How to Write a Conclusion for Research Papers (with Examples)

How to Write a Conclusion for Research Papers (with Examples)

The conclusion of a research paper is a crucial section that plays a significant role in the overall impact and effectiveness of your research paper. However, this is also the section that typically receives less attention compared to the introduction and the body of the paper. The conclusion serves to provide a concise summary of the key findings, their significance, their implications, and a sense of closure to the study. Discussing how can the findings be applied in real-world scenarios or inform policy, practice, or decision-making is especially valuable to practitioners and policymakers. The research paper conclusion also provides researchers with clear insights and valuable information for their own work, which they can then build on and contribute to the advancement of knowledge in the field.

The research paper conclusion should explain the significance of your findings within the broader context of your field. It restates how your results contribute to the existing body of knowledge and whether they confirm or challenge existing theories or hypotheses. Also, by identifying unanswered questions or areas requiring further investigation, your awareness of the broader research landscape can be demonstrated.

Remember to tailor the research paper conclusion to the specific needs and interests of your intended audience, which may include researchers, practitioners, policymakers, or a combination of these.

Table of Contents

What is a conclusion in a research paper, summarizing conclusion, editorial conclusion, externalizing conclusion, importance of a good research paper conclusion, how to write a conclusion for your research paper, research paper conclusion examples, frequently asked questions.

A conclusion in a research paper is the final section where you summarize and wrap up your research, presenting the key findings and insights derived from your study. The research paper conclusion is not the place to introduce new information or data that was not discussed in the main body of the paper. When working on how to conclude a research paper, remember to stick to summarizing and interpreting existing content. The research paper conclusion serves the following purposes: 1

  • Warn readers of the possible consequences of not attending to the problem.
  • Recommend specific course(s) of action.
  • Restate key ideas to drive home the ultimate point of your research paper.
  • Provide a “take-home” message that you want the readers to remember about your study.

what is summary conclusions and recommendations in research

Types of conclusions for research papers

In research papers, the conclusion provides closure to the reader. The type of research paper conclusion you choose depends on the nature of your study, your goals, and your target audience. I provide you with three common types of conclusions:

A summarizing conclusion is the most common type of conclusion in research papers. It involves summarizing the main points, reiterating the research question, and restating the significance of the findings. This common type of research paper conclusion is used across different disciplines.

An editorial conclusion is less common but can be used in research papers that are focused on proposing or advocating for a particular viewpoint or policy. It involves presenting a strong editorial or opinion based on the research findings and offering recommendations or calls to action.

An externalizing conclusion is a type of conclusion that extends the research beyond the scope of the paper by suggesting potential future research directions or discussing the broader implications of the findings. This type of conclusion is often used in more theoretical or exploratory research papers.

The conclusion in a research paper serves several important purposes:

  • Offers Implications and Recommendations : Your research paper conclusion is an excellent place to discuss the broader implications of your research and suggest potential areas for further study. It’s also an opportunity to offer practical recommendations based on your findings.
  • Provides Closure : A good research paper conclusion provides a sense of closure to your paper. It should leave the reader with a feeling that they have reached the end of a well-structured and thought-provoking research project.
  • Leaves a Lasting Impression : Writing a well-crafted research paper conclusion leaves a lasting impression on your readers. It’s your final opportunity to leave them with a new idea, a call to action, or a memorable quote.

what is summary conclusions and recommendations in research

Writing a strong conclusion for your research paper is essential to leave a lasting impression on your readers. Here’s a step-by-step process to help you create and know what to put in the conclusion of a research paper: 2

  • Research Statement : Begin your research paper conclusion by restating your research statement. This reminds the reader of the main point you’ve been trying to prove throughout your paper. Keep it concise and clear.
  • Key Points : Summarize the main arguments and key points you’ve made in your paper. Avoid introducing new information in the research paper conclusion. Instead, provide a concise overview of what you’ve discussed in the body of your paper.
  • Address the Research Questions : If your research paper is based on specific research questions or hypotheses, briefly address whether you’ve answered them or achieved your research goals. Discuss the significance of your findings in this context.
  • Significance : Highlight the importance of your research and its relevance in the broader context. Explain why your findings matter and how they contribute to the existing knowledge in your field.
  • Implications : Explore the practical or theoretical implications of your research. How might your findings impact future research, policy, or real-world applications? Consider the “so what?” question.
  • Future Research : Offer suggestions for future research in your area. What questions or aspects remain unanswered or warrant further investigation? This shows that your work opens the door for future exploration.
  • Closing Thought : Conclude your research paper conclusion with a thought-provoking or memorable statement. This can leave a lasting impression on your readers and wrap up your paper effectively. Avoid introducing new information or arguments here.
  • Proofread and Revise : Carefully proofread your conclusion for grammar, spelling, and clarity. Ensure that your ideas flow smoothly and that your conclusion is coherent and well-structured.

Remember that a well-crafted research paper conclusion is a reflection of the strength of your research and your ability to communicate its significance effectively. It should leave a lasting impression on your readers and tie together all the threads of your paper. Now you know how to start the conclusion of a research paper and what elements to include to make it impactful, let’s look at a research paper conclusion sample.

what is summary conclusions and recommendations in research

The research paper conclusion is a crucial part of your paper as it provides the final opportunity to leave a strong impression on your readers. In the research paper conclusion, summarize the main points of your research paper by restating your research statement, highlighting the most important findings, addressing the research questions or objectives, explaining the broader context of the study, discussing the significance of your findings, providing recommendations if applicable, and emphasizing the takeaway message. The main purpose of the conclusion is to remind the reader of the main point or argument of your paper and to provide a clear and concise summary of the key findings and their implications. All these elements should feature on your list of what to put in the conclusion of a research paper to create a strong final statement for your work.

A strong conclusion is a critical component of a research paper, as it provides an opportunity to wrap up your arguments, reiterate your main points, and leave a lasting impression on your readers. Here are the key elements of a strong research paper conclusion: 1. Conciseness : A research paper conclusion should be concise and to the point. It should not introduce new information or ideas that were not discussed in the body of the paper. 2. Summarization : The research paper conclusion should be comprehensive enough to give the reader a clear understanding of the research’s main contributions. 3 . Relevance : Ensure that the information included in the research paper conclusion is directly relevant to the research paper’s main topic and objectives; avoid unnecessary details. 4 . Connection to the Introduction : A well-structured research paper conclusion often revisits the key points made in the introduction and shows how the research has addressed the initial questions or objectives. 5. Emphasis : Highlight the significance and implications of your research. Why is your study important? What are the broader implications or applications of your findings? 6 . Call to Action : Include a call to action or a recommendation for future research or action based on your findings.

The length of a research paper conclusion can vary depending on several factors, including the overall length of the paper, the complexity of the research, and the specific journal requirements. While there is no strict rule for the length of a conclusion, but it’s generally advisable to keep it relatively short. A typical research paper conclusion might be around 5-10% of the paper’s total length. For example, if your paper is 10 pages long, the conclusion might be roughly half a page to one page in length.

In general, you do not need to include citations in the research paper conclusion. Citations are typically reserved for the body of the paper to support your arguments and provide evidence for your claims. However, there may be some exceptions to this rule: 1. If you are drawing a direct quote or paraphrasing a specific source in your research paper conclusion, you should include a citation to give proper credit to the original author. 2. If your conclusion refers to or discusses specific research, data, or sources that are crucial to the overall argument, citations can be included to reinforce your conclusion’s validity.

The conclusion of a research paper serves several important purposes: 1. Summarize the Key Points 2. Reinforce the Main Argument 3. Provide Closure 4. Offer Insights or Implications 5. Engage the Reader. 6. Reflect on Limitations

Remember that the primary purpose of the research paper conclusion is to leave a lasting impression on the reader, reinforcing the key points and providing closure to your research. It’s often the last part of the paper that the reader will see, so it should be strong and well-crafted.

  • Makar, G., Foltz, C., Lendner, M., & Vaccaro, A. R. (2018). How to write effective discussion and conclusion sections. Clinical spine surgery, 31(8), 345-346.
  • Bunton, D. (2005). The structure of PhD conclusion chapters.  Journal of English for academic purposes ,  4 (3), 207-224.

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Writing the parts of scientific reports

22 Writing the conclusion & recommendations

There are probably some overlaps between the Conclusion and the Discussion section. Nevertheless, this section gives you the opportunity to highlight the most important points in your report, and is sometimes the only section read. Think about what your research/ study has achieved, and the most important findings and ideas you want the reader to know. As all studies have limitations also think about what you were not able to cover (this shows that you are able to evaluate your own work objectively).

Possible structure of this section:

what is summary conclusions and recommendations in research

Use present perfect to sum up/ evaluate:

This study has explored/ has attempted …

Use past tense to state what your aim was and to refer to actions you carried out:

  • This study was intended to analyse …
  • The aim of this study was to …

Use present tense to evaluate your study and to state the generalizations and implications that you draw from your findings.

  • The results add to the knowledge of …
  • These findings s uggest that …

You can either use present tense or past tense to summarize your results.

  • The findings reveal …
  • It was found that …

Achievements of this study (positive)

  • This study provides evidence that …
  • This work has contributed to a number of key issues in the field such as …

Limitations of the study (negative)

  • Several limitations should be noted. First …

Combine positive and negative remarks to give a balanced assessment:

  • Although this research is somewhat limited in scope, its findings can provide a basis for future studies.
  • Despite the limitations, findings from the present study can help us understand …

Use more cautious language (modal verbs may, can, could)

  • There are a number of possible extensions of this research …
  • The findings suggest the possibility for future research on …
  • These results may be important for future studies on …
  • Examining a wider context could/ would lead …

Or indicate that future research is needed

  • There is still a need for future research to determine …
  • Further studies should be undertaken to discover…
  • It would be worthwhile to investigate …

what is summary conclusions and recommendations in research

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How To Write A Research Summary

Deeptanshu D

It’s a common perception that writing a research summary is a quick and easy task. After all, how hard can jotting down 300 words be? But when you consider the weight those 300 words carry, writing a research summary as a part of your dissertation, essay or compelling draft for your paper instantly becomes daunting task.

A research summary requires you to synthesize a complex research paper into an informative, self-explanatory snapshot. It needs to portray what your article contains. Thus, writing it often comes at the end of the task list.

Regardless of when you’re planning to write, it is no less of a challenge, particularly if you’re doing it for the first time. This blog will take you through everything you need to know about research summary so that you have an easier time with it.

How to write a research summary

What is a Research Summary?

A research summary is the part of your research paper that describes its findings to the audience in a brief yet concise manner. A well-curated research summary represents you and your knowledge about the information written in the research paper.

While writing a quality research summary, you need to discover and identify the significant points in the research and condense it in a more straightforward form. A research summary is like a doorway that provides access to the structure of a research paper's sections.

Since the purpose of a summary is to give an overview of the topic, methodology, and conclusions employed in a paper, it requires an objective approach. No analysis or criticism.

Research summary or Abstract. What’s the Difference?

They’re both brief, concise, and give an overview of an aspect of the research paper. So, it’s easy to understand why many new researchers get the two confused. However, a research summary and abstract are two very different things with individual purpose. To start with, a research summary is written at the end while the abstract comes at the beginning of a research paper.

A research summary captures the essence of the paper at the end of your document. It focuses on your topic, methods, and findings. More like a TL;DR, if you will. An abstract, on the other hand, is a description of what your research paper is about. It tells your reader what your topic or hypothesis is, and sets a context around why you have embarked on your research.

Getting Started with a Research Summary

Before you start writing, you need to get insights into your research’s content, style, and organization. There are three fundamental areas of a research summary that you should focus on.

  • While deciding the contents of your research summary, you must include a section on its importance as a whole, the techniques, and the tools that were used to formulate the conclusion. Additionally, there needs to be a short but thorough explanation of how the findings of the research paper have a significance.
  • To keep the summary well-organized, try to cover the various sections of the research paper in separate paragraphs. Besides, how the idea of particular factual research came up first must be explained in a separate paragraph.
  • As a general practice worldwide, research summaries are restricted to 300-400 words. However, if you have chosen a lengthy research paper, try not to exceed the word limit of 10% of the entire research paper.

How to Structure Your Research Summary

The research summary is nothing but a concise form of the entire research paper. Therefore, the structure of a summary stays the same as the paper. So, include all the section titles and write a little about them. The structural elements that a research summary must consist of are:

It represents the topic of the research. Try to phrase it so that it includes the key findings or conclusion of the task.

The abstract gives a context of the research paper. Unlike the abstract at the beginning of a paper, the abstract here, should be very short since you’ll be working with a limited word count.


This is the most crucial section of a research summary as it helps readers get familiarized with the topic. You should include the definition of your topic, the current state of the investigation, and practical relevance in this part. Additionally, you should present the problem statement, investigative measures, and any hypothesis in this section.


This section provides details about the methodology and the methods adopted to conduct the study. You should write a brief description of the surveys, sampling, type of experiments, statistical analysis, and the rationality behind choosing those particular methods.

Create a list of evidence obtained from the various experiments with a primary analysis, conclusions, and interpretations made upon that. In the paper research paper, you will find the results section as the most detailed and lengthy part. Therefore, you must pick up the key elements and wisely decide which elements are worth including and which are worth skipping.

This is where you present the interpretation of results in the context of their application. Discussion usually covers results, inferences, and theoretical models explaining the obtained values, key strengths, and limitations. All of these are vital elements that you must include in the summary.

Most research papers merge conclusion with discussions. However, depending upon the instructions, you may have to prepare this as a separate section in your research summary. Usually, conclusion revisits the hypothesis and provides the details about the validation or denial about the arguments made in the research paper, based upon how convincing the results were obtained.

The structure of a research summary closely resembles the anatomy of a scholarly article . Additionally, you should keep your research and references limited to authentic and  scholarly sources only.

Tips for Writing a Research Summary

The core concept behind undertaking a research summary is to present a simple and clear understanding of your research paper to the reader. The biggest hurdle while doing that is the number of words you have at your disposal. So, follow the steps below to write a research summary that sticks.

1. Read the parent paper thoroughly

You should go through the research paper thoroughly multiple times to ensure that you have a complete understanding of its contents. A 3-stage reading process helps.

a. Scan: In the first read, go through it to get an understanding of its basic concept and methodologies.

b. Read: For the second step, read the article attentively by going through each section, highlighting the key elements, and subsequently listing the topics that you will include in your research summary.

c. Skim: Flip through the article a few more times to study the interpretation of various experimental results, statistical analysis, and application in different contexts.

Sincerely go through different headings and subheadings as it will allow you to understand the underlying concept of each section. You can try reading the introduction and conclusion simultaneously to understand the motive of the task and how obtained results stay fit to the expected outcome.

2. Identify the key elements in different sections

While exploring different sections of an article, you can try finding answers to simple what, why, and how. Below are a few pointers to give you an idea:

  • What is the research question and how is it addressed?
  • Is there a hypothesis in the introductory part?
  • What type of methods are being adopted?
  • What is the sample size for data collection and how is it being analyzed?
  • What are the most vital findings?
  • Do the results support the hypothesis?


  • What is the final solution to the problem statement?
  • What is the explanation for the obtained results?
  • What is the drawn inference?
  • What are the various limitations of the study?

3. Prepare the first draft

Now that you’ve listed the key points that the paper tries to demonstrate, you can start writing the summary following the standard structure of a research summary. Just make sure you’re not writing statements from the parent research paper verbatim.

Instead, try writing down each section in your own words. This will not only help in avoiding plagiarism but will also show your complete understanding of the subject. Alternatively, you can use a summarizing tool (AI-based summary generators) to shorten the content or summarize the content without disrupting the actual meaning of the article.

SciSpace Copilot is one such helpful feature! You can easily upload your research paper and ask Copilot to summarize it. You will get an AI-generated, condensed research summary. SciSpace Copilot also enables you to highlight text, clip math and tables, and ask any question relevant to the research paper; it will give you instant answers with deeper context of the article..

4. Include visuals

One of the best ways to summarize and consolidate a research paper is to provide visuals like graphs, charts, pie diagrams, etc.. Visuals make getting across the facts, the past trends, and the probabilistic figures around a concept much more engaging.

5. Double check for plagiarism

It can be very tempting to copy-paste a few statements or the entire paragraphs depending upon the clarity of those sections. But it’s best to stay away from the practice. Even paraphrasing should be done with utmost care and attention.

Also: QuillBot vs SciSpace: Choose the best AI-paraphrasing tool

6. Religiously follow the word count limit

You need to have strict control while writing different sections of a research summary. In many cases, it has been observed that the research summary and the parent research paper become the same length. If that happens, it can lead to discrediting of your efforts and research summary itself. Whatever the standard word limit has been imposed, you must observe that carefully.

7. Proofread your research summary multiple times

The process of writing the research summary can be exhausting and tiring. However, you shouldn’t allow this to become a reason to skip checking your academic writing several times for mistakes like misspellings, grammar, wordiness, and formatting issues. Proofread and edit until you think your research summary can stand out from the others, provided it is drafted perfectly on both technicality and comprehension parameters. You can also seek assistance from editing and proofreading services , and other free tools that help you keep these annoying grammatical errors at bay.

8. Watch while you write

Keep a keen observation of your writing style. You should use the words very precisely, and in any situation, it should not represent your personal opinions on the topic. You should write the entire research summary in utmost impersonal, precise, factually correct, and evidence-based writing.

9. Ask a friend/colleague to help

Once you are done with the final copy of your research summary, you must ask a friend or colleague to read it. You must test whether your friend or colleague could grasp everything without referring to the parent paper. This will help you in ensuring the clarity of the article.

Once you become familiar with the research paper summary concept and understand how to apply the tips discussed above in your current task, summarizing a research summary won’t be that challenging. While traversing the different stages of your academic career, you will face different scenarios where you may have to create several research summaries.

In such cases, you just need to look for answers to simple questions like “Why this study is necessary,” “what were the methods,” “who were the participants,” “what conclusions were drawn from the research,” and “how it is relevant to the wider world.” Once you find out the answers to these questions, you can easily create a good research summary following the standard structure and a precise writing style.

what is summary conclusions and recommendations in research

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How to Write Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations in a Research

How to Write Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations in a Research

The summary, conclusion and recommendations are the last part of the research work . It is essential to have this in all research work, both qualitative and quantitative . When perusing a research work (thesis or research articles ), the readers go directly to the summary, conclusion, and recommendation and see if they could point out what the dissertation is saying because it is common in this chapter.

The gap in the literature identified in the introduction signifies what the scholars decided to look at, what they finally assert when their study is done. What did it inform them, and what they are teaching us about the matter. Did they get the expected outcomes? If so, why or why not? The thesis is likely to be a very logical and provisional assertion instead of a broad statement.

Almost every research study concludes by encouraging other academics to continue the work by stating that more investigation is necessary on the topic. Nevertheless, please do not confuse this ruling with the thesis; it is merely a tradition. Frequently, the researchers offer detailed information about possible future research that might or can be undertaken in an attempt to make sense of the findings of their research. The following steps will guide in write a good chapter five:

Step 1: Summary

It is now time to go through each section and highlight the critical statements. What information does the reader have to fully comprehend the article’s central argument or inference? Remember that a summary does not necessitate rephrasing every single line of the article. The idea is to identify the main elements while excluding any background knowledge or optional information. A summary of findings reveals and summarises the most critical factors and outcomes of a study, including the best theoretical boundaries and the finality of the substantiation for each result. It tells the reader what has been done, how it has been done, and the study results. An engaging summary of findings allows the readers to see as many or more minor findings and just about relevant data about each result, see effect estimates presented in various ways, and view clarifications of the evidence supplied.

Step 2: Conclusions

After analysing the literature, the conclusion should aid in understanding why the study is essential to them. A conclusion is a synthesis of critical elements, not just a description of the points or a re-statement of the problem statement. For most research studies, one well-developed paragraph suffices as a conclusion. However, a two- or three paragraph conclusion may be considered necessary in some situations. It is vital to include a conclusion in a thesis, journal article or dissertation to inform the readers of the strength and effect of the assertions in the study. Concluding statements in a thesis can also aid in refocusing the reader’s attention on the quality statements and verifiable details of the research. Conclusions can also form a foundation for further research, generate new ideas to address an issue raised in the thesis or propose novel approaches to a problem. Consider the steps below to help you get started when writing the conclusion of your study:

  • Restate the research topic.
  • Reiterate the thesis (objective of the study).
  • Make a summary of the main points.
  • Mention the relevance or outcomes.
  • Wrap up your thoughts.

Avoidable Issues

  • Inability to be concise.
  • Inability to make a statement on more significant, more important issues.
  • Failure to expose problems leads to adverse outcomes.
  • Inability to provide a brief overview of what was observed.
  • Failure to align the research aim and objectives.
  • Refrain from apologizing.

Step 3: Recommendations

You may have already created suggestions for future studies in the discussion, but the recommendation is a great place to explain, taking into account the potential ramifications of your research results for practice and theory. The recommendations should be premised on the conclusions of the study.

Specific instances

  • Predicated on these conclusions, managers should consider… Additional researches could address…
  • Further research is necessary to confirm the causative factors of/effects of/relationship between…

Avoid overstating the practicability of the study. If you’re making policy, business, or other policy implications, it’s best to structure them as suggestions instead of instructions. Academic research aims to educate, demonstrate, and explore rather than to instruct.

Make sure not to undermine the research carried out when making recommendations for additional research. Academic research aims to educate, demonstrate, and explore rather than to instruct.

Make sure not to undermine the research carried out when making recommendations for additional research.

Step 4: Recommendations for further study

Future studies may confirm, build on, or supplement your findings, but they should not be considered necessary to accomplish them. Highlight the contributions. Make sure the reader understands how the study has contributed to knowledge in the field in focus.

The suggestions for further study should address other areas that your study did not cover. That is, suggestions for further study should expand on the limitations and scope of your study.


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The conclusion is intended to help the reader understand why your research should matter to them after they have finished reading the paper. A conclusion is not merely a summary of the main topics covered or a re-statement of your research problem, but a synthesis of key points and, if applicable, where you recommend new areas for future research. For most college-level research papers, one or two well-developed paragraphs is sufficient for a conclusion, although in some cases, more paragraphs may be required in summarizing key findings and their significance.

Conclusions. The Writing Center. University of North Carolina; Conclusions. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University.

Importance of a Good Conclusion

A well-written conclusion provides you with important opportunities to demonstrate to the reader your understanding of the research problem. These include:

  • Presenting the last word on the issues you raised in your paper . Just as the introduction gives a first impression to your reader, the conclusion offers a chance to leave a lasting impression. Do this, for example, by highlighting key findings in your analysis that advance new understanding about the research problem, that are unusual or unexpected, or that have important implications applied to practice.
  • Summarizing your thoughts and conveying the larger significance of your study . The conclusion is an opportunity to succinctly re-emphasize  the "So What?" question by placing the study within the context of how your research advances past research about the topic.
  • Identifying how a gap in the literature has been addressed . The conclusion can be where you describe how a previously identified gap in the literature [described in your literature review section] has been filled by your research.
  • Demonstrating the importance of your ideas . Don't be shy. The conclusion offers you the opportunity to elaborate on the impact and significance of your findings. This is particularly important if your study approached examining the research problem from an unusual or innovative perspective.
  • Introducing possible new or expanded ways of thinking about the research problem . This does not refer to introducing new information [which should be avoided], but to offer new insight and creative approaches for framing or contextualizing the research problem based on the results of your study.

Bunton, David. “The Structure of PhD Conclusion Chapters.” Journal of English for Academic Purposes 4 (July 2005): 207–224; Conclusions. The Writing Center. University of North Carolina; Kretchmer, Paul. Twelve Steps to Writing an Effective Conclusion. San Francisco Edit, 2003-2008; Conclusions. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University; Assan, Joseph. "Writing the Conclusion Chapter: The Good, the Bad and the Missing." Liverpool: Development Studies Association (2009): 1-8.

Structure and Writing Style

I.  General Rules

The function of your paper's conclusion is to restate the main argument . It reminds the reader of the strengths of your main argument(s) and reiterates the most important evidence supporting those argument(s). Do this by stating clearly the context, background, and necessity of pursuing the research problem you investigated in relation to an issue, controversy, or a gap found in the literature. Make sure, however, that your conclusion is not simply a repetitive summary of the findings. This reduces the impact of the argument(s) you have developed in your essay.

When writing the conclusion to your paper, follow these general rules:

  • Present your conclusions in clear, simple language. Re-state the purpose of your study, then describe how your findings differ or support those of other studies and why [i.e., what were the unique or new contributions your study made to the overall research about your topic?].
  • Do not simply reiterate your findings or the discussion of your results. Provide a synthesis of arguments presented in the paper to show how these converge to address the research problem and the overall objectives of your study.
  • Indicate opportunities for future research if you haven't already done so in the discussion section of your paper. Highlighting the need for further research provides the reader with evidence that you have an in-depth awareness of the research problem and that further investigations should take place.

Consider the following points to help ensure your conclusion is presented well:

  • If the argument or purpose of your paper is complex, you may need to summarize the argument for your reader.
  • If, prior to your conclusion, you have not yet explained the significance of your findings or if you are proceeding inductively, use the end of your paper to describe your main points and explain their significance.
  • Move from a detailed to a general level of consideration that returns the topic to the context provided by the introduction or within a new context that emerges from the data. 

The conclusion also provides a place for you to persuasively and succinctly restate the research problem, given that the reader has now been presented with all the information about the topic . Depending on the discipline you are writing in, the concluding paragraph may contain your reflections on the evidence presented. However, the nature of being introspective about the research you have conducted will depend on the topic and whether your professor wants you to express your observations in this way.

NOTE : If asked to think introspectively about the topics, do not delve into idle speculation. Being introspective means looking within yourself as an author to try and understand an issue more deeply, not to guess at possible outcomes or make up scenarios not supported by the evidence.

II.  Developing a Compelling Conclusion

Although an effective conclusion needs to be clear and succinct, it does not need to be written passively or lack a compelling narrative. Strategies to help you move beyond merely summarizing the key points of your research paper may include any of the following strategies:

  • If your essay deals with a critical, contemporary problem, warn readers of the possible consequences of not attending to the problem proactively.
  • Recommend a specific course or courses of action that, if adopted, could address a specific problem in practice or in the development of new knowledge.
  • Cite a relevant quotation or expert opinion already noted in your paper in order to lend authority and support to the conclusion(s) you have reached [a good place to look is research from your literature review].
  • Explain the consequences of your research in a way that elicits action or demonstrates urgency in seeking change.
  • Restate a key statistic, fact, or visual image to emphasize the most important finding of your paper.
  • If your discipline encourages personal reflection, illustrate your concluding point by drawing from your own life experiences.
  • Return to an anecdote, an example, or a quotation that you presented in your introduction, but add further insight derived from the findings of your study; use your interpretation of results to recast it in new or important ways.
  • Provide a "take-home" message in the form of a succinct, declarative statement that you want the reader to remember about your study.

III. Problems to Avoid

Failure to be concise Your conclusion section should be concise and to the point. Conclusions that are too lengthy often have unnecessary information in them. The conclusion is not the place for details about your methodology or results. Although you should give a summary of what was learned from your research, this summary should be relatively brief, since the emphasis in the conclusion is on the implications, evaluations, insights, and other forms of analysis that you make. Strategies for writing concisely can be found here .

Failure to comment on larger, more significant issues In the introduction, your task was to move from the general [the field of study] to the specific [the research problem]. However, in the conclusion, your task is to move from a specific discussion [your research problem] back to a general discussion [i.e., how your research contributes new understanding or fills an important gap in the literature]. In short, the conclusion is where you should place your research within a larger context [visualize your paper as an hourglass--start with a broad introduction and review of the literature, move to the specific analysis and discussion, conclude with a broad summary of the study's implications and significance].

Failure to reveal problems and negative results Negative aspects of the research process should never be ignored. These are problems, deficiencies, or challenges encountered during your study should be summarized as a way of qualifying your overall conclusions. If you encountered negative or unintended results [i.e., findings that are validated outside the research context in which they were generated], you must report them in the results section and discuss their implications in the discussion section of your paper. In the conclusion, use your summary of the negative results as an opportunity to explain their possible significance and/or how they may form the basis for future research.

Failure to provide a clear summary of what was learned In order to be able to discuss how your research fits within your field of study [and possibly the world at large], you need to summarize briefly and succinctly how it contributes to new knowledge or a new understanding about the research problem. This element of your conclusion may be only a few sentences long.

Failure to match the objectives of your research Often research objectives in the social sciences change while the research is being carried out. This is not a problem unless you forget to go back and refine the original objectives in your introduction. As these changes emerge they must be documented so that they accurately reflect what you were trying to accomplish in your research [not what you thought you might accomplish when you began].

Resist the urge to apologize If you've immersed yourself in studying the research problem, you presumably should know a good deal about it [perhaps even more than your professor!]. Nevertheless, by the time you have finished writing, you may be having some doubts about what you have produced. Repress those doubts! Don't undermine your authority by saying something like, "This is just one approach to examining this problem; there may be other, much better approaches that...." The overall tone of your conclusion should convey confidence to the reader.

Assan, Joseph. "Writing the Conclusion Chapter: The Good, the Bad and the Missing." Liverpool: Development Studies Association (2009): 1-8; Concluding Paragraphs. College Writing Center at Meramec. St. Louis Community College; Conclusions. The Writing Center. University of North Carolina; Conclusions. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University; Freedman, Leora  and Jerry Plotnick. Introductions and Conclusions. The Lab Report. University College Writing Centre. University of Toronto; Leibensperger, Summer. Draft Your Conclusion. Academic Center, the University of Houston-Victoria, 2003; Make Your Last Words Count. The Writer’s Handbook. Writing Center. University of Wisconsin Madison; Miquel, Fuster-Marquez and Carmen Gregori-Signes. “Chapter Six: ‘Last but Not Least:’ Writing the Conclusion of Your Paper.” In Writing an Applied Linguistics Thesis or Dissertation: A Guide to Presenting Empirical Research . John Bitchener, editor. (Basingstoke,UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010), pp. 93-105; Tips for Writing a Good Conclusion. Writing@CSU. Colorado State University; Kretchmer, Paul. Twelve Steps to Writing an Effective Conclusion. San Francisco Edit, 2003-2008; Writing Conclusions. Writing Tutorial Services, Center for Innovative Teaching and Learning. Indiana University; Writing: Considering Structure and Organization. Institute for Writing Rhetoric. Dartmouth College.

Writing Tip

Don't Belabor the Obvious!

Avoid phrases like "in conclusion...," "in summary...," or "in closing...." These phrases can be useful, even welcome, in oral presentations. But readers can see by the tell-tale section heading and number of pages remaining to read, when an essay is about to end. You'll irritate your readers if you belabor the obvious.

Assan, Joseph. "Writing the Conclusion Chapter: The Good, the Bad and the Missing." Liverpool: Development Studies Association (2009): 1-8.

Another Writing Tip

New Insight, Not New Information!

Don't surprise the reader with new information in your conclusion that was never referenced anywhere else in the paper and, as such, the conclusion rarely has citations to sources. If you have new information to present, add it to the discussion or other appropriate section of the paper. Note that, although no actual new information is introduced, the conclusion, along with the discussion section, is where you offer your most "original" contributions in the paper; the conclusion is where you describe the value of your research, demonstrate that you understand the material that you’ve presented, and locate your findings within the larger context of scholarship on the topic, including describing how your research contributes new insights or valuable insight to that scholarship.

Assan, Joseph. "Writing the Conclusion Chapter: The Good, the Bad and the Missing." Liverpool: Development Studies Association (2009): 1-8; Conclusions. The Writing Center. University of North Carolina.

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National Academies Press: OpenBook

Building a Foundation for Sound Environmental Decisions (1997)

Chapter: 5 summary, conclusions, and recommendations, 5 summary, conclusions, and recommendations.

Pressures on the environment will continue to increase. Global population increase, rising incomes, and agricultural and industrial expansion will inevitably produce unanticipated and potentially deleterious ecological, economic, and human health consequences. Environmental research has proven its value in helping to respond to and prevent many environmental problems, and it continues to be a wise and necessary investment.

The charge to this committee was to provide an overview of significant emerging environmental issues; identify and prioritize research themes and projects that are most relevant to understanding and resolving these issues; and consider the role of EPA's research program in addressing these issues, in the context of research being conducted or sponsored by other organizations. After careful deliberation, the committee decided not to simply present a limited list of "emerging" issues with specific research projects to address them. Such an exercise would provide a mere snapshot in time, based on the insights of one particular collection of individuals. Instead—and hopefully more valuably—this report provides an overview of important environmental issues and presents a framework for organizing environmental research. The report also describes major research themes and programs of relevance to EPA; suggests criteria that can be used to identify and prioritize among important research areas; recommends actions EPA should take to build its scientific capacity; and provides illustrations of the kinds of research projects that EPA should consider.


As a key environmental agency, EPA needs to support and maintain a strong research program. An evolving understanding of the complexity, magnitude,

and inter-relatedness of environmental problems leads us to conclude that a new balance of research programs may be helpful. This report describes a framework for conducting research in a way that will help alleviate the problems of the moment while providing a basis for solving tomorrow's problems.

In the past, pressing environmental issues have been addressed primarily through focused research efforts directed toward solving particular problems. Although this approach to environmental research can be effective, has often been necessary, and will surely continue, it also has limitations. In order to address the abundance of established, emerging, and as-yet-unknown environmental issues, an expanded understanding of the scientific principles underlying environmental systems is needed. Achieving this understanding will require innovative, interdisciplinary approaches.

To develop the knowledge needed to address current and emerging environmental issues, EPA should undertake both problem-driven research and core research . Problem-driven research is targeted at understanding and solving identified environmental problems, while core research aims to provide broader, more generic information that will help improve understanding of many problems now and in the future. Core research includes three components: (1) understanding the processes that drive and connect environmental systems; (2) development of innovative tools and methods for understanding and managing environmental problems; and (3) long-term collection and dissemination of accurate environmental data.

Research activities within problem-driven and core research programs may often overlap. Fundamental discoveries can be made during the search for a solution to a narrowly defined problem; likewise, as illustrated earlier in this report, breakthroughs in problem-solving often occur as a result of core research efforts. Both kinds of investigations are needed, and feedback between them will greatly enhance the overall environmental research endeavor (see Figure 5-1 ).

Because EPA's task of protecting the environment and human health is so vast and difficult, and because resources to undertake the necessary research are very limited, choices will have to be made among many worthwhile projects. The approaches for making these choices will be different in the core and problem-driven portions of the research program. The former should seek better understanding of fundamental phenomena and generate broadly relevant research tools and information. The latter will be more responsive to regulatory activities and other immediate needs and should be guided by the paradigm of risk reduction. Because there are so many specific issues of importance to the public, the Congress, and EPA's own program and regional offices, there is a temptation to include many problems for attention. It is important to resist this trend: it will inevitably lead either to the dilution of efforts to solve the most pressing problems or to the reduction of funding available for critical core research needs.

what is summary conclusions and recommendations in research

FIGURE 5-1 A framework for environmental research at EPA.

Interactions among the natural environment, plants, animals, and the evergrowing human population are highly complex and inherently unpredictable. Although this report provides a broad overview of current and emerging environmental issues, it is important to note that this is merely a snapshot in time. Identification of issues requiring attention is a dynamic, continuous process.

With its limited budget, staff, and mandate, it is not possible or reasonable for EPA to act alone in understanding and addressing all environmental problems. Many other federal agencies, state agencies, other organizations (including utilities), universities, and private companies have played and will continue to play important roles in environmental research. Cooperation with others will be particularly needed in the area of environmental monitoring, a complex and costly undertaking, and in the investigation of global-scale issues.

Another factor to consider in determining EPA's research role on a particular environmental issue is whether the private sector has any incentive to study or develop better solutions, or whether the primary research must originate from the public sector to serve the public good. Examples of areas of "public good" that might deserve EPA attention include municipal wastewater and drinking water treatment, nonpoint-source pollution control, restoration of degraded ecosystems, and large-scale regional and global air pollution problems.


To enhance the productivity and effectiveness of EPA's research efforts, the committee makes recommendations in three areas: a general approach to research, core research themes, and problem-driven research themes.

Approach to Research

EPA should establish a balance between problem-driven and core research. Although there is currently an emphasis on problem-driven research projects in EPA, the core component of EPA's research program should be developed to be approximately equal in magnitude.

EPA should develop an internal mechanism for continually identifying emerging issues and then applying a risk assessment evaluation to these issues to determine the highest priorities and areas of greatest uncertainty. One important method for identifying emerging issues is to review and synthesize new findings from the core research program. EPA research personnel should be fully engaged in the issue identification and research planning process.

EPA should cooperate closely with agencies, organizations, municipalities, universities, and industries involved in environmental research. In addition to providing research support, mechanisms for cooperation might include participation of EPA management in interagency coordination efforts, participation of staff in scientific meetings and conferences, and incentives and rewards for individuals who seek out and work with their counterparts in other organizations. Collaboration should be maintained in research endeavors, environmental monitoring, data archiving, and environmental policy formulation and evaluation. EPA should continue to act as a coordinator in bringing various environmental researchers together to exchange information and ideas, possibly in the form of interdisciplinary workshops on particular environmental topics. This would also help in ''scanning the horizon" to identify new environmental trends and emerging problems. Through these meetings, EPA can discuss the relative risks as well as solutions and policies and can determine which areas require more research.

EPA should compile, publish, and disseminate an annual summary of all research being conducted or funded by the agency in order to facilitate both better cooperation with others and better internal planning. The report should be organized into broad strategic categories, with sub-categories describing program areas. Publications and other output should be listed and made available upon request.

Core Research Themes

The core component of EPA's research program should include three basic objectives:

Acquisition of systematic understanding about underlying environmental processes (such as those displayed in Table 2.2 );

Development of broadly applicable research tools, including better techniques for measuring physical, chemical, biological, social, and economic variables of interest; more accurate models of complex systems and their interactions; and new methods for analyzing, displaying, and using environmental information for science-based decision making;

Design, implementation, and maintenance of appropriate environmental monitoring programs, with evaluation, analysis, synthesis and dissemination of the data and results to improve understanding of the status of and changes in environmental resources over time and to confirm that environmental policies are having the desired effect.

Core research projects should be selected based on their relevance to EPA's mission, whether such research is already being sponsored by other agencies, and the quality of the work proposed, as determined by a peer-review process. Cross-cutting, interdisciplinary studies that take advantage of advances in many different fields will be particularly valuable.

As part of its core research efforts, EPA should conduct retrospective evaluations of the effectiveness of environmental policies and decisions. Retrospective evaluations are critical to ensuring that environmental policies are achieving their intended goals without creating unpredicted, undesirable side-effects.

EPA should make a long-term financial and intellectual commitment to core research projects. Progress in core research generally does not come quickly; therefore it is important that the agency provide adequate long-term support to this kind of knowledge development, allowing it to follow its often unpredictable course. Tool development and data collection must be ongoing endeavors in order to be fully effective.

Problem-Driven Research Themes

EPA should maintain a focused, problem-driven research program. The problem-driven and core research areas will be complementary and result in the interaction of ideas and results.

Evaluation of problem-driven research areas should focus on reducing the risks and uncertainties associated with each problem. EPA should retain its emphasis on risk assessment to prioritize among problem-driven research areas. Using criteria such as timing, novelty, scope, severity, and probability satisfies this requirement, as does the more detailed risk assessment framework described in the EPA strategic plan for ORD. Although risk assessment and

TABLE 5-1 Recommended Actions for EPA

management provide a good framework for choosing among issues, the methodology must be refined to achieve more accurate assessments.

EPA should concentrate efforts in areas where the private sector has little incentive to conduct research or develop better solutions to environmental problems.

Problem-driven research should be re-evaluated and re-focused on a regular basis to ensure that the most important problems are being addressed. Unlike core research priorities, which may not change much over time, in the problem-driven area EPA must develop adaptive feedback capabilities to allow it to change directions when new issues arise and old issues are "solved" or judged to pose less risk than expected.

This committee was not asked to, and did not, address issues concerning EPA's research infrastructure, the appropriate balance between internal and external research, mechanisms for peer review, and other research management issues. Recommendations in these areas will be made by the Committee on Research and Peer Review at EPA (see Chapter 1 ). Table 5-1 summarizes recommended

actions that are intended to provide EPA with the knowledge needed to address current and emerging environmental issues.

Good science is essential for sound environmental decision-making. By implementing the recommendations contained in this report, EPA can increase the effectiveness of its research program and thus continue to play an important role in efforts to protect the environment and human health into the next century.

Over the past decades, environmental problems have attracted enormous attention and public concern. Many actions have been taken by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and others to protect human health and ecosystems from particular threats. Despite some successes, many problems remain unsolved and new ones are emerging. Increasing population and related pressures, combined with a realization of the interconnectedness and complexity of environmental systems, present new challenges to policymakers and regulators.

Scientific research has played, and will continue to play, an essential part in solving environmental problems. Decisions based on incorrect or incomplete understanding of environmental systems will not achieve the greatest reduction of risk at the lowest cost.

This volume describes a framework for acquiring the knowledge needed both to solve current recognized problems and to be prepared for the kinds of problems likely to emerge in the future. Many case examples are included to illustrate why some environmental control strategies have succeeded where others have fallen short and how we can do better in the future.

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Home » Research Recommendations – Examples and Writing Guide

Research Recommendations – Examples and Writing Guide

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Research Recommendations

Research Recommendations


Research recommendations refer to suggestions or advice given to someone who is looking to conduct research on a specific topic or area. These recommendations may include suggestions for research methods, data collection techniques, sources of information, and other factors that can help to ensure that the research is conducted in a rigorous and effective manner. Research recommendations may be provided by experts in the field, such as professors, researchers, or consultants, and are intended to help guide the researcher towards the most appropriate and effective approach to their research project.

Parts of Research Recommendations

Research recommendations can vary depending on the specific project or area of research, but typically they will include some or all of the following parts:

  • Research question or objective : This is the overarching goal or purpose of the research project.
  • Research methods : This includes the specific techniques and strategies that will be used to collect and analyze data. The methods will depend on the research question and the type of data being collected.
  • Data collection: This refers to the process of gathering information or data that will be used to answer the research question. This can involve a range of different methods, including surveys, interviews, observations, or experiments.
  • Data analysis : This involves the process of examining and interpreting the data that has been collected. This can involve statistical analysis, qualitative analysis, or a combination of both.
  • Results and conclusions: This section summarizes the findings of the research and presents any conclusions or recommendations based on those findings.
  • Limitations and future research: This section discusses any limitations of the study and suggests areas for future research that could build on the findings of the current project.

How to Write Research Recommendations

Writing research recommendations involves providing specific suggestions or advice to a researcher on how to conduct their study. Here are some steps to consider when writing research recommendations:

  • Understand the research question: Before writing research recommendations, it is important to have a clear understanding of the research question and the objectives of the study. This will help to ensure that the recommendations are relevant and appropriate.
  • Consider the research methods: Consider the most appropriate research methods that could be used to collect and analyze data that will address the research question. Identify the strengths and weaknesses of the different methods and how they might apply to the specific research question.
  • Provide specific recommendations: Provide specific and actionable recommendations that the researcher can implement in their study. This can include recommendations related to sample size, data collection techniques, research instruments, data analysis methods, or other relevant factors.
  • Justify recommendations : Justify why each recommendation is being made and how it will help to address the research question or objective. It is important to provide a clear rationale for each recommendation to help the researcher understand why it is important.
  • Consider limitations and ethical considerations : Consider any limitations or potential ethical considerations that may arise in conducting the research. Provide recommendations for addressing these issues or mitigating their impact.
  • Summarize recommendations: Provide a summary of the recommendations at the end of the report or document, highlighting the most important points and emphasizing how the recommendations will contribute to the overall success of the research project.

Example of Research Recommendations

Example of Research Recommendations sample for students:

  • Further investigate the effects of X on Y by conducting a larger-scale randomized controlled trial with a diverse population.
  • Explore the relationship between A and B by conducting qualitative interviews with individuals who have experience with both.
  • Investigate the long-term effects of intervention C by conducting a follow-up study with participants one year after completion.
  • Examine the effectiveness of intervention D in a real-world setting by conducting a field study in a naturalistic environment.
  • Compare and contrast the results of this study with those of previous research on the same topic to identify any discrepancies or inconsistencies in the findings.
  • Expand upon the limitations of this study by addressing potential confounding variables and conducting further analyses to control for them.
  • Investigate the relationship between E and F by conducting a meta-analysis of existing literature on the topic.
  • Explore the potential moderating effects of variable G on the relationship between H and I by conducting subgroup analyses.
  • Identify potential areas for future research based on the gaps in current literature and the findings of this study.
  • Conduct a replication study to validate the results of this study and further establish the generalizability of the findings.

Applications of Research Recommendations

Research recommendations are important as they provide guidance on how to improve or solve a problem. The applications of research recommendations are numerous and can be used in various fields. Some of the applications of research recommendations include:

  • Policy-making: Research recommendations can be used to develop policies that address specific issues. For example, recommendations from research on climate change can be used to develop policies that reduce carbon emissions and promote sustainability.
  • Program development: Research recommendations can guide the development of programs that address specific issues. For example, recommendations from research on education can be used to develop programs that improve student achievement.
  • Product development : Research recommendations can guide the development of products that meet specific needs. For example, recommendations from research on consumer behavior can be used to develop products that appeal to consumers.
  • Marketing strategies: Research recommendations can be used to develop effective marketing strategies. For example, recommendations from research on target audiences can be used to develop marketing strategies that effectively reach specific demographic groups.
  • Medical practice : Research recommendations can guide medical practitioners in providing the best possible care to patients. For example, recommendations from research on treatments for specific conditions can be used to improve patient outcomes.
  • Scientific research: Research recommendations can guide future research in a specific field. For example, recommendations from research on a specific disease can be used to guide future research on treatments and cures for that disease.

Purpose of Research Recommendations

The purpose of research recommendations is to provide guidance on how to improve or solve a problem based on the findings of research. Research recommendations are typically made at the end of a research study and are based on the conclusions drawn from the research data. The purpose of research recommendations is to provide actionable advice to individuals or organizations that can help them make informed decisions, develop effective strategies, or implement changes that address the issues identified in the research.

The main purpose of research recommendations is to facilitate the transfer of knowledge from researchers to practitioners, policymakers, or other stakeholders who can benefit from the research findings. Recommendations can help bridge the gap between research and practice by providing specific actions that can be taken based on the research results. By providing clear and actionable recommendations, researchers can help ensure that their findings are put into practice, leading to improvements in various fields, such as healthcare, education, business, and public policy.

Characteristics of Research Recommendations

Research recommendations are a key component of research studies and are intended to provide practical guidance on how to apply research findings to real-world problems. The following are some of the key characteristics of research recommendations:

  • Actionable : Research recommendations should be specific and actionable, providing clear guidance on what actions should be taken to address the problem identified in the research.
  • Evidence-based: Research recommendations should be based on the findings of the research study, supported by the data collected and analyzed.
  • Contextual: Research recommendations should be tailored to the specific context in which they will be implemented, taking into account the unique circumstances and constraints of the situation.
  • Feasible : Research recommendations should be realistic and feasible, taking into account the available resources, time constraints, and other factors that may impact their implementation.
  • Prioritized: Research recommendations should be prioritized based on their potential impact and feasibility, with the most important recommendations given the highest priority.
  • Communicated effectively: Research recommendations should be communicated clearly and effectively, using language that is understandable to the target audience.
  • Evaluated : Research recommendations should be evaluated to determine their effectiveness in addressing the problem identified in the research, and to identify opportunities for improvement.

Advantages of Research Recommendations

Research recommendations have several advantages, including:

  • Providing practical guidance: Research recommendations provide practical guidance on how to apply research findings to real-world problems, helping to bridge the gap between research and practice.
  • Improving decision-making: Research recommendations help decision-makers make informed decisions based on the findings of research, leading to better outcomes and improved performance.
  • Enhancing accountability : Research recommendations can help enhance accountability by providing clear guidance on what actions should be taken, and by providing a basis for evaluating progress and outcomes.
  • Informing policy development : Research recommendations can inform the development of policies that are evidence-based and tailored to the specific needs of a given situation.
  • Enhancing knowledge transfer: Research recommendations help facilitate the transfer of knowledge from researchers to practitioners, policymakers, or other stakeholders who can benefit from the research findings.
  • Encouraging further research : Research recommendations can help identify gaps in knowledge and areas for further research, encouraging continued exploration and discovery.
  • Promoting innovation: Research recommendations can help identify innovative solutions to complex problems, leading to new ideas and approaches.

Limitations of Research Recommendations

While research recommendations have several advantages, there are also some limitations to consider. These limitations include:

  • Context-specific: Research recommendations may be context-specific and may not be applicable in all situations. Recommendations developed in one context may not be suitable for another context, requiring adaptation or modification.
  • I mplementation challenges: Implementation of research recommendations may face challenges, such as lack of resources, resistance to change, or lack of buy-in from stakeholders.
  • Limited scope: Research recommendations may be limited in scope, focusing only on a specific issue or aspect of a problem, while other important factors may be overlooked.
  • Uncertainty : Research recommendations may be uncertain, particularly when the research findings are inconclusive or when the recommendations are based on limited data.
  • Bias : Research recommendations may be influenced by researcher bias or conflicts of interest, leading to recommendations that are not in the best interests of stakeholders.
  • Timing : Research recommendations may be time-sensitive, requiring timely action to be effective. Delayed action may result in missed opportunities or reduced effectiveness.
  • Lack of evaluation: Research recommendations may not be evaluated to determine their effectiveness or impact, making it difficult to assess whether they are successful or not.

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Exploring Lexical Inaccuracy in Arabic-English Translation pp 159–172 Cite as

Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendations

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Part of the New Frontiers in Translation Studies book series (NFTS)

This chapter presents the conclusions reached in this study, acknowledging some limitations and suggestions for further research. The chapter is presented in seven sections. The first section (7.2) provides a brief overview of the research project. The second section (7.3) demonstrates a summary of the major findings based on the research questions and analysis. The third section (7.4) presents the contributions of the study. The fourth section (7.5) offers two pedagogical frameworks as a set of recommendations to improve ESL/EFL teaching/learning with respect to language errors and writing skills. The chapter concludes (sections 7.6 and 7.7) by presenting the limitations of the study and suggesting areas for further research.

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  • How to Write a Summary | Guide & Examples

How to Write a Summary | Guide & Examples

Published on November 23, 2020 by Shona McCombes . Revised on May 31, 2023.

Summarizing , or writing a summary, means giving a concise overview of a text’s main points in your own words. A summary is always much shorter than the original text.

There are five key steps that can help you to write a summary:

  • Read the text
  • Break it down into sections
  • Identify the key points in each section
  • Write the summary
  • Check the summary against the article

Writing a summary does not involve critiquing or evaluating the source . You should simply provide an accurate account of the most important information and ideas (without copying any text from the original).

Table of contents

When to write a summary, step 1: read the text, step 2: break the text down into sections, step 3: identify the key points in each section, step 4: write the summary, step 5: check the summary against the article, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about summarizing.

There are many situations in which you might have to summarize an article or other source:

  • As a stand-alone assignment to show you’ve understood the material
  • To keep notes that will help you remember what you’ve read
  • To give an overview of other researchers’ work in a literature review

When you’re writing an academic text like an essay , research paper , or dissertation , you’ll integrate sources in a variety of ways. You might use a brief quote to support your point, or paraphrase a few sentences or paragraphs.

But it’s often appropriate to summarize a whole article or chapter if it is especially relevant to your own research, or to provide an overview of a source before you analyze or critique it.

In any case, the goal of summarizing is to give your reader a clear understanding of the original source. Follow the five steps outlined below to write a good summary.

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You should read the article more than once to make sure you’ve thoroughly understood it. It’s often effective to read in three stages:

  • Scan the article quickly to get a sense of its topic and overall shape.
  • Read the article carefully, highlighting important points and taking notes as you read.
  • Skim the article again to confirm you’ve understood the key points, and reread any particularly important or difficult passages.

There are some tricks you can use to identify the key points as you read:

  • Start by reading the abstract . This already contains the author’s own summary of their work, and it tells you what to expect from the article.
  • Pay attention to headings and subheadings . These should give you a good sense of what each part is about.
  • Read the introduction and the conclusion together and compare them: What did the author set out to do, and what was the outcome?

To make the text more manageable and understand its sub-points, break it down into smaller sections.

If the text is a scientific paper that follows a standard empirical structure, it is probably already organized into clearly marked sections, usually including an introduction , methods , results , and discussion .

Other types of articles may not be explicitly divided into sections. But most articles and essays will be structured around a series of sub-points or themes.

Now it’s time go through each section and pick out its most important points. What does your reader need to know to understand the overall argument or conclusion of the article?

Keep in mind that a summary does not involve paraphrasing every single paragraph of the article. Your goal is to extract the essential points, leaving out anything that can be considered background information or supplementary detail.

In a scientific article, there are some easy questions you can ask to identify the key points in each part.

If the article takes a different form, you might have to think more carefully about what points are most important for the reader to understand its argument.

In that case, pay particular attention to the thesis statement —the central claim that the author wants us to accept, which usually appears in the introduction—and the topic sentences that signal the main idea of each paragraph.

Now that you know the key points that the article aims to communicate, you need to put them in your own words.

To avoid plagiarism and show you’ve understood the article, it’s essential to properly paraphrase the author’s ideas. Do not copy and paste parts of the article, not even just a sentence or two.

The best way to do this is to put the article aside and write out your own understanding of the author’s key points.

Examples of article summaries

Let’s take a look at an example. Below, we summarize this article , which scientifically investigates the old saying “an apple a day keeps the doctor away.”

Davis et al. (2015) set out to empirically test the popular saying “an apple a day keeps the doctor away.” Apples are often used to represent a healthy lifestyle, and research has shown their nutritional properties could be beneficial for various aspects of health. The authors’ unique approach is to take the saying literally and ask: do people who eat apples use healthcare services less frequently? If there is indeed such a relationship, they suggest, promoting apple consumption could help reduce healthcare costs.

The study used publicly available cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants were categorized as either apple eaters or non-apple eaters based on their self-reported apple consumption in an average 24-hour period. They were also categorized as either avoiding or not avoiding the use of healthcare services in the past year. The data was statistically analyzed to test whether there was an association between apple consumption and several dependent variables: physician visits, hospital stays, use of mental health services, and use of prescription medication.

Although apple eaters were slightly more likely to have avoided physician visits, this relationship was not statistically significant after adjusting for various relevant factors. No association was found between apple consumption and hospital stays or mental health service use. However, apple eaters were found to be slightly more likely to have avoided using prescription medication. Based on these results, the authors conclude that an apple a day does not keep the doctor away, but it may keep the pharmacist away. They suggest that this finding could have implications for reducing healthcare costs, considering the high annual costs of prescription medication and the inexpensiveness of apples.

However, the authors also note several limitations of the study: most importantly, that apple eaters are likely to differ from non-apple eaters in ways that may have confounded the results (for example, apple eaters may be more likely to be health-conscious). To establish any causal relationship between apple consumption and avoidance of medication, they recommend experimental research.

An article summary like the above would be appropriate for a stand-alone summary assignment. However, you’ll often want to give an even more concise summary of an article.

For example, in a literature review or meta analysis you may want to briefly summarize this study as part of a wider discussion of various sources. In this case, we can boil our summary down even further to include only the most relevant information.

Using national survey data, Davis et al. (2015) tested the assertion that “an apple a day keeps the doctor away” and did not find statistically significant evidence to support this hypothesis. While people who consumed apples were slightly less likely to use prescription medications, the study was unable to demonstrate a causal relationship between these variables.

Citing the source you’re summarizing

When including a summary as part of a larger text, it’s essential to properly cite the source you’re summarizing. The exact format depends on your citation style , but it usually includes an in-text citation and a full reference at the end of your paper.

You can easily create your citations and references in APA or MLA using our free citation generators.

APA Citation Generator MLA Citation Generator

Finally, read through the article once more to ensure that:

  • You’ve accurately represented the author’s work
  • You haven’t missed any essential information
  • The phrasing is not too similar to any sentences in the original.

If you’re summarizing many articles as part of your own work, it may be a good idea to use a plagiarism checker to double-check that your text is completely original and properly cited. Just be sure to use one that’s safe and reliable.

If you want to know more about ChatGPT, AI tools , citation , and plagiarism , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.

  • ChatGPT vs human editor
  • ChatGPT citations
  • Is ChatGPT trustworthy?
  • Using ChatGPT for your studies
  • What is ChatGPT?
  • Chicago style
  • Paraphrasing


  • Types of plagiarism
  • Self-plagiarism
  • Avoiding plagiarism
  • Academic integrity
  • Consequences of plagiarism
  • Common knowledge

A summary is a short overview of the main points of an article or other source, written entirely in your own words. Want to make your life super easy? Try our free text summarizer today!

A summary is always much shorter than the original text. The length of a summary can range from just a few sentences to several paragraphs; it depends on the length of the article you’re summarizing, and on the purpose of the summary.

You might have to write a summary of a source:

  • As a stand-alone assignment to prove you understand the material
  • For your own use, to keep notes on your reading
  • To provide an overview of other researchers’ work in a literature review
  • In a paper , to summarize or introduce a relevant study

To avoid plagiarism when summarizing an article or other source, follow these two rules:

  • Write the summary entirely in your own words by paraphrasing the author’s ideas.
  • Cite the source with an in-text citation and a full reference so your reader can easily find the original text.

An abstract concisely explains all the key points of an academic text such as a thesis , dissertation or journal article. It should summarize the whole text, not just introduce it.

An abstract is a type of summary , but summaries are also written elsewhere in academic writing . For example, you might summarize a source in a paper , in a literature review , or as a standalone assignment.

All can be done within seconds with our free text summarizer .

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.

McCombes, S. (2023, May 31). How to Write a Summary | Guide & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved March 4, 2024, from

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Difference Between Summary and Conclusion


In the absence of conclusion, the research paper might seem incomplete. It is often contrasted with a summary, but there are subtle differences between the two. A summary is nothing but a short and clear account of the text, covering the main points, facts or elements only.

Content: Summary Vs Conclusion

Comparison chart, definition of summary.

A summary is the compact account of the main text, i.e. an article, essay, drama, or some other form of literature. It gives an overview of the key points of the piece of writing. Moreover, one can also summarize anything which he/she has seen and heard, like speech, movie or lecture, etc.

It is typically about 5% to 15% of the original work, i.e. it may extend up to one to three paragraphs, which is around 100 to 300 words. It simply depends on the length of the text which is summarized. Its aim is to describe a piece of writing while including considerably less content than its original.


Ideal Summary

  • An ideal summary is one that objectively highlights the entire form of literature.
  • It should cover the focal point of every paragraph and the evidence supporting it.
  • It should exclude all the irrelevant examples, details and information.
  • It can make use of the keywords used in the original work, but should not use the same sentences and phrases, except if quotation marks are used.
  • It must express the sense of the original work while using your own words and sentences.

Definition of Conclsuion

Conclusion refers to the epilogue which is given at the end of something, to deduce the findings. It forms part of the thought process, which combines all the points discussed, so as to reach a comprehensive idea or statement.

It is the final step in the process of reasoning, in which judgement, decision or opinion is formed after complete investigation and consideration. To conclude something, different types of perspectives are considered. It is only 10% of the research paper, which has two segments – summary and final thought .

conclusion writing

Ideal Conclusion

  • The conclusion is said to be ideal when it gives an interesting insight and should end on a positive note.
  • Highlights the main argument presented in the piece of writing.
  • Sums up the answer to the question, often stated in the introduction.
  • Refer back the questions, states the key points and findings, and wind up the discussion with the final observation.
  • Reinforces the primary theme of the study.
  • Makes a strong and long-lasting impression on the reader.
  • It should never introduce new points.

Key Differences Between Summary and Conclusion

The points stated below discuss the differences between summary and conclusion:

  • A summary is an abridgement of the work of literature, which covers the key points succinctly. On the contrary, conclusion refers to the final part of the discourse which sums up the argument and gives a statement of opinion or judgement.
  • A summary is written to provide the reader with a precise and objective narrative of the central ideas and aspects of the original text. Conversely, conclusion paragraph wraps up the text and presents the reader that you have accomplished, what you have set forth in the beginning.
  • While a summary restates the facts and elements, which are discussed in the original text, conclusion tends to synthesize all the points and wrap up the discussion. It helps the reader understand the importance of the research.
  • Ideally, the length of the summary is 5% to 15%, whereas the conclusion constitutes only 10% of the original work.
  • A summary often demonstrates the central ideas of the text clearly and concisely. In contrast, the conclusion introduces a new outlook, proposes a course of actions, provides a solution to the problem, makes suggestions for further study, and makes deductions on the basis of the argument.
  • A summary only includes the ideas of the original text. One should not insert their opinion, criticism, comments or interpretations. As against, the conclusion can include the researcher’s or writer’s views, ideas and criticisms at the end.

In a nutshell, a summary condenses the material as well as it informs the reader about the vital points. Contrastingly, a conclusion gives the reader the sense of completeness of the argument or topic, with a reason or final thought. It focuses on the final outcome of the argumentation or research.

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This chapter summarizes the whole research process. It first provides a brief summary of the whole study with particular reference to the research problem, research methodology, results, the main contributions of the research and recommendations for future work. It provides a summary of the main findings of the study, conclusions and recommendations. This chapter should be reasonably short.

The readers would want to know whether the objectives of the study were achieved, and whether the work has contributed to knowledge. Therefore, when compiling this chapter, a researcher should focus on answering these questions.

Any conclusions drawn should be those resulting from the study. A researcher should make relevant references to chapters that support the listed findings and may also refer to the work of others for comparison. However, one should not discuss the stu1y’s results here.

Summary of the Main Findings

In summarizing, a researcher should identify the findings of the study and discuss them briefly. In addition, the methodological problems encountered should be outlined so that future/other researchers may take the relevant precautions. The researcher should clearly pinpoint if the study objectives were achieved or not. An effective summary has the following qualities:

  • It bases on results from the study.
  • It is brief, all statements are concise, and pinpoint to the contributions that the researcher has made.


  • All statements are factual.

One way to present the summary is to use one paragraph for each idea. Alternatively, the researcher can use a point-by-point format.

The Conclusion section should be very brief, about half a page. It should indicate what the study results reaffirm. It should also briefly discuss some of the strategies highlighted by the respondents. In this section, the researcher should clearly state how the study has contributed to knowledge.

The recommendations section is important in research. This section often exposes further problems and introduces more questions. As a researcher, there is a time limit to the research project, so it is unlikely that the study would have solved all the problems associated with the area of study. The researcher is therefore expected to make suggestions about how his/her work can be improved, and also based on the study findings, point out whether there are areas that deserve further investigation. This section will indicate whether a researcher has a firm appreciation of his/her work, and whether he/ she has given sufficient thought to its implications, not only within the narrow confines of the research topic but to related fields. This section reflects the researcher’s foresightedness and creativity.

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Written by  MJ

Background for CDC’s Updated Respiratory Virus Guidance

Executive summary, transitioning from an emergency state, changing risk environment, unified, practical guidance, updated guidance on steps to prevent spread when you are sick is informed by numerous factors, ongoing vigilance and action.

The 2023-2024 fall and winter virus season, four years since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, provided ongoing evidence of the changing face of respiratory diseases. COVID-19 remains an important public health threat, but it is no longer the emergency that it once was, and its health impacts increasingly resemble those of other respiratory viral illnesses, including influenza and RSV. This reality enables CDC to provide updated guidance proportionate to the current level of risk COVID-19 poses while balancing other critical health and societal needs. Key drivers and indicators of the reduction in threat from COVID-19 include:

  • Due to the effectiveness of protective tools and high degree of population immunity, there are now fewer hospitalizations and deaths due to COVID-19 . Weekly hospital admissions for COVID-19 have decreased by more than 75% and deaths by more than 90% compared to January 2022, the peak of the initial Omicron wave. Complications like multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) are now also less common, and prevalence of Long COVID also appears to be decreasing. These reductions in disease severity and death have persisted through a full respiratory virus season following the expiration of the federal Public Health Emergency for COVID-19 and its associated special measures on May 11, 2023.
  • Protective tools, like vaccines and treatments, that decrease risk of COVID-19 disease (particularly severe disease) are now widely available. COVID-19 vaccination reduces the risk of symptomatic disease and hospitalization by about 50% compared to people not up to date on vaccination. Over 95% of adults hospitalized in 2023-2024 due to COVID-19 had no record of receiving the latest vaccine. Treatment with nirmatrelvir-ritonavir (Paxlovid) in persons at high risk of severe disease has been shown to decrease risk of hospitalization by 75% and death by 60% in recent studies.
  • There is a high degree of population immunity against COVID-19. More than 98% of the U.S. population now has some degree of protective immunity against COVID-19 from vaccination, prior infection, or both.

As the threat from COVID-19 becomes more similar to that of other common respiratory viruses, CDC is issuing Respiratory Virus Guidance, rather than additional virus-specific guidance. This brings a unified, practical approach to addressing risk from a range of common respiratory viral illnesses, such as influenza and RSV, that have similar routes of transmission and symptoms and similar prevention strategies. The updated guidance on steps to prevent spread when you are sick particularly reflects the key reality that many people with respiratory virus symptoms do not know the specific virus they are infected with. Importantly, states and countries that have already shortened recommended isolation times have not seen increased hospitalizations or deaths related to COVID-19. Although increasingly similar to other respiratory viruses, some differences remain, such as the risk of post-COVID conditions.

CDC will continue to evaluate available evidence to ensure the recommendations in the guidance provide the intended protection. This includes monitoring data to identify and model patterns in respiratory virus transmission, severity, hospitalizations, deaths, virus evolution, and Long COVID. In addition, CDC continues to make systems-level investments to protect the American public. Examples include measuring and enhancing effectiveness and uptake of vaccines and antiviral treatments, particularly for those at increased risk for severe disease; integrating healthcare and public health systems to prevent, identify, and respond to emerging public health threats more rapidly; and strengthening partnerships across sectors to ensure a strong public health infrastructure.

  • The Respiratory Virus Guidance covers most common respiratory viral illnesses but should not supplant specific guidance for pathogens that require special containment measures, such as measles. However, the recommendations in this guidance may still help reduce spread of various other types of infections. The guidance may not apply in certain outbreak situations when more specific guidance may be needed.
  • CDC offers separate, specific guidance for healthcare settings ( COVID-19 , flu , and general infection prevention and control )

Since 2020, CDC provided guidance specific to COVID-19, initially with detailed recommendations on many issues and for specific settings. Throughout 2022 and 2023 , CDC revised COVID-19 public health recommendations as the pandemic evolved. These changes to the guidance reflected the latest scientific evidence as well as the progression through the pandemic. The expiration of the federal Public Health Emergency for COVID-19 in 2023 also reflected a shift away from the emergency response phase  to the recovery and maintenance phases in which COVID-19 is addressed amidst many other public health threats. Measures appropriate to an emergency setting are less relevant after the emergency ended.

The continuum of pandemic phases


In developing this updated Respiratory Virus Guidance, CDC carefully considered the changing risk environment, particularly lower rates of severe disease from COVID-19 and increased population immunity, as well as improvements in other prevention and control strategies.

Trends in outcomes


In 2024, COVID-19 is less likely to result in severe disease than earlier in the pandemic because of greater immunity from vaccines and previous infections and greater treatment availability.

COVID-19 remains a greater cause of severe illness and death than other respiratory viruses, but the differences between these rates are much smaller than they were earlier in the pandemic. This difference is even smaller among people admitted to the hospital. Studies show the proportion of adults hospitalized with COVID-19 (15.5%) or influenza (13.3%) who were subsequently admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) was similar, and patients 60 years and older hospitalized with RSV were 1.5 times more likely  to be admitted to the ICU than those with COVID-19.

Hospital admissions for COVID-19 peaked in January 2022 with more than 150,000 admissions per week, based on data from CDC’s National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) covering all U.S. hospitals. During the week ending February 17, 2023, there were 18,977 hospital admissions for COVID-19. During this same week, there were 10,480  hospital admissions for influenza.

Another data source—called Respiratory Virus Hospitalization Surveillance Network ( RESP-NET ) — collects hospitalization data on 8–10% of the U.S. population since before pandemic. The RESP-NET figures below demonstrate how COVID-19 hospitalizations have decreased over time and are now in the range of those for influenza and RSV.

COVID-19 hospitalizations have been declining year-over-year since 2022, with winter peaks more closely resembling those of influenza


Data on weekly new hospital admissions of patients with COVID-19, influenza, and RSV from surveillance sites in the Respiratory Virus Hospitalization Surveillance Network ( RESP-NET ), which cover 8–10% of the U.S. population, October 2019–February 2024.

Cumulative annual rates of COVID-19-associated hospitalizations (Oct. 1–Sept. 30 to align with start of typical fall and winter virus season) have declined since 2021–2022


*Hospitalization rates per 100,000 population. Data from the Respiratory Virus Hospitalization Surveillance Network (RESP-NET)  are preliminary and subject to change as more data become available. As data are received each week, prior case counts and rates are updated accordingly. Hospitalizations rates are likely to be underestimated as some hospitalizations might be missed because of undertesting, differing provider or facility testing practices, and diagnostic test sensitivity. Rates presented do not adjust for testing practices, which may differ by pathogen, age, race and ethnicity, and other demographic criteria. Surveillance for each pathogen was not conducted during the same time periods each season. For all seasons displayed, all three platforms conduct surveillance between October 1 and April 30 of each year. Surveillance for influenza hospitalizations was extended to June 11, 2022, for the 2021–2022 season, but otherwise occurred October through April each season. Surveillance for RSV hospitalizations occurred from October 2019 through April 2020. Since October 2020, surveillance for RSV hospitalizations has occurred year-round excluding May–June 2022. Surveillance for COVID-19 hospitalizations has occurred year-round since March 2020. Cumulative rates for the 2023–2024 season are not presented as surveillance is ongoing .

Hospitalizations by age group . Over time, rates of hospitalization for COVID-19 have decreased across all ages but have remained higher among adults ages ≥65 years relative to younger adults, children, and adolescents. Among older children, rates have decreased, and rates among children are now highest among infants ages <6 months. As of the end of December 2023, about 70% of hospitalizations were among people ages ≥65 years, and 14% were among those ages 50–64 years.

Increasing proportion of COVID-19 hospitalizations are in older adults, as well as the youngest children


Percents of weekly COVID-19-associated hospitalizations, by age group — COVID-NET, March 1, 2020–January 27, 2024

The proportion of hospitalizations caused by each of these viruses in the 2022–2023 season varied by age group. Among children <5 years RSV caused the most hospitalizations. Among children and adolescents 5–17 years, influenza caused the most hospitalizations, and hospitalizations overall were the lowest in this age group. Among adults, COVID-19-associated hospitalizations were higher than those for influenza or RSV. These patterns have been broadly consistent thus far in the 2023-2024 season.

Most COVID-19, influenza, and RSV hospitalizations are in older adults and young children, with COVID-19 highest among older adults and RSV highest among young children (note differences in y-axis rates of hospitalizations across age groups)


Weekly rates of laboratory-confirmed respiratory virus-associated hospitalizations by age, 2022–2023 season. Seasonal influenza surveillance ended in April 2023 for the 2022–2023 seasons; surveillance for COVID-19 and RSV hospitalizations was year-round. Data from RESP-NET .

As of February 10, 2024, 1,178,527 deaths from COVID-19 have been reported in the United States. In 2021 COVID-19 was the third leading cause of death (12% of all deaths) and in 2022 it was the fourth leading cause of death (5.7% of all deaths), following heart disease, cancer, and unintentional injury. In preliminary data from 2023 , COVID-19 was the 10 th leading cause of death. Among deaths from COVID-19 occurring from January–September 2023, 88% were among people ≥65 years.

COVID-19 is increasingly a contributing rather than the primary (underlying) cause of death. In 2020, COVID-19 was listed as the primary cause for 91% of deaths involving COVID-19. During January–September 2023, that number had fallen to 69%.

Reported deaths involving COVID-19 are several-fold greater than those reported to involve influenza and RSV. However, influenza and likely RSV are often underreported as causes of death. CDC estimates that from October 1, 2023, to February 17, 2024, 17,000–50,000 influenza deaths occurred, several times greater than the number of reported deaths. As such, the data on reported deaths should be interpreted with caution when assessing the true burden of deaths and comparing across diseases.

Current estimates of total COVID-19 deaths are not available, but COVID-19 deaths are not likely to be as underreported as are deaths involving influenza because of widespread COVID-19 testing and intensive focus on COVID-19 during the pandemic. Total COVID-19 deaths, accounting for underreporting, are likely to be higher than, but of the same order of magnitude as, total influenza deaths. Supporting this idea, the cumulative rate of COVID-19-associated hospitalizations during October 1, 2023–February 3, 2024, was 97 per 100,000 population, compared with 52 per 100,000 influenza-associated hospitalizations and 44 per 100,000 RSV hospitalizations. In-hospital death was about 1.8 times higher for COVID-19-associated hospitalizations (4.6%) vs. those for influenza (2.6%).

COVID-19-associated deaths based on reports on death certificates declined over 5-fold since their peak in 2020-2021 and are now at the same order of magnitude as estimated influenza deaths

*Reported death data from CDC’s National Vital Statistics System based on death certificates, available at CDC WONDER . Data from 2022-2024 are provisional and subject to change .

****Estimated influenza deaths, accounting for underreporting, based CDC modeling available here: Disease Burden of Flu , including confidence intervals. It has been long recognized that only counting deaths where influenza was recorded on death certificates would  underestimate influenza’s overall impact on mortality . Influenza can lead to death from other causes, such as pneumonia and congestive heart failure; however, it may not be listed on the death certificate as a contributing cause for multiple reasons, including a lack of testing. Therefore, CDC has an established history of using models to  estimate influenza-associated death totals . While under-reporting of deaths attributed to RSV and COVID-19 likely also occurs, regularly updated model estimates are currently not available. Modeled burden estimates for influenza are not directly comparable to death certificate derived counts for COVID-19 and RSV .

Divergence between infection and severe disease

Although hospitalizations and deaths involving COVID-19 have declined substantially since 2022, rates of infections with the virus have not. For example, the percentage of SARS-CoV-2 tests that are positive, a key indicator of community spread, reached peak levels of 14.6% in August 2023 and 12.9% in January 2024, similar to the peak levels observed in earlier years. Differences in testing practices between time periods might influence these data, but these high levels of test positivity are consistent with high levels also seen in wastewater.

SARS-CoV-2 test positivity (orange line) has remained elevated, a marker of ongoing COVID-19 spread, but deaths (blue bars) have declined substantially


Provisional COVID-19 Deaths and COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (NAAT) Percent Positivity, by Week, in The United States, Reported to CDC. Sources:  Provisional Deaths from the CDC’s National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System (NREVSS) Figure from CDC’s COVID Data Tracker .

Wastewater viral activity levels of SARS-CoV-2 demonstrate ongoing community transmission


Figure from CDC’s National Wastewater Surveillance System

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C)

MIS-C is a rare but serious condition associated with COVID-19 in which different parts of the body become inflamed. As of January 2024, more than 9,600 cases of MIS-C have been reported to CDC, including 79 children who died. Before March 2022, the end of the initial Omicron wave, most weekly totals of MIS-C cases exceeded 50, with some weeks involving >150 cases. The number of cases declined substantially after that point, with no week exceeding 25 cases. The reduction in MIS-C cases is likely due to multiple factors, including an increase in population immunity from both infection and vaccination, as well as differences in development of MIS-C associated with SARS-CoV-2 variants.

Weekly U.S. MIS-C cases (blue bars) have declined markedly despite ongoing high levels of COVID-19 test positivity (orange line)


Long COVID or Post-COVID Conditions

CDC broadly defines Long COVID as signs, symptoms, and conditions that continue or develop ≥4 weeks after COVID-19. It can include a wide range of health conditions that can last weeks, months, or years. Although COVID-19 is becoming more similar to influenza and RSV in terms of hospitalizations and death over time, important differences remain, like the potential for these post-infection conditions. Long COVID occurs more often in people who had severe COVID-19 illness but can occur in anyone who has been infected with SARS-CoV-2, including children and people who were asymptomatic. Estimates of Long COVID vary widely and can differ based on study methods and how long after infection symptoms were assessed. Based on the nationally representative 2022 National Health Interview Survey, 3.4% of adults reported Long COVID and 0.5% of children . In Census Bureau’s Household Pulse Surveys, one quarter of people currently reporting Long COVID reported significant activity limitations.

Accumulating evidence suggests that vaccination prior to infection can reduce the risk of Long COVID . There is mixed evidence on whether the use of antivirals, including nirmatrelvir-ritonavir (Paxlovid), during the time of acute infection can reduce the risk of Long COVID. Decreases in Long COVID prevalence have been reported in several countries including the United States , United Kingdom , and Germany , likely due to less severe illness from COVID-19 overall, protection from vaccines, and possible changes in risk with new variants.

Increase in population immunity against COVID-19

Now, more than ever before, most people have some degree of protection because of underlying immunity. Data from a national longitudinal cohort of blood donors aged ≥16 years provide insight on the proportion of the population with antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 from infection, vaccination, or both (referred to as hybrid immunity). Hybrid immunity has been described as providing better protection with longer durability against severe illness compared to immunity from vaccination or infection alone.

In January 2021 , only an estimated 22% of people aged ≥16 years had antibodies against COVID-19. By the third quarter of 2023 (July–September), 98% had antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, with 14% from vaccination alone, 26% from infection alone, and 58% from both. An estimated 96% of children aged 6 months to 17 years had antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in November–December 2022, including 92% with antibodies from a prior infection, according to blood samples from commercial laboratories. Although immunity against SARS-CoV-2 tends to decline from high levels initially generated by vaccination and infection, substantial protection persists for much longer , especially against the most severe outcomes like requiring a ventilator and death. New data show that the 2023–2024 updated COVID-19 vaccine can provide an additional layer of protection against severe disease.

Prevalence of vaccine-induced and infection-induced antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 among a cohort of U.S. blood donors ≥16 years



As of February 3, 2024, 22% of adults reported they had received an updated 2023-2024 vaccine, including 42% of people aged ≥65 years. Vaccine uptake varies geographically and by other demographics. As of February 11, 2024, 40% of nursing home residents were up to date with a COVID-19 vaccine.

Reductions in COVID-19-associated hospitalizations over time could be even greater if more people, especially those at greater risk, receive updated COVID-19 vaccines. Among adults with COVID-19-associated hospitalizations during October–November 2023, over 95% had not received an updated (2023 –2024) COVID-19 vaccine , and most (70%) had also not received an updated vaccine from the previous year (2022–2023) .

Over 95% of adults hospitalized with COVID-19 during October–November 2023 had not received an updated (2023–2024) COVID-19 vaccine (Preliminary)


Data from COVID-NET. Data are preliminary as they only include two months of hospitalization data for which the updated monovalent vaccine dose was recommended. Continued examinations of vaccine registry data are ongoing. No record of bivalent or updated monovalent dose : No recorded doses of COVID-19 bivalent or updated 2023-2024 monovalent dose. Bivalent booster, but no updated monovalent doses : Received COVID-19 bivalent booster vaccination but no record of receiving updated 2023-2024 monovalent booster dose. Updated monovalent dose: Received updated 2023-2024 monovalent dose. Persons with unknown vaccination status are excluded.

Vaccine effectiveness data provide the best real-world information on impact of COVID-19 vaccines on hospitalization. Data shown below from two studies presented at the Feb. 28–29, 2024, meeting of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices demonstrate that the 2023–2024 COVID-19 vaccine is associated with an additional ~50% increase in protection against COVID-19-associated hospitalization.

Vaccine Effectiveness of 2023-2024 vaccine against hospitalization among immunocompetent adults aged ≥18 years

Vaccine Effectiveness of 2023-2024 vaccine against hospitalization among immunocompetent adults aged ≥18 years

VE estimates adjusted for age, sex, race and ethnicity, geographic region, and calendar time. MMWR February 29, 2024

Data from another study suggest that these vaccines provide similar protection against disease caused by different co-circulating variants . Vaccines continue to provide protection to both people who have had a prior infection and those who have not. To be optimally protected against COVID-19, everyone 6 months and older should receive the latest CDC-recommended vaccine.

Infants <6 months are not eligible for COVID-19 vaccines but vaccination during pregnancy helps protect both pregnant people and their young infants from hospitalization due to COVID-19. For people with immunocompromising conditions , vaccine responses can be impaired, but vaccines provide protection against severe illness in this population. People who are moderately or severely immunocompromised are recommended to receive at least 1 dose of updated 2023–2024 COVID-19 vaccine.

Immunizations are the cornerstone of protection not just for COVID-19 but also for influenza. New in the 2023-2024 season, immunizations are available to protect those at highest risk from RSV, including older adults and infants.

Vaccines substantially reduce the risk of hospitalization, and many people at higher risk of severe disease are missing this layer of protection

*Data on COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness among adults for updated (2023-2024) COVID-19 vaccine and 2023-2024 seasonal influenza vaccine

**Data on 2023-2024 updated COVID-19 vaccines and 2023-2024 seasonal influenza vaccine from CDC’s National Immunization Survey (NIS) as of February 16, 2024. More detail, including confidence intervals around these point estimates, is available on CDC’s Respiratory Virus Data Channel . Data on percentage of older adults vaccinated for COVID-19 and influenza are for those 65+ years and for those 60+ years for RSV .

***RSV vaccination is recommended for older adults aged 60+ years based on shared clinical decision-making with a healthcare provider. RSV protection for young children is available through vaccination of pregnant people or use of an immunization called nirsevimab for young children. As of January 2024, an estimated 16% of pregnant people 32+ weeks gestation reported receiving RSV vaccine, and among females with an infant <8 months, 41% reported their infant received nirsevimab .

SARS-CoV-2 evolution, variants, and vaccines

RNA viruses like influenza and SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19, accumulate random mutations over time as they replicate. Out of the many mutations that happen, a small number can provide advantages that lead to new variant lineages with increased fitness (e.g., infect people more easily or be more transmissible). Early in the pandemic, circulating SARS-CoV-2 genomes were relatively stable . Because the virus was so new, our immune systems did not recognize it, and the virus did not need new mutations to escape existing immunity to continue spreading. As population immunity increased and more people developed antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, this immune pressure selected for mutations that helped the virus escape from neutralizing antibodies, generating new variants. This evolving situation led to viruses that had many changes in the virus spike protein, such as early Omicron variants (e.g., BA.1, BA.2). These ongoing changes in the spike protein, called antigenic drift, from early virus lineages like the Alpha variant to the first Omicron variants resulted in significant escape from neutralizing antibodies, allowing reinfections of people who had been infected by early variants and leading to reduced vaccine effectiveness . Currently, all SARS-CoV-2 viruses circulating are descendants of the early Omicron variants.

Changes in the spike protein that enable escape from neutralizing antibodies are the major driver of SARS-CoV-2 evolution, since they allow the virus to better escape people’s existing immunity. To better target the changing virus and increase protection against new variants, the COVID-19 vaccine is periodically updated. For example, the updated COVID-19 vaccine for 2023–2024 includes uses XBB.1.5 antigen, a variant that was dominant for much of 2023.

A wide range of SARS-CoV-2 variants have been causing infections over time, most recently dominated by JN.1, representing increased transmission or immune escape by successive variants


Figure based on CDC genomic surveillance data

In 2023, a variant called BA.2.86 emerged with many changes in the spike protein compared to other circulating variants, raising concerns that it might lead to a similar degree of immune escape as the initial Omicron variant. This variant, in the form of its offspring JN.1—just one mutation different from BA.2.86, displaced the other co-circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants, demonstrating it had higher fitness than other variants. However, vaccines continued to work well against JN.1 , and the number of U.S. COVID-19-associated hospitalizations occurring at this time did not exceed that of the previous year. These findings suggest that hybrid immunity induced by the updated vaccines, provided robust cross-protection against this variant and likely a wide range of variants, although continued vigilance is critical.

SARS-CoV-2 will continue to evolve, and new variants will continue to replace previous viruses. Therefore, genomic surveillance is used to identify and track variants , and representative viruses are phenotypically characterized as part of coordinated global efforts to develop updated vaccines as needed . CDC along with partners (e.g., National Institutes of Health, Food and Drug Administration, Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority, and World Health Organization) continue to conduct genetic surveillance to monitor for new variants, perform epidemiologic and laboratory studies to understand immune escape, and monitor key indicators like hospitalizations and emergency department visits to help inform prevention strategies. This is a continuous and iterative process that will help prepare for the upcoming 2024–2025 fall and winter season.

SARS-CoV-2 shedding and transmission dynamics

Even as the SARS-CoV-2 virus has continued to evolve, the duration of shedding infectious virus has remained relatively consistent, with most individuals no longer infectious after 8-10 days. The presence of certain COVID-19 symptoms, most prominently fever, is associated with greater infectious virus on the day of symptom. The highest levels of culturable virus typically occur within a few days before and after symptom onset. Since Omicron BA.1 variant, there is a slightly shorter time between infection to symptom onset than previous variants. Overall, these data suggest most SARS-CoV-2 transmission, regardless of variant, largely occurs early in the course of illness.

Notably, over half of SARS-CoV-2 community transmission is estimated to come from people who are asymptomatic at the time, including both pre-symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals, meaning exposure to the virus in the community from people who do not know they are infected is likely common.

Highest levels of culture-positive SARS-CoV-2, an indicator of infectiousness, occur in the days around and after symptom onset, with a small proportion of people continuing to have culturable virus beyond one week


Unpublished data from the Respiratory Virus Transmission Network , involving five U.S. sites that enrolled people who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and their household contacts during November 2022–May 2023. Onset was defined as first day of symptoms or, if asymptomatic, first positive test. Note that people can have positive PCR tests, which detect viral genetic material, after they are no longer shedding infectious virus, and culture is the best indicator of infectious virus. This figure is similar to one previously published based on data from early 2021, underscoring the overall stability of viral shedding across variants.

In the Delta variant era, vaccination was associated with reduced infectious virus, demonstrating the potential impact of immunity on viral shedding and transmission. Immunity from vaccination, as well as previous infections, wanes over time, which likely attenuates this impact. Additionally, the continued evolution of variants better able to escape existing immunity may also affect the impact of vaccination and previous infection on shedding of infectious virus.

Improvements related to other prevention and control strategies

In addition to greater population understanding of effective prevention strategies like hand hygiene, respiratory etiquette, cleaning, masks, and physical distancing, advancements in awareness, accessibility, and the science base related to treatment, air quality, tests, and steps to prevent spread when you’re sick have also enabled people to act to lower the risk from respiratory viruses.

Several medications are available for outpatient treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19 for people at increased risk of severe illness. Data for nirmatrelvir-ritonavir (Paxlovid), the first-line drug available for oral use, suggest that it reduce the risk of hospitalization and death by half or more . For example, a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that examined nirmatrelvir-ritonavir effectiveness and efficacy found that people who received nirmatrelvir-ritonavir had 75% lower odds of death and 60% lower odds of hospitalization. People who received nirmatrelvir-ritonavir had 83% lower odds of hospitalization and death as a composite outcome compared with people who did not use nirmatrelvir-ritonavir.

However, uptake of these treatments remains suboptimal , meaning many people are missing this layer of protection against hospitalization and death. A study of patients in the Veterans Health Administration reported that among all persons with SARS CoV-2 infection, 24% used outpatient antiviral medications in 2022, remaining at that level through early 2023. Similar overall rates of use, with a maximum of 34%, were found using observational data of a large cohort from health care systems participating in the National Patient-Centered Clinical Research Network (PCORnet). This study also highlighted racial and ethnic differences in treatment uptake. During April–July 2022, treatment with nirmatrelvir-ritonavir among adults aged ≥20 years was 35.8%, 24.9%, 23.1%, and 19.4% lower among Black, multiple or other race, American Indian or Alaska native or other Pacific Islander, and Asian patients, respectively, than among white patients (31.9% treated). A CDC study found that among 699,848 U.S. adults aged ≥18 years eligible for nirmatrelvir-ritonavir during April–August 2022, 28.4% received a prescription with 5 days of being diagnosed with COVID-19.

CDC and NIH continue to monitor real-world effectiveness data for COVID-19 treatment. Current evidence suggests that effectiveness of nirmatrelvir-ritonavir is retained among persons who have been vaccinated and confers incremental benefit among persons at high risk for severe disease, although this is an underutilized treatment.

Air quality

Ventilation and related strategies to improve indoor air quality can reduce infective viral particle concentrations in indoor air. In 2023, informed by accumulating evidence, CDC issued recommendations for using Minimum Efficiency Reporting Value (MERV) 13 or greater and getting at least 5 air changes per hour of clean air in occupied spaces through air flow, filtration, or air treatment. CDC’s Interactive Home Ventilation Tool can help people identify strategies they can use to decrease the level of viral particles in their home. CDC also now provides a similar tool for building owners and operators. In addition, the U.S. Government issued a Clean Air in Buildings Challenge to help building owners and operators improve indoor air quality and protect public health.

Laboratory tests are currently widely available and can be readily accessed for diagnosis of COVID-19, influenza, and RSV. At-home antigen tests for SARS-CoV-2 are also widely available and increasingly familiar to the public. At-home rapid tests for influenza have recently received FDA approval and may become more widely accessible over time.

Staying home when sick and other steps to prevent spread

The importance of staying home and away from others when sick became more widely understood during the COVID-19 pandemic. When individuals have the option to stay home and be compensated while sick , they are much more likely to do so. Similarly, people with prior telework experience are more apt to work from home when they have respiratory symptoms , rather than work in person at an office.

Unlike early in the pandemic when COVID-19 was nearly the only respiratory virus causing illness, it is now one of many, including influenza , RSV , adenoviruses , rhinoviruses , enteroviruses , human metapneumovirus , parainfluenza virus , and other common human coronaviruses . CDC is focusing guidance on the core measures that provide the most protection across respiratory viruses. The updated guidance emphasizes the importance of staying home and away from others when sick from respiratory viruses, regardless of the virus, as well as additional preventive actions.

Virus not known in most respiratory infections

Viruses cause most acute respiratory illnesses, but it is rarely possible to determine the type of virus without testing, and oftentimes testing does not change clinical management. Testing for most respiratory pathogens is rarely available outside of healthcare settings. Although at-home antigen testing is widely available for COVID-19, most infections likely go undiagnosed. In a recent CDC survey, less than half of people said they would do an at-home test for COVID-19 if they had cold or cough symptoms, and less than 10% said they would get tested at a pharmacy or by a healthcare provider.

Even when testing occurs, COVID-19 is often not identified early in illness. The overall sensitivity of COVID-19 antigen tests is relatively low and even lower in individuals with only mild symptoms. Significant numbers of false negative test results occur early in an infection. This means mildly symptomatic cases are not always detected, and when they are detected, it often occurs several days into an illness, which is typically past when peak infectiousness occurs.

Public interest in prevention is not limited to COVID-19

A November 2023 survey from the Harvard Opinion Research Program found people were not meaningfully more concerned about any one respiratory virus, with roughly similar proportions reporting being concerned about getting infected with COVID-19, seasonal influenza, RSV, and a cold. Relatedly, a CDC survey found that a majority of Americans take precautions when sick with cold or cough symptoms (i.e., avoiding contact with people at higher risk, avoiding large indoor gatherings) even if they don’t know what virus is causing the illness.

Respiratory Virus Guidance does not imply all viruses are the same

Respiratory viruses are certainly not all the same. Some, like SARS-CoV-2, spread more through respiratory particles in the air, whereas others, like RSV and adenovirus , are thought to also spread via surface transmission. As such, this guidance is not meant to apply to specialized situations, like healthcare or certain disease outbreaks , in which more detailed guidance specific to the pathogen may be warranted. For example, adenoviruses are resistant to many common disinfectants and can remain infectious for hours on environmental surfaces. For the general public, however, an overall focus on hygiene, indoor air improvements, and mask use, coupled with necessarily specific recommendations about vaccines and treatment, provides a practical approach that addresses the key prevention measures.

The updated Respiratory Virus Guidance recommends people with respiratory virus symptoms that are not better explained by another cause stay home and away from others until at least 24 hours after both resolution of fever AND overall symptom are getting better. This recommendation addresses the period of greatest infectiousness and highest viral load for most people, which is typically in the first few days of illness and when symptoms, including fever, are worst. This is similar to longstanding recommendations for other respiratory illnesses, including influenza.

A residual risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission remains , depending on the person and circumstances, after the period in which people are recommended to stay home and away from others. Five additional days of interventions (i.e., masking, testing, distancing, improved air quality, hygiene, and/or testing) reduce harm during later stages of illness, especially to protect people at higher risk of severe illness. Some people, especially people with weakened immune systems, might be able to infect others for an even longer time. It is important to note that a similar residual risk of transmission is also true for influenza and other viruses.

In addition to the overall reduction in risk from COVID-19, other factors considered in developing this component of the guidance included assessment of personal and societal costs of extended isolation (e.g., limited paid sick time), analysis of the period of peak infectiousness ( see section 4.), and acknowledgement that many people with respiratory virus symptoms do not often know the pathogen that is causing their illness.

Case examples from states and countries that changed their COVID-19 isolation guidance to recommendations similar to CDC’s updated guidance did not experience clear increases in community transmission or hospitalization rates. Examples include the most populous Canadian provinces ( Ontario , Quebec , and British Columbia ), Australia , Denmark , France , and Norway , as well as California (on January 9, 2024) and Oregon (May 2023). In California and Oregon, for the week ending February 10, COVID-19 test positivity, emergency department visits, and hospitalizations were lower than the national average.

No appreciable difference in COVID-19 ED and hospitalization trends in Oregon vs. nation or neighboring Washington after guidance change


Data from CDC’s COVID Data Tracker

Need for ongoing implementation of recommendations

Vaccines remain an underused layer of protection, even for groups at higher risk. For example, only 42% of adults aged 65 years or greater had received an updated COVID-19 vaccine as of February 16, 2024, compared with 73% for flu . COVID-19 antiviral treatments are also substantially underused to prevent severe COVID-19, meaning many people are missing out on important protection. Influenza treatment is also underused.

Ongoing data monitoring

The SARS-CoV-2 virus will continue to evolve, and new variants will continue to replace previous viruses. Genomic surveillance to monitor for new variants, epidemiologic studies to understand immune escape, infectiousness, severity, and monitoring of key indicators like hospitalizations and emergency department visits, all help inform prevention strategies.

Various data systems are in place to continue to monitor for changes in how COVID-19 affects us . These include monitoring laboratory-based percent positivity and wastewater as indicators of changes in infections. Data on hospitalizations and deaths are indicators of severe illness while data on hospital occupancy and capacity provide information on stress on the healthcare system. Epidemiologic studies continue to assess how infectious the virus is and how efficiently it transmits between people as well as the severity of disease it causes. Ongoing monitoring through genomic surveillance and viral characterization will continue to be important to identify and describe new SARS-CoV-2 variants that may emerge. Vaccines will continue to be updated based on circulating variants, and other protective measures can be scaled up as needed. If variants emerge that have significant immune escape from existing vaccines and therapeutics, non-pharmaceutical interventions such as masking, distancing, and ventilation will be particularly important.

COVID-19 remains an important public health threat, but it is no longer the emergency that it once was, and its health impacts increasingly resemble those of other respiratory viral illnesses, including influenza and RSV.

Protective tools, like vaccination and treatment that decrease risks of COVID-19 disease are now widely available and resultantly, far fewer people are getting seriously ill from COVID-19. Complications like multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) and Long COVID are now less common as well. Data indicate rates of hospitalizations and deaths are down substantially, and that clinically COVID-19 has become similar to, or even less severe in hospitalized people, than influenza and RSV.

These factors have enabled CDC to issue updated Respiratory Virus Guidance that provides the public with recommendations and information about effective steps and strategies tailored to the current level of risk posed by COVID-19 and other common respiratory viral illnesses.

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  1. LESSON 73

  2. How to Write Conclusions and Recommendations

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  4. #Chapter5 Tips in Writing Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations

  5. Chapter 5: Summary of Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations

  6. CHAPTER 5


  1. How to Write Recommendations in Research

    Recommendations for future research should be: Concrete and specific. Supported with a clear rationale. Directly connected to your research. Overall, strive to highlight ways other researchers can reproduce or replicate your results to draw further conclusions, and suggest different directions that future research can take, if applicable.

  2. Writing a Research Paper Conclusion

    Table of contents. Step 1: Restate the problem. Step 2: Sum up the paper. Step 3: Discuss the implications. Research paper conclusion examples. Frequently asked questions about research paper conclusions.

  3. Draw conclusions and make recommendations (Chapter 6)

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  4. How to Write a Conclusion for Research Papers (with Examples)

    When working on how to conclude a research paper, remember to stick to summarizing and interpreting existing content. The research paper conclusion serves the following purposes: 1. Warn readers of the possible consequences of not attending to the problem. Recommend specific course (s) of action.

  5. 22 Writing the conclusion & recommendations

    Place the study in a wider context of research in the discipline and/ or a situation in the real world. (positive) Applications of the research: Indicate how the research may be practically useful in real-world situations: Recommendations: Give specific suggestions for real-world actions to be taken on the basis of the research.

  6. How To Write A Research Summary

    So, follow the steps below to write a research summary that sticks. 1. Read the parent paper thoroughly. You should go through the research paper thoroughly multiple times to ensure that you have a complete understanding of its contents. A 3-stage reading process helps.

  7. 7. Draw Conclusions and Develop Recommendations

    recommendations. Conclusions and Recommendations This section describes the step from reviewing the evidence to formulating recommendations and implications for practice that follow from the evidence. The results of the systematic review are included in a summary of the existing evidence base. What to conclude from the evidence, in

  8. Conclusions and recommendations

    Conclusions and recommendations. The interpretations given by the researcher of the significance of the findings of a research project for the client's business, along with recommendations for action. These recommendations will be based on the research and on any other relevant information available to the researcher, including their own past ...

  9. How to Write a Thesis or Dissertation Conclusion

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  10. How to Write Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations in a Research

    The summary, conclusion and recommendations are the last part of the research work.It is essential to have this in all research work, both qualitative and quantitative.When perusing a research work (thesis or research articles), the readers go directly to the summary, conclusion, and recommendation and see if they could point out what the dissertation is saying because it is common in this ...

  11. 9. The Conclusion

    The conclusion is intended to help the reader understand why your research should matter to them after they have finished reading the paper. A conclusion is not merely a summary of the main topics covered or a re-statement of your research problem, but a synthesis of key points and, if applicable, where you recommend new areas for future research.

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    Read chapter 5 Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations: Over the past decades, environmental problems have attracted enormous attention and public conce... Login Register Cart Help. ... Provide a clear annual summary of the ORD research strategy and programs, organizing the programs into broad categories and identifying the value of these ...

  13. Research Recommendations

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  14. Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendations

    7.1 Introduction. This chapter presents the conclusions reached in this study, acknowledging some limitations and suggestions for further research. The chapter is presented in seven sections. The first Sect. ( 7.2) provides a brief overview of the research project. The second Sect. ( 7.3) demonstrates a summary of the major findings based on ...

  15. (Pdf) Chapter 5 Summary, Conclusions, Implications and Recommendations

    summary of the study followed by the summary of the findings and their conclusions. Subsequent to this are the implications of the study and followed by recommendations for future research.

  16. (PDF) CHAPTER FIVE Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

    The summary, conclusion and recommendations are the last part of the research work. It is essential to have this in all research work, both qualitative and quantitative.

  17. How to Write a Summary

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    See Full PDFDownload PDF. Chapter 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Chapter 5 contains the research summary, conclusions and recommendations of the whole study. The findings of the study without so much detailed information is written on the summary. Generalizations and other interferences would be seen on the conclusion while the ...


    98 CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS This chapter presents a summary of the study and conclusions derived from the analysis of data. The chapter concludes with recommendations. Summary The purpose of this study was to design and test an instrument to measure elementary teachers' satisfaction with their involvement in school ...

  20. PDF CHAPTER 5 Summary, findings, conclusions and recommendations

    This chapter presents the summary of the findings, conclusions and recommendations based on the data analysed in the previous chapter. Some limitations have been identified. The effectiveness of the DOTS strategy for control of pulmonary TB was researched by determining to what extent some of the objectives of the DOTS strategy have been attained.

  21. Difference Between Summary and Conclusion (with Comparison Chart)

    A summary is an abridgement of the work of literature, which covers the key points succinctly. On the contrary, conclusion refers to the final part of the discourse which sums up the argument and gives a statement of opinion or judgement. A summary is written to provide the reader with a precise and objective narrative of the central ideas and ...

  22. Summary of Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations

    It provides a summary of the main findings of the study, conclusions and recommendations. This chapter should be reasonably short. The readers would want to know whether the objectives of the study were achieved, and whether the work has contributed to knowledge. Therefore, when compiling this chapter, a researcher should focus on answering ...

  23. Conclusion, Recommendations, and Resources

    Conclusion, Recommendations, and Resources In sum, our findings from this year's leadership workforce survey paint a picture of a workforce that is, at least by some measures, finding its footing again after the long, uncertain years of the pandemic.

  24. Background for CDC's Updated Respiratory Virus Guidance

    Executive summary The 2023-2024 fall and winter virus season, four years since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, provided ongoing evidence of the changing face of respiratory diseases. COVID-19 remains an important public health threat, but it is no longer the emergency that it once was, and its health impacts increasingly resemble those of ...

  25. Nutrients

    People are increasingly encouraged to reduce animal food consumption and shift towards plant-based diets; however, the implications for children's health are unclear. In this narrative review of research in high-income settings, we summarize evidence on the increasing consumption of plant-based diets in children and update an earlier systematic review regarding their associations with ...