India and Bangladesh. His visual artworks mirrored the poetic sensibility found in his writings, showcasing a harmonious blend of creativity. Rabindranath Tagore Biography and Works

Travels and Interactions:  

Tagore’s travels took him across the globe, facilitating interactions with luminaries like Albert Einstein, W.B. Yeats, and H.G. Wells. These exchanges contributed to global discussions on literature, science, and humanism.

Social Reformer and Critic of Nationalism:  

Tagore’s social vision transcended literature. A vocal critic of nationalism, he cautioned against its divisive tendencies. Tagore’s commitment to universal humanism and cultural exchange left an indelible mark, advocating for social justice and mutual understanding. Rabindranath Tagore Biography and Works

Legacy and Later Years:  

Tagore’s legacy extended beyond his lifetime through Visva-Bharati, his writings, and the celebration of Rabindra Jayanti. His vision of an education system harmonizing intellect and nature inspired generations. Tagore’s later years were marked by engagement with social and political issues, including his renunciation of a knighthood in protest against the Jallianwala Bagh massacre.

Major Works:

Gitanjali (Song Offerings) – 1910:

A collection of poems that earned Rabindranath Tagore the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1913. Gitanjali explores themes of spirituality, divine love, and the human connection to the divine.

The Home and the World (Ghare-Baire) – 1916:

A novel that delves into the complexities of love, nationalism, and personal freedom. The narrative unfolds against the backdrop of the Swadeshi Movement in Bengal.

The Gardener – 1913:

Another notable collection of Tagore’s poetry, where he explores themes of love, nature, and the human experience. The poems are characterized by their lyrical beauty and emotional depth.

Sadhana: The Realization of Life – 1913:

A collection of essays that reflect Tagore’s philosophical thoughts on life, spirituality, and the pursuit of knowledge. It explores the concept of Sadhana, the realization of one’s inner self.

Chokher Bali (A Grain of Sand) – 1903:

A novel that revolves around the complexities of human relationships and societal norms. It explores themes of love, betrayal, and social expectations in the backdrop of early 20th-century Bengal.

Creative Unity – 1922:

A collection of essays where Tagore reflects on the concept of unity in diversity. He explores the interconnectedness of different cultures and the need for embracing diverse perspectives.

Muktadhara (The Waterfall) – 1922:

A play that addresses social issues such as class disparity and the exploitation of the lower classes. It advocates for positive social change and justice.

Jogajog (The Knot of the Heart) – 1929:

A novel that explores the complexities of familial relationships, societal expectations, and the clash between tradition and modernity. Rabindranath Tagore Biography and Works

Shesher Kobita (The Last Poem) – 1929:

A novel known for its exploration of love, societal norms, and the clash between idealism and reality. It is considered one of Tagore’s most mature and nuanced works.

Natir Puja (The Worship of the Actor) – 1926:

A dance drama that celebrates the art of theater and the creative spirit. Tagore’s experimentation with the genre showcases his versatility as an artist.

Writing Style:

Lyrical Beauty:

Tagore’s writing is characterized by a profound lyrical beauty. His poetry, in particular, is known for its emotional depth, evocative imagery, and musicality. Tagore’s verses resonate with readers due to their timeless and universal appeal.

Spiritual Themes:

Many of Tagore’s works, especially his poetry and essays, explore spiritual themes. He often delves into the relationship between the human soul and the divine, reflecting his deep philosophical and spiritual convictions.

Exploration of Human Relationships:

Tagore’s novels often revolve around intricate portrayals of human relationships. Whether exploring love, familial bonds, or friendships, he delves into the complexities of interpersonal connections with sensitivity and nuance.

Nature Imagery:

Nature plays a significant role in Tagore’s works. His writing is infused with vivid nature imagery, and he often uses the beauty of the natural world as a backdrop to explore human emotions and experiences.

Philosophical Reflections:

Tagore’s essays and philosophical works reflect his contemplative nature. He engages with profound ideas about life, existence, and the interconnectedness of all things. His philosophical reflections are accessible yet profound.

Humanism and Social Critique:

Tagore’s humanistic outlook is evident in his writings, where he advocates for understanding, compassion, and unity. He is a vocal critic of narrow nationalism and social injustices, using his literary platform to address societal concerns. Rabindranath Tagore Biography and Works

Prose and Poetry Synthesis:

Tagore seamlessly blends prose and poetry in many of his works. This synthesis creates a unique narrative style, allowing him to convey complex ideas with artistic expression. His prose is often poetic, and his poetry carries a narrative flow.

Symbolism and Allegory:

Tagore frequently employs symbolism and allegory in his works. This adds layers of meaning to his narratives and invites readers to engage in deeper interpretation. Symbolic elements enrich the texture of his writing.

Cultural Fusion:

Tagore’s works reflect a fusion of Eastern and Western influences. He draws from the rich cultural heritage of India while incorporating elements from Western literary traditions. This cross-cultural synthesis contributes to the universality of his themes.

Rabindranath Tagore, the polymathic luminary of literature, philosophy, and the arts, left an indelible mark on the cultural landscape of the world. His major works, ranging from the poetic brilliance of Gitanjali to the intricate narratives of novels like The Home and the World, showcase his versatility and profound insights into the human experience. Rabindranath Tagore Biography and Works

Tagore’s writing style, characterized by lyrical beauty, spiritual themes, and a nuanced exploration of human relationships, continues to captivate readers across generations. His philosophical reflections, often woven into his prose and poetry, reflect a deep contemplation of life, spirituality, and the interconnectedness of all things.

Beyond his literary contributions, Tagore’s influence extends to social critique and humanism. His advocacy for understanding, compassion, and cultural synthesis, as well as his critique of narrow nationalism, positions him as a visionary who addressed societal concerns through his art.Rabindranath Tagore biography in english,What is the biography of Rabindranath Tagore in detail?,What religion was Tagore?,When Rabindranath Tagore wrote national anthem?,Why is Rabindranath called Tagore?,What is the original name of Rabindranath Tagore?,What is the famous work of Rabindranath Tagore?,How many poems Rabindranath Tagore wrote?,Why did Tagore call Gandhi Mahatma?,

The enduring legacy of Rabindranath Tagore is manifest in the continued celebration of Rabindra Jayanti, the global recognition of his Nobel Prize-winning Gitanjali, and the existence of Visva-Bharati University, an embodiment of his vision for holistic education. Tagore’s impact transcends geographical boundaries, and his writings remain a source of inspiration for those who seek beauty, wisdom, and a deeper understanding of the human condition.

1. What is Rabindranath Tagore best known for?

Tagore is best known for his poetry, especially the collection Gitanjali, which earned him the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1913. His major works also include novels like The Home and the World and essays like Sadhana.

2. What is the writing style of Rabindranath Tagore?

Tagore’s writing style is characterized by lyrical beauty, spiritual themes, and a nuanced exploration of human relationships. He seamlessly blends prose and poetry, often incorporating symbolism and allegory into his works.

3. How did Rabindranath Tagore contribute to social critique?

Tagore was a vocal critic of narrow nationalism and societal injustices. His writings often addressed social concerns, advocating for understanding, compassion, and a harmonious cultural synthesis. His humanistic outlook permeated his literary and philosophical contributions.

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Rabindranath Tagore Biography: A Legendary Figure of Literature and Art

A well-known figure in Indian history, Rabindranath Tagore is a name that conjures up images of literature, art, and cultural significance. The purpose of this post is to examine the life, works, and enduring influence of this extraordinary person who has left a lasting impression on the globe. From his early life to his literary and artistic accomplishments, Tagore’s journey is a testament to the power of creativity and the pursuit of knowledge.

Table of Contents

Introduction

Rabindranath Tagore was an all-around genius who achieved greatness in a variety of professions. He was born on May 7, 1861, in Calcutta, India. In addition to being a great poet, writer, and playwright, he was also a philosopher, painter, and educator. The topics covered by Tagore’s contributions were diverse and included love, nature, patriotism, spirituality, and humanism. Readers from many walks of life continue to be moved and inspired by his writings, which transcend cultural barriers.

Rabindranath Tagore’s Early Life and Education

Tagore was born into a prominent Bengali family known for their literary and artistic inclinations. His father, Debendranath Tagore, was a respected philosopher and religious reformer, while his mother, Sarada Devi, was a deeply spiritual woman. As a result of his intellectually stimulating upbringing, Tagore became enamoured with literature and the arts at a young age.

Despite the wealth and influence of his family, Tagore’s upbringing was unconventional. He received basic formal education but was primarily educated at home by private tutors and through self-study. This unconventional method enabled him to research a wide range of topics and create his own distinct outlook on life.

Rabindranath Tagore

Literary Career

At the age of 16, Tagore published his first collection of poems, which marked the beginning of his creative career. He developed his writing abilities throughout time and experimented with a variety of genres, including poems, short tales, novels, and dramas. His literary works often reflected his deep connection with nature, his musings on love and relationships, and his social and political commentary.

Major Works and Their Significance

Tagore’s literary repertoire is vast and encompasses numerous notable works. One of his most celebrated works is “Gitanjali” or “Song Offerings,” a collection of poems that earned him international recognition. It was through “Gitanjali” that Tagore became the first non-European to be awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1913. The core of human emotions, spirituality, and the bond between man and the divine are all brilliantly captured in this collection.

Another significant work by Tagore is “Ghare-Baire” or “The Home and the World,” a novel that delves into the themes of love, nationalism, and personal identity. Through this masterpiece, Tagore explores the complexities of relationships and the conflicts that arise in the backdrop of India’s struggle for independence. Additionally, “Shesher Kobita” or “The Last Poem” stands as a testament to Tagore’s mastery of poetic expression. This novel-in-verse depicts a love story intertwined with philosophical musings on life, death, and the transient nature of existence.

Themes and Style in Tagore’s Writings

Tagore’s writings are characterized by their lyrical quality, evocative imagery, and profound symbolism. Themes of love, nature, spirituality, and the human condition are frequently explored in his works. Tagore’s deep connection to nature is evident in his vivid descriptions of landscapes, which serve as metaphors for the human experience.

Furthermore, his writings reflect his social and political consciousness. Tagore was deeply concerned with the issues of his time, such as nationalism, social inequality, and cultural identity. His works provide a keen insight into the social fabric of colonial India and resonate with readers even today.

Social and Political Activism

Along with being a prolific writer, Tagore was also a vocal advocate for various social and political causes. He promoted a number of causes, such as women’s rights, nationalistic ideas, and education, using his platform and influence.

Rabindranath Tagore’s Involvement in Social Causes

Tagore firmly believed in the power of education and its ability to bring about societal transformation. In 1901, he founded an experimental school called Shantiniketan in rural Bengal, which later evolved into Visva-Bharati University. This institution aimed to provide a holistic education that combined intellectual pursuits with artistic and cultural enrichment.

Political Beliefs and Nationalism

Tagore’s views on nationalism were nuanced and went beyond narrow definitions. While he supported the idea of an independent India, he also emphasized the importance of cultural exchange and understanding among nations. He believed that true nationalism should embrace diversity and promote unity in a global context.

Founding of Shantiniketan and Visva-Bharati

University Shantiniketan became a hub of intellectual and artistic activity under Tagore’s guidance. It attracted scholars, artists, and students from all over the world, fostering an environment of cross-cultural dialogue and collaboration. Visva-Bharati University continues to be a center for learning, where students engage with Tagore’s philosophy and ideals.

Rabindranath Tagore

Artistic Pursuits

In addition to his literary pursuits, Tagore was also an accomplished musician and painter. His artistic endeavors added a multidimensional aspect to his creative expressions and contributed to the richness of Indian art and culture.

Tagore’s Contributions to Music and Painting

Tagore’s contributions to music and painting were significant and had a profound impact on the cultural landscape of India. In the realm of music, Tagore developed a unique style known as Rabindra Sangeet. This genre of music combined elements of Indian classical music with folk influences, creating a melodic and poetic form of expression. Tagore himself composed over 2,000 songs, which were deeply rooted in the themes of love, nature, devotion, and human emotions. His compositions continue to be cherished and performed by musicians and enthusiasts worldwide.

Tagore’s artistic talent extended to the visual arts as well. He was an accomplished painter and created numerous artworks throughout his life. His paintings often depicted scenes from nature, portraits, and abstract representations of emotions. Tagore’s artistic style was characterized by its simplicity, elegance, and the ability to capture the essence of the subject matter.

Development of Rabindra Sangeet

Rabindra Sangeet, as developed by Tagore, revolutionized the music scene in India. His songs not only showcased his poetic brilliance but also incorporated complex melodies and intricate rhythms. Tagore’s music transcended language barriers, and his compositions have been translated and performed in various languages across the globe. Rabindra Sangeet continues to be celebrated as a unique and treasured musical tradition.

Influence on Bengali Art and Culture

Tagore’s artistic pursuits had a profound influence on Bengali art and culture. His emphasis on the integration of arts, literature, and music inspired subsequent generations of artists and intellectuals. The impact of his work can be seen in the works of renowned Bengali writers, musicians, and painters who were influenced by his creative vision.

International Recognition and Legacy

Tagore’s literary and artistic achievements garnered international recognition and left an enduring legacy that continues to inspire generations.

Nobel Prize in Literature

In 1913, Tagore became the first non-European to be awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature for his collection of poems, “Gitanjali.” This prestigious accolade brought global attention to Tagore’s literary genius and his ability to captivate readers with his profound insights and lyrical expressions.

Impact on Literature and Cultural Exchange

Tagore’s works have been translated into numerous languages and have found a global audience. His writings, filled with universal themes and emotions, resonate with readers across cultures. Tagore’s literary contributions have fostered cultural exchange, deepened mutual understanding, and enriched the world of literature.

Tagore’s Lasting Influence on Indian Society

Tagore’s ideas and philosophy continue to shape Indian society. His emphasis on education, artistic pursuits, and cultural preservation laid the foundation for institutions like Visva-Bharati University and influenced educational reforms in India. Tagore’s humanistic approach, his advocacy for social causes, and his belief in the power of creativity have had a lasting impact on the collective consciousness of the Indian people.

Rabindranath Tagore

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Personal Life and Philosophy

Tagore’s personal life and philosophical beliefs played a significant role in shaping his creative output.

Relationships and Family

Rabindranath Tagore’s personal life was marked by deep relationships and familial bonds. He was married to Mrinalini Devi and had five children. The close-knit Tagore family provided him with support and inspiration throughout his journey.

Tagore’s Philosophical Beliefs

Tagore’s philosophical beliefs were deeply rooted in spirituality and humanism. He emphasized the interconnectedness of all beings and believed in the power of love, empathy, and compassion to overcome societal divisions. Tagore’s writings often reflected his contemplations on the nature of existence, the complexities of human emotions, and the search for meaning and purpose.

Reflection on Spirituality and Humanism

Tagore’s philosophical reflections encompassed spirituality and humanism. He explored the realms of spirituality, delving into the interconnectedness of the human spirit with the divine and the universe. His writings often expressed a sense of wonder and awe for the beauty and mysteries of existence. Tagore’s humanistic outlook emphasized the importance of recognizing the inherent worth and dignity of every individual. He believed in the power of education, art, and culture to uplift humanity and promote social harmony. Tagore’s philosophy emphasized the need for empathy, understanding, and the celebration of diversity.

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Rabindranath Tagore, a multifaceted genius and a luminary in the world of literature and art, continues to inspire and captivate audiences worldwide. His literary works, musical compositions, and artistic pursuits have left an indelible mark on Indian culture and have garnered international acclaim. Tagore’s profound insights into the human condition, his exploration of spirituality and humanism, and his commitment to social causes have ensured his lasting legacy.

Tagore’s enduring influence is a testament to the power of creativity, imagination, and the pursuit of knowledge. His writings and artistic expressions continue to resonate with readers, evoking a range of emotions and provoking deep introspection. Rabindranath Tagore’s contributions are a testament to the transformative power of literature and art in shaping societies and touching the hearts and minds of people across the globe.

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FAQs – Rabindranath Tagore Biography

Q – what is rabindranath tagore famous for.

Ans – Rabindranath Tagore is famous for his literary works, especially his collection of poems called “Gitanjali,” which earned him the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1913.

Q – How many Nobel Prizes did Rabindranath Tagore win?

Ans – Rabindranath Tagore won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1913 for his collection of poems, “Gitanjali.”

Q – Which is Tagore’s most famous poem?

Ans – Tagore’s most famous poem is “Where the mind is without fear,” which is a part of his collection “Gitanjali.”

Q – Did Tagore write in languages other than Bengali?

Ans – Yes, Tagore was a prolific writer who wrote in Bengali and also translated his own works into English. He was proficient in both languages.

Q – How did Tagore contribute to education?

Ans – Tagore founded Shantiniketan, an experimental school that later became Visva-Bharati University. He emphasized holistic education, combining intellectual pursuits with artistic and cultural enrichment.

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Rabindranath Tagore | Biography, Poetry & Death

Rabindranath Tagore (born May 7, 1861, in Calcutta, and died on August 7, 1941) was a Bengali poet, philosopher, painter, composer, musician, and Brahmo Samaj supporter, 1913 received the Nobel Prize in Literature and was the first Asian Nobel Prize winner.

From the Pirali Brahmin caste of Calcutta, Tagore composed his first poems at the age of eight. At sixteen, he published his first substantial poems under the pseudonym Bhanu Shingo (“the lion of the sun”) and wrote his first short stories and dramas in 1877.

Rabindranath Tagore did not receive formal schooling as a child, his life in Shilaidaha (where his grandfather built a country house), and his travels made Tagore a maverick and a pragmatist. He is one of the voices raised against the British Raj and he supports like Gandhi the movement for the independence of India.

His life is tragic – he loses almost all his family and is deeply afflicted by the decline of Bengal – but his works survive him, in the form of poems, novels, plays, essays, and paintings as well as the institution he founded in Shantiniketan, the University of Visva-Bharati .

Tagore has written novels, short stories, songs, dance-dramas, and essays on political and private subjects. Gitanjali (The lyric offering), Gora (Pale face), and Ghare-Baire (The house and the world) are among his best-known works.

Rabindranath Tagore verses, short stories, and novels – in which he frequently uses rhythmic lyricism, colloquialism, meditative naturalism and philosophical contemplation – have received enthusiastic reception around the world.

Tagore was also a cultural reformer and a polymath who modernized Bengali art by rejecting the restrictions which linked it to classical Indian forms. Two songs from his Rabindra sangeet cannon became respective national anthems of Bangladesh and India: Amar Shonar Bangla and Jana Gana Mana.

The Early life of Rabindranath Tagore

Rabindranath Tagore was born at Jorasanko Thakurbari in Calcutta. His father was the Brahma Guru Debendranath Tagore (1818–1905) and his mother was Saradasundari Devi (1826–185). Rabindranath was the fourteenth child of his parents. The Tagore family of Jorasanko was a proponent of the Brahmo Adidharma doctrine.

In 185, at the age of only fourteen, Rabindranath had a miscarriage. Father Debendranath spent most of the year outside Calcutta intoxicated by traveling. So even though he was a child of a rich family, Rabindranath spent his childhood under the discipline of his servants.

As a child, Rabindranath Tagore attended the Oriental Seminary, Normal School, Bengal Academy, and St. Xavier’s Collegiate School in Calcutta for some time. However, due to his disinterest in schooling, his tutoring was arranged at home.

As a child, he lived in Jorasanko’s house or in Bolpur and Panihati Rabindranath used to feel more comfortable walking in the natural environment in the garden house. Rabindranath’s Upanayana was held in 183 at the age of eleven. He then traveled abroad with his father for a few months.

They first came to Santiniketan. He then spent some time in Amritsar, Punjab, visiting the Sikh worship system. Finally, Debendranath went with his son to Bakrota, near the hill town of Dalhousie in Punjab (now in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh).

Sanskrit grammar, English, astronomy, from Rabindranath’s father sitting in the Bakrota bungalow here began to take regular lessons in general science and history. Devendra biography of the eminent personalities, Kalidasa ‘s classical Sanskrit poetry and drama, and the Upanishads lessons encouraged.

In 18, some important works of the young Rabindranath were published in Bharati. These are Michael Madhusudan’s “Critique of Meghnada Badha Kavya”, Vanusingh Tagore’s verses, and two stories called “Vikharini” and “Karuna”. Of these, the words of Vanusingh Tagore are particularly significant.

These poems are Radha- “Vanusingh” is written in Bhanita in imitation of Krishna ‘s verses. Rabindranath’s story “Vikharini” is the first short story in Bengali literature. In 1878, Tagore’s first book of poems was published as well as the first printed book Kabi Kahini.

He also wrote the book Sandhya Sangeet (evening song) in this episode. Rabindranath’s famous poem ” Nirjharer Swapnabhanga ” belongs to this book of poetry.

Nobel Prize for Literature

In 1915 he received the title of knight, which he resigned in 1919 in protest against the Amritsar massacre. Tagore started to develop intense activity as a lecturer in several countries. In 1921 he started to dedicate a large part of his time in promoting the international University “Visva-Bharati”, which he founded that same year in the center of Santiniketan.

Rabindranath Tagore passed away in Calcutta, India, on August 7, 1941.

Death of Rabindranath Tagore

In the last decade of his life (1932-1941) a total of fifty books of Rabindranath Tagore were published. Among his books of poetry of this period are the notable Punscha (1932), Shesh Saptak (1935), Shyamoli, and Patraput (1936) – three collections of prose poetry. During this period of his life, Rabindranath experimented in various branches of literature.

This is the fruit of his experiments and his multiple Gadya Gitika drama Chitrangada (1936; Chitrangada (1892) kabya Natya Nratyabhinay-adapted form), Shyama (1939) and Chandalika (1939) Nrtya Natya Trayi. Rabindranath also wrote his last three novels (Two Sisters (1933), Malanch (1934), and Four Chapters (1934)) in this episode.

Most of his paintings were painted during this period of his life. At the same time, Rabindranath Tagore became interested in science in the last years of his life. In 1937 he published a collection of essays on science- Bisbaparicaya. In this book, he recorded the latest conclusions of astronomy in simple Bengali prose.

The influence of his acquired knowledge of physics and astronomy is also seen in his poetry. She (1936), three companions(1940), and Galpasalpa (1941) are three collections of short stories based on his scientific character.

At this stage in his life, Rabindranath reacted strongly against religious orthodoxy and superstition. When Gandhiji called the death of hundreds of people in an earthquake in the British province of Bihar in 1934 “the wrath of God,” Rabindranath called Gandhiji’s statement unscientific and publicly criticized him.

The financial plight of the common people of Calcutta and the rapid socio-economic decline of the British Bengal province particularly disturbed him. He also illustrated this fact in a hundred-line poem composed in prose.

The last four years of his life were marked by a series of physical illnesses. Twice during this time, he had to stay in bed in critical condition. Once in 1938, Kabir became unconscious and in a critical condition. Although Seba recovered, he did not recover after falling ill in 1940.

Rabindranath’s poems written during this period were some unforgettable lines centered on death consciousness. Rabindranath Tagore was creative until seven days before his death. a long illness in 1941 Jorasanko residence of Rabindranath Tagore breathed his last.

Rabindranath Tagore quotes

  • Clouds come floating into my life, no longer to carry rain or usher storm but to add color to my sunset sky.
  • If you cry because the sun has gone out of your life, your tears will prevent you from seeing the stars.
  • Let me not pray to be sheltered from dangers, but to be fearless in facing them. Let me not beg for the stilling of my pain, but for the heart to conquer it.
  • I slept and dreamt that life was a joy. I awoke and saw that life was service. I acted and behold, service was a joy.
  • The small wisdom is like water in a glass: clear, transparent, pure. The great wisdom is like the water in the sea: dark, mysterious, impenetrable.
  • Death is not extinguishing the light; it is only putting out the lamp because the dawn has come.

Tales and novels

  • Gora  (1910)
  • Ghare-Baire  (1916) [The House and the World]
  • Yogayog  (1929) [Countercurrents]
  • Manasi  (1890) [The Ideal]
  • Sonar Tari  (1894) [The Golden Boat]
  • Gitanjali  (1910) [Music Offers]
  • Raja  (1910) [The King of the Dark Chamber]
  • Dakghar  (1912) [The Post Office]
  • Gitimalya  (1914) [Wreath of Songs]
  • Achalayatan  (1912) [The Building]
  • Gardener  (1913) [The Gardener]
  • Balaka  (1916) [Flight of the Cranes]
  • Fruit-Gathering  (1916) [Fruit Harvest]
  • The Fugitive  (1921) [The Fugitive]
  • Muktadhara  (1922) [The Waterfall]
  • Raktakaravi  (1926) [Red Oleanders]

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COMMENTS

  1. Rabindranath Tagore

    By 1877 he graduated to his first short stories and dramas, published under his real name. As a humanist, universalist, internationalist, and ardent critic of nationalism, [15] he denounced the British Raj and advocated independence from Britain.

  2. Rabindranath Tagore

    Category: Arts & Culture Bengali: Rabīndranāth Ṭhākur Born: May 7, 1861, Calcutta [now Kolkata], India Died: August 7, 1941, Calcutta (aged 80) Awards And Honors: Nobel Prize Notable Works: "Gitanjali" "Gitanjali (Song Offerings)" "Manasi" See all related content → Recent News Dec. 27, 2023, 1:11 AM ET (MSN)

  3. Punjabi Essay on "Rabindranath Tagore", "ਰਵਿੰਦਰ ਨਾਥ ਟੈਗੋਰ", Punjabi

    ਰਵਿੰਦਰ ਨਾਥ ਟੈਗੋਰ . Rabindranath Tagore . ਲੇਖ ਨੰਬਰ:੦੧ ਜਾਣ-ਪਛਾਣ : ਭਾਰਤ ਦੀ ਧਰਤੀ ਬੜੀ ਮਹਾਨ ਅਤੇ ਪਵਿੱਤਰ ਹੈ। ਇੱਥੇ ਗਰਆਂ ਪੀਰਾਂ, ਪੈਗੰਬਰਾਂ, ਪਸਿੱਧ ਕਵੀਆਂ ਅਤੇ ਲੇਖਕਾਂ ਨੇ ਜਨਮ ਲਿਆ ਹੈ ...

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    Education: The traditional education of Rabindranath Tagore began in a public school in Brighton, East Sussex in England. His father intended him to be a barrister; therefore, he went to England in 1878. Later, he was joined by a number of his family members to help him throughout his stay in England, including his nephew, niece, and sister-in-law.

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    Rabindranath Tagore was born on 7 May, 1861. He was a novelist, essayist, playwright, painter and song composer. Every year on 7 May. Rabindranath Tagore Jayanti or birth anniversary is celebrated ...

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    Name: Rabindranath Tagore. Gender: Male. Best Known For: Rabindranath Tagore was a Bengali poet, novelist and painter best known for being the first non-European to be awarded the Nobel Prize for ...

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    Rabindranath Tagore ( Bengali: রবীন্দ্রনাথ ঠাকুর ), who is popularly called "Kabiguru", was born on 7 May 1861. His name is written as Rabindranath Tagore in many languages of India. He was a poet, philosopher, and artist. He wrote many stories, novels, poems, and dramas. He is also very well known for composing music.

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    Rabindranath Tagore Biographical . R abindranath Tagore (1861-1941) was the youngest son of Debendranath Tagore, a leader of the Brahmo Samaj, which was a new religious sect in nineteenth-century Bengal and which attempted a revival of the ultimate monistic basis of Hinduism as laid down in the Upanishads.He was educated at home; and although at seventeen he was sent to England for formal ...

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    1 Early Life 2 Marriage and Literary Career 3 Noble Prize and Knighthood 4 Later Life and Death Early Life Tagore was not the only one of his siblings who entered into the arts. His oldest brother was a philosopher and poet and another brother was a musician and playwright. One of his sisters also became a novelist.

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    Biography. Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941) was the youngest son of Debendranath Tagore, a leader of the Brahmo Samaj, which was a new religious sect in nineteenth-century Bengal and which attempted a revival of the ultimate monistic basis of Hinduism as laid down in the Upanishads. He was educated at home; and although at seventeen he was sent ...

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    Read to know more about his vibrant life. Rabindranath Tagore was an iconic figure in the Indian cultural renaissance. He was a polymath poet, philosopher, musician, writer, and educationist. Rabindranath Tagore became the first Asian to win the Nobel Prize in 1913 for his collection of poems, Gitanjali. He was called Gurudev, Kabiguru, and ...

  13. Rabindranath Tagore

    Poet, writer and humanitarian, Rabindranath Tagore was the first Indian to be awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature and he played a key role in the renaissance of modern India. Tagore is most widely known for his poetry, but he was also an accomplished author of novels, short stories, plays and articles.

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    Rabindranath Tagore, the author and composer of the national anthems of India and Bangladesh Rabindranath Tagore reciting "Jana Gana Mana" " Jana Gana Mana" (lit. 'Thou Art the Ruler of the Minds of All People') is the national anthem of the Republic of India.It was originally composed as Bharoto Bhagyo Bidhata in Bengali by polymath Rabindranath Tagore on 11 December 1911.

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    On his 70th birthday, in an address delivered at the university he founded in 1918, Rabindranath Tagore said: "I have, it is true, engaged myself in a series of activities. But the innermost me is not to be found in any of these. At the end of the journey I am able to see, a little more clearly, the orb of my life. Looking back, the only thing of which I feel certain is that I am a poet (ami ...

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    Rabindranath Tagore was born on the 07th of May, 1861 in Kolkata. Rabindranath Tagore was the son of Debendranath Tagore, one of Brahmo Samaj's active members, a known and celebrated philosopher, and literate. R.N Tagore died after a prolonged illness on the 07th of August, 1941.

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    Wife & Children. On 9 December 1883, the 22-year-old Tagore got married to an 11-year-old Mrinalini Devi (born Bhabatarini). [9] Mrinalini Devi was born in 1873 and died in 1902. Mrinalini died within a span of 19 years of their marriage, and since then, Tagore never married in his life.

  18. Rabindranath Tagore Biography

    Image Credit Birthday: May 7, 1861 ( Taurus) Born In: Kolkata, West Bengal, India 362 71 Philosophers #43 Poets #2 Artists #2 Quick Facts Indian Celebrities Born In May Also Known As: Rabindranath Tagore, Bhanu Singha Thakur, Robindronath Thakur Died At Age: 80 Family: Spouse/Ex-: Mrinalini Devi father: Debendranath Tagore mother: Sarada Devi

  19. Rabindranath Tagore Biography,Literary Work, Achievements

    Awards & Achievements of Rabindranath Tagore. On November 14, 1913, Tagore received the "Nobel Prize in Literature" in recognition of his significant and groundbreaking literary achievements. In 1919, following the "Jallianwala Bagh massacre," he renounced his 1915 knighthood. In 1940, "Oxford University" presented him with a ...

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    Rabindranath Tagore Biography. Rabindranath Tagore, born on May 7, 1861, in Kolkata, India, and passing away on August 7, 1941, was a multifaceted talent. Hailing from Bengal, he was a poet, short-story writer, music composer, playwright, novelist, and painter. His innovative approach introduced fresh prose and verse styles along with ...

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    Early Years and Upbringing: Rabindranath Tagore hailed from a distinguished Bengali family with a rich legacy in literature, art, and social reform. His father, Debendranath Tagore, a philosopher and leader in the Brahmo Samaj movement, exposed Tagore to the worlds of spirituality and social ideals.

  22. Rabindranath Tagore Biography: A Legendary Figure of Literature and Art

    A well-known figure in Indian history, Rabindranath Tagore is a name that conjures up images of literature, art, and cultural significance. The purpose of this post is to examine the life, works, and enduring influence of this extraordinary person who has left a lasting impression on the globe.

  23. Rabindranath Tagore

    Rabindranath Tagore (born May 7, 1861, in Calcutta, and died on August 7, 1941) was a Bengali poet, philosopher, painter, composer, musician, and Brahmo Samaj supporter, 1913 received the Nobel Prize in Literature and was the first Asian Nobel Prize winner. From the Pirali Brahmin caste of Calcutta, Tagore composed his first poems at the age of ...