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Research Paper Appendix | Example & Templates

Published on August 4, 2022 by Tegan George and Kirsten Dingemanse. Revised on July 18, 2023.

An appendix is a supplementary document that facilitates your reader’s understanding of your research but is not essential to your core argument. Appendices are a useful tool for providing additional information or clarification in a research paper , dissertation , or thesis without making your final product too long.

Appendices help you provide more background information and nuance about your thesis or dissertation topic without disrupting your text with too many tables and figures or other distracting elements.

We’ve prepared some examples and templates for you, for inclusions such as research protocols, survey questions, and interview transcripts. All are worthy additions to an appendix. You can download these in the format of your choice below.

Download Word doc Download Google doc

Location of appendices

Table of contents

What is an appendix in a research paper, what to include in an appendix, how to format an appendix, how to refer to an appendix, where to put your appendices, other components to consider, appendix checklist, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about appendices.

In the main body of your research paper, it’s important to provide clear and concise information that supports your argument and conclusions . However, after doing all that research, you’ll often find that you have a lot of other interesting information that you want to share with your reader.

While including it all in the body would make your paper too long and unwieldy, this is exactly what an appendix is for.

As a rule of thumb, any detailed information that is not immediately needed to make your point can go in an appendix. This helps to keep your main text focused but still allows you to include the information you want to include somewhere in your paper.

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writing an appendix for a research paper

An appendix can be used for different types of information, such as:

  • Supplementary results : Research findings  are often presented in different ways, but they don’t all need to go in your paper. The results most relevant to your research question should always appear in the main text, while less significant results (such as detailed descriptions of your sample or supplemental analyses that do not help answer your main question), can be put in an appendix.
  • Statistical analyses : If you conducted statistical tests using software like Stata or R, you may also want to include the outputs of your analysis in an appendix.
  • Further information on surveys or interviews : Written materials or transcripts related to things such as surveys and interviews can also be placed in an appendix.

You can opt to have one long appendix, but separating components (like interview transcripts, supplementary results, or surveys ) into different appendices makes the information simpler to navigate.

Here are a few tips to keep in mind:

  • Always start each appendix on a new page.
  • Assign it both a number (or letter) and a clear title, such as “Appendix A. Interview transcripts.” This makes it easier for your reader to find the appendix, as well as for you to refer back to it in your main text.
  • Number and title the individual elements within each appendix (e.g., “Transcripts”) to make it clear what you are referring to. Restart the numbering in each appendix at 1.

It is important that you refer to each of your appendices at least once in the main body of your paper. This can be done by mentioning the appendix and its number or letter, either in parentheses or within the main part of a sentence. It’s also possible to refer to a particular component of an appendix.

Appendix B presents the correspondence exchanged with the fitness boutique. Example 2. Referring to an appendix component These results (see Appendix 2, Table 1) show that …

It is common to capitalize “Appendix” when referring to a specific appendix, but it is not mandatory. The key is just to make sure that you are consistent throughout your entire paper, similarly to consistency in  capitalizing headings and titles in academic writing .

However, note that lowercase should always be used if you are referring to appendices in general. For instance, “The appendices to this paper include additional information about both the survey and the interviews .”

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writing an appendix for a research paper

The simplest option is to add your appendices after the main body of your text, after you finish citing your sources in the citation style of your choice. If this is what you choose to do, simply continue with the next page number. Another option is to put the appendices in a separate document that is delivered with your dissertation.

Location of appendices

Remember that any appendices should be listed in your paper’s table of contents .

There are a few other supplementary components related to appendices that you may want to consider. These include:

  • List of abbreviations : If you use a lot of abbreviations or field-specific symbols in your dissertation, it can be helpful to create a list of abbreviations .
  • Glossary : If you utilize many specialized or technical terms, it can also be helpful to create a glossary .
  • Tables, figures and other graphics : You may find you have too many tables, figures, and other graphics (such as charts and illustrations) to include in the main body of your dissertation. If this is the case, consider adding a figure and table list .

Checklist: Appendix

All appendices contain information that is relevant, but not essential, to the main text.

Each appendix starts on a new page.

I have given each appendix a number and clear title.

I have assigned any specific sub-components (e.g., tables and figures) their own numbers and titles.

My appendices are easy to follow and clearly formatted.

I have referred to each appendix at least once in the main text.

Your appendices look great! Use the other checklists to further improve your thesis.

If you want to know more about AI for academic writing, AI tools, or research bias, make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!

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Yes, if relevant you can and should include APA in-text citations in your appendices . Use author-date citations as you do in the main text.

Any sources cited in your appendices should appear in your reference list . Do not create a separate reference list for your appendices.

An appendix contains information that supplements the reader’s understanding of your research but is not essential to it. For example:

  • Interview transcripts
  • Questionnaires
  • Detailed descriptions of equipment

Something is only worth including as an appendix if you refer to information from it at some point in the text (e.g. quoting from an interview transcript). If you don’t, it should probably be removed.

When you include more than one appendix in an APA Style paper , they should be labeled “Appendix A,” “Appendix B,” and so on.

When you only include a single appendix, it is simply called “Appendix” and referred to as such in the main text.

Appendices in an APA Style paper appear right at the end, after the reference list and after your tables and figures if you’ve also included these at the end.

You may have seen both “appendices” or “appendixes” as pluralizations of “ appendix .” Either spelling can be used, but “appendices” is more common (including in APA Style ). Consistency is key here: make sure you use the same spelling throughout your paper.

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An appendix contains supplementary material that is not an essential part of the text itself but which may be helpful in providing a more comprehensive understanding of the research problem or it is information that is too cumbersome to be included in the body of the paper. A separate appendix should be used for each distinct topic or set of data and always have a title descriptive of its contents.

Tables, Appendices, Footnotes and Endnotes. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University.

Importance of...

Appendices are always supplementary to the research paper. As such, your study must be able to stand alone without the appendices, and the paper must contain all information including tables, diagrams, and results necessary to understand the research problem. The key point to remember when including an appendix or appendices is that the information is non-essential; if it were removed, the reader would still be able to  comprehend the significance, validity , and implications of your research.

It is appropriate to include appendices for the following reasons:

  • Including this material in the body of the paper that would render it poorly structured or interrupt the narrative flow;
  • Information is too lengthy and detailed to be easily summarized in the body of the paper;
  • Inclusion of helpful, supporting, or useful material would otherwise distract the reader from the main content of the paper;
  • Provides relevant information or data that is more easily understood or analyzed in a self-contained section of the paper;
  • Can be used when there are constraints placed on the length of your paper; and,
  • Provides a place to further demonstrate your understanding of the research problem by giving additional details about a new or innovative method, technical details, or design protocols.

Appendices. Academic Skills Office, University of New England; Chapter 12, "Use of Appendices." In Guide to Effective Grant Writing: How to Write a Successful NIH Grant . Otto O. Yang. (New York: Kluwer Academic, 2005), pp. 55-57; Tables, Appendices, Footnotes and Endnotes. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University.

Structure and Writing Style

I.  General Points to Consider

When considering whether to include content in an appendix, keep in mind the following:

  • It is usually good practice to include your raw data in an appendix, laying it out in a clear format so the reader can re-check your results. Another option if you have a large amount of raw data is to consider placing it online [e.g., on a Google drive] and note that this is the appendix to your research paper.
  • Any tables and figures included in the appendix should be numbered as a separate sequence from the main paper . Remember that appendices contain non-essential information that, if removed, would not diminish a reader's ability to understand the research problem being investigated. This is why non-textual elements should not carry over the sequential numbering of non-textual elements in the body of your paper.
  • If you have more than three appendices, consider listing them on a separate page in the table of contents . This will help the reader know what information is included in the appendices. Note that some works list appendices in the table of contents before the first chapter while other styles list the appendices after the conclusion but before your references. Consult with your professor to confirm if there is a preferred approach.
  • The appendix can be a good place to put maps, photographs, diagrams, and other images , if you feel that it will help the reader to understand the content of your paper, while keeping in mind the study should be understood without them.
  • An appendix should be streamlined and not loaded with a lot information . If you have a very long and complex appendix, it is a good idea to break it down into separate appendices, allowing the reader to find relevant information quickly as the information is covered in the body of the paper.

II.  Content

Never include an appendix that isn’t referred to in the text . All appendices should be summarized in your paper where it is relevant to the content. Appendices should also be arranged sequentially by the order they were first referenced in the text [i.e., Appendix 1 should not refer to text on page eight of your paper and Appendix 2 relate to text on page six].

There are very few rules regarding what type of material can be included in an appendix, but here are some common examples:

  • Correspondence -- if your research included collaborations with others or outreach to others, then correspondence in the form of letters, memorandums, or copies of emails from those you interacted with could be included.
  • Interview Transcripts -- in qualitative research, interviewing respondents is often used to gather information. The full transcript from an interview is important so the reader can read the entire dialog between researcher and respondent. The interview protocol [list of questions] should also be included.
  • Non-textual elements -- as noted above, if there are a lot of non-textual items, such as, figures, tables, maps, charts, photographs, drawings, or graphs, think about highlighting examples in the text of the paper but include the remainder in an appendix.
  • Questionnaires or surveys -- this is a common form of data gathering. Always include the survey instrument or questionnaires in an appendix so the reader understands not only the questions asked but the sequence in which they were asked. Include all variations of the instruments as well if different items were sent to different groups [e.g., those given to teachers and those given to administrators] .
  • Raw statistical data – this can include any numerical data that is too lengthy to include in charts or tables in its entirety within the text. This is important because the entire source of data should be included even if you are referring to only certain parts of a chart or table in the text of your paper.
  • Research instruments -- if you used a camera, or a recorder, or some other device to gather information and it is important for the reader to understand how, when, and/or where that device was used.
  • Sample calculations – this can include quantitative research formulas or detailed descriptions of how calculations were used to determine relationships and significance.

NOTE:   Appendices should not be a dumping ground for information. Do not include vague or irrelevant information in an appendix; this additional information will not help the reader’s overall understanding and interpretation of your research and may only distract the reader from understanding the significance of your overall study.

ANOTHER NOTE :   Appendices are intended to provide supplementary information that you have gathered or created; it is not intended to replicate or provide a copy of the work of others. For example, if you need to contrast the techniques of analysis used by other authors with your own method of analysis, summarize that information, and cite to the original work. In this case, a citation to the original work is sufficient enough to lead the reader to where you got the information. You do not need to provide a copy of this in an appendix.

III.  Format

Here are some general guideline on how to format appendices . If needed, consult the writing style guide [e.g., APA, MLS, Chicago] your professor wants you to use for more detail:

  • Appendices may precede or follow your list of references.
  • Each appendix begins on a new page.
  • The order they are presented is dictated by the order they are mentioned in the text of your research paper.
  • The heading should be "Appendix," followed by a letter or number [e.g., "Appendix A" or "Appendix 1"], centered and written in bold type.
  • If there is a table of contents, the appendices must be listed.
  • The page number(s) of the appendix/appendices will continue on with the numbering from the last page of the text.

Appendices. The Structure, Format, Content, and Style of a Journal-Style Scientific Paper. Department of Biology. Bates College;  Appendices. Academic Skills Office, University of New England; Appendices. Writing Center, Walden University; Chapter 12, "Use of Appendices." In Guide to Effective Grant Writing: How to Write a Successful NIH Grant . Otto O. Yang. (New York: Kluwer Academic, 2005), pp. 55-57 ; Tables, Appendices, Footnotes and Endnotes. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University; Lunsford, Andrea A. and Robert Connors. The St. Martin's Handbook . New York: St. Martin's Press, 1989; What To Know About The Purpose And Format Of A Research Paper Appendix. LoyolaCollegeCulion.com.

Writing Tip

Consider Putting Your Appendices Online

Appendices are useful because they provide the reader with information that supports your study without breaking up the narrative or distracting from the main purpose of your paper. If you have a lot of raw data or information that is difficult to present in textual form, consider uploading it to an online site. This prevents your paper from having a large and unwieldy set of appendices and it supports a growing movement within academe to make data more freely available for re-analysis. If you do create an online portal to your data, note it prominently in your paper with the correct URL and access procedures if it is a secured site.

Piwowar, Heather A., Roger S. Day, and Douglas B. Fridsma. “Sharing Detailed Research Data Is Associated with Increased Citation Rate.” PloS ONE (March 21, 2007); Wicherts, Jelte M., Marjan Bakker, and Dylan Molenaar. “Willingness to Share Research Data Is Related to the Strength of the Evidence and the Quality of Reporting of Statistical Results.” PLoS ONE (November 2, 2011).

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Footnotes & Appendices 

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APA style offers writers footnotes and appendices as spaces where additional, relevant information might be shared within a document; this resource offers a quick overview of format and content concerns for these segments of a document. Should additional clarification be necessary, it is always recommended that writers reach out to the individual overseeing their work (i.e., instructor, editor, etc.). For your convenience, a student sample paper is included below; please note the document is filled with  Lorem Ipsum  placeholder text and references to footnotes and appendices are highighlighted. Additional marginal notes also further explain specific portions of the example. 

Footnotes 

Footnotes are supplementary details printed at the bottom of the page pertaining to a paper’s content or copyright information. This supporting text can be utilized in any type of APA paper to support the body paragraphs.

Content-Based Footnotes

Utilizing footnotes to provide supplementary detail can enrich the body text and reinforce the main argument of the paper. Footnotes may also direct readers to an alternate source for more detail on a topic. Though content footnotes can be useful in providing additional context, it is detrimental to include tangential or convoluted information. Footnotes should detail a focused subject; lengthier sections of text are better suited for the body paragraphs.

Acknowledging Copyright

When citing long quotations, images, tables, data, or commercially published questionnaires in-text, it is important to credit the copyright information in a footnote. Functioning much like an in-text citation, a footnote copyright attribution provides credit to the original source and must also be included in a reference list. A copyright citation is needed for both direct reprinting as well as adaptations of content, and these may require express permission from the copyright owner.

Formatting Footnotes

Each footnote and its corresponding in-text callout should be formatted in numerical order of appearance utilizing superscript. As demonstrated in the example below, the superscripted numerals should follow all punctuation with the exception of dashes and parentheses.

For example: 

Footnote callouts should not be placed in headings and do not require a space between the callout and superscripted number. When reintroducing a footnote that has previously been called out, refrain from replicating the callout or footnote itself; rather, format such reference as “see Footnote 4”, for example. Footnotes should be placed at the bottom of the page on which the corresponding callout is referenced. Alternatively, a footnotes page could be created to follow the reference page. When formatting footnotes in the latter manner, center and bold the label “Footnotes” then record each footnote as a double-spaced and indented paragraph. Place the corresponding superscripted number in front of each footnote and separate the numeral from the following text with a single space.

Formatting Copyright Information

To provide credit for images, tables, or figures pulled from an outside source, include the accreditation statement at the end of the note for the visual. Copyright acknowledgements for long quotations or questionnaires should simply be placed in a footnote at the bottom of the page.

When formatting a copyright accreditation, utilize the following format:

  • Establish if the content was reprinted or adapted by using language such as “from” for directly copied material or “adapted from” for material that has been modified
  • Include the content’s title, author, year of publication, and source
  • Cite the copyright holder and year of copyright or indicate that the source is public domain or licensed under Creative Commons
  • If express permission was required to reprint the material, include a statement indicating that permission was acquired

Appendices 

When introducing supplementary content that may not fit within the body of a paper, an appendix can be included to help readers better understand the material without distracting from the text itself. Primarily used to introduce research materials, specific details of a study, or participant demographics, appendices are generally concise and only incorporate relevant content. Much like with footnotes, appendices may require an acknowledgement of copyright and, if data is cited, an adherence to the privacy policies that protect participant identities.

Formatting Appendices

An appendix should be created on its own individual page labelled “Appendix” and followed by a title on the next line that describes the subject of the appendix. These headings should be centered and bolded at the top of the page and written in title case. If there are multiple appendices, each should be labelled with a capital letter and referenced in-text by its specific title (for example, “see Appendix B”). All appendices should follow references, footnotes, and any tables or figures included at the end of the document.

Text Appendices 

Appendices should be formatted in traditional paragraph style and may incorporate text, figures, tables, equations, or footnotes. In an appendix, all figures, tables, and other visuals should be labelled with the letter of the corresponding appendix followed by a number indicating the order in which each appears. For example, a table labelled “Table B1” would be the first table in Appendix B. If there is only one appendix in the document, the visuals should still be labelled with the letter A and a number to differentiate them from those contained in the paper itself (for example, “Figure A3” is the third figure in the singular appendix, which is not labelled with a letter in the heading). 

Table or Figure Appendices 

When an appendix solely contains a table or figure, the title of the figure or table should be substituted with the title of the appendix. For example, if Appendix B only includes a figure, the figure should be labelled “Appendix B” rather than “Figure B1”, as it would be named if there were multiple figures included.

If an appendix does not contain text but includes numerous figures or table, the appendix should be formatted like a text appendix. The appendix would receive a name and label, and each figure or table would be given a corresponding letter and number. For example, if Appendix C contains two tables and one figure, these visuals would be labelled “Table C1”, “Table C2”, and “Figure C1” respectively.

Sample Paper    

Media File: APA 7 - Student Sample Paper (Footnotes & Appendices)

Sacred Heart University Library

Organizing Academic Research Papers: Appendices

  • Purpose of Guide
  • Design Flaws to Avoid
  • Glossary of Research Terms
  • Narrowing a Topic Idea
  • Broadening a Topic Idea
  • Extending the Timeliness of a Topic Idea
  • Academic Writing Style
  • Choosing a Title
  • Making an Outline
  • Paragraph Development
  • Executive Summary
  • Background Information
  • The Research Problem/Question
  • Theoretical Framework
  • Citation Tracking
  • Content Alert Services
  • Evaluating Sources
  • Primary Sources
  • Secondary Sources
  • Tertiary Sources
  • What Is Scholarly vs. Popular?
  • Qualitative Methods
  • Quantitative Methods
  • Using Non-Textual Elements
  • Limitations of the Study
  • Common Grammar Mistakes
  • Avoiding Plagiarism
  • Footnotes or Endnotes?
  • Further Readings
  • Annotated Bibliography
  • Dealing with Nervousness
  • Using Visual Aids
  • Grading Someone Else's Paper
  • How to Manage Group Projects
  • Multiple Book Review Essay
  • Reviewing Collected Essays
  • About Informed Consent
  • Writing Field Notes
  • Writing a Policy Memo
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  • Acknowledgements

An appendix contains supplementary material that is not an essential part of the text itself but which may be helpful in providing a more comprehensive understanding of the research problem and/or is information which is too cumbersome to be included in the body of the paper. A separate appendix should be used for each distinct topic or set of data and always have a title descriptive of its contents .

Importance of...

Your research paper must be complete without the appendices, and it must contain all information including tables, diagrams, and results necessary to address the research problem. The key point to remember when you are writing an appendix is that the information is non-essential; if it were removed, the paper would still be understandable.

It is appropriate to include appendices...

  • When the incorporation of material in the body of the work would make it poorly structured or it would be too long and detailed and
  • To ensure inclusion of helpful, supporting, or essential material that would otherwise clutter or break up the narrative flow of the paper, or it would be distracting to the reader.

Structure and Writing Style

I.  General Points to Consider

When considering whether to include content in an appendix, keep in mind the following points:

  • It is usually good practice to include your raw data in an appendix, laying it out in a clear format so the reader can re-check your results. Another option if you have a large amount of raw data is to consider placing it online and note this as the appendix to your research paper.
  • Any tables and figures included in the appendix should be numbered as a separate sequence from the main paper . Remember that appendices contain non-essential information that, if removed, would not diminish a reader's understanding of the overall research problem being investigated. This is why non-textual elements should not carry over the sequential numbering of elements in the paper.
  • If you have more than three appendices, consider listing them on a separate page at the beginning of your paper . This will help the reader know before reading the paper what information is included in the appendices [always list the appendix or appendices in a table of contents].
  • The appendix can be a good place to put maps, photographs, diagrams, and other non-textual elements , if you feel that it will help the reader to understand the content of your paper, but remembering that the paper should be understandable without them.
  • An appendix should be streamlined and not loaded with a lot information . If you have a very long and complex appendix, it is a good idea to break it down into separate appendices, allowing the reader to find relevant information quickly.

II.  Contents

Appendices may include some of the following, all of which should be referred to or summarized in the text of your paper:

  • Supporting evidence [e.g. raw data]
  • Contributory facts or specialized data [raw data appear in the appendix, but with summarized data appearing in the body of the text].
  • Sample calculations
  • Technical figures, graphs, tables, statistics
  • Detailed description of research instruments
  • Maps, charts, photographs, drawings
  • Letters, emails, and other copies of correspondance
  • Questionnaire/survey instruments, with the results appearing in the text
  • Complete transcripts of interviews
  • Complete field notes from observations
  • Specification or data sheets

NOTE:   Do not include vague or irrelevant information in an appendix; this additional information will not help the reader’s overall understanding and interpretation of your research and may only succeed in distracting the reader from understanding your research study.

III.  Format

Here are some general guideline on how to format appendices, but consult the writing style guide [e.g., APA] your professor wants you to use for the class, if needed:

  • Appendices may precede or follow your list of references.
  • Each appendix begins on a new page.
  • The order they are presented is dictated by the order they are mentioned in the text of your research paper.
  • The heading should be "Appendix," followed by a letter or number [e.g., "Appendix A" or "Appendix 1"], centered and written in bold.
  • Appendices must be listed in the table of contents [if used].
  • The page number(s) of the appendix/appendices will continue on with the numbering from the last page of the text.

Appendices . The Structure, Format, Content, and Style of a Journal-Style Scientific Paper. Department of Biology. Bates College; Tables, Appendices, Footnotes and Endnotes . The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University; Lunsford, Andrea A. and Robert Connors. The St. Martin's Handbook. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1989.

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Research Paper Appendix | Example & Templates

Published on 15 August 2022 by Kirsten Dingemanse and Tegan George. Revised on 25 October 2022.

An appendix is a supplementary document that facilitates your reader’s understanding of your research but is not essential to your core argument. Appendices are a useful tool for providing additional information or clarification in a research paper , dissertation , or thesis without making your final product too long.

Appendices help you provide more background information and nuance about your topic without disrupting your text with too many tables and figures or other distracting elements.

We’ve prepared some examples and templates for you, for inclusions such as research protocols, survey questions, and interview transcripts. All are worthy additions to an appendix. You can download these in the format of your choice below.

Download Word doc Download Google doc

Table of contents

What is an appendix in a research paper, what to include in an appendix, how to format an appendix, how to refer to an appendix, where to put your appendices, other components to consider, appendix checklist.

In the main body of your research paper, it’s important to provide clear and concise information that supports your argument and conclusions . However, after doing all that research, you’ll often find that you have a lot of other interesting information that you want to share with your reader.

While including it all in the body would make your paper too long and unwieldy, this is exactly what an appendix is for.

As a rule of thumb, any detailed information that is not immediately needed to make your point can go in an appendix. This helps to keep your main text focused but still allows you to include the information you want to include somewhere in your paper.

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An appendix can be used for different types of information, such as:

  • Supplementary results : Research findings  are often presented in different ways, but they don’t all need to go in your paper. The results most relevant to your research question should always appear in the main text, while less significant results (such as detailed descriptions of your sample or supplemental analyses that do not help answer your main question), can be put in an appendix.
  • Statistical analyses : If you conducted statistical tests using software like Stata or R, you may also want to include the outputs of your analysis in an appendix.
  • Further information on surveys or interviews : Written materials or transcripts related to things such as surveys and interviews can also be placed in an appendix.

You can opt to have one long appendix, but separating components (like interview transcripts, supplementary results, or surveys) into different appendices makes the information simpler to navigate.

Here are a few tips to keep in mind:

  • Always start each appendix on a new page.
  • Assign it both a number (or letter) and a clear title, such as ‘Appendix A. Interview transcripts’. This makes it easier for your reader to find the appendix, as well as for you to refer back to it in your main text.
  • Number and title the individual elements within each appendix (e.g., ‘Transcripts’) to make it clear what you are referring to. Restart the numbering in each appendix at 1.

It is important that you refer to each of your appendices at least once in the main body of your paper. This can be done by mentioning the appendix and its number or letter, either in parentheses or within the main part of a sentence. It is also possible to refer to a particular component of an appendix.

Appendix B presents the correspondence exchanged with the fitness boutique. Example 2. Referring to an appendix component These results (see Appendix 2, Table 1) show that …

It is common to capitalise ‘Appendix’ when referring to a specific appendix, but it is not mandatory. The key is just to make sure that you are consistent throughout your entire paper, similarly to consistency in capitalising headings and titles in academic writing.

However, note that lowercase should always be used if you are referring to appendices in general. For instance, ‘The appendices to this paper include additional information about both the survey and the interviews.’

The simplest option is to add your appendices after the main body of your text, after you finish citing your sources in the citation style of your choice . If this is what you choose to do, simply continue with the next page number. Another option is to put the appendices in a separate document that is delivered with your dissertation.

Location of appendices

Remember that any appendices should be listed in your paper’s table of contents .

There are a few other supplementary components related to appendices that you may want to consider. These include:

  • List of abbreviations : If you use a lot of abbreviations or field-specific symbols in your dissertation, it can be helpful to create a list of abbreviations .
  • Glossary : If you utilise many specialised or technical terms, it can also be helpful to create a glossary .
  • Tables, figures and other graphics : You may find you have too many tables, figures, and other graphics (such as charts and illustrations) to include in the main body of your dissertation. If this is the case, consider adding a figure and table list .

Checklist: Appendix

All appendices contain information that is relevant, but not essential, to the main text.

Each appendix starts on a new page.

I have given each appendix a number and clear title.

I have assigned any specific sub-components (e.g., tables and figures) their own numbers and titles.

My appendices are easy to follow and clearly formatted.

I have referred to each appendix at least once in the main text.

Your appendices look great! Use the other checklists to further improve your thesis.

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How to Write an APA Appendix

Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."

writing an appendix for a research paper

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  • When to Use an Appendix
  • What to Include
  • Basic Rules

If you are writing a psychology paper for a class or for publication, you may be required to include an appendix in APA format. An APA appendix is found at the end of a paper and contains information that supplements the text but that is too unwieldy or distracting to include in the main body of the paper. 

APA format is the official writing style used by the American Psychological Association . This format dictates how academic and professional papers should be structured and formatted. 

Does Your Paper Need an APA Appendix?

Some questions to ask about whether you should put information in the body of the paper or in an appendix:

  • Is the material necessary for the reader to understand the research? If the answer is yes, it should be in your paper and not in an appendix.
  • Would including the information interrupt the flow of the paper? If the answer is yes, then it should likely appear in the appendix.
  • Would the information supplement what already appears in your paper? If yes, then it is a good candidate for including in an appendix.

Your appendix is not meant to become an information dump. While the information in your appendices is supplementary to your paper and research, it should still be useful and relevant. Only include what will help readers gain insight and understanding, not clutter or unnecessary confusion.

What to Include in an APA Appendix

The APA official stylebook suggests that the appendix should include information that would be distracting or inappropriate in the text of the paper.

Some examples of information you might include in an appendix include:

  • Correspondence (if it pertains directly to your research)
  • Demographic details about participants or groups
  • Examples of participant responses
  • Extended or detailed descriptions
  • Lists that are too lengthy to include in the main text
  • Large amounts of raw data
  • Lists of supporting research and articles that are not directly referenced in-text
  • Materials and instruments (if your research relied on special materials or instruments, you might want to include images and further information about how these items work or were used)
  • Questionnaires that were used as part of your research
  • Raw data (presented in an organized, readable format)
  • Research surveys

While the content found in the appendix is too cumbersome to include in the main text of your paper, it should still be easily presented in print format.

The appendices should always act as a supplement to your paper. The body of your paper should be able to stand alone and fully describe your research or your arguments.

The body of your paper should not be dependent upon what is in the appendices. Instead, each appendix should act to supplement what is in the primary text, adding additional (but not essential) information that provides extra insight or information for the reader. 

Basic Rules for an APA Appendix

Here are some basic APA appendix rules to keep in mind when working on your paper:

  • Your paper may have more than one appendix.
  • Each item usually gets its own appendix section.
  • Begin each appendix on a separate page.
  • Each appendix must have a title.
  • Use title case for your title and labels (the first letter of each word should be capitalized, while remaining letters should be lowercase).
  • If your paper only has one appendix, simply title it Appendix. 
  • If you have more than one appendix, each one should be labeled Appendix A, Appendix B, Appendix C, and so on.
  • Put the appendix label centered at the top of the page.
  • On the next line under the appendix label, place the centered title of the appendix. 
  • If you refer to a source in your appendix, include an in-text citation just as you would in the main body of your paper and then include the source in your main reference section.
  • Each appendix may contain headings, subheadings, figures, and tables. 
  • Each figure or table in your appendix should include a brief but explanatory title, which should be italicized. 
  • If you want to reference your appendix within the text of your paper, include a parenthetical note in the text. For example, you would write (See Appendix A).

Formatting an APA Appendix

How do you format an appendix in APA? An APA appendix should follow the overall rules on how to format text. Such rules specify what font and font size you should use, the size of your margins, and the spacing of the text.

Some of the APA format guidelines you need to observe:

  • Use a consistent font, such as 12-point Times New Roman or 11-point Calibri
  • Double-space your text
  • All paragraphs should be indented on the first line
  • Page numbering should be continuous with the rest of your paper

The appendix label should appear centered and bolded at the top of the page. A descriptive title should follow and should also be bolded and centered. As with other pages in your paper, your APA format appendix should be left-aligned and double-spaced. Each page should include a page number in the top right corner. You can also have more than one appendix, but each one should begin on a new page.

Data Displays in an APA Appendix

When presenting information in an appendix, use a logical layout for any data displays such as tables or figures. All tables and figures should be labeled with the words “Table” or “Figure” (sans quotation marks) and the letter of the appendix and then numbered.

For example, Table A1 would be the first table in an Appendix A. Data displays should be presented in the appendix following the same order that they first appear in the text of your paper.

In addition to following basic APA formatting rules, you should also check to see if there are additional guidelines you need to follow. Individual instructors or publications may have their own specific requirements.

Where to Include an APA Appendix

If your paper does require an appendix, it should be the very last pages of your finished paper. An APA format paper is usually structured in the following way:

Your paper may not necessarily include all of these sections. At a minimum, however, your paper may consist of a title page, abstract, main text, and reference section. Also, if your paper does not contain tables, figures, or footnotes, then the appendix would follow the references.

Never include an appendix containing information that is not referred to in your text. 

A Word From Verywell

Writing a paper for class or publication requires a great deal of research, but you should pay special attention to your APA formatting. Each section of your paper, including the appendix section, needs to follow the rules and guidelines provided in the American Psychological Association’s stylebook.

American Psychological Association. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). Washington DC: The American Psychological Association; 2020.

By Kendra Cherry, MSEd Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."

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How to Write an Appendix: Step-by-Step Guide & Examples

how to write an appendix

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While composing your work, you may stumble upon a question on how to write an appendix.

An appendix is a supplemental section of a research paper that provides additional information, data, or materials to support the main content. The appendix is usually placed at the end of the document and is numbered with letters or numbers, such as "Appendix A," "Appendix B," etc. The purpose of an appendix is to provide readers with supplementary details that are not included in the main text but are relevant to the topic.

Once you decide on writing appendices, you should collect additional information and format your text as required. Here, we will talk about how you can work with appendices. We will also show some nuances of their preparation process using a real example. Is the deadline around the corner? Consider using professional research paper help from expert scholars.

What Is an Appendix: Definition

Experienced researchers know what an appendix in a paper is. But aspiring authors often have problems with this section of the work. First of all, you should understand that appendices are an additional section of a dissertation or any other scientific paper that includes additional information. Main points are not placed in an appendix meanwhile at the end of your work it can expand on some context or clarify author’s position on a particular issue. Also, an appendix is ​​often placed after the citation page of a work. It is indicated with the help of references in a main text.

What Is the Purpose of an Appendix

Quite often, authors don’t understand the purpose of an appendix. This usually looks like a table and is not included in a main text. Remember that content of your dissertation should be concise and clear. It is also undesirable if you deviate from your theme so as not to confuse readers. Therefore, you can provide a reference, which will lead a reader to an appendix of a thesis. Typically, the purpose of an appendix is to extra information that is usually not included in the text's body. It expresses author's point of view, and provides additional information. It may not address the immediate topic of your dissertation or expand on current research. As a reminder, your work should be clear even without studying an appendix. So make sure you don't put important details there.

What Can You Include in an Appendix

An appendix in a paper is a supplement to a main text, not a replacement. You can put different elements there. It is better if you separate appendices, highlighting one element in each of them. Don’t forget about separate references in your text. Otherwise it will be difficult for a reader to understand your information better. Thus, the following information can be added:

  • diagrams with illustrative figures;
  • abbreviations ;
  • interviews;
  • statistics, and much more.

There are no restrictions on content added to your dissertation's appendices. Theoretically, you can attach absolutely any information that is relevant to your topic. Thus, possibilities for evidence base are almost unlimited. All you need to do is add tables or any other information.

How to Write an Appendix: Full Guide

If you already have experience working on dissertations and other scientific texts, you will not wonder how to make an appendix. However, it is still important that you get some advice on how to properly structure an appendices section. This will help add information that may be redundant in the main part of your paper. We offer 4 simple steps to create an informative and readable appendix block.

Step 1. Make an Appendix: Include Your Data

When creating an appendix, include extra data in their raw form. That is, you might not have used some details in your main paper. But you want a reader to know more information. For example, it can be calculations, some results of which are mentioned in your main text. Or maybe, you can add some statistics that clearly demonstrate your research paper conclusion . You can also include facts from other scientific sources that support your position. One thing is important — information should complement your text but not contradict it.

Step 2. Include Visual Supporting Documents in an Appendix 

When you are writing an appendix, you can’t avoid visual additions that clearly demonstrate an information and save an author from lengthy descriptions in the text. Should you need to support your conclusions drawn in the scientific text, these can be used:

Don’t forget: you should quote and indicate the authorship of graphics used in your work. If you took it from any third-party sources, of course. Thus, a reader will be able to find additional data that explains the content of your text. It is good if you personally put results of your research in a graphic form. To do this, you can use Office programs, graphic editors and other programs available to PC users.

Step 3. Describe the Instruments of Your Research in Your Appendices

It is good if your appendix in the research paper has a section for indicating tools that were used during the preparation of your dissertation writing . This way, your reader will understand how you collected information and do it themselves. For example, it could be a dictaphone or tape recorder on which an interview with your expert was recorded. Or you might have used a video camera for recording facts and interviews. In such case, it is advisable to indicate these instruments in your appendix. Specialized equipment for measuring, calculating and making graphics should also be added at the beginning of the appendix. This way, you will demonstrate your skills and knowledge. Research units don’t require extra tools, so make sure they are listed. You can do it even in a short format.

Step 4. Include an Interview and Transcripts in an Appendix

When conducting interviews and surveys for collecting information, make an appendix with photocopies of handwritten materials or electronic copies of digital surveys. Their order is not important. The main thing is that your research text contains references. This will allow you to quickly study the sources. You should not only show that the source contains important data but also explain it. So, even additional content, including questions and answers, needs to be listed. But if you originally had a readable format, you don’t need to do this. In addition to interviews, also add screenshots or photos of correspondences used for surveys. For example, you can refer to a significant researcher with whom you exchanged letters. Or maybe you studied subject, together with this researcher, and they gave some comments on a particular issue. Do not know how to write a discussion section of a research paper ? Do not worry, we have the whole article dedicated to this topic.

Formatting an Appendix: Main Rules

Formatting of appendices is required in any case. First of all, provide correct citations. APA, MLA, and Chicago are the most commonly used standards. Although, you should clarify what formatting requirements your institution has. Correct formatting includes:

  • Appendix title. Write it at the top of the content page, indicate its title, using letters or numbers for ordering.
  • Sorted by mention. Don’t add appendices randomly, it is better to do it in chronological order. That is, as information from it is given in main text.
  • Location after bibliography. This is a general requirement that cannot always be met. For example, if your professor wants the appendices to be put before the bibliography, this will have to be done.
  • Page numbers. All dissertation pages should be numbered, even if they are blank. This will make the appendix block the part of main text.

Also, review your appendix before approval. Make sure that its content is clear, error-free, and correctly quoted.

Appendix Example

To do the job successfully, it is recommended to have an example of an appendix at hand. Without it, there are usually problems with a choice of font and mentions that appear in main text. We will show you what the appendix itself looks like at the end of the dissertation using a short interview as an example.

Appendix example

We have one more blog in case you wonder what is an abstract in a paper  or need some examples and writing tips.

How to Make an Appendix: Final Thoughts

Thus, we talked about how to write an appendix. It allows you to include additional details, while avoiding writing them in the body of your text. To do this, one can use graphics, transcriptions of conversations, tables and statistics — anything that complements your research. Be sure to clarify formatting requirements of your university. Arrange appendices in an order in which they appear in your text. Try to use your own materials and not take other people's work. In case of unique findings, they can be used in your work.

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Frequently Asked Questions About Appendix Writing

1. how do you add an appendix to an essay.

The inclusion of appendix to an essay is the same as to any other paper. You need to provide references in your text of an essay itself, as well as submit attachments after a bibliography. Don't forget to specify name of an appendix for easy navigation.

2. Do I add references to the appendix?

Yes, this is not only recommended but must be done. In this case the appendix will allow your reader to check the reliability of sources you used. Moreover, if you took any information from third-party sources, this protect you from plagiarism charges.

4. How do you create an appendix in Word?

It is not difficult to prepare an appendix in Word, because this Office program contains all the necessary tools. To get started, choose the same font, font size and indentation that were used in the main text, so as not to visually break away from it. We also recommend that you apply title formatting with built-in Word tools. Place the appendix titles at the top in the center of a page. In this case it will be much easier to navigate the paper.

3. What is an appendix in a report example?

You can include a wide range of information into an appendix in a report. It is better to opt for descriptive formats, though. For example, it can be graphical or mathematical research results, statistics of a certain phenomenon, and questionnaires filled in by other people.

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Home » Appendices – Writing Guide, Types and Examples

Appendices – Writing Guide, Types and Examples

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Appendices

Definition:

Appendices refer to supplementary materials or documents that are attached to the end of a Book, Report , Research Paper , Thesis or other written work. These materials can include charts, graphs, tables, images, or other data that support the main content of the work.

Types of Appendices

Types of appendices that can be used depending on the content and purpose of the document. These types of Appendices are as follows:

Statistical Appendices

Statistical appendices are used to present raw data or statistical analysis that is relevant to the main text but would be too bulky to include in the main body of the document. These appendices may include tables, graphs, charts, or other types of visual aids that help to illustrate the data.

Technical Appendices

Technical appendices are used to provide detailed technical information that is relevant to the main text but would be too complex or lengthy to include in the main body of the document. These appendices may include equations, formulas, diagrams, or other technical details that are important for understanding the subject matter.

Bibliographical Appendices

Bibliographical appendices are used to provide additional references or sources that are relevant to the main text but were not cited in the main body of the document. These appendices may include lists of books, articles, or other resources that the author consulted in the course of their research.

Historical Appendices

Historical appendices are used to provide background information or historical context that is relevant to the main text but would be too lengthy or distracting to include in the main body of the document. These appendices may include timelines, maps, biographical sketches, or other historical details that help to contextualize the subject matter.

Supplemental Appendices

Supplemental appendices are used to provide additional material that is relevant to the main text but does not fit into any of the other categories. These appendices may include interviews, surveys, case studies, or other types of supplemental material that help to further illustrate the subject matter.

Applications of Appendices

Some applications of appendices are:

  • Providing detailed data and statistics: Appendices are often used to include detailed data and statistics that support the findings presented in the main body of the document. For example, in a research paper, an appendix might include raw data tables or graphs that were used to support the study’s conclusions.
  • Including technical details: Appendices can be used to include technical details that may be of interest to a specialized audience. For example, in a technical report, an appendix might include detailed calculations or equations that were used to develop the report’s recommendations.
  • Presenting supplementary information: Appendices can be used to present supplementary information that is related to the main content but doesn’t fit well within the main body of the document. For example, in a business proposal, an appendix might include a list of references or a glossary of terms.
  • Providing supporting documentation: Appendices can be used to provide supporting documentation that is required by the document’s audience. For example, in a legal document, an appendix might include copies of contracts or agreements that were referenced in the main body of the document.
  • Including multimedia materials : Appendices can be used to include multimedia materials that supplement the main content. For example, in a book, an appendix might include photographs, maps, or illustrations that help to clarify the text.

Importance of Appendices

Appendices are important components of research papers, reports, Thesis, and other academic papers. They are supplementary materials that provide additional information and data that support the main text. Here are some reasons why appendices are important:

  • Additional Information : Appendices provide additional information that is too detailed or too lengthy to include in the main text. This information includes raw data, graphs, tables, and charts that support the research findings.
  • Clarity and Conciseness : Appendices help to maintain the clarity and conciseness of the main text. By placing detailed information and data in appendices, writers can avoid cluttering the main text with lengthy descriptions and technical details.
  • Transparency : Appendices increase the transparency of research by providing readers with access to the data and information used in the research process. This transparency increases the credibility of the research and allows readers to verify the findings.
  • Accessibility : Appendices make it easier for readers to access the data and information that supports the research. This is particularly important in cases where readers want to replicate the research or use the data for their own research.
  • Compliance : Appendices can be used to comply with specific requirements of the research project or institution. For example, some institutions may require researchers to include certain types of data or information in the appendices.

Appendices Structure

Here is an outline of a typical structure for an appendix:

I. Introduction

  • A. Explanation of the purpose of the appendix
  • B. Brief overview of the contents

II. Main Body

  • A. Section headings or subheadings for different types of content
  • B. Detailed descriptions, tables, charts, graphs, or images that support the main content
  • C. Labels and captions for each item to help readers navigate and understand the content

III. Conclusion

  • A. Summary of the key points covered in the appendix
  • B. Suggestions for further reading or resources

IV. Appendices

  • A. List of all the appendices included in the document
  • B. Table of contents for the appendices

V. References

  • A. List of all the sources cited in the appendix
  • B. Proper citation format for each source

Example of Appendices

here’s an example of what appendices might look like for a survey:

Appendix A:

Survey Questionnaire

This section contains a copy of the survey questionnaire used for the study.

  • What is your age?
  • What is your gender?
  • What is your highest level of education?
  • How often do you use social media?
  • Which social media platforms do you use most frequently?
  • How much time do you typically spend on social media each day?
  • Do you feel that social media has had a positive or negative impact on your life?
  • Have you ever experienced cyberbullying or harassment on social media?
  • Have you ever been influenced by social media to make a purchase or try a new product?
  • In your opinion, what are the biggest advantages and disadvantages of social media?

Appendix B:

Participant Demographics

This section includes a table with demographic information about the survey participants, such as age, gender, and education level.

Age Gender Education Level

  • 20 Female Bachelor’s Degree
  • 32 Male Master’s Degree
  • 45 Female High School Diploma
  • 28 Non-binary Associate’s Degree

Appendix C:

Statistical Analysis

This section provides details about the statistical analysis performed on the survey data, including tables or graphs that illustrate the results of the analysis.

Table 1: Frequency of Social Media Platforms

Use Platform Frequency

  • Facebook 35%
  • Instagram 28%
  • Twitter 15%
  • Snapchat 12%

Figure 1: Impact of Social Media on Life Satisfaction

Appendix D:

Survey Results

This section presents the raw data collected from the survey, such as participant responses to each question.

Question 1: What is your age?

Question 2: What is your gender?

And so on for each question in the survey.

How to Write Appendices

Here are the steps to follow to write appendices:

  • Determine what information to include: Before you start writing your appendices, decide what information you want to include. This may include tables, figures, graphs, charts, photographs, or other types of data that support the main content of your paper.
  • Organize the material: Once you have decided what to include, organize the material in a logical manner that follows the sequence of the main content. Use clear headings and subheadings to make it easy for readers to navigate through the appendices.
  • Label the appendices: Label each appendix with a capital letter (e.g., “Appendix A,” “Appendix B,” etc.) and provide a brief descriptive title that summarizes the content.
  • F ormat the appendices: Follow the same formatting style as the rest of your paper or report. Use the same font, margins, and spacing to maintain consistency.
  • Provide detailed explanations: Make sure to provide detailed explanations of any data, charts, graphs, or other information included in the appendices so that readers can understand the significance of the material.
  • Cross-reference the appendices: In the main text, cross-reference the appendices where appropriate by referring to the appendix letter and title (e.g., “see Appendix A for more information”).
  • Review and revise: Review and revise the appendices just as you would any other part of your paper or report to ensure that the information is accurate, clear, and relevant.

When to Write Appendices

Appendices are typically included in a document when additional information needs to be provided that is not essential to the main text, but still useful for readers who want to delve deeper into a topic. Here are some common situations where you might want to include appendices:

  • Supporting data: If you have a lot of data that you want to include in your document, but it would make the main text too lengthy or confusing, you can include it in an appendix. This is especially useful for academic papers or reports.
  • Additional examples: I f you want to include additional examples or case studies to support your argument or research, but they are not essential to the main text, you can include them in an appendix.
  • Technical details: I f your document contains technical information that may be difficult for some readers to understand, you can include detailed explanations or diagrams in an appendix.
  • Background information : If you want to provide background information on a topic that is not directly related to the main text, but may be helpful for readers, you can include it in an appendix.

Purpose of Appendices

The purposes of appendices include:

  • Providing additional details: Appendices can be used to provide additional information that is too detailed or bulky to include in the main body of the document. For example, technical specifications, data tables, or lengthy survey results.
  • Supporting evidence: Appendices can be used to provide supporting evidence for the arguments or claims made in the main body of the document. This can include supplementary graphs, charts, or other visual aids that help to clarify or support the text.
  • Including legal documents: Appendices can be used to include legal documents that are referred to in the main body of the document, such as contracts, leases, or patent applications.
  • Providing additional context: Appendices can be used to provide additional context or background information that is relevant to the main body of the document. For example, historical or cultural information, or a glossary of technical terms.
  • Facilitating replication: In research papers, appendices are used to provide detailed information about the research methodology, raw data, or analysis procedures to facilitate replication of the study.

Advantages of Appendices

Some Advantages of Appendices are as follows:

  • Saving Space: Including lengthy or detailed information in the main text of a document can make it appear cluttered and overwhelming. By placing this information in an appendix, it can be included without taking up valuable space in the main text.
  • Convenience: Appendices can be used to provide supplementary information that is not essential to the main argument or discussion but may be of interest to some readers. By including this information in an appendix, readers can choose to read it or skip it, depending on their needs and interests.
  • Organization: Appendices can be used to organize and present complex information in a clear and logical manner. This can make it easier for readers to understand and follow the main argument or discussion of the document.
  • Compliance : In some cases, appendices may be required to comply with specific document formatting or regulatory requirements. For example, research papers may require appendices to provide detailed information on research methodology, data analysis, or technical procedures.

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  • How To Write A Research Paper Appendix: A Step-by-Step Guide

Moradeke Owa

Think of appendices like bonus levels on your favorite video game. They are not a major part of the game, but they boost your points and they make the game worthwhile. 

Appendix are important facts, calculations, or data that don’t fit into the main body of your research paper. Having an appendix gives your research paper more details, making it easier for your readers to understand your main ideas.

Let’s dive into how to create an appendix and its best practices.

Understanding the Purpose of an Appendix

writing an appendix for a research paper

If you’re looking to add some extra depth to your research, appendices are a great way to do it.  They allow you to include extremely useful information that doesn’t fit neatly into the main body of your research paper, such as huge raw data, multiple charts, or very long explanations.

Think of your appendix as a treasure chest with different compartments. You can include different information including, extra data, surveys, graphs, or even detailed explanations of your methods. You can fit anything too big or detailed for the main paper in the appendix.

Planning Your Appendix

writing an appendix for a research paper

Before you dive into making your appendix, it’s a good idea to plan things out; think of it as drawing a map before going on an adventure. 

You want your appendix to be organized and provide more context to your research. Not planning it will make the process time-consuming and make the appendix confusing to people reading your research paper.

How to Decide What to Include in Your Research Paper

You have to sort through the content that you will include in your appendix. Think of what your readers need to know to understand your key points. Anything that’s overly detailed, off-topic, or clutters up your paper is a good candidate for your appendix.

Tips for Organizing Your Appendix

Once you’ve figured out what to put in your appendix, it’s time to organize it. Your appendix is a place to add extra information, but it shouldn’t be cluttered or confusing to your readers. Instead, it should make your research paper easier to understand.

Use clear headings, labels, and even page numbers to help your readers find the information they need in the appendix. This way, it’s not a jumbled mess, but a well-organized part of your research paper

Formatting Guidelines

typical breakdown of how to format your appendix

Yes, your appendix must be formatted. Most of the time, you’ll want to keep the font and margin sizes consistent with your main paper. 

However, some universities and journals may have specific guidelines for appendix formatting. Verify if your institution has special guidelines, if they do, follow them, if they don’t use the same format as your main text.

Here’s a typical breakdown of how to format your appendix:

(1) Labeling and Titling 

If you have different types of information in your appendix, use letters to label them, such as “Appendix A” and “Appendix B”. Then, give each appendix a title that explains the information inside it. 

For example, if the first section of your appendix contains raw survey data, you could call it “Appendix A (Survey Data of People Living with Diabetes Under 18 in Texas)”. If the second section of your appendix contains charts, you could call it “Appendix B (The Effect of Sugar Tax in Curbing Diabetes in Children and Young Adults)”.

(2) Numbering Tables, Figures, and More 

If you have tables, figures, or other things in your appendix, number them like a list. For example, “Table A1,” “Figure A1,” and more. This numbering helps your readers know what they’re looking at, sort of like chapters in a book.

Creating Tables and Figures

writing an appendix for a research paper

Using tables and figures helps you organize your data neatly in your appendix. Here’s a step-by-step guide to creating tables and figures in your appendix:

Choose the Right Format for Your Appendix Data

Before creating tables or figures, you need to pick the right format to display the information. Think about what makes your data most clear and understandable. 

For example, a table is better for detailed numbers, while a graph is great for showing trends. The right format makes your information easy to grasp and makes your paper look organized.

How to Create Tables in Your Appendix

You can use a spreadsheet program (like Excel or Google Sheets) to create tables to arrange information neatly. Make sure to give your table a clear title so readers know what it’s about.

Here’s a step-by-step guide to creating tables with a spreadsheet program:

  • Open Google Sheets/Excel : Access Google Sheets or Excel through the web or download the app
  • Open a New Spreadsheet or Existing File : Create a new spreadsheet or open an existing one where you want to insert a table.
  • Select Data : Click and drag to select the data you want to include in the table.
  • Insert Table : Once your data is selected, go to the “Insert” menu, then select “Table.
  • Create Table : A dialog box will appear, confirming the selected data range. Make sure the “Use the first row as headers” option is checked if your data has headers. Click “Insert .”
  • Customize Your Table : After inserting the table, you can customize it by adjusting the style, format, and other table properties using the “Table” menu in Google Sheets or Excel.

You can use software like PowerPoint, Google Slides, or graphic design tools to create them. If you have a chart or graph, make sure it’s easy to understand and add a title or labels to explain it. 

You can use the editing tools for images to change the size and other aspects of the image.

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Including Raw Data

The major reasons for including raw data in your appendix are transparency and credibility. Raw data is like your research recipe; it shows exactly what you worked with to arrive at your conclusions.

Raw data also provides enough information to guide researchers in replicating your study or getting a deeper understanding of your research.

Formatting and Presenting Raw Data 

Formatting your raw data makes it easy for anyone to understand. You can use tables, charts, or even lists to display your data. For example, if you did a survey, you could put the survey responses in a table with clear headings.

When presenting your raw data, clear organization is your best friend. Use headings, labels, and consistent formatting to help your readers find and understand the data. This keeps your appendix from becoming a confusing puzzle.

Citing Your Appendix

Referencing your appendix in the main text gives readers a full picture of your research while they’re reading- They don’t have to wait until the end to figure out important details of your research.

Unlike actual references and citations, citing your appendix is a very straightforward process. You can simply say, “See Appendix A for more details.”

In-Text Citations for Appendix Content

If you would like to cite information in your appendix, you usually mention the author, year, and what exactly you’re citing. This allows you to give credit to the original creator of the content, so your readers know where it came from.

For instance, if you included a chart from a book in your appendix, you’d say something like (Author, Year, p. X). Keep in mind that there are different citation styles (APA, MLA, Chicago, and others), so your appendix may look a little different.

Proofreading and Editing

writing an appendix for a research paper

Proofreading and editing your appendix is just as important as proofreading and editing the main body of your paper. A poorly written or formatted appendix can leave a negative impression on your reader and detract from the overall quality of your work. 

Make sure that your appendix is consistent with the main text of your paper in terms of style and tone unless otherwise stated by your institution. Use the same font, font size, and line spacing in the appendix as you do in the main body of your paper. 

Your appendix should also be free of errors in grammar, spelling, punctuation, and formatting.

Tips for Checking for Errors in Formatting, Labeling, and Content

Here are some tips for checking for errors in formatting, labeling, and content in your appendix:

  • Formatting : Make sure that all of the elements in your appendix are formatted correctly, including tables, figures, and equations. Check the margins, line spacing, and font size to make sure that they are consistent with the rest of your paper.
  • Labeling : All of the tables, figures, and equations in your appendix should be labeled clearly and consistently. Use a consistent numbering system and make sure that the labels match the references in the main body of your paper.
  • Content : Proofread your appendix carefully to catch any errors in grammar, spelling, punctuation, and content. You can use grammar editing tools such as Grammarly to help you automatically detect errors in your context.

Appendix Checklist

Having an appendix checklist guarantees a well-organized appendix and helps you spot and correct any overlooked mistakes.

Here’s a checklist of key points to review before finalizing your appendix:

  • Is all of the information in the appendix relevant and necessary?
  • Is the appendix well-organized and easy to understand?
  • Are all the tables, numbers, and equations clearly labeled?
  • Is the appendix formatted correctly and consistently with the main body of the paper?
  • Is the appendix free of errors in grammar, spelling, punctuation, and content?

Sample Appendix

We have discussed what you should include in your appendix and how to organize it. Let’s take a look at what a well-formatted appendix looks like:

Appendix A. (Raw Data of Class Scores)

The following table shows the raw data collected for the study.

How the Sample Appendix Adheres to Best Practices

  • The appendix is labeled clearly and concisely as “Appendix A. (Raw Data of Class Score).”
  • The appendix begins on a new page.
  • The appendix is formatted consistently with the rest of the paper, using the same font, font size, and line spacing.
  • The table in the appendix is labeled clearly and concisely as “Table A1.”
  • The table is formatted correctly, with consistent column widths and alignment.
  • The table includes all of the necessary information, including the participant number, age, gender, and score.
  • The appendix is free of grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors.

Having an appendix easily makes your research paper impressive to reviewers, and increases your likelihood of achieving high grades or journal publication.  It also makes it easier for other researchers to replicate your research, allowing you to make a significant contribution to your research field.

Ensure to use the best practices in this guide to create a well-structured and relevant appendix. Also, use the checklist provided in this article to help you carefully review your appendix before submitting it.

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How to Write a Research Paper Appendix

Writing a research paper isn’t just a work of mere writing. Writing the perfect research paper takes a lot of research, analysis, framing, formatting, and much more. Correctly writing one of the most essential and academically popular segments of a research paper, the appendix, is one such effort that goes into a dissertation. 

To write your perfect research paper appendix, it is important to understand what it is and its purpose to the reader. With this information in mind, you can craft your own research paper appendices that make your research paper look credible and serve the real purpose. In this blog, we will discuss with you the functions of an appendix in-depth and give you some tried and tested tips to craft the perfect appendix! Let’s dive in! 

What is an appendix?

The appendix is a supplementary segment at the end of a dissertation or research paper. This section isn’t considered a part of the main body text of the dissertation, but it is an important part of doing research. Appendices often feature raw data in the form of tables, figures, maps, diagrams and statistics and thus contribute to the credibility of the research and make it a perfect research paper. 

Using academic resources , books, and research tools can help frame an appendix better. Appendices are essential since they provide extra support to your research and make the dissertation seem more transparent regarding data. 

However, an appendix should only be supplementary; thus, you cannot depend on it to help the reader understand the main text. Your dissertation text should be detailed enough to be understandable without the appendices, and they should only be placed to support your arguments presented in the research report. 

Where does the appendix go in your dissertation? 

Although appendices are an essential part of a dissertation, it is not to be included in the main body of the dissertation. As a compilation of supplementary material and raw data, your research paper appendix should go at the end of the dissertation, typically inserted after the reference lists. Some even present appendices as separate supplementary documents, mostly done in specially requested cases. 

The format of the research paper appendix should be similar to the rest of your report for consistency. It should be thus drafted and formatted in the same style as the dissertation in terms of fonts, margins, and font sizes.

What to include in your appendix 

While drafting your research paper appendix, remember that it needs to be as precise as possible. Thus, there cannot be unnecessary information in it. Typically, appendices include raw data that supports your research and is referenced in the dissertation you have prepared. Here are some of the elements that you should include in your appendix: 

  • Research results 
  • Transcribed interviews 
  • survey/questionnaire details 
  • Table and figures 
  • Co-respondence 
  • List of abbreviations used 
  • Calculations and formulas 

Referring appendix in-text 

Only adding your appendices at the end of the dissertation would not make sense if there are no references to them in the main text. To justify its existence and inclusion in the research report, you should reference the appendix at least once in the whole report. 

A neatly labelled and properly referred appendix can make your dissertation look more professional and supported. This also helps the reader find and interpret the supporting material you provided in your research paper appendix. 

So, here are some ways to referring your appendix in-text: 

  • Referring to the research paper appendix in a sentence, e.g., in Table 3 of Appendix B, here’s the correlation between subject A and subject B. 
  • Referring in parentheses; e.g. The result [refer appendix B, Fig.4] is not the same as before. 
  • Referring to the entire appendix, e.g. The data can be found in Appendix A. 

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5 Tips for Writing the perfect appendix 

Writing the perfect research paper appendix can be overwhelming if it’s your first time doing so. However, drafting appendices can be quite fun if you know the basics and understand how exactly you should go about it. Here are our 5 tips on how to write the perfect appendix for your dissertation: 

1. Organize the appendix

With all the raw data, stats, and information, appendices can be difficult to go through and understand if they’re drafted disorganizedly. So while writing your research paper appendix, make sure you are not just ramming all information into it but organizing it well so the reader can utilize it. Structure it well so it is easily navigable. You can also use appropriate headings, subheadings, and a well-organized, separate numbering system to identify each page of the appendices. You can also add a paragraph about the appendices or even descriptions of the data so it is easily understandable. 

2. Consider Accessibility

A research paper appendix can include non-textual information like tables, diagrams, graphs, images, illustrations, etc. If you are adding such visual data elements to your appendices, make sure the material is clear and readable so the reader can actually comprehend the data. You should also make sure you are labelling these elements well and adding brief descriptions to each figure. To make the appendices more accessible and inclusive, add alternative texts for the descriptions of the visual elements you have added to the digitized version of your appendices. 

3. Review for relevance

It is easy to lose track of the relevance of your data while preparing appendices since you have to work with many different types of data simultaneously. However, you have to remember that the goal is not to stuff your appendices with data. Rather, craft a precise, careful research paper appendix that can give your reader relevant and additional data that supports your research. So, get ready to review your appendices once you’re done with the first draft and make sure all the data presented are actually relevant to your research and offer support to your findings. 

4. Proofread and revise

When it comes to dissertation writing, typos, grammatical errors, and spelling mistakes can cost you way more than just miscommunication. These seemingly harmless errors can make your work look casual and unprofessional, bringing in questions about the credibility of your work. It is a similar case when it comes to the appendices. So to achieve the perfect research paper appendix, make sure you proofread and revise it at least 2-3 times to eradicate any small or big mistakes you encounter. 

5. Seek guidance

It is important to remember that seeking guidance when you feel stuck is pretty normal, and there is nothing to be embarrassed about it. You may feel lost while writing your appendices, and it is the perfect time to seek guidance from your peers, advisor or even dissertation committee members. The guidance will help you learn something new and also help you draft the perfect research paper appendix according to your institution's guidelines. Make sure you checkout our blog on how to write a literature review for a college research paper.

A perfect research paper appendix is clear and concise and only has relevant and supportive data for the dissertation. With this understanding and following the above-mentioned tips, you can now ace writing your research paper appendix, even if it is your first time doing so! Check out this guide to overcome the problems that you face while writing and our another blog on what should be in personal statement .

Frequently Asked Questions

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Easy Guide on How to Write an Appendix in 2023

writing an appendix for a research paper

Understanding What Is an Appendix

Many students ask, 'What is an appendix in writing?'. Essentially, an appendix is a compilation of the references cited in an academic paper, prevalent in academic journals, which can be found in any academic publication, including books. Professors frequently require their students to include an appendix in their work.

Incorporating an appendix in your written piece can aid readers in comprehending the information presented. It is important to note that different professors may have varying guidelines on how to write an appendix. To learn more about how to write an appendix for a research paper according to APA, Chicago, and MLA styles, check out the following paragraphs prepared by our PRO nursing essay writing service !

Meanwhile, note that an appendix comprises all the information utilized in a paper, including references and statistics from several authors and sources (the number varies according to the type of academic paper). The purpose of the appendix is to prevent vague or irrelevant information and improve the reader's understanding of the paper.

The Purpose of an Appendix

To understand what an appendix tries to accomplish and how to write an appendix example, after all, we must first answer the key question, 'What is the purpose of an appendix?'. In short, an appendix is crucial for further explaining complex information that may be difficult to fully convey within the main text of an essay. It is intended to offer readers additional information about the topic addressed in the paper.

The material presented in an appendix has the potential to bolster the argument and sway the reader's opinion. Nonetheless, you should try to incorporate supporting material and examples toward the end of the paper to avoid disrupting the flow of the main text. Furthermore, the likelihood of including an appendix increases as a paper becomes more advanced. The use of an appendix is especially prevalent in the academic writing of a research document and journal-style scientific paper, in which extra information is usually needed to support a main point of view.

How to Structure an Appendix

While there are variations between formats, each one follows a basic structure. Thus, understanding the general structure is an essential first step in learning about this topic. No matter if you're tasked with 'how to write an appendix MLA or APA style?' - remember that both adhere to this structure, despite their differences:

How to Structure an Appendix

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Every Appendix Should Contain:

  • A clear title: The title of the appendix should be concise and descriptive, clearly indicating what information is contained within it. For example, 'Appendix A: Data Tables for Study Results or 'Appendix B: Images of Experimental Setup.'
  • A list of contents: Including a table of contents in the appendix can be helpful for readers to navigate the information provided. For example:

Table of Contents:

A. Data Tables for Study Results

B. Images of Experimental Setup

C. Survey Questions and Responses

D. Sample Interview Transcripts

  • Page numbers: The appendix should be a separate page, independently numbered from the main body of the paper, and specified uniformly (e.g., 'Appendix A,' 'Appendix B,' etc.). For example:

Page 1 of 5

  • Relevant information: The appendix should contain all the relevant information supporting the main arguments of the document, including tables of data, raw statistical data, charts, or other documents. For example:

Figure 1: Experimental Results

[insert graph or chart here]

  • Proper formatting: The appendix should be formatted in accordance with the specific requirements of the chosen citation style (e.g., APA, MLA, Chicago). For example:

Appendix B: Survey Questions and Responses

[insert survey questions and responses here, formatted following APA style guidelines]

  • Clear labeling: Each element should have a clear appendix label so readers can easily understand its relevance to the paper. For example:

Table 1: Demographic Characteristics of Survey Respondents

  • Concise explanation: It is important to provide short detailed descriptions of each element in the Appendix so that readers can understand its importance. For example:

Appendix C: Sample Interview Transcripts

Transcripts of the three interviews with the study participants shall be included for reference. These interviews provide further insights into the experiences of participants and their views on the subject addressed in this document.

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General Appendix Format

To ensure proper formatting, it is important to understand the basics of how to structure an appendix. Although it may seem overwhelming, the basic format is relatively easy to comprehend and serves as a foundation for understanding the APA and MLA formats. Additionally, mastering the basic format can be helpful when writing an appendix for a book or dissertation.

General Appendix Format

  • Heading “Appendix #” . Contains a number or letter, that could be 1 or A.
  • Reference List.
  • Index Table followed a list of appendices.
  • Page Number.

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How to Write an Appendix in Different Styles

There are two distinct styles for creating an appendix, and it's important to familiarize yourself with both since a professor may request one or the other. Our expert writers have compiled guidelines and rules for both formats - the Appendix APA format and the Appendix MLA format. Although they share some similarities, they also have unique features and regulations that must be strictly followed.

Appendix APA

Many professors require students to write an appendix in a paper of this format. To master how to write an appendix APA format and get the structure correct, it's a good idea to follow these guidelines and rules:

The guidelines for Appendix APA:

  • The appendix begins with the heading 'Appendix' followed by ABC.
  • It should also be written on top of the appendix title.
  • Every appendix follows the order of the stated information in the paper.
  • Include the appendix after the reference list.
  • Include page numbers for each appendix.
  • Appendices are to have their own page, regardless of the size.
  • Include Footnotes.

The general rules for Appendix APA are to be followed when writing. This is what professors look for when a paper is required when apprentices are to be written in this format. Learn the general rules to master how to write an appendix APA style and get you onto the right path to success. You may find it useful to memorize this information or keep a note of it.

Rules for APA:

  • All appendices should include their own point.
  • Include a title for each appendix.
  • For multiple appendices, use ABC for tilting them.
  • For reference within the body, include (see appendix a) after the text.
  • The title should be centered.
  • All appendices are to have their own page, regardless of the size.
  • Paragraph One should be written without indents.
  • The rest of the paragraphs should have the intended formatting.
  • Include double spacing.

Whether you're tackling how to write an interview paper in APA appendix or any other type of academic work, the following example can serve as a valuable blueprint to guide you through the process.

Appendix Chicago Style

Writing an appendix Chicago style is rather similar to APA. Though, there are some minor differences. Take a look at these guidelines for this form of an appendix.

Guidelines for an Appendix Chicago Style

  • More than one appendix is described as appendices.
  • The font required for the appendix Chicago style is Times New Roman.
  • The text size should be 12 points.
  • The page numbers should be displayed on the top right of each page.
  • The page numbers should also be labeled as 'Page 1,2,3'.
  • Avoid including a page number on the front cover.
  • The bibliography should be the final new page. It should not share a page with any other content.
  • It is possible to include footnotes in the bibliography.

To better comprehend how to write an appendix in Chicago style, glance through the example below:

Appendix MLA Format

The guidelines and regulations for creating an appendix in MLA format are largely similar to those in APA format. However, there are some differences between the two, the most notable being that the MLA appendix is placed before the reference list.

The guidelines for MLA Format:

  • The appendix is included before the list of references.

It may be useful to follow the example of an appendix to better understand how to write an appendix in MLA style. Doing so can increase the chances of getting a grasp of the MLA rules to fulfill the requirements of your professor on your academic paper.

Rules for MLA

  • The title is to be centered.
  • The list should be double-spaced.
  • The first line should include each reference in the left margin. Every subsequent line is to be formatted so it's invented. This can be referred to as 'hanging indent' to make things easier.
  • The reference list must be in alphabetical order. This can be done with the first letter of the title of the reference. Though, this is usually done if the writer is unknown. If the writer is known, you can also use the first letter of the surname.
  • If you include the name of the known writer, use this order. SURNAME, FIRST NAME, YEAR.
  • Italic fonts are required for the titles of complete writings, internet sites, books, and recordings.
  • It is important not to use an italic font on reference titles that only refer to the part of a source. This includes poetry, short papers, tabloids, sections of a PDF, and scholarly entries.

Before we conclude, let's dive deeper into the world of appendix writing by exploring an example of how to write an appendix MLA style.

Let's wrap this up! It's safe to say that following the APA, Chicago, and MLA formats is crucial when crafting an appendix. As we've seen, starting with an APA appendix example can help ease you in mastering how to write an appendix of paper. Once you have a handle on the precise formats and guidelines, creating an appendix becomes a piece of cake. Also, memorizing the format can help you whip up accurate appendices for any type of paper, whether an essay or a dissertation. Trust us, mastering this topic is a must if you want to excel in knowing how to write an appendix in a report or any other academic work.

Moreover, if you ever find yourself in need of additional academic assistance, be sure to check out our resources on how to write an article review . Or, better yet, why not let us handle your most challenging tasks with ease by simply sending us a ' write my paper request? We are here to support you every step of the way.

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How to Write an Appendix: Explained with Ease

How to Write an Appendix: Explained with Ease

It may surprise you to learn that the origins of the appendix, an often overlooked and underappreciated section in many written works, can be traced back to ancient Rome, where scholars would attach additional scrolls to the end of their manuscripts. These scrolls, known as 'appendices' or 'codicilli,' contained supplementary information, references, or explanatory notes that expanded upon the main text. The practice of including appendices was not only limited to scholarly works but was also prevalent in legal and administrative documents of the time. This historical precedent demonstrates the enduring significance of the appendix as a means of providing additional context, supporting evidence, or offering further insights into the subject matter. Even in our digital age, where printed scrolls have given way to electronic files, the appendix continues to play a vital role in enhancing the content and credibility of various written materials.

How to Write an Appendix: Short Description

In this guide, experts from our writing services will delve into how to write an appendix, unraveling its purpose, structure, and practical tips to help you craft a compelling and informative addition to your own written masterpiece. Whether you are crafting a research paper, a business proposal, or any other document, mastering writing an appendix will equip you with the skills to create an impressive and well-rounded piece of work that leaves a lasting impression on your audience.

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What Is an Appendix in Writing: A Comprehensive Explanation

In academic and professional writing, an appendix is a supplemental section that provides additional information or supporting data that is relevant but not necessary to include in the main body of the text. Appendices are typically included at the end of a document and are numbered or labeled for easy reference. When wondering how to write an appendix for a research paper, remember that it can include various types of content, such as tables, figures, charts, graphs, surveys, interview transcripts, or any other materials that support the main text.

appendix

Appendices serve several important purposes in writing:

1. Provide Additional Information : They allow writers to include supplementary details, evidence, or examples that are too lengthy or detailed to be included in the main body of the text. This additional information enriches the reader's understanding and provides supporting evidence for claims or arguments.

2. Organize Complex Data : If your document contains complex data such as statistical analyses, raw data, or lengthy calculations, it is often more practical to present this information in an appendix. By including tables, charts, or graphs, readers can refer to the appendix to review the data in a more organized and accessible format.

3. Maintain Readability : Sometimes, including extensive or highly technical information within the main body of the text can disrupt the flow and readability of the writing. Appendices provide a designated space for such content, allowing readers to access it as needed without interrupting the main narrative.

Importance of Appendices in Writing

Expanded context : Appendices provide an opportunity to expand upon the context of your work by including additional information, background details, or historical references. This allows readers to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the subject matter without overwhelming the main body of your text.

Visual aids and illustrations : Appendices can be utilized to incorporate visual aids such as charts, graphs, maps, diagrams, or photographs that support your content. These visual representations can effectively communicate complex information or provide visual evidence that enhances the reader's comprehension and engagement.

Extended analysis : Appendices offer a space for conducting in-depth analysis or presenting supplementary discussions that may go beyond the scope of your main text. This allows you to explore alternative perspectives, address counterarguments, or delve into tangential topics without disrupting the flow of your primary argument or narrative. By including this additional analysis, you enrich the intellectual depth of your work and encourage critical thinking from your readers.

Different Types of Appendices

There are different types of appendices that can be included in writing, depending on the nature of the document and the information being presented. Some common types of appendices include:

1. Supplements : These appendices provide additional supportive materials, such as additional examples, case studies, or explanatory notes.

2. Surveys or Questionnaires : If your writing involves surveys or questionnaires, including them as appendices allows readers to review the full set of questions and responses.

3. Experimental Procedures : In scientific or research writing, detailed experimental procedures or methodologies are often included as appendices. This allows readers to replicate or understand the study's methods in more detail.

4. Data and Statistical Analysis : Appendices can also be used to present raw data, detailed statistical analyses, or mathematical calculations related to the main text.

5. Supporting Documentation : If your writing references external documents or sources that are too long or numerous to include within the main body, they can be provided as appendices for readers to refer to if desired.

When to Use Appendices: Examples of Situations Requiring Appendices

Appendices are commonly used in academic and professional writing to provide supplementary information that is relevant but not essential to the main body of the text. Here are some examples of situations where appendices may be necessary:

when to use

1. Supporting Data : If your research paper or report includes a large amount of data, such as tables, graphs, or survey results, it may be appropriate to include them in an appendix rather than cluttering the main text.

2. Technical Details : If your writing involves technical information, such as detailed calculations, formulas, or diagrams, it can be useful to place them in an appendix for readers who are interested in the specifics.

3. Lengthy Figures or Images : If you have figures, maps, or images that are too large or numerous to be easily included in the main body of the text, you can place them in an appendix for readers to refer to as needed.

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Considerations for Including Appendices

Including well-structured and relevant appendices can enhance the overall quality and credibility of your writing by providing readers with supplementary information that supports your main argument or findings. However, it is essential to use appendices judiciously and ensure they are organized, accessible, and effectively referenced within the main text. Consider the following factors from our assignment writing service experts before including them in your writing:

1. Relevance : Only include information in the appendices that is directly related to the main body of the text and adds value to the reader's understanding.

2. Accessibility : Ensure that your appendices are easily accessible and clearly referenced within the main text. Include clear headings and page numbers to help readers find the information they need.

3. Length Limitations : Be mindful of length limitations set by publishers or professors. If there are restrictions on the total number of pages or word count for your writing, you may need to condense or trim down your appendices to fit within those limitations.

4. Formatting : Follow any specific formatting guidelines provided by your target journal, publisher, or academic institution for including appendices. This includes font styles, margins, and citation styles.

writing an appendix for a research paper

How to Format Appendices: General Guidelines for Formatting

When it comes to formatting appendices in your writing, there are some general guidelines to keep in mind:

1. Labeling : Each appendix should be labeled with a capital letter (e.g., Appendix A, Appendix B). If you have multiple appendices, you can also use Roman numerals (e.g., Appendix I, Appendix II).

2. Page Numbers : Appendices should be paginated separately from the main body of your writing. Use lowercase Roman numerals (i, ii, iii) to number the pages of your appendices.

3. Heading : Each appendix should have a clear and descriptive heading that briefly explains its content.

4. Tables and Figures : If you include any tables or figures in your appendices, they should be labeled and referenced appropriately.

Specific Formatting for Different Types of Appendices

Formatting guidelines may vary depending on the citation style you are using. Here are some examples of how to format appendices in different styles:

How to Write an Appendix in APA

In APA style, appendices should follow the same basic formatting guidelines as the rest of your paper. However, there are a few additional considerations when unsure how to write an appendix APA style:

1. Title : Each appendix should have a descriptive title that appears at the top of the separate page.

2. Reference List : If you include any references or citations within your appendices, they should follow the APA style guidelines for references.

How to Write an Appendix MLA Format

In MLA style, appendices are less commonly used. If you choose to include an appendix MLA format, follow these guidelines:

1. Section Heading : Each appendix should have a section heading that appears at the top of the page.

2. Works Cited : If you include any works cited entries within your appendices, they should follow the MLA style guidelines for works cited.

How to Write an Appendix in Chicago Style

In appendix Chicago style writing, appendices are often used to include supplementary materials such as raw statistical data or lengthy tables. Here's Chicago style appendix format:

1. Appendix Title : Each appendix should have a short, descriptive title that appears at the top of the page.

2. Pages Numbering : In Chicago style, appendices can either be numbered continuously with the main text or start with a new page numbering sequence (e.g., A-1, A-2, B-1, B-2).

3. Table of Contents : If your paper includes a table of contents, include the appendices in the listing.

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What to Include in Appendices

Appendices are a valuable addition to any piece of writing, providing supplementary information that enhances the overall understanding of the topic. Here are some examples of common content that can be included in appendices:

Examples of Common Content in Appendices

1. Raw Data : If you have conducted research or collected data for your writing, including raw data in an appendix allows readers to see the source material and verify your findings.

2. Survey Instruments : If you have used surveys or questionnaires in your research, including a sample of the instruments in an appendix allows readers to understand the questions asked and the response options provided.

3. Supplementary Figures and Tables : If you have additional figures or tables that provide supporting information but are not essential to the main body of your writing, including them in an appendix can help avoid clutter and distractions.

4. Detailed Methodology : If your writing involves complex experiments, procedures, or calculations, including a detailed description of your methodology in an appendix can help readers replicate your work or understand the process behind your findings.

Tips for Organizing Information in Appendices

When organizing information in appendices, it is important to consider the clarity and accessibility for readers. Here are some tips to help you effectively organize information in your appendices from our professional essay editing service :

1. Label and Number : Each appendix should have a clear label and number, such as 'Appendix A' or 'Appendix 1,' to help readers easily navigate and refer to specific sections.

2. Provide Clear Headings : Within each appendix, use headings and subheadings to guide readers through the content. Clear and descriptive headings make it easier for readers to find the information they are looking for.

3. Use Bullet Points or Numbered Lists : If you have a list of items or points to present, using bullet points or numbered lists can make the information more organized and readable.

4. Consider Including a Table of Contents : If your appendices are extensive and cover multiple topics, including a table of contents at the beginning can help readers quickly locate specific information.

5. Cross-Reference in the Main Text : If there are specific points in your main text that refer to information in the appendices, make sure to include cross-references to direct readers to the relevant appendix.

Wrapping Up

This comprehensive guide has illuminated the significance and artistry behind incorporating appendices in your writing. From its ancient roots in Rome to its modern-day digital form, the appendix continues to be a valuable tool for enhancing clarity, providing supporting evidence, and offering accessible information to readers. By mastering the purpose, structure, and practical tips outlined in this guide, you now possess the knowledge of how to write an appendix of paper that enriches your written works. And, if you ever find yourself in need of assistance, remember you can always rely on our professional services for your 'write my paragraph for me' request!

writing an appendix for a research paper

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How to Write an Appendix

Last Updated: October 4, 2023 Approved

This article was co-authored by Stephanie Wong Ken, MFA . Stephanie Wong Ken is a writer based in Canada. Stephanie's writing has appeared in Joyland, Catapult, Pithead Chapel, Cosmonaut's Avenue, and other publications. She holds an MFA in Fiction and Creative Writing from Portland State University. wikiHow marks an article as reader-approved once it receives enough positive feedback. This article has 16 testimonials from our readers, earning it our reader-approved status. This article has been viewed 1,667,451 times.

Like the appendix in a human body, an appendix contains information that is supplementary and not strictly necessary to the main body of the writing. An appendix may include a reference section for the reader, a summary of the raw data or extra details on the method behind the work. You may be required to write an appendix for school or you may decide to write an appendix for a personal project you are working on. You should start by collecting content for the appendix and by formatting the appendix properly. You should then polish the appendix so it is accessible, useful, and engaging for your reader.

Collecting Content for the Appendix

Step 1 Include raw data.

  • Raw data may include sample calculations that you refer to in the body of the paper as well as specialized data that expands on data or information you discuss in the paper. Raw statistical data can also be included in the appendix.
  • You may also include contributory facts from other sources that will help to support your findings in the paper. Make sure you properly cite any information you are pulling from other sources.

Step 2 Put in supporting...

  • You may include graphs or charts you have created yourself or graphs or charts from another source. Make sure you properly cite any visuals that are not your own in the appendix.

Step 3 Note your research instruments in the appendix.

  • For example, you may note in the appendix: “All interviews and surveys were conducted in person in a private setting and were recorded with a tape recorder.”

Step 4 Add in interview...

  • You should also include any correspondences you had with subjects in your research, such as copies of emails, letters, or notes written to or from your research subjects.

Formatting the Appendix

Step 1 Title the appendix.

  • If you have more than one appendix, order them by letter or number and be consistent about the ordering. For example, if you are using letters, make sure the appendices are titled “Appendix A,” “Appendix B,” etc. If you are using numbers, make sure the appendices are titled “Appendix 1,” “Appendix 2,” etc.
  • If you have more than one appendix, make sure each appendix begins on a new page. This will ensure the reader is not confused as to where one appendix ends and another begins.

Step 2 Order the content in the appendix.

  • For example, if raw data is mentioned in the first line of your paper, place that raw data first in your appendix. Or if you mention interview questions at the very end of your paper, make sure the interview questions appear as the last point in your appendix.

Step 3 Place the appendix after your reference list.

  • You should also make sure you list the appendix in your table of contents for the paper, if you have one. You can list it based on title, for example, “Appendix”, or “Appendix A” if you have more than one appendix.

Step 4 Add page numbers.

  • For example, if the text ends on page 17, continue numbering from page 17 when you put in the page numbers for the appendix.

Polishing the Appendix

Step 1 Revise the appendix for clarity and cohesion.

  • You may find it helpful to have someone else read through the appendix, such as a peer or a mentor. Ask them if they feel all the included information is relevant to the paper and remove any information they deem unnecessary.

Step 2 Check for spelling or grammar errors.

  • Read through the appendix backwards so you can make sure there are no spelling errors. You want the appendix to appear as professional as possible.

Step 3 Refer to the appendix in the text of the paper.

  • For example, you may note an appendix in the text with: “My research produced the same results in both cases (see Appendix for raw data)” or “I feel my research was conclusive (see Appendix A for interview notes).”

Sample Appendices

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  • ↑ https://libguides.usc.edu/writingguide/appendices
  • ↑ http://libguides.usc.edu/writingguide/appendices
  • ↑ https://askus.library.wwu.edu/faq/116707

About This Article

Stephanie Wong Ken, MFA

Medical Disclaimer

The content of this article is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, examination, diagnosis, or treatment. You should always contact your doctor or other qualified healthcare professional before starting, changing, or stopping any kind of health treatment.

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To write an appendix, start by writing “Appendix” at the top of the document, using the same font you used for your chapter headings. Then, order the contents, such as graphs, surveys, or interview transcripts, based on the order in which they appear in your paper. Next, number the pages so they follow sequentially, coming after your paper and your reference list or list of sources. Finally, make sure to check for spelling and grammar errors, so everything will look polished and professional. For more tips from our English co-author, including how to refer to the appendix in your paper, keep reading! Did this summary help you? Yes No

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How to Make an Appendix for a Research Paper

What is an appendix, what can you include in an appendix.

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Visual documents, instruments used, transcripts of interviews and surveys, the format of an appendix, title of the appendix, content order, placement and page numbers, make your appendix perfect.

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How to Write an Appendix for a Research Paper

Adela Belin

Table of contents

As a new college student, you still have a lot to learn and many things to experience both academically and socially.

When it comes to academics, there may be many things that you have to do for the first time in your life, such as writing an appendix for a research paper that you have to submit.

While some college students may have done this before, there are many new college students who do not know how to write an appendix paper. This is a critical part of any research paper and always needs to be included in your final submission.

In this article, we are going to discuss how to write an appendix for a research paper, as well as why an appendix is needed when completing a research paper.

What is an Appendix

Firstly, let us establish what an appendix is. An appendix is the part of a research paper that contains materials and references that may be very detailed and too big to include in the actual report.

These materials can be but are not limited to, calculations, technical drawings, graphs, or raw data. The content in the appendix needs to be summarized and then referred to from the main part of the research paper.

General rules when it comes to creating an appendix for a research paper

  • every appendix has to be labeled with a letter, title, or number;
  • these numbers and titles need to be listed on the contents page of the research paper;
  • each appendix has to be referred to by a number or a letter at the appropriate point in the text of the research paper.

How to Write an Appendix for Your Research Paper

The best way to create an appendix for a research paper is to collect the content that you want to include in your appendix and then make it easily accessible and of relevance to the person who is going to be reading the paper.

Step 1: Collecting Content for the Appendix

Gather raw data.

Raw data is absolutely necessary and should always be included in the appendix of a research paper. It is important to make sure that the raw data is cited correctly from the sources that it has been taken from.

An example of raw data could include calculations that have been referred to in the body of the research paper.

The appendix can even include supplementary information that further expands on the subject of the paper and supports any findings that have been spoken about in the body of the paper.

Add images, charts, and graphs

An appendix will usually include other supporting information such as charts, maps, photographs, and drawings or other visual additions that the reader would be interested in.

Always make sure to properly cite the visuals or other information that does not belong to you to avoid unintentionally plagiarizing .

Here’s a video by Hodges University Library on how to add images, graphs, and charts to the appendix of a research paper.

Make a note of the instruments used

Keeping the reader up to date with the instruments used to conduct your research paper is very important.

These instruments can include cameras, cell phone recordings, or any other instrument that was used to conduct the research for the paper.

In most cases, the reader will be interested to know what devices were used to conduct the research for the paper.

Add additional, relevant information

In addition to graphs, instruments, and raw materials used to conduct research, the appendix should also include an array of interviews , surveys, or transcripts that may have transpired during the research that was done for the paper.

  • the transcripts should cover the entire interview and include both questions and answers;
  • include copies of surveys that were done online or even completed by hand;
  • add in any other correspondence that may have been talked about in the body of the research paper (e.g. emails, recordings, etc.).

Step Two: Formatting the Appendix

Add an appropriate title.

An appendix is always shown at the top of the page using capital letters or sentence cases. It can be the same size as the headings that were used for the chapters in the body of the research paper.

In some cases, there may need to be more than one appendix in a research paper. If this is the case then it is important to put them in order by either numbers or letters, for example, in Appendix 1 and Appendix 2.

Each appendix needs to start on a new page so as to not confuse the person who is reading the paper.

Organize the content in order

The best way in which to order the content of an appendix is based on when and where the information appears in the body of a research paper.

An appendix has to be extremely user-friendly and easy to access. For example, if a research paper mentions an interview at the end of the paper then the link to the interview needs to be shown at the end of the appendix.

Include the appendix after the reference list

An appendix to a research paper should always be put in after the reference list. This, of course, is all dependent on how the subject professor prefers it to be.

It is important always to make sure that an appendix follows the requirements of the professor who has set out how they want the research paper to be put together.

Insert page numbers

The numbers that appear in the appendix of a research paper need to be either at the center of the page or in the bottom right-hand corner of the page.

The same format should be followed throughout the research paper so as to ensure that the reader is able to navigate through the paper with ease.

Step 3: Polishing the Appendix

Proofread the appendix.

There is often no standard word count for an appendix, but it is best practice to make it as short as possible so as to exclude any unnecessary and long-winded content.

After the appendix has been done it is important to read through it again and make sure that all the information that is shown in the appendix is relevant to the text in the body of the research paper.

Once this has been done, any other information shown in the appendix that does not directly relate to the body of the paper should be removed and cleaned up as this could clutter up and confuse the entire objective of the paper.

Professionalism is very important. Try getting another person to read through the appendix of a research essay to iron out anything that they may not understand being a reader.

If they feel that the appendix is relevant to the body of the paper and is in the correct order, then this should be enough to ensure that the professor reading the research paper will also be able to navigate the paper easily when referring to the appendix.

Check for grammar and spelling errors

There should be no spelling, punctuation, or grammar errors in both the research paper or the appendix. Use spell checks to make sure that the research paper is of a professional standard.

Another way to check for any grammatical or spelling errors can be to read through the appendix backward. This may take time, but at the end of the day will yield the results of a professionally written appendix.

A research paper needs to be engaging and, at the same time, easy to understand and navigate through. This is why a properly set-out appendix is critical when it comes to writing a research essay.

When you reach out to us at Writers Per Hour to do your research paper , our writers not only deliver a top-notch research paper but also write out a detailed and well-formatted appendix that adds value and lends to a more holistic paper.

Last edit at Jul 27 2023

Adela Belin

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How to Write an Appendix for a Research Paper: Step-by-Step Guide

When you think of what is an appendix in a research paper and how to write an appendix, be sure you add appropriate information to it. Remember that the body of the paper contains all the essential data while writing an appendix for a research paper provides supplementary information. I.e., the paper’s text is self-sufficing and easily understandable when reading your work. Appendices only provide further disclosures, which are attached to make a more comprehensive presentation. Paying for a research paper is a great way to save time and get the best possible results, but be sure to do your research and select a reliable writing service.

What is a Research Paper’s Appendix?

Let’s start with defining what is appendix in research paper. It is a part of your article which is attached to its main body, often in the form of a separate document. The showings contained in it may be of two types. It is either the content complementing the review, which contains supplementary material that is not an essential part of the text itself. Or it may include links to raw data , tables, examples or pictures which are of special importance for the readers or inappropriate within the body.

The creation of an appendix for a research paper is not a hard job though it demands special knowledge on what to include and how to structure it. Often, it’s easier to address a custom essay writing company and be sure you’ll obtain perfect work written by professionals on time. In this case, all the needed appendices will be attached, so you don’t have to worry about that. But if you want to learn how to create an appendix for a research paper yourself, follow our advice. Perhaps you’ll be the one who performs the best appendices ever!

How Should You Write Your Research Paper’s Appendix?

In general, before starting an appendix, define the research problem/question theoretical framework. The next steps are as follows:

Collect the info

Define what is better to be taken out of the essential part. Think about how it’s better to include it in your appendices and prepare a draft.

Format your appendix

It shall sound and look to the point. Define how the appendix shall look in the formatting pattern you use (e.g., APA style ) and execute it accordingly.

Refine the appendices

Check grammar, sources, tables, and page sequence. You may search the Internet to find examples of professionally executed appendices. The other way is to order professional services at an online research paper writing service and have it altogether done. Both the work and the appendices to it will be executed on time and following all the requirements. If you’re working on academic work with attachments for the first time, this option may be your life jacket and an example for later.

What to Include in The Research Paper’s Appendix?

When estimating how to make an appendix for a research paper, we inevitably come to the question of what information is included in the appendices typically. The background information items comprise calculations, interview transcripts, mathematical proofs for qualitative methods, a reference list, and relevant technical info. It may be in the form of figures, maps, tables, photographs, external links, drawings, charts, graphs, questionnaires, descriptions, etc.

The additional information provided in the appendices may be an illustration of the content or proof of the conclusion. In the case of the latter, check with the professionals on how to conclude research paper . You’ll get tips on how to sound academic and will easily form an appendix that reflects your concluding part. It may contain raw data, links, referred interviews, or detailed study results confirming your findings.

Writing Style and Structure Of The Appendix

We’ve come up with the question of how to set up an appendix in a research paper. The common thing to consider while choosing the info for the appendix is that the academic writing style should be preserved. Your appendices shall be in concise and scientific-looking form to achieve the trustworthiness of your work. This relates not only to general raw info but also to interview transcripts, public discussion results, and copies of private letters, as well as summarised evaluation results.

To do this smoothly, you should take care of a good work outline. Follow the experts’ tips on how to write a research paper outline effectively, and you’ll have examples of narration and terms to be used. The outline will help you arrange your topic idea hierarchy both in the essential part and the appendices. By the way, you may have a lot of separate appendices related to each distinct part in the body of the work.

Appendices may include text, tables, footnotes and other supporting items helpful for the reader. Each of them shall be labeled. The appendices have their own titles too, and each of them is to be mentioned at least once in the text. For a credible work, read about how to write a research paper and get to know how to choose and use powerful sources, authors and figures. The same valuable tips apply to the appendices as well.

Depending on the requirements, appendices may precede or follow your list of references, but remember that each appendix begins on a new page.

appendix structure

Appendix Writing Checklist

Follow the stages:

  • Identify the content related to your research problem but not essential that you wish to show.
  • Organize it. Add sample visuals and findings in the form of a table or in other ways, comprehensive for the reader. They should correspond to the topic idea.
  • Mention the methods and instruments you used.
  • Name the appendix and the items it contains.
  • Place the content. It shall look scholarly and clear.
  • Revise for clarity and congruence with the research problem.
  • Check for errors. Look with the eyes of your professor.
  • Number the pages.
  • Attach the appendices.
  • Specify them in the table of contents.

Plagiarism Prevention

The complexity of creating an academic work is that you should keep it concise, accurate, and not lyrical or vague. On the other hand, you cannot just copy the thoughts expressed by experts.

To avoid plagiarism, and specifically in the info included in the appendix, try to render the information you collect from credible sources. Also, try to use as much literature as possible. Develop your own narration fashion, and avoid imitation. When you’re ready, check the work with your free plagiarism checker online. It’s a perfect tool for analyzing many online resources to determine the uniqueness of your work. Ensure all the questionable places in your work are removed. Writing a research paper can be daunting, but there are services that can write your research paper for you to help make the process easier.

Bottom Line

It is appropriate to include appendices in research papers in the following cases:

  • Cumbersome info. The text or data you want to include in the body of the paper is too extensive or contains a reference to external files, thus distracting the reader. In this case, it is wise to prepare the appendix for your research paper with all the necessary data.
  • Detailed contents. Your data includes helpful, illustrative information which is, however, non-essential or takes too much space. Put in the form of an appendix, allowing the reader to find relevant information quickly

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Claudine Gay, Harvard’s first Black president, faced mounting controversies. She had led the university since July.

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Jennifer Schuessler ,  Anemona Hartocollis ,  Michael Levenson and Alan Blinder

Here’s what to know about Claudine Gay’s resignation.

Harvard’s president, Claudine Gay, announced her resignation on Tuesday, after her presidency had become engulfed in crisis over accusations of plagiarism and what some called her insufficient response to antisemitism on campus after the Hamas-led attacks on Israel on Oct. 7.

In announcing she would step down immediately, Dr. Gay, Harvard’s first Black president and the second woman to lead the university, ended a turbulent tenure that began last July. She will have the shortest stint in office of any Harvard president since its founding in 1636.

Alan M. Garber, an economist and physician who is Harvard’s provost and chief academic officer, will serve as interim president. Dr. Gay will remain a tenured professor of government and African and African American studies.

Dr. Gay became the second university president to resign in recent weeks, after she and the presidents of the University of Pennsylvania and M.I.T. appeared in a Dec. 5 congressional hearing in which they appeared to evade the question of whether students who called for the genocide of Jews should be punished.

Penn’s president, M. Elizabeth Magill, resigned four days after that hearing. Sally Kornbluth, M.I.T.’s president, has also faced calls for her resignation.

In a letter announcing her decision, Dr. Gay said that after consulting with members of the university’s governing body, the Harvard Corporation, “it has become clear that it is in the best interests of Harvard for me to resign so that our community can navigate this moment of extraordinary challenge with a focus on the institution rather than any individual.”

At the same time, Dr. Gay, 53, defended her academic record and suggested that she was the target of highly personal and racist attacks.

“Amidst all of this, it has been distressing to have doubt cast on my commitments to confronting hate and to upholding scholarly rigor — two bedrock values that are fundamental to who I am — and frightening to be subjected to personal attacks and threats fueled by racial animus,” she wrote.

Last year, the news of Dr. Gay’s appointment was widely seen as a breakthrough moment for the university. The daughter of Haitian immigrants and an expert on minority representation and political participation in government, she took office just as the Supreme Court rejected the use of race-conscious admissions at Harvard and other universities.

She also became a major target of some powerful graduates like the billionaire investor William A. Ackman , who was concerned about antisemitism and suggested on social media last month that Harvard had only considered candidates for the presidency who met “the D.E.I. office’s criteria,” referring to diversity, equity and inclusion.

Dr. Gay’s resignation came after the latest plagiarism accusations against her were circulated in an unsigned complaint published on Monday in The Washington Free Beacon, a conservative online journal that has led a campaign against Dr. Gay over the past few weeks.

The complaint added to about 40 other plagiarism accusations that had already been circulated in the journal. The accusations raised questions about whether Harvard was holding its president to the same academic standards as its students.

Lawrence H. Summers, the former U.S. treasury secretary who resigned as Harvard president under pressure in 2006, suggested that Dr. Gay had made the right decision. “I admire Claudine Gay for putting Harvard’s interests first at what I know must be an agonizingly difficult moment,” he said in an email.

Representative Virginia Foxx, a North Carolina Republican who leads the House committee that is investigating Harvard and other universities, said the inquiry would continue despite Dr. Gay’s resignation.

“There has been a hostile takeover of postsecondary education by political activists, woke faculty and partisan administrators,” Ms. Foxx said in a statement, adding, “The problems at Harvard are much larger than one leader.”

On Harvard’s campus, some expressed deep dismay with what they described as a politically motivated campaign against Dr. Gay and higher education more broadly. Hundreds of faculty members had signed public letters asking Harvard’s governing board to resist pressure to remove Dr. Gay.

“This is a terrible moment,” said Khalil Gibran Muhammad, a professor of history, race and public policy at the Harvard Kennedy School. “Republican congressional leaders have declared war on the independence of colleges and universities, just as Governor DeSantis has done in Florida. They will only be emboldened by Gay’s resignation.”

Some faculty members criticized how the secretive Harvard Corporation had handled the political onslaught and plagiarism allegations.

Alison Frank Johnson, a history professor, said she “couldn’t be more dismayed.”

“Instead of making a decision based on established scholarly principles, we had here a public hounding,” she said. “Instead of listening to voices of scholars in her field who could speak to the importance and originality of her research, we heard voices of derision and spite on social media. Instead of following established university procedure, we had a corporation granting access to self-appointed advisers and carrying out reviews using mysterious and undisclosed methods.”

Rumors about problems in Dr. Gay’s work had circulated for months on anonymous message boards. But the first widely publicized report came on Dec. 10, before Harvard’s board met to discuss Dr. Gay’s future, after her disastrous testimony in the congressional hearing.

That evening, the conservative activist Christopher Rufo published an essay in his Substack newsletter highlighting what he described as “problematic patterns of usage and citation” in Dr. Gay’s 1997 doctoral dissertation.

The Washington Free Beacon followed with several articles detailing allegations regarding her published scholarly articles, and reported two formal complaints submitted to the Research Integrity Office of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences.

In a statement on Dec. 12 saying that Dr. Gay would stay on, the board acknowledged the accusations and said it had been made aware of them in late October. The board said it had conducted an investigation and found “a few instances of inadequate citation” in two articles, which it said would be corrected. But the infractions, the board said, did not rise to the level of “research misconduct.”

Dr. Gay was already under pressure for what some had said was the university’s inadequate response to the Oct. 7 attacks on Israel.

After initially remaining silent after student groups wrote an open letter saying that Israel was “entirely responsible” for the violence, Dr. Gay and other officials released a letter to the university community acknowledging “feelings of fear, sadness, anger and more.” After an outcry over what some considered the tepid language, Dr. Gay issued a more forceful statement condemning Hamas for “terrorist atrocities,” while urging people to use words that “illuminate and not inflame.”

At the congressional hearing, Representative Elise Stefanik, Republican of New York, pelted Dr. Gay and the other university presidents with hypothetical questions.

“At Harvard,” Ms. Stefanik asked Dr. Gay, “does calling for the genocide of Jews violate Harvard’s rules of bullying and harassment? Yes or no?”

“It can be, depending on the context,” Dr. Gay replied.

That exchange, and a similar back and forth between Ms. Stefanik and Ms. Magill, rocketed across social media and infuriated many people with close ties to the universities.

Dr. Gay moved to contain the fallout with an apology in an interview that was published in The Harvard Crimson, the campus newspaper. “When words amplify distress and pain, I don’t know how you could feel anything but regret,” she said.

One week after her testimony, the Harvard Corporation issued a unanimous statement of support — after meeting late into the night — saying that it stood firmly behind her.

But there were signs that controversy might have harmed Harvard’s reputation. The number of students who applied this fall under the university’s early action program — giving them the possibility of an admissions decision in December instead of March — fell about 17 percent, the university said last month.

Reporting was contributed by Dana Goldstein , Rob Copeland , Annie Karni and Vimal Patel . Kirsten Noyes contributed research.

Dana Goldstein

Dana Goldstein

Serena Jampel, a 22-year old junior, had said in December that as a Jewish student, she did not consider critiques of Zionism on campus to be antisemitic. On Tuesday, she said she was “deeply saddened” by Claudine Gay’s resignation. “I believe that she was always trying to balance free speech and student safety, and never intended to cause harm.”

Maya Shwayder

Harvard’s campus, currently between semesters, was quiet on Tuesday, despite the intense spotlight focused on the university. Several students and professors said they did not want to talk about Claudine Gay’s resignation. One faculty member chuckled and said he couldn’t comment because he doesn’t have tenure.

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Rabbi Hirschy Zarchi, the president of Harvard Chabad, has criticized a culture of antisemitism on campus, which he said predates Claudine Gay’s tenure. “The fact that it got more and more brazen with each passing day was the result of the lack of leadership addressing it,” he said, adding that he hopes the pressure that helped lead to Gay’s resignation will prompt other campus leaders to take action.

Anemona Hartocollis

Anemona Hartocollis

The resignation was welcomed by the Harvard Jewish Alumni Alliance, which said it represents several thousand Jewish alumni. “Claudine Gay tacitly encouraged those who sought to spread hate at Harvard, where many Jews no longer feel safe to study, identify and fully participate in the Harvard community," the group said in a statement.

Harvard faced donor pressure and a drop in early admission applications.

College presidents are not only administrators and intellectual leaders; they are the chief fund-raisers for their institutions. And Claudine Gay’s loss of support among some Harvard donors may have played a key role in her resignation on Tuesday.

Harvard’s $50.7 billion endowment is immense by any measure — the largest academic nest egg in the country. Yet it has been underperforming financially in recent years, relative to some peers. Stanford’s endowment produced returns of 4.4 percent last year, for example, compared to returns of 2.9 percent for Harvard.

The endowment is run as a nonprofit with its own board of directors, but its members are appointed by the Harvard Corporation, the same body that selected Dr. Gay as the university’s president.

Given the concerns, the ability of Harvard’s president to raise money became even more crucial. Yet Dr. Gay’s credibility eroded this fall among some powerful donors , who criticized what they saw as a sluggish response to the Oct. 7 Hamas attack on Israel.

“There is a large number of alumni who are very upset about how the administration handled this fall, and really worry the university is not set up to take outside feedback,” said Sam Lessin, a Harvard graduate and tech investor.

Some alumni donors were also dismayed to learn in recent days that early action applications to Harvard, with a Nov. 1 deadline, had dropped by 17 percent this year to a four-year low.

On Tuesday, Mr. Lessin published a statement on social media reacting to Dr. Gay’s resignation. “I am happy to see Gay out,” he wrote.

Randall Kennedy, a Harvard legal scholar and one of the university’s most prominent Black faculty members, has been a key supporter of Claudine Gay. On Tuesday, he said via text message, “I am saddened by the inability of a great university to defend itself against an alarmingly effective campaign of misinformation and intimidation.”

Jacey Fortin

Alan M. Garber, Harvard’s provost and chief academic officer, will now serve as its interim president.

Alan M. Garber, an economist and physician who is Harvard’s provost and chief academic officer, will now serve as its interim president.

The Harvard Corporation described Dr. Garber as “a distinguished and wide-ranging scholar” in a statement on Tuesday. “We are fortunate to have someone of Alan’s broad and deep experience, incisive judgment, collaborative style, and extraordinary institutional knowledge to carry forward key priorities and to guide the university through this interim period,” the Corporation said.

Dr. Garber , who was appointed provost in 2011, has a Ph.D. in economics from Harvard and an M.D. from Stanford. He is a member of the Association of American Physicians, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the National Academy of Medicine.

Lawrence H. Summers, a former Harvard president and former Treasury secretary, said in an email that Dr. Garber, “who is universally liked, admired, and respected, is a superb choice as interim president.”

In an interview with The Harvard Crimson in November, Dr. Garber said that he regretted the university’s initial statement in response to the war in Israel and Gaza. The statement was denounced by politicians, academics and Jewish groups who said that it did not condemn Hamas strongly enough, and he spoke positively about a more forceful statement that followed from Dr. Gay, which condemned Hamas for “terrorist atrocities.”

Dr. Garber added that the crisis over the university’s response to the war has been the most serious that Harvard has faced during his tenure as provost.

“The community was immediately divided, and that is not true of every crisis that we face,” he told The Crimson. “It is a combustible situation, and one in which many people are grieving.”

Dr. Garber was reportedly considered a contender to become Harvard’s 29th president, but in 2018 the post went to Lawrence S. Bacow . In 2022, Dr. Garber told the Crimson that he was “very happy” serving as the provost, and last year Dr. Gay became the university’s 30th president .

According to the Harvard Corporation, Dr. Garber will serve as president “until a new leader for Harvard is identified and takes office.”

Anemona Hartocollis contributed reporting.

Anna Betts

Al Sharpton, the civil rights leader, expressed disappointment in Claudine Gay's resignation in a statement to CNN , blaming a relentless campaign against her led by the financier Bill Ackman. “This is an attack on every Black woman in this country who’s put a crack in the glass ceiling,” Sharpton said, adding that his organization, the National Action Network, would picket outside Ackman’s New York office on Thursday.

Vimal Patel

The Israel-Hamas war has inflamed free speech skirmishes on college campuses.

The recent ousters of two Ivy League university presidents — Elizabeth Magill, of the University of Pennsylvania, and, on Tuesday, Claudine Gay of Harvard — represented victories for those who believe that pro-Palestinian protesters have gone too far in their speech.

Some Jewish students say protest slogans like “intifada revolution” and “from the river to the sea” are antisemitic and threatening — and proof of a double standard. Universities, they say, have ignored their fears and pleas for security, while creating a battalion of administrators who are devoted to diversity and equity programs and are quick to protect their students.

If universities were engulfed before the Israel-Hamas war in debates over what kinds of speech were acceptable, now they are facing a crossroads, with many longtime observers of the campus speech skirmishes perceiving this moment as a dire one for freedom of expression.

The troubles of Ms. Magill and Dr. Gay, after all, did not start with the Dec. 5 congressional hearing, when they — as well as the president of M.I.T. — responded with what critics characterized as lawyerly answers when asked whether to punish students if they called for genocide.

For Ms. Magill, they began with a Palestinian writers’ conference that was held on campus in September. Donors to Penn asked her to cancel the event, which they said included antisemitic speakers, but she declined, citing the university’s commitment to free expression.

And Dr. Gay drew criticism barely two days after Hamas invaded Israel on Oct. 7, for not publicly condemning the attack or denouncing an open letter from student groups saying that they held “the Israeli regime entirely responsible for all unfolding violence.”

Steven Pinker, a cognitive psychologist at Harvard who opposes cracking down on free expression, said that speech by itself, however ugly, should not be punished. But, he said, universities have not made the best case for themselves as champions of unfettered debate.

“The problem with the university presidents saying that calls for genocide are not punishable is that they have such a risible record of defending free speech in the past that they don’t have a leg to stand on,” Dr. Pinker said in an interview.

The question is what happens from here.

Annie Karni

Annie Karni

Stefanik, whose aggressive questioning of Gay went viral, claimed credit for her exit.

Representative Elise Stefanik of New York, whose questions during a congressional hearing last month put Dr. Claudine Gay and two other prominent university administrators on the spot about antisemitism on their campuses, took a victory lap Tuesday afternoon after Dr. Gay announced her resignation as president of Harvard University.

“TWO DOWN,” Ms. Stefanik crowed on social media, accented by three red siren emojis. Last month, the president of the University of Pennsylvania, M. Elizabeth Magill, resigned just four days after she testified before Congress and evaded Ms. Stefanik’s aggressive line of questioning about whether students who called for the genocide of Jews should be punished.

The contentious exchanges between Ms. Stefanik and all three university presidents came at the tail end of a five-hour congressional hearing called by House Republicans on the rise of antisemitism on college campuses. The moment went viral, forcing the trio of presidents, including Sally Kornbluth of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, to clarify their responses and leading to a period of intense scrutiny on all three.

In Ms. Gay’s case, that prompted an examination of her past work that fueled plagiarism charges, ultimately causing her to step down on Tuesday.

Ms. Stefanik, the No. 4 Republican in the House, has counted the resignations as a political win.

“I will always deliver results,” Ms. Stefanik, a Harvard alumna, said in a statement on Tuesday. “Claudine Gay’s morally bankrupt answers to my questions made history as the most viewed congressional testimony in the history of the U.S. Congress.” Ms. Stefanik added that “this is just the beginning of what will be the greatest scandal of any college or university in history.”

In an interview with Fox News Tuesday afternoon, Ms. Stefanik promised that an ongoing congressional investigation of the universities that she announced in the wake of the hearing would continue to uncover “institution rot.” And she again claimed credit for Dr. Gay’s resignation, arguing that “this accountability would not have happened were it not for the very clear moral questions at the hearing.”

Those questions almost did not happen. During the hearing, Ms. Stefanik had already tried four times to pin down the trio of administrators. She repeatedly tried and failed to get them to agree with her that calls for “intifada” and use of slogans such as “from the river to the sea” amounted to appeals for genocide against Jews that should not be tolerated on campuses.

They had parried her grilling with lawyerly answers that, on their own, might not have made international headlines. But then they fell into something of a prosecutorial trap laid by Ms. Stefanik, refusing to answer “yes” when she asked whether calling for the genocide of Jews violated their universities’ codes of conduct on bullying and harassment.

“I thought, ‘How can I drill down on this and ask this question in such a way that the answer is an easy ‘yes?’ ”Ms. Stefanik said in an interview last month . “And they blew it.”

Ms. Stefanik, who graduated from Harvard in 2006, has clashed with her alma mater in the past. After the Jan. 6, 2021, attack at the Capitol, Harvard’s Institute of Politics removed Ms. Stefanik from its advisory board, citing her “public assertions about voter fraud in November’s presidential election that have no basis in evidence.”

Ms. Stefanik, a onetime moderate Republican who more than any other lawmaker in Congress represents to Democrats and anti-Trump Republicans the worst of what happened to the G.O.P. under the sway of Mr. Trump, at the time called her removal “a rite of passage and badge of honor.”

On Tuesday, one of Ms. Stefanik’s top advisers, Garrett Ventry, joked on social media that Ms. Stefanik was now the de facto president of Harvard University.

But she was hardly the only House Republican vying on Tuesday to claim credit for Ms. Gay’s resignation.

Representative John James, Republican of Michigan, shared on social media a clip of his own line of questioning during the hearing and wrote that Dr. Gay’s resignation came “after I questioned her just last month about what actions she’d taken to combat anti Semitism.”

Rep. Virginia Foxx, a North Carolina Republican who heads a House committee investigating Harvard, said the inquiry would continue despite Claudine Gay's resignation. “There has been a hostile takeover of postsecondary education by political activists, woke faculty and partisan administrators,” Foxx said in a statement, adding, “The problems at Harvard are much larger than one leader, and the committee’s oversight will continue.”

Many of the plagairism accusations against Claudine Gay were first published by The Washington Free Beacon, a conservative news outlet. The site’s editor-in-chief, Eliana Johnson, said in an interview on Tuesday that Harvard officials had never responded to her reporters’ questions. “They are brittle and unused to scrutiny,” she said. “We have been able to have an impact despite their total lack of transparency.”

Some of Gay’s faculty supporters have argued that the allegations against her hold less weight because they originated from ideologically motivated critics and outlets, and have argued that the type of plagiarism she is accused of largely involved language on research methodologies and reviews — not her core, original findings. Johnson rejected those defenses. “Harvard is welcome to come out and say, ‘Our standards for plagiarism don’t apply to quantitative scholars — they’re allowed to copy words and phrases.’ But those are not the standards they’ve chosen to articulate for students or uphold for students.”

Larry Summers, the former U.S. treasury secretary who also resigned his Harvard presidency under pressure in 2006, suggested that Claudine Gay had done the right thing for the university. “I admire Claudine Gay for putting Harvard’s interests first at what I know must be an agonizingly difficult moment,” he said in an email.

Rob Copeland

Rob Copeland

Claudine Gay’s resignation puts new focus on Harvard’s secretive corporation, the governing board that appointed her. Led by Penny Pritzker, a billionaire and former Obama administration official, the corporation has been all but mum during the swirl of the past few months, and Pritzker did not respond to a request for comment on Tuesday. Gay said in her resignation letter that she made her decision to step down “in consultation with members of the corporation,” but the corporation’s own subsequent statement made no mention of its role.

At least one Harvard professor is already calling for a shakeup of the board. Frank Laukien, a visiting scholar of chemistry, said Pritzker should “share accountability and resign immediately.” He wrote in an email: “We need multiple new independent members on the Harvard Corporation that are not tainted by recent events and failures, and who are not part of the long-standing cronyism at the top of Harvard.”

Jennifer Schuessler

Jennifer Schuessler

A history of the plagiarism allegations against Claudine Gay.

Claudine Gay’s resignation from Harvard came three weeks after plagiarism accusations against her emerged, an unexpected development in a turbulent stretch of presidency that began with her response to the Oct. 7 Hamas attacks on Israel.

Rumors about problems in Dr. Gay’s work had circulated for months on anonymous message boards. But the first widely publicized report came on Dec. 10, the evening before Harvard’s board met to decide whether she would keep her job, following her disastrous appearance before a Congressional committee investigating the university’s response to antisemitism. That evening, the conservative education activist Christopher Rufo published an essay in his Substack newsletter highlighting what he described as “problematic patterns of usage and citation” in her 1997 doctoral dissertation.

The Washington Free Beacon, a conservative news outlet, followed with several articles detailing numerous allegations regarding her published scholarly articles, and reported two formal complaints submitted to the Research Integrity Office of Harvard’s Faculty of Arts and Sciences, of which Dr. Gay, a political scientist, is a member.

In its statement on Dec. 12 saying Dr. Gay would stay on, the board acknowledged the allegations, which it said it had been made aware of in late October via an inquiry from The New York Post. The board said it had then conducted an investigation and found “a few instances of inadequate citation” in two articles, which it said would be corrected. But the infractions, the board said, did not rise to the level of “research misconduct.”

The plagiarism allegations blindsided many faculty, including some of the more than 700 who had signed a letter urging the Harvard Corporation, the university’s governing board, to “resist political pressures that are at odds with Harvard’s commitment to academic freedom,” including calls from external actors seeking Dr. Gay’s removal.

Initially, faculty reaction was mixed, with some saying the charges were serious and others calling the examples minor. Professors from both camps questioned the seemingly ideological nature of the effort to publicize them.

But as more allegations surfaced, faculty support for Dr. Gay began to erode, particularly as questions arose about what procedures the corporation — which normally has no involvement in scholarly matters — had used to investigate.

In a letter on Tuesday announcing her resignation, Dr. Gay, who remains a member of the faculty, defended her academic integrity, and said the campaign against her had been driven by “racial animus.”

“It has been distressing to have doubt cast on my commitments to confronting hate and to upholding scholarly rigor — two bedrock values that are fundamental to who I am,” she wrote.

It is unclear if her resignation will end any potential investigation into the complaints filed with the university.

Some politically active students said they were concerned that Claudine Gay’s resignation had been manipulated by outside forces. “Her resignation is a symptom of Harvard being almost entirely beholden to external pressure,” said Sanaa Kahloon, a junior and pro-Palestinian activist who added, “These allegations of plagiarism have been weaponized by right-wing actors to suppress free speech in higher education, and to continue to suppress free speech with respect to Palestine.”

Sarah Mervosh

Sarah Mervosh

Who is Claudine Gay?

Claudine Gay, 53, who resigned as Harvard’s president on Tuesday, took office in July, becoming the first Black president and the second woman to lead Harvard.

The daughter of Haitian immigrants, she earned an undergraduate degree in economics from Stanford University — where she would later teach — and a Ph.D. in government from Harvard.

Her career has mostly been in elite academia. Since the mid 2000s she has been a professor of government and African and African-American studies at Harvard, where her research interests have included minority representation and political participation in government.

Though allegations of plagiarism, dating back to her dissertation in 1997, surfaced publicly as Dr. Gay was engulfed in a political firestorm last month, she had in recent years moved away from academic research and into administration.

Before becoming president, she served in the high-profile role as dean of Harvard’s powerful Faculty of Arts and Sciences. The department, which includes both the university’s undergraduate program and its Ph.D. programs, is the largest of Harvard’s various divisions, with more than 1,000 faculty members.

Some colleagues saw her as a leader for the cultural moment: She helped drive a cluster of hires in ethnic studies , and oversaw several investigations into sexual harassment and misconduct allegations against faculty. She also led the department through the Covid-19 pandemic and remote learning.

But she was also seen as taking a hard line on matters of discipline, sometimes controversially.

In 2019, she issued a two-year, unpaid suspension to Roland G. Fryer, a star Black economist and recipient of a MacArthur “genius” grant, who was accused of unwelcome sexual conduct toward employees. His education research lab was also disbanded.

She also spoke out against Ronald S. Sullivan Jr., a high-profile criminal defense attorney and Black law professor whose decision to represent the disgraced film producer Harvey Weinstein in 2019 stirred controversy on campus . Professor Sullivan, who said at the time that representing unpopular defendants was a key tenet of the legal profession and an opportunity for conversation with students, was later removed from the student residential house he oversaw after the university conducted a “climate review” of his leadership in the house.

Dr. Gay, a supporter of diversity in hiring and an expert on minority representation and political participation in government, took the reins just as the Supreme Court rejected the use of race-conscious admissions at Harvard and other universities around the nation.

She was selected from a pool of more than 600 nominations.

Penny Pritzker, the senior fellow of the Harvard Corporation who led the presidential search committee, praised Dr. Gay at the time for her “rare blend of incisiveness and inclusiveness,” bringing both a “bedrock commitment to free inquiry and expression, as well as a deep appreciation for the diverse voices and views that are the lifeblood of a university community.”

Some faculty members were disappointed by Gay’s resignation.

On Tuesday, some faculty members expressed deep dismay with what they described as a political campaign against Dr. Gay, Harvard and higher education more broadly. Hundreds of them had signed public letters asking Harvard’s governing board to resist pressure to remove Dr. Gay.

“This is a terrible moment,” said Khalil Gibran Muhammad, a professor of history, race and public policy at the Harvard Kennedy School. “Republican Congressional leaders have declared war on the independence of colleges and universities, just as Governor DeSantis has done in Florida. They will only be emboldened by Gay’s resignation.”

Some faculty members criticized how the secretive Harvard Corporation, the university’s governing body, had handled the political onslaught and plagiarism allegations.

“Instead of making a decision based on established scholarly principles, we had here a public hounding,” she said. “Instead of listening to voices of scholars in her field who could speak to the importance and originality of her research, we heard voices of derision and spite on social media. Instead of following established university procedure, we had a Corporation granting access to self-appointed advisers and carrying out reviews using mysterious and undisclosed methods.”

Melani Cammett, a professor of international relations, said she hoped “that Harvard can move forward in a way that limits politicized interference.”

“I also hope that we move towards a position of institutional neutrality that truly protects academic freedom and integrity,” she said.

House Republicans were stepping over each other to claim credit for Claudine Gay’s resignation. While it was Rep. Elise Stefanik, Republican of New York, whose questions during a Dec. 7 hearing led to the answers that ultimately helped topple two Ivy League administrators, Representative John James of Michigan shared a clip of his own line of inquiry on social media and wrote that Gay’s departure came “after I questioned her just last month about what actions she’d taken to combat antisemitism.”

Christopher Rufo, a conservative education activist who was among the first to widely publicize the plagiarism accusations against Claudine Gay, took credit for her resignation in a post on social media: “My strategies, however unorthodox, have proven successful at exposing corruption, changing public opinion, and moving institutions."

Rep. Elise Stefanik, the New York Republican who led the most aggressive questioning of Claudine Gay during a Dec. 5 hearing on antisemitism, called the resignation “long overdue” in a social media post, adding that “our robust Congressional investigation will continue to move forward to expose the rot in our most 'prestigious' higher education institutions and deliver accountability to the American people.”

Sean Plambeck

Sean Plambeck

Alan M. Garber, a physician and economist who is the university’s provost, will serve as interim president. Harvard’s governing board said it would begin the search for a new president “in due course.”

The New York Times

A statement from Harvard’s governing board.

The following letter was signed by the Fellows of Harvard College, the university’s governing board.

Dear Members of the Harvard Community,

With great sadness, we write in light of President Claudine Gay’s message announcing her intention to step down from the presidency and resume her faculty position at Harvard.

First and foremost, we thank President Gay for her deep and unwavering commitment to Harvard and to the pursuit of academic excellence. Throughout her long and distinguished leadership as Dean of Social Science then as Dean of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences — where she skillfully led the F.A.S. through the Covid-19 pandemic and pursued ambitious new academic initiatives in areas such as quantum science and inequality — she demonstrated the insight, decisiveness, and empathy that are her hallmark. She believes passionately in Harvard’s mission of education and research, and she cares profoundly about the people whose talents, ideas, and energy drive Harvard. She has devoted her career to an institution whose ideals and priorities she has worked tirelessly to advance, and we are grateful for the extraordinary contributions she has made — and will continue to make — as a leader, a teacher, a scholar, a mentor, and an inspiration to many.

We are also grateful to Alan M. Garber, Provost and Chief Academic Officer, who has served with distinction in that role for the past 12 years — and who has agreed to serve as Interim President until a new leader for Harvard is identified and takes office. An economist and a physician, he is a distinguished and wide-ranging scholar with appointments at Harvard Medical School, Harvard’s Faculty of Arts and Sciences, the Harvard Kennedy School of Government, and the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. We are fortunate to have someone of Alan’s broad and deep experience, incisive judgment, collaborative style, and extraordinary institutional knowledge to carry forward key priorities and to guide the university through this interim period.

These past several months have seen Harvard and higher education face a series of sustained and unprecedented challenges. In the face of escalating controversy and conflict, President Gay and the Fellows have sought to be guided by the best interests of the institution whose future progress and well-being we are together committed to uphold. Her own message conveying her intention to step down eloquently underscores what those who have worked with her have long known — her commitment to the institution and its mission is deep and selfless. It is with that overarching consideration in mind that we have accepted her resignation.

We do so with sorrow. While President Gay has acknowledged missteps and has taken responsibility for them, it is also true that she has shown remarkable resilience in the face of deeply personal and sustained attacks. While some of this has played out in the public domain, much of it has taken the form of repugnant and in some cases racist vitriol directed at her through disgraceful emails and phone calls. We condemn such attacks in the strongest possible terms.

The search for a new president of the university will begin in due course. We will be in further touch about the process, which will include broad engagement and consultation with the Harvard community in the time ahead.

For today, we close by reiterating our gratitude to President Gay for her devoted service to Harvard, as well as to Provost Garber for his willingness to lead the university through the interim period to come. We also extend our thanks to all of you for your continuing commitment to Harvard’s vital educational and research mission — and to core values of excellence, inclusiveness, and free inquiry and expression. At a time when strife and division are so prevalent in our nation and our world, embracing and advancing that mission — in a spirit of common purpose — has never been more important. We live in difficult and troubling times, and formidable challenges lie ahead. May our community, with its long history of rising through change and through storm, find new ways to meet those challenges together, and to affirm Harvard’s commitment to generating knowledge, pursuing truth, and contributing through scholarship and education to a better world.

The Israel-Hamas war led to rising polarization on Harvard’s campus. Many Jewish students believed that Claudine Gay was slow to denounce the Oct. 7 atrocities by Hamas and to quell disruptive demonstrations. They reported increasing antisemitic taunts and were dismayed when Gay told a congressional committee that whether Harvard students would be punished for urging genocide against Jews would depend on the context.

Josh Kaplan, a sophomore majoring in computer science, welcomed Gay’s resignation. “It is the beginning of the rehabilitation our university needs. I, along with many other Harvard students, look forward to the next president working to repair the university’s image and combat the hateful antisemitism and bigotry we have seen on our campus.”

The reaction on Harvard’s campus was muted, since students are on winter break. But some heralded her resignation. “I think it is, if anything, too late,” said Alex Bernat, a junior, adding, “I’m glad she finally came to terms with the need for Harvard to have new leadership.”

Read Claudine Gay’s resignation letter.

It is with a heavy heart but a deep love for Harvard that I write to share that I will be stepping down as president. This is not a decision I came to easily. Indeed, it has been difficult beyond words because I have looked forward to working with so many of you to advance the commitment to academic excellence that has propelled this great university across centuries. But, after consultation with members of the Corporation, it has become clear that it is in the best interests of Harvard for me to resign so that our community can navigate this moment of extraordinary challenge with a focus on the institution rather than any individual.

It is a singular honor to be a member of this university, which has been my home and my inspiration for most of my professional career. My deep sense of connection to Harvard and its people has made it all the more painful to witness the tensions and divisions that have riven our community in recent months, weakening the bonds of trust and reciprocity that should be our sources of strength and support in times of crisis. Amidst all of this, it has been distressing to have doubt cast on my commitments to confronting hate and to upholding scholarly rigor — two bedrock values that are fundamental to who I am — and frightening to be subjected to personal attacks and threats fueled by racial animus.

I believe in the people of Harvard because I see in you the possibility and the promise of a better future. These last weeks have helped make clear the work we need to do to build that future — to combat bias and hate in all its forms, to create a learning environment in which we respect each other’s dignity and treat one another with compassion, and to affirm our enduring commitment to open inquiry and free expression in the pursuit of truth. I believe we have within us all that we need to heal from this period of tension and division and to emerge stronger. I had hoped with all my heart to lead us on that journey, in partnership with all of you. As I now return to the faculty, and to the scholarship and teaching that are the lifeblood of what we do, I pledge to continue working alongside you to build the community we all deserve.

When I became president, I considered myself particularly blessed by the opportunity to serve people from around the world who saw in my presidency a vision of Harvard that affirmed their sense of belonging — their sense that Harvard welcomes people of talent and promise, from every background imaginable, to learn from and grow with one another. To all of you, please know that those doors remain open, and Harvard will be stronger and better because they do.

As we welcome a new year and a new semester, I hope we can all look forward to brighter days. Sad as I am to be sending this message, my hopes for Harvard remain undimmed. When my brief presidency is remembered, I hope it will be seen as a moment of reawakening to the importance of striving to find our common humanity — and of not allowing rancor and vituperation to undermine the vital process of education. I trust we will all find ways, in this time of intense challenge and controversy, to recommit ourselves to the excellence, the openness, and the independence that are crucial to what our university stands for — and to our capacity to serve the world.

Sincerely, Claudine Gay

What to know about the latest plagiarism accusations against Claudine Gay.

New plagiarism allegations that surfaced on Monday against Claudine Gay threatened to mire Harvard deeper in debate over what constitutes plagiarism and whether the university would hold its president and its students to the same standard.

The accusations were circulated through an unsigned complaint published Monday in The Washington Free Beacon, a conservative online journal that has led a campaign against Dr. Gay over the past few weeks.

The new complaint added additional accusations of plagiarism to about 40 that had already been circulated in the same way, apparently by the same accuser.

Dr. Gay has strongly defended her work. “I stand by the integrity of my scholarship,” she said in a statement on Dec. 11, when the initial plagiarism charges were being circulated by conservative activists online and the Harvard Corporation was considering whether she should remain as president. “Throughout my career, I have worked to ensure my scholarship adheres to the highest academic standards,” Dr. Gay said.

The documents by the unnamed accuser that The Free Beacon links to on its website show 39 examples in the first complaint, rising to 47 in total in the second complaint. Separately, Harvard’s investigations have found instances of inadequate citation in her dissertation and at least two of her articles.

She has not been accused of stealing big ideas, but rather of copying language in the papers of other scholars, with small changes to substitute words or phrases or to arrange them differently. Often the language in question is technical boilerplate.

The new complaint against Dr. Gay is preceded by a five-page chronology, written in a tone ranging from somber to sarcastic — under the jaunty salutation, “Happy New Year!” The chronology notes that the unnamed accuser submitted the first batch of allegations to Harvard on Dec. 19.

In one paragraph, the accuser, who seems to be familiar with Harvard’s policies on plagiarism, explains why he or she was unwilling to be identified by name: “I feared that Gay and Harvard would violate their policies, behave more like a cartel with a hedge fund attached than a university, and try to seek ‘immense’ damages from me and who knows what else.”

The New York Post has reported that it approached Harvard with plagiarism accusations against Dr. Gay in October, and said that Harvard responded through a defamation lawyer.

The accuser goes on to wonder why Harvard was so intent on exposing him or her: “Did Gay wish to personally thank me for helping her to improve her work even if I drove her harder than she wanted to be driven?”

The sentence is an allusion to a phrase in the acknowledgments of Dr. Gay’s 1997 dissertation, where she says that her family “drove me harder than I sometimes wanted to be driven.”

It is one of the phrases she is accused of copying, from the acknowledgments of a 1996 book, “Facing Up to the American Dream: Race, Class, and the Soul of the Nation,” by the Harvard political scientist Jennifer L. Hochschild, who was thanking another academic.

A timeline of Claudine Gay’s tenure as president.

Claudine Gay had served as president of Harvard University only since July, but had faced criticism on two fronts: her response to rising tensions on campus over the Israel-Gaza war, and questions about possible plagiarism in her academic work.

On Tuesday, she resigned her position as president, writing in a letter to the university community that “it has become clear that it is in the best interests of Harvard for me to resign so that our community can navigate this moment of extraordinary challenge with a focus on the institution rather than any individual.”

Dec. 15, 2022

Harvard University announces that Dr. Gay, the school’s dean of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, will become president the following year. The daughter of Haitian immigrants, she will be the university’s first Black leader and the second woman to hold the position. Dr. Gay received an undergraduate degree in economics from Stanford University and a Ph.D. in government from Harvard.

July 1, 2023

Dr. Gay, 53, officially begins in the job. A supporter of diversity in hiring and an expert on minority representation and political participation in government, she takes the reins just as the Supreme Court rejected the use of race-conscious admissions at Harvard and other universities around the nation.

The day after the Hamas attack on Israel, a coalition of more than 30 student groups at Harvard publishes an open letter, saying it holds “the Israeli regime entirely responsible for all unfolding violence.” The letter receives intense backlash .

Dr. Gay and Harvard’s leadership come under fire for not publicly condemning the Hamas attack or denouncing the letter from the student groups. Amid rising pressure from alumni and donors, university leaders including Dr. Gay issue a statement expressing heartbreak over the death and destruction from the war while calling for “an environment of dialogue and empathy.”

Dr. Gay releases another letter , this time more forcefully condemning the “terrorist atrocities perpetrated by Hamas," as well as denouncing the letter from the student groups. “While our students have the right to speak for themselves, no student group — not even 30 student groups — speaks for Harvard University or its leadership,” she says in the letter.

A campaign targets students affiliated with the groups that signed the open letter. A truck with a digital billboard — paid for by a conservative group — circles Harvard Square, flashing students’ photos and names under the headline “Harvard’s Leading Antisemites.” Dr. Gay releases another statement , this time in a video format, in which she states that Harvard rejects hate.

Harvard receives an inquiry from The New York Post about what it later describes as “anonymous allegations” of plagiarism in Dr. Gay’s work.

At a Sabbath dinner at Harvard Hillel, Dr. Gay announces the formation of an advisory group to help her “develop a robust strategy for confronting antisemitism on campus.” She also condemns the phrase “from the river to the sea,” a slogan that pro-Palestinian activists use as a call for liberation but that many Jews see as a call for violence against them.

According to the university, the Harvard Corporation appoints an independent panel of three experts on this day to conduct a review of Dr. Gay’s papers that were referenced in the anonymous allegations.

After coming under criticism for weeks over what detractors said were tepid responses to rising antisemitism on campus, Dr. Gay writes a letter to members of the larger Harvard community addressing the tensions. “Harvard rejects all forms of hate, and we are committed to addressing them,” she writes. “Let me reiterate what I and other Harvard leaders have said previously: Antisemitism has no place at Harvard.”

The Office for Civil Rights of the U.S. Education Department announces an investigation into allegations of antisemitism at Harvard.

Dr. Gay, along with the presidents of M.I.T. and the University of Pennsylvania, testifies at a congressional hearing that House Republicans convened to address issues of bias against Jewish students. During the hearing, Representative Elise Stefanik, Republican of New York, asks: “Does calling for the genocide of Jews violate Harvard’s rules of bullying and harassment? Yes or no?”

Dr. Gay replies, “It can be, depending on the context.” She adds: “Antisemitic rhetoric, when it crosses into conduct that amounts to bullying, harassment, intimidation, that is actionable conduct, and we do take action.”

Following heavy criticism of the presidents’ responses at the hearing, Dr. Gay apologizes in an interview with The Harvard Crimson , the campus newspaper. “What I should have had the presence of mind to do in that moment was return to my guiding truth, which is that calls for violence against our Jewish community — threats to our Jewish students — have no place at Harvard, and will never go unchallenged,” Dr. Gay says.

Allegations about plagiarism in Dr. Gay’s 1997 doctoral dissertation are publicly raised in a newsletter by the conservative activist Christopher Rufo.

A group of 14 faculty members begin circulating a petition opposing Dr. Gay’s removal . It quickly garners hundreds of signatures.

The Washington Free Beacon, a conservative media outlet, publishes its own investigation of Dr. Gay’s academic papers, identifying what it said were issues with four of them published between 1993 and 2017, including the doctoral dissertation.

Harvard’s governing board, the Harvard Corporation, acknowledges that Dr. Gay had made mistakes but decides that she would remain in her job . In its statement, the Corporation briefly addresses the allegations about her scholarship. It says an independent inquiry investigated her published work and found two papers needing additional citations, but no “research misconduct.”

Facing mounting questions over possible plagiarism in Dr. Gay’s scholarly work, Harvard says that it found two additional instances of insufficient citation in Dr. Gay’s 1997 doctoral dissertation — examples of “duplicative language without appropriate attribution.” The university says Dr. Gay will update her dissertation correcting those instances.

That same day, a congressional committee investigating Harvard sends a letter to the university demanding all of its documentation and communications related to the allegations.

Faced with a new round of accusations over plagiarism in her scholarly work, Ms. Gay announces her resignation , becoming the second Ivy League leader to lose her job in recent weeks amid a firestorm intensified by their widely derided congressional testimony regarding antisemitism on campus.

Anemona Hartocollis , Sarah Mervosh , Jennifer Schuessler , Vimal Patel , Dana Goldstein , Jeremy W. Peters , Rob Copeland , and Stephanie Saul contributed reporting.

Because of an editing error, an earlier version of this article misstated the time when Harvard began an investigation about Dr. Gay’s work. It was Nov. 2, not in October.

An earlier version of this article contained a photo caption that misstated the organization that hosted the event at which Dr. Gay spoke. She spoke at a Sabbath dinner hosted by Harvard Chabad, not Harvard Hillel (though she also appeared at another event hosted by Harvard Hillel).

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  • Research Paper Appendix | Example & Templates

Research Paper Appendix | Example & Templates

Published on August 4, 2022 by Tegan George and Kirsten Dingemanse. Revised on July 18, 2023.

An appendix is a supplementary document that facilitates your reader’s understanding of your research but is not essential to your core argument. Appendices are a useful tool for providing additional information or clarification in a research paper , dissertation , or thesis without making your final product too long.

Appendices help you provide more background information and nuance about your thesis or dissertation topic without disrupting your text with too many tables and figures or other distracting elements.

We’ve prepared some examples and templates for you, for inclusions such as research protocols, survey questions, and interview transcripts. All are worthy additions to an appendix. You can download these in the format of your choice below.

Download Word doc Download Google doc

Location of appendices

Table of contents

What is an appendix in a research paper, what to include in an appendix, how to format an appendix, how to refer to an appendix, where to put your appendices, other components to consider, appendix checklist, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about appendices.

In the main body of your research paper, it’s important to provide clear and concise information that supports your argument and conclusions . However, after doing all that research, you’ll often find that you have a lot of other interesting information that you want to share with your reader.

While including it all in the body would make your paper too long and unwieldy, this is exactly what an appendix is for.

As a rule of thumb, any detailed information that is not immediately needed to make your point can go in an appendix. This helps to keep your main text focused but still allows you to include the information you want to include somewhere in your paper.

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An appendix can be used for different types of information, such as:

  • Supplementary results : Research findings  are often presented in different ways, but they don’t all need to go in your paper. The results most relevant to your research question should always appear in the main text, while less significant results (such as detailed descriptions of your sample or supplemental analyses that do not help answer your main question), can be put in an appendix.
  • Statistical analyses : If you conducted statistical tests using software like Stata or R, you may also want to include the outputs of your analysis in an appendix.
  • Further information on surveys or interviews : Written materials or transcripts related to things such as surveys and interviews can also be placed in an appendix.

You can opt to have one long appendix, but separating components (like interview transcripts, supplementary results, or surveys ) into different appendices makes the information simpler to navigate.

Here are a few tips to keep in mind:

  • Always start each appendix on a new page.
  • Assign it both a number (or letter) and a clear title, such as “Appendix A. Interview transcripts.” This makes it easier for your reader to find the appendix, as well as for you to refer back to it in your main text.
  • Number and title the individual elements within each appendix (e.g., “Transcripts”) to make it clear what you are referring to. Restart the numbering in each appendix at 1.

It is important that you refer to each of your appendices at least once in the main body of your paper. This can be done by mentioning the appendix and its number or letter, either in parentheses or within the main part of a sentence. It’s also possible to refer to a particular component of an appendix.

Appendix B presents the correspondence exchanged with the fitness boutique. Example 2. Referring to an appendix component These results (see Appendix 2, Table 1) show that …

It is common to capitalize “Appendix” when referring to a specific appendix, but it is not mandatory. The key is just to make sure that you are consistent throughout your entire paper, similarly to consistency in  capitalizing headings and titles in academic writing .

However, note that lowercase should always be used if you are referring to appendices in general. For instance, “The appendices to this paper include additional information about both the survey and the interviews .”

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The simplest option is to add your appendices after the main body of your text, after you finish citing your sources in the citation style of your choice. If this is what you choose to do, simply continue with the next page number. Another option is to put the appendices in a separate document that is delivered with your dissertation.

Location of appendices

Remember that any appendices should be listed in your paper’s table of contents .

There are a few other supplementary components related to appendices that you may want to consider. These include:

  • List of abbreviations : If you use a lot of abbreviations or field-specific symbols in your dissertation, it can be helpful to create a list of abbreviations .
  • Glossary : If you utilize many specialized or technical terms, it can also be helpful to create a glossary .
  • Tables, figures and other graphics : You may find you have too many tables, figures, and other graphics (such as charts and illustrations) to include in the main body of your dissertation. If this is the case, consider adding a figure and table list .

Checklist: Appendix

All appendices contain information that is relevant, but not essential, to the main text.

Each appendix starts on a new page.

I have given each appendix a number and clear title.

I have assigned any specific sub-components (e.g., tables and figures) their own numbers and titles.

My appendices are easy to follow and clearly formatted.

I have referred to each appendix at least once in the main text.

Your appendices look great! Use the other checklists to further improve your thesis.

If you want to know more about AI for academic writing, AI tools, or research bias, make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!

Research bias

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Yes, if relevant you can and should include APA in-text citations in your appendices . Use author-date citations as you do in the main text.

Any sources cited in your appendices should appear in your reference list . Do not create a separate reference list for your appendices.

An appendix contains information that supplements the reader’s understanding of your research but is not essential to it. For example:

  • Interview transcripts
  • Questionnaires
  • Detailed descriptions of equipment

Something is only worth including as an appendix if you refer to information from it at some point in the text (e.g. quoting from an interview transcript). If you don’t, it should probably be removed.

When you include more than one appendix in an APA Style paper , they should be labeled “Appendix A,” “Appendix B,” and so on.

When you only include a single appendix, it is simply called “Appendix” and referred to as such in the main text.

Appendices in an APA Style paper appear right at the end, after the reference list and after your tables and figures if you’ve also included these at the end.

You may have seen both “appendices” or “appendixes” as pluralizations of “ appendix .” Either spelling can be used, but “appendices” is more common (including in APA Style ). Consistency is key here: make sure you use the same spelling throughout your paper.

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COMMENTS

  1. How to Create an APA Style Appendix

    An appendix is a section at the end of an academic text where you include extra information that doesn't fit into the main text. The plural of appendix is "appendices." In an APA Style paper, appendices are placed at the very end, after the reference list. Table of contents Do I need an appendix? Appendix format example

  2. Research Paper Appendix

    An appendix is a supplementary document that facilitates your reader's understanding of your research but is not essential to your core argument. Appendices are a useful tool for providing additional information or clarification in a research paper, dissertation, or thesis without making your final product too long.

  3. Appendices

    Definition An appendix contains supplementary material that is not an essential part of the text itself but which may be helpful in providing a more comprehensive understanding of the research problem or it is information that is too cumbersome to be included in the body of the paper.

  4. Footnotes & Appendices

    APA style offers writers footnotes and appendices as spaces where additional, relevant information might be shared within a document; this resource offers a quick overview of format and content concerns for these segments of a document.

  5. Organizing Academic Research Papers: Appendices

    Appendices may include some of the following, all of which should be referred to or summarized in the text of your paper: Supporting evidence [e.g. raw data] Contributory facts or specialized data [raw data appear in the appendix, but with summarized data appearing in the body of the text]. Sample calculations

  6. Research Paper Appendix

    Published on 15 August 2022 by Kirsten Dingemanse and Tegan George. Revised on 25 October 2022. An appendix is a supplementary document that facilitates your reader's understanding of your research but is not essential to your core argument.

  7. APA Appendix: How to Write an Appendix in APA Format

    Put the appendix label centered at the top of the page. On the next line under the appendix label, place the centered title of the appendix. If you refer to a source in your appendix, include an in-text citation just as you would in the main body of your paper and then include the source in your main reference section.

  8. General Research Paper Guidelines: Appendices

    An appendix or appendices should always be inserted after your Reference List; however, the appropriateness of appendix content really depends on the nature and scope of your research paper. For a more in-depth review of what supplemental materials might be included in a social science appendix, be sure to review Section 2.14 "Appendices ...

  9. How to Write an Appendix for a Research Paper & Examples

    However, it is still important that you get some advice on how to properly structure an appendices section. This will help add information that may be redundant in the main part of your paper. We offer 4 simple steps to create an informative and readable appendix block. Step 1. Make an Appendix: Include Your Data.

  10. Appendix in Research Paper

    Here are the steps on how to write an appendix in a research paper: Determine what material you need to include in the appendix. This can include charts, graphs, images, tables, raw data, survey questionnaires, and any other material that supports your research but is not included in the main body of the paper.

  11. Appendices

    Label the appendices: Label each appendix with a capital letter (e.g., "Appendix A," "Appendix B," etc.) and provide a brief descriptive title that summarizes the content. F ormat the appendices: Follow the same formatting style as the rest of your paper or report. Use the same font, margins, and spacing to maintain consistency.

  12. Everything You Need to Know About Appendices in Writing

    On a separate line, write the appendix's title in title/headline case (Capitalize the First Letter of Each Major Word), also centered and in bold. If the paper uses a running head, continue to use it in the appendices. If the appendix contains text, continue using indented paragraphs and follow the same format as in the rest of the paper.

  13. How To Write A Research Paper Appendix: A Step-by-Step Guide

    (1) Labeling and Titling If you have different types of information in your appendix, use letters to label them, such as "Appendix A" and "Appendix B". Then, give each appendix a title that explains the information inside it.

  14. How to Write a Research Paper Appendix

    Dec 1, 2023 What is an appendix? Where does the appendix go in your dissertation? What to include in your appendix Referring appendix in-text 5 Tips for Writing the perfect appendix 1. Organize the appendix 2. Consider Accessibility 3. Review for relevance 4. Proofread and revise 5. Seek guidance

  15. What is an Appendix in a Research Paper: Structure & Format

    The definition of this term is simple. An appendix is an academic work section that contains additional information (statistics, references, tables, figures, etc.) that cannot be included in the main text. This component is usually placed after the reference list at the end of a research paper or dissertation. The purpose of this text component ...

  16. What Is an Appendix? Structure, Format & Examples

    Many students ask, 'What is an appendix in writing?'. Essentially, an appendix is a compilation of the references cited in an academic paper, prevalent in academic journals, which can be found in any academic publication, including books. Professors frequently require their students to include an appendix in their work.

  17. Comprehensive Guide to Appendices in Writing

    1. Supporting Data: If your research paper or report includes a large amount of data, such as tables, graphs, or survey results, it may be appropriate to include them in an appendix rather than cluttering the main text.. 2. Technical Details: If your writing involves technical information, such as detailed calculations, formulas, or diagrams, it can be useful to place them in an appendix for ...

  18. How to Write an Appendix: 11 Steps (with Pictures)

    1 Include raw data. The appendix should be a space where you can include raw data that you collected during your research for your paper or essay. You should include any raw data that you feel will be relevant to your paper, especially if it will help to support your findings.

  19. What Is a Research Paper Appendix?

    Research Paper Appendix: What It Is & Where to Add It - QuillBot Blog Hannah Skaggs Along with Meredith Harris Hannah, a writer and editor since 2017, specializes in clear and concise academic and business writing. She has mentored countless scholars and companies in writing authoritative and engaging content. Recommended for you Academic Writing

  20. How to Make an Appendix in Research Paper Format & Example

    Title of the appendix can be in the same format as the title of the other sections of your research paper or presentation. You can write it in the same font style and size. It can also be written in all capital letters, i.e. APPENDIX or in title or sentence case, i.e. Appendix. Use Appendix A, Appendix B, Appendix C and so on to give them a ...

  21. How to Write an Appendix for a Research Paper

    Step 1: Collecting Content for the Appendix Gather raw data Raw data is absolutely necessary and should always be included in the appendix of a research paper. It is important to make sure that the raw data is cited correctly from the sources that it has been taken from.

  22. ᐉ What is an Appendix? ☑️ How to Write an Appendix

    An addendum in a paper is an essential part of communicating information to the reader that doesn't have a place within the main body. The paper appendix sample included at the bottom of the page shows what information is typically included in those sections. The addendum in a book would significantly differ from one in a research paper.

  23. How to Write an Appendix for a Research Paper

    Topics When you think of what is an appendix in a research paper and how to write an appendix, be sure you add appropriate information to it. Remember that the body of the paper contains all the essential data while writing an appendix for a research paper provides supplementary information.

  24. Harvard's President Resigns

    The resignation of Dr. Gay marked an abrupt end to a turbulent tenure that began in July. Her stint was the shortest of any president in the history of Harvard since its founding in 1636. She was ...

  25. [QA] Research Paper Appendix

    Research Paper Appendix | Example & Templates. Published on August 4, 2022 by Tegan George and Kirsten Dingemanse. Revised on July 18, 2023. An appendix is a supplementary document that facilitates your reader's understanding of your research but is not essential to your core argument. Appendices are a useful tool for providing additional ...