39 Helpful Science Report Card Comments
It’s report card time, and you don’t know where to start when it comes to drafting science report card comments.
You want to communicate clearly how students are performing in science class, but it isn’t always easy to brainstorm the most appropriate remarks.
So if you’re seeking quality science report card comments, you’ve come to the right place.
This collection of science report card comments solves the issue of not knowing what to write.
You’ll save lots of time and frustration.
Science Report Card Comments
No matter the grade, you’ll find the following science report card comments helpful.
- _____ puts forth a lot of effort. However, ( insert any science skill, strategy, or behavior ) is still difficult for him/her.
- _____ is exceeding in the science learning objective of ( insert any science skill or strategy) .
- Using models and graphs aids _____ in comprehending science concepts such as . . .
- _____ rarely uses nonfiction text features to aid in reading comprehension of science or social studies text.
- Though _____ is making gradual steps to improve ( insert science skill or strategy) progress is delayed due to…
- _____ has met all science standards for this quarter.
- _____ enjoys hands-on science projects.
- Even with accommodations and/or modifications, _____ struggles with ( insert any science skill or strategy ).
- _____ loves science and always looks forward to exploring new science ideas.
- Though ________ progressed well in science in previous grade levels, the depth of information and need for a much a higher level of critical thinking causes him to struggle a bit when performing science experiments.
- _____ shows a keen interest in science.
- _____ makes relevant connections when reading science texts.
- Even though _______ is very attentive in science and loves to explore new ideas, his low reading comprehension impacts how much he understands.
- _____ struggles to understand basic science concepts.
- Asks thought-provoking questions related to the subject matter at hand.
- _____ did a fantastic job presenting her research in the science fair.
- _____ expansive science vocabulary is impressive.
- _____ is progressing well in applying science inquiry skills.
- _____ lacks understanding of the steps of the scientific method .
- _____ requires repeated explanations to understand foundational scientific concepts.
- _____ is unclear how to apply the steps of the scientific method to complete an experiment.
- _____ accurately and regularly uses the scientific method to solve science problems.
- _____ is getting better at evaluating hypothesis and retesting when necessary.
- _____ When collecting resources to test her hypothesis, _______ uses a wide variety of resources.
- ______ seldom conducts science experiments using the scientific method.
- ______ effortlessly applies the scientific method with each new experiment.
- ______ is highly proficient in using research skills to carry out science investigations.
- ______ routinely executes the scientific process when conducting experiments and science projects.
- _____ does not ask for help when he or she does not understand a concept.
- Because _______ is not too interested in science, he tends not to put forth maximum effort into all the activities.
- _____ continues to make good progress in. . . ( target area ).
- Within science groups, ______ takes feedback positively and gives suggestions respectfully.
- _____ is naturally inquisitive.
- _____ takes accountability for his work.
- Science block is a time where ______ shines. Her eyes light up when doing class experiments.
- _____ consistently follows the safety guidelines when working in the science lab.
- _____ habitually shows respect for science materials.
- _____ low performance in science is due to her frequent absences from class this quarter/semester.
- _____ poor attitude affects his science performance.
Final Thoughts: Science Report Card Comments
There’s no need to start from a blank slate when drafting science report card comments.
These helpful comments for science help teachers complete remarks in less time.
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Report Card Comments & Phrases—Science
Report Card Comments & Phrases—Science
_______ demonstrates a solid understanding of science concepts at this grade level. Please continue to work on ______ nightly.
_______ has worked hard in science this quarter. However, her progress has been slower than I would have liked. Can we meet to discuss some helpful strategies?
_______ is inquisitive and highly interested in science topics.
At this point, _______ has successfully mastered the core science concepts for this grade level.
- _______ has advanced research skills and uses them very effectively in his/her work on science projects.
It would be helpful if _______ prepared and studied more diligently for science tests. I know she can put in more effort than she has been recently.
_______ is having trouble with many of the basic skills in science. Can we meet to discuss some helpful strategies?
_______ has a true enthusiasm and gift for hands-on science projects and activities. His effort is reflected in his high grade.
- _______ did an outstanding job on her science project/presentation.
- _______ should continue to practice science terms and vocabulary. Please continue to work on this nightly.
- ______ understands and applies the scientific method in his/her hands-on activities.
- The quality of _______'s science homework is inconsistent. His/her grade would improve with more consistent effort on science assignments.
- _______ understands and practices lab safety concepts and principles.
- _______ has strong analytic and problem-solving skills, and applies them effectively to science activities and assignments.
- He/she is also an excellent citizen, as he/she frequently assists other students with concepts, not answers.
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_______ has difficulty retaining science terms and concepts.
_______ understands and applies lab safety techniques.
_______ understands the scientific method and uses it to solve problems.
_______ understands and uses basic science concepts and terms to ____.
_______ is still struggling with science tests and quizzes.
_______ understands and applies scientific notation and formulas.
_______ understands and applies math and language arts concepts and skills in science class.
_______ can perform basic research and apply learning to science assignments and activities.
_______ works well independently to complete science activities.
_______ works well with other students to complete group science activities.
_______ is able to create graphs using simple data.
_______ understands several methods of graphing.
_______ is beginning to memorize the _______.
_______ knows the basic elements of the Periodic Table.
_______ still needs strengthening in the concept of _______.
_______ does not know his/her science facts well.
More Report Card Comments and Phrases.
Featured Middle School Resources
- Sample Research
FREE 10+ Scientific Research Report Samples in MS Word | PDF
To share your personal original research work with your peers, colleagues, or other scientists, preparing a comprehensive scientific research report is crucial, especially in conducting a qualitative review of the research by other experts in your field. As a science student or a person who aspires to be a scientist, one of the things you need to consider is being able to create an effective science research report . In this article, we will discuss beneficial steps in writing your research report, plus several downloadable templates for you to use. Keep on reading!
Scientific Research Report
Free 10+ scientific research report samples, 1. scientific research report template, 2. science research report template, 3. scientific research progress report, 4. scientific research program report, 5. simple scientific research report, 6. formal scientific research report, 7. science research project report, 8. social science research report, 9. basic scientific research program report, 10. sample science research report, 11. scientific research outcome report, what is a scientific research report, how to create a scientific research report , 1. define a specific research topic, 2. design an effective plan, 3. consult your teacher, professor, or an expert in your field , 4. make an outline, what is the significance of scientific report, what should be included in a scientific report, what are the types of scientific research reports, how do you write a good scientific lab report.
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A scientific research or scientific lab report is a useful piece of professional document that contains well-detailed descriptions of the process, development, and/or results of a particular scientific research or the condition of a scientific research problem. It comprises several recommendations, analyses, and conclusion of the scientific research project.
Creating a clear and well-detailed science research report is helpful in a wide array of research studies. Also, the book “ Successful Lab Reports: A Manual for Science Students ” stated that good scientific writing is not literary, despite the fact that scientists use literature as a generic term for their writings. So, you need to use direct words and clear sentences while explaining your lab study.
In this matter, we suggest that you follow the steps below while freely using one of our scientific report paper templates in this article:
One of the main aspects that you need to consider in creating a scientific research report is defining a specific research topic based on the scientific study or project you’re working on. An article published by McGill University explained that a good research topic provides focus and allows you to identify certain areas of importance as well as possibilities for the exploration and analysis. So, think deeply regarding an issue or problem that exists around your area or in your society and use it to define a topic for your scientific project .
In order to design an effective plan for your scientific work , know your goals and objectives. Use various research tools and examine what type of data that is really significant for your scientific report . Set up some new effective strategies on how you will look for important data.
The next step you must do to have a successful scientific research report is to consult your science teacher, professor, or an expert in your scientific field like physical science, biological science, chemical science, computer and information sciences, and more.
Take note of these words by John Anderson: “…the science must be sound, it must be agreed and the consultation must be of a high quality or no one will have any confidence in the process.”
Using a structured outline for your scientific project report is important to maintain a formal system of your research framework and assists you in predicting the whole structure and flow of your research report. Thus, your ideas and plan should be written in an outline so that it is easy to comprehend by your readers.
The significance of a science report is to surely demonstrate your key message about why your scientific findings are valuable. Thus, you need to clarify why you are testing a hypothesis, what methodology you used, what you looked for, and why your findings are beneficial.
The main elements that should be included in a scientific report are in the following:
- Title or Cover Page
- Table of Contents
- Materials and Methods
- References & Citations
The types of scientific research reports are case reports, original articles, scientific reviews, technical notes, pictorial essays, commentaries, and editorials.
Write the methods section in a past tense. Avoid making a list of supplies or materials used for the experiment like a recipe. Avoid a narrative style of writing. Include a well-detailed description of the experimental treatments and sample sizes for each trial.
Therefore, you need to have the skills and expertise and presenting and interpreting data for your science lab research project in biology, chemistry , geography, psychology or other subject areas. Despite having some difficulties in conducting your scientific experiments, you can be confident in writing a good scientific report. You just need to follow the aforementioned steps in this article. So, you can select from our diverse selection of templates here and get a scientific research report sample today!
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latest release 2022 Mathematics and Reading Report Cards at Grades 4 and 8
Compared to 2019 (before the pandemic):.
- Average scores declined in both subjects and grades.
- Average scores declined for most states in both subjects and grades.
- Students' confidence in their mathematics and reading skills declined.
- reading highlights
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Read the press release
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One-click access to mathematics and reading results in our popular data products, naep data explorer.
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- Mathematics sampling, participation, type of accommodation, and inclusion of students with disabilities and English learners (pdf)
- Reading performance results for the nation (xls)
- Reading sampling, participation, type of accommodation, and inclusion of students with disabilities and English learners (pdf)
- Significant increase compared to last assessment year
- No significant difference compared to last assessment year
- Significant decrease compared to last assessment year
More About NAEP
The National Assessment of Educational Progress has been assessing what students know and can do since 1969.
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- 2022 Mathematics and Reading Assessments at Grades 4 and 8
- 2021 School and Teacher Survey Questionnaire Special Study
About NAEP Assessments
The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)a congressionally mandated large-scale assessment administered by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES)consists of print and digital assessments in various subject areas.
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School Responses to COVID-19
The following resources about the impact of COVID provide additional context for understanding NAEP scores:
U.S. Education in the Time of COVID (Spring 2020 to fall 2021)
The NAEP Monthly School Survey (Spring 2021)
The School Pulse Panel (Monthly since summer 2021)
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Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness
Results from scotland's 2021 report card on physical activity and health for children and youth: grades, secular trends, and socio-economic inequalities, background/objectives.
The 2021 Active Healthy Kids Scotland Report Card aimed to identify secular trends and socio-economic inequalities, and to assess the physical activity and health of children and youth prior to COVID-19.
An expert panel searched for data published in 2018–2020. Grades were assigned to nationally representative data using the Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance methodology.
The expert panel, following national consultation, awarded the following grades: Community/Environment B-, Organized Sport and Physical Activity B-, Government/Policy C-/C+, Active Transportation C-, Family/Peers D-, Recreational Screen Time F. Five indicators were graded inconclusive (INC): Overall Physical Activity; Active Play; Physical Fitness; Diet; Obesity. Grades have remained stable or declined, and surveillance has reduced, increasing the number of INC grades. There were marked socio-economic inequalities for eight indicators (Recreational Screen Time; Overall Physical Activity; Organized Sport & Physical Activity; Active Transportation; Diet; Obesity; Family/Peers; Community/Environment).
Despite a decade of favorable policy, physical activity and health of children and youth has not improved, and marked socio-economic inequalities continue to persist in Scotland. There is a clear need for greater monitoring of physical activity and health, and improved policy implementation and evaluation, particularly as many indicators and related inequalities may have worsened following the COVID-19 pandemic.
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Free Science Report Form Printables
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Encourage Science Exploration
Science is usually a high-interest topic for children due to their inherently curious nature. They want to know how and why things work. Science capitalizes on children's inquisitiveness to know more about the world around them. Each time they explore a scientific concept — even if they don't realize that's what they're doing — they increase their knowledge and appreciation of that world.
To motivate students to engage in scientific exploration:
- Encourage them to ask questions when they don't understand something.
- Provide lots of opportunities for hands-on exploration, such as regular nature study.
- Purchase simple science equipment and kits for your kids to explore.
- Share your own observations with your children, pointing out things such as interesting rocks, unusual insects, or a variety of birds.
- Talk about the weather and the causes of rain, snow, fog, earthquakes, or hurricanes
- Conduct your own experiments and encourage your students to record their findings
And, of course, use these free printable science forms to encourage the exploration and recording of scientific findings in your classroom or homeschool.
Science Report Form - Page 1
Use this form as you begin to have students research the topic of their choice. Encourage your children to list new facts that they discover rather than interesting facts they already know. If they're studying an animal, for example, they may already be familiar with its physical attributes, but they may not know about its diet or natural habit.
Science Report Form - Page 2
Students use this science report form to draw a picture related to their topic and write a report about it. Prompt your children to be as detailed as possible in keeping with the expectations of their age and ability. If they're drawing a flower, for example, a young child might include and label the stem, flowers, and petals, while an older student might also include the stamen, anther, and filament.
Science Report Form - Page 3
Use this form to list the resources used for your research. The form includes blank lines for students to list books and websites. You might also have them list magazine or DVD titles, the name of a place they visited for a field trip on the topic, or the name of a person they interviewed.
Science Report Information Sheet
On the previous form, the student listed the resources she used in her research. On this form, specific discoveries and interesting facts can be listed from each of those resources. If your student will be writing a report on her topic, this form is excellent for filling out as she reads (or watches a DVD or interviews someone) about each of the resources so that she can reference these sources when composing her report.
Science Experiment Form - Page 1
Use this page while conducting science experiments. Tell students to list the title of the experiment, the materials used, the questions they're hoping to answer by doing the experiment, their hypothesis (what they think will happen), and their method (what, exactly, they did for the project). This form is excellent practice for lab reports in high school.
Encourage your student to be as detailed as possible. When describing the method, prompt them to include enough detail that someone who has not done the experiment could replicate it successfully.
Science Experiment Form - Page 2
Use this form to have young learners draw a picture of the experiment, record the results, and describe what they learned.
My Skeleton Report
Use this form when studying the human body. Students will do research to answer the questions and draw a picture depicting what the inside of their bodies look like.
My Animal Report - Page 1
Animals are a high-interest topic for young children. Print multiple copies of this form to record facts about animals that interest your student or those you observe on your nature walks or field trips.
My Animal Report - Page 2
Students can use this form to draw a picture of each animal that they study and record interesting facts they learned. You might want to print these pages on card stock and three-hole punch them to assemble an animal fact book in a folder or binder.
- Science Projects for Every Subject
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This market report on scientific research services provides broad description of the this industry.
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Mar 02, 2023 (Prime PR Wire via Comtex) -- The " Scientific Research Services Market " report draws on various inferences to analyze the challenges within the industry. The final draught highlights the industry's typical problems as well as the businesses facing them. This report is of 187 pages.
Scope of the Report
A crucial part of the research project is the report's scope, which specifies the particular market segments that the Scientific Research Services report will concentrate on. The parameters for the research are established by the report's scope, which also aids in defining the goals of the investigation. The content scope and the geographic scope are the two main divisions of the scope of the Scientific Research Services market research report.
The report's content scope describes the specific facets of the Scientific Research Services market that it will cover. This could involve elements like market size, segmentation, trends, chances, difficulties, and competitor analysis. A road map for the research process is provided by the content scope, which also aids in defining the research question. Geographic scope refers to the geographical area that the report will cover. An example of this might be a particular area, nation, or even the entire world. The geographic scope aids in defining the report's target audience and the necessary level of detail. The temporal scope of the Scientific Research Services report, which refers to the time period it will cover, may be included in addition to the content and geographic scope. It's possible that this refers to a specific time in the past, present, or future.
Get a Sample PDF of the Report - https://www.reliableresearchreports.com/enquiry/request-sample/934447
The global Scientific Research Services market size is projected to reach multi million by 2030, in comparision to 2021, at unexpected CAGR during 2023-2030 (Ask for Sample Report).
What is Scientific Research Services?
Scientific Research Services refer to businesses and organizations that provide research and development services to academic institutions, government agencies, and private companies. These services include laboratory testing, experimental design and analysis, and consulting in fields such as biotechnology, chemistry, and engineering. The Scientific Research Services market is poised for growth due to rising demand for advanced scientific research to drive innovation and creativity in various industries. Increasing government funding for research and development initiatives, along with the emergence of big data analytics and artificial intelligence, is expected to further fuel the growth of the Scientific Research Services market.
Market Segmentation Analysis
Scientific Research Services market types are categorized into three segments: software, hardware, and services. The software segment includes various analytical and research software such as bioinformatics, genomics, proteomics, and data analysis. The hardware segment comprises advanced equipment used in scientific research such as imaging systems, mass spectrometry, and flow cytometry. The services segment includes contract research and outsourcing services.
The Scientific Research Services market applications are vast and range from diverse industries that include the pharmaceutical industry, biotechnology, medical device industry, agriculture, government, cosmetic companies, and many more. The pharmaceutical industry is a significant consumer of scientific research services to discover new drugs and to conduct clinical trials. Biotechnology companies use these services to develop molecular diagnostics, genomics, and personalized medicine. Similarly, the medical device industry uses them to develop new medical devices, testing and regulatory compliance, and monitoring purposes. The agricultural industry relies on scientific research services for crop improvement and food safety testing. The government utilizes these services for scientific research projects and policy development. Finally, cosmetic companies use scientific research services to formulate and test cosmetic ingredients and products.
Scientific Research Services Market Regional Analysis
Scientific Research Services are utilized in various regions across the globe to facilitate research and development activities in industries such as healthcare, biotechnology, and pharmaceuticals. In North America, Europe, and the Asia-Pacific, these services are widely used to conduct clinical trials, develop new medicines and devices, and carry out scientific studies. In Latin America and the Middle East & Africa, there is a growing demand for these services as the region's scientific infrastructure continues to develop.
Top Featured Companies Dominating the Global Scientific Research Services Market
Scientific research services companies such as PPD, ICON, and IQVIA provide a wide range of services including clinical trials, regulatory affairs, and laboratory testing. These services are essential for the pharmaceutical and biotech industry, enabling them to bring new treatments and drugs to market. By providing expertise, infrastructure, and technology to these companies, scientific research services companies play a vital role in accelerating drug development and reducing costs. As the demand for new treatments grows, these companies are poised to help drive growth in the scientific research services market.
- Syneos Health
- WuXi AppTec
- Charles River
- Avista Healthcare Public
- Merck Millipore Sigma
Inquire or Share Your Questions If Any Before Purchasing This Report - https://www.reliableresearchreports.com/enquiry/pre-order-enquiry/934447
Scientific Research Services Market Dynamics ( Drivers, Restraints, Opportunity, Challenges)
The Scientific Research Services market is subject to various forces that can impact its growth and development. These forces can be categorized into drivers, restraints, opportunities, and challenges. Drivers of the Scientific Research Services market include factors such as increasing adoption of the technology, growing demand from various end-use industries, and advancements in the related technologies. Restraints of the Scientific Research Services market include factors such as high costs associated with research and development, and lack of awareness about the technology among potential users. Opportunities for the Scientific Research Services market include expansion into new geographic regions and industries and the development of new applications for the technology.
Challenges for the Scientific Research Services market include intense competition from other technologies, and the need to continuously innovate and improve the technology in order to stay ahead of the competition. In terms of the company, the key drivers for the company include increasing adoption of its products and services, and partnerships and collaborations with other industry players. The key restraint for the company is the intense competition in the market, while opportunities for growth include expansion into new geographic regions and industries and the development of new products and services.
The Impact of Covid-19 and Russia-Ukraine War on Scientific Research Services Market
The Post Covid-19 Pandemic and Russia-Ukraine War have had adverse impacts on the Scientific Research Services market. Due to the large-scale disruption caused by the pandemic, many research institutions faced a shortage of funds, resources, and personnel. Besides, the imposition of travel restrictions and the closure of international borders hampered the movement of researchers, thereby affecting research collaborations and partnerships.
Similarly, the Russia-Ukraine war has also impacted the market, with research institutions located in the affected regions facing significant challenges. The conflict has caused a loss of resources, talent, and infrastructure, hindering the growth of scientific research services in the region.
Overall, both events have resulted in a significant slowdown of scientific research services market growth, which is likely to continue until the situation stabilizes. However, with the availability of vaccines and improving political conditions, the market may gradually recover in the coming years.
Get Covid-19 Impact Analysis for the market research report - https://www.reliableresearchreports.com/enquiry/request-covid19/934447
The Scientific Research Services market research report contains the following TOC:
- Report Overview
- Global Growth Trends
- Competition Landscape by Key Players
- Data by Type
- Data by Application
- North America Market Analysis
- Europe Market Analysis
- Asia-Pacific Market Analysis
- Latin America Market Analysis
- Middle East & Africa Market Analysis
- Key Players Profiles Market Analysis
- Analysts Viewpoints/Conclusions
Read full TOC - https://www.reliableresearchreports.com/toc/934447#tableofcontents
Market Segmentation 2023 - 2030:
The worldwide Scientific Research Services market is categorized by Product Type and Product Application.
In terms of Product Type, the Scientific Research Services market is segmented into:
I n terms of Product Application, the Scientific Research Services market is segmented into:
- Pharmaceutical Industry
- Medical Device Industry
- Cosmetic Companies
The available Scientific Research Services Market Players are listed by region as follows:
- United States
- South Korea
- China Taiwan
- Argentina Korea
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Reasons to Purchase the Scientific Research Services Market Research Report:
- In addition to details on its marketing strategies, corporate growth, overall structure, and organizational setup, the Scientific Research Services research report gives an overview of the Scientific Research Services company.
- The Scientific Research Services company also helps its customers understand how the Covid-19 Pandemic is having an effect on the market and how that market is likely to grow as the virus's effects fade.
- The report's main topic is how top competitors use forecasted data, market drivers, and trends to reshape the global market.
- The report includes crucial buyer information, including business assessments and financial data.
- The report of the Scientific Research Services company has a truly global perspective because it is the most comprehensive study of this market and covers numerous geographies, current affairs, and potential future developments.
- In order to predict and advance industrial conduct, the research study Scientific Research Services includes a number of key parameters and projections for essential variables.
As an AI language model, I can provide the top 6 questions that may arise while researching the scientific research services market research. However, I can not answer in a specified word count. Some of the top 6 questions that may be answered in the research are:
1. What is the market size and growth rate of the scientific research services market?
2. What are the major factors driving the demand for scientific research services?
3. Who are the key players in the scientific research services market?
4. What are the latest trends observed in the scientific research services market?
5. What are the major challenges faced by service providers in the scientific research market?
6. Which regions are expected to show high growth potential in the scientific research services market?
Name: Mahesh Patel
Phone: USA:+1 951 407 0500
Email: [email protected]
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FREE 10+ Scientific Research Report Templates in PDF | MS Word
A research report refers to a journal that reflects on a particular research venture’s conclusions or otherwise science studies on or about a particular topic. The functional utility of the research study is heavily dependent upon how it is portrayed to those who are expected to behave on the grounds of research results.
Table of Content
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Develop the thesis statement, research, research, research, develop a proper backbone, develop a rough draft, write the intro, write the conclusion, check for errors before submission, more in report templates.
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41+ SAMPLE Science Research Report in PDF
Science Research Report
41+ sample science research report, what is a science research report, different types of science research report, basic elements of a science research report, how to write a science research report, what are some examples of science research reports, what is the purpose of a science research report, what are the significant steps in writing a science research report, how to synthesize scientific research findings.
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Empirical Social Science Research Paper Analysis Report
Science Research Program Report
1. life science research report , 2. science and technology research report, 3. biomedical science research report, 4. social science research mapping report, step 1: state the specific goals in the research , step 2: outline the scientific research process , step 3: illustrate the results and conclusion of the scienceresearch, step 4: proofread and revise the research report, step 5: prepare the final science research report, share this post on your network, you may also like these articles, 28+ sample behavior incident reports in pdf | ms word.
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Innocenti Report Card
A look at children from the world’s richest countries offers a mixed picture of their health, skills, and happiness. For far too many, issues such as poverty, exclusion and pollution threaten their mental well-being, physical health, and opportunities to develop skills. Even countries with good social, economic, and environmental conditions are a long way from meeting the targets set in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Focused and accelerated action is needed if these goals are to be met.
The evidence from 41 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and European Union (EU) countries tells its own story: from children’s chances of survival, growth and protection, to whether they are learning and feel listened to, to whether their parents have the support and resources to give their children the best chance for a healthy, happy childhood. The reports reveal children’s experiences against the backdrop of their country’s policies and social, educational, economic and environmental contexts.
In keeping with UNICEF's universal mandate for children in every country, the Innocenti Report Card series focuses on the well-being of children in high income countries. Since 2000, Innocenti Report Cards have shown that even in the world’s richest countries, the daily lives of millions of children fell far short of what anyone would call a good childhood. Each Report Card publication includes league tables ranking OECD and EU countries according to the latest available comparative data.
Visit the microsite for Report Card 16: Worlds of Influence
Worlds of Influence: Understanding What Shapes Child Well-being in Rich Countries
An Unfair Start: Inequality in Children's Education in Rich Countries
Building the Future: Children and the Sustainable Development Goals in Rich Countries
Fairness for Children. A league table of inequality in child well-being in rich countries
Children of the Recession: The impact of the economic crisis on child well-being in rich countries
Child Well-being in Rich Countries: A comparative overview
Measuring Child Poverty: New league tables of child poverty in the world's rich countries
The Children Left Behind: A league table of inequality in child well-being in the world's rich countries
The Child Care Transition: A league table of early childhood education and care in economically advanced countries
Child Poverty in Perspective: An overview of child well-being in rich countries
Child Poverty in Rich Countries 2005
A League Table of Child Maltreatment Deaths in Rich Nations
A League Table of Educational Disadvantage in Rich Nations
A League Table of Teenage Births in Rich Nations
A League Table of Child Deaths by Injury in Rich Nations
A League Table of Child Poverty in Rich Nations
Places & Spaces: Shaping policies for environments and children's well-being
Worlds of Influence: Shaping policies for child well-being in rich countries
Innocenti Project(s) 2016-2021:
Children in high income countries
Innocenti Project(s) 2014-2015:
Report Card 12
Innocenti Project(s) 2013:
Report Card 11
Innocenti Project(s) 2010-2012:
Child well-being, poverty and overlapping deprivation analysis in rich countries (Report Card 10)
The Research Behind Ranking Family-friendly Policies
Uncovering An #UnfairStart: An Interview with UNICEF Report Card 15 authors on Education Inequality
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The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) science assessment is designed to measure students’ knowledge and abilities in the areas of Earth and space science, physical science, and life science. The most recent science assessment was given in 2019 to approximately 30,400 grade 4 students, 31,400 grade 8 students, and 26,400 grade 12 students. Results for science 2019 are now available and are reported on a national level at all three grades.
Explore the Nation's Report Card
The science framework specifics that students’ science knowledge and skills should be measured in three broad areas: physical science, life science, and Earth and space sciences. The framework identifies four science practices that should be assessed to determine how students use their knowledge of science, including how they identify science principles, use science principles, use scientific inquiry, and use technological design. The framework also outlines what science knowledge and skills students should have to reach NAEP Basic, NAEP Proficient, and NAEP Advanced achievement. The science assessment is administered as a digtally based assessment. Survey questionnaires, administered to students, teachers, and school administrators who participate in a science assessment, are used to collect and report contextual information about students’ K-12 education and learning experience in and out of the classroom.
How is Your State or District Performing?
How Results Are Reported
Academic achievement in science is presented in two ways on The Nations's Report Card: scale scores and NAEP achievement levels.
- Scale scores represent how students performed on the science assessment. Scores are aggregated and reported for diverse student groups for the nation, states, and districts.
- NAEP achievement levels are performance standards that describe what students should know and be able to do.
Results are reported as percentages of students performing at or above three NAEP achievement levels ( NAEP Basic , NAEP Proficient , and NAEP Advanced ). Students performing at or above the NAEP Proficient level on NAEP assessments demonstrate solid academic performance and competency over challenging subject matter. It should be noted that the NAEP Proficient achievement level does not represent grade level proficiency as determined by other assessment standards (e.g., state or district assessments).
Item maps illustrate how specific science knowledge and skills correspond to different NAEP achievement levels. Item maps answer the question, "What does it mean for students to be at NAEP Basic , NAEP Proficient , or NAEP Advanced in terms of what they know and can do?"
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US-Russian Contention in Cyberspace
The overarching question imparting urgency to this exploration is: Can U.S.-Russian contention in cyberspace cause the two nuclear superpowers to stumble into war? In considering this question we were constantly reminded of recent comments by a prominent U.S. arms control expert: At least as dangerous as the risk of an actual cyberattack, he observed, is cyber operations’ “blurring of the line between peace and war.” Or, as Nye wrote, “in the cyber realm, the difference between a weapon and a non-weapon may come down to a single line of code, or simply the intent of a computer program’s user.”
The Geopolitics of Renewable Hydrogen
Renewables are widely perceived as an opportunity to shatter the hegemony of fossil fuel-rich states and democratize the energy landscape. Virtually all countries have access to some renewable energy resources (especially solar and wind power) and could thus substitute foreign supply with local resources. Our research shows, however, that the role countries are likely to assume in decarbonized energy systems will be based not only on their resource endowment but also on their policy choices.
What Comes After the Forever Wars
As the United States emerges from the era of so-called forever wars, it should abandon the regime change business for good. Then, Washington must understand why it failed, writes Stephen Walt.
Telling Black Stories: What We All Can Do
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Ukrainian soldiers prepare a U.S.-supplied M777 howitzer to fire at Russian positions in Kherson region, Ukraine, Jan. 9, 2023.
Paper - Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School
- Graham Allison
- Kate Davidson
One year into the Russia-Ukraine War, it remains difficult to get an accurate picture of what is actually happening. In part, this is the fog of war. In part, it is a reminder of Churchill’s observation that truth is the first casualty of war. In part, it reflects the extraordinary success of President Zelenskyy and his team in taking information warfare to the next level—crafting compelling daily narratives and controlling the flow of information: for example, withholding data about Ukrainian casualties. And finally, because most reporting on the war is done by journalists working at a distance rather than on the battlefield, news reports reflect prevailing narratives more than numbers.
On February 24, 2022, Russia began a multi-pronged invasion of Ukraine aimed at seizing Kyiv, capturing or killing Zelenskyy, and seizing eastern Ukraine in time for a May Day victory celebration. Remarkably, Zelenskyy courageously rallied his fellow Ukrainian citizens and soldiers to resist the invaders and remind the world what leadership under fire looks like. After Russia’s initial invasion of Ukraine stalled, its forces pivoted to the battleground in the Donbas. In September, Russian President Vladimir Putin annexed four eastern provinces of Ukraine and declared that Russia would use its nuclear arsenal if necessary to defend this territory along with the rest of Mother Russia. Ukraine’s September counteroffensive pushed Russian forces back in the north and retook a regional capital, Kherson, but it has stalled since mid-November.
As professional analysts trying to make sense of what we are seeing, we begin by reciting what we most confidently know: namely, the fundamental truths about war that have been learned over centuries of experience. In the past year, it has been vital to keep in mind one axiom that has become a cliché: the fog of war is dense and thickened by disinformation and propaganda. To ensure we have our feet on a solid foundation as we try to interpret the latest news from Ukraine, we created a weekly Report Card .
The bottom line in our inaugural Report Card is that the war has now bogged down in what we have labeled a “snailmate.” Since early November, neither side has made significant advances. But at the end of the first year of war, Russia controls 18% of Ukraine, and intense fighting for advances of a few miles continues to claim hundreds of lives a day.
In addition, our report provides graphics that answer four frequently asked questions.
- How long is war? One year on, the Russia-Ukraine War remains much shorter than major historical conflicts, but it is already longer than its predecessor conflict in the Donbas and Crimea in 2014, which entered a lower intensity phase at the beginning of 2015 after Minsk II and the fall of Debaltseve.
- How deadly is war? The death toll in the first year of this war numbers over 100,000–making it far deadlier than other post-Cold War conflicts but still much less lethal than the World Wars.
- How expensive is war? As a percentage of its GDP, Ukraine’s expenditure is about equivalent to the US war effort during World War II, essentially mobilizing all of society, and with unprecedented levels of foreign assistance.
- How has the lethality of Western supply of arms risen? The US and its NATO partners have steadily stepped up the escalation ladder in sending more advanced weapons to Ukraine, expressing concern at each step about the possibility of provoking a Russian response that would widen the war, but nonetheless repeatedly crossing previously-announced red lines.
- HKS_Ukraine War Report Card_DP_Final.pdf
- Douglas Dillon Professor of Government, Harvard Kennedy School
- Member of the Board, Belfer Center
- Former Director, Belfer Center
- Faculty Affiliate, Future of Diplomacy Project
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Analysis & Opinions - Foreign Policy
The Conversation About Ukraine Is Cracking Apart
- Stephen M. Walt
Analysis & Opinions - Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School
Global Perspectives on the War in Ukraine
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News - Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School
The War in Ukraine at One Year: Belfer Center Perspectives
Meghan O'Sullivan Named Director of Belfer Center
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China’s BeiDou: New Dimensions of Great Power Competition
- Sarah Sewall, Tyler Vandenberg, and Kaj Malden
SVAC Explainer: Wartime Sexual Violence in Ukraine, 2014-2021
- Ketaki Zodgekar
Russia-Ukraine Report Card
Analysis & Opinions - Project Syndicate
What Caused the Ukraine War?
- Joseph S. Nye
The Perpetually Irrational Ukraine Debate
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EWG has reviewed actions the federal government is committed to taking, or for which it faces congressionally mandated deadlines, to tackle the “forever chemicals” known as PFAS.
To track progress on these actions, we created a federal PFAS action report card, dividing the actions into categories. Actions are labeled:
- “Pending” if the deadline falls within the current period (for instance, winter 2022) or a future period, and the action is not yet complete.
- “Overdue” if the deadline falls within any previous period and is not complete.
- “Partly complete” if at least one published interim milestone has been met by the agency, but additional milestones are due before the action can be considered complete.
- “Completed” if the action was finalized within the current period or any previous period
Partly complete actions were credited as 50 percent complete for the purpose of reporting progress.
EWG used information from publicly available federal websites to compile report card milestones. In some cases, federal agencies volunteered additional information to clarify the status of actions.
The report card reflects the status of actions as of the date it is posted. After that, the status of any given action may change, and the updated status will be reflected in EWG’s next report card.
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Arctic Report Card: Update for 2016
Persistent warming trend and loss of sea ice are triggering extensive Arctic changes
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Executive summary, 2016 addendum, vital signs, surface air temperature, terrestrial snow cover, greenland ice sheet, sea surface temperature, arctic ocean primary productivity, tundra greenness, ocean acidification, terrestrial carbon cycle, shrews and their parasites: small species indicate big changes, arctic change - so what: linkages and impacts, faster glaciers and the search for faster science, more information, about arctic report card 2016, report card full pdf, printable handout, authors and affiliations, graphics from climate.gov, noaa press release, photos and animations for 2016 report card, how warming affects small mammals, agu report card press conference, arctic essays.
Saturday, November 5, 2016
J. Richter-Menge 1 , J. E. Overland 2 , J. Mathis 3
1 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, Hanover, NH, USA 2 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, Seattle, WA, USA 3 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Arctic Research Program, Silver Spring, MD, USA
The Arctic Report Card ( www.arctic.noaa.gov/Report-Card/ ) considers a range of environmental observations throughout the Arctic, and is updated annually. As in previous years, the 2016 update to the Arctic Report Card highlights the changes that continue to occur in, and among, the physical and biological components of the Arctic environmental system.
Arctic air temperatures continue to increase at double the rate of the global temperature increase. The average annual surface air temperature anomaly (+2.0° C relative to the 1981-2010 baseline) over land north of 60° N between October 2015 and September 2016 was by far the highest in the observational record beginning in 1900. This represents a 3.5° C increase since the beginning of the 20th Century. Autumn, spring and winter showed extensive positive average air temperature anomalies across the central Arctic, primarily due to southerly winds moving warm air into the Arctic from mid-latitudes. Winter air temperatures greatly exceeded the previous record, with several locations showing January temperature more than 8° C above the norm. Contrary to conditions in much of the previous decade, neutral to cold temperature anomalies occurred across the central Arctic Ocean in summer 2016.
The relatively cool summer air temperatures over the Arctic Ocean created a condition which did not support rapid summer sea ice loss. After experiencing the lowest winter maximum ice extent in the satellite record (1979-2016)—which occurred in March and was 7% below the 1981-2010 average—many anticipated a record summer minimum extent. Though no new record was set, the September 2016 Arctic sea ice minimum extent tied with 2007 for the second lowest value in the satellite record, at 33% lower than the 1981-2010 average. The sea ice cover continues to be relatively young and thin. In March 2016, multiyear ice (more than 1 year old) and first-year ice were 22% and 78% of the ice cover, respectively, compared to 45% and 55% in 1985.
As the sea ice retreats more extensively in the summer, previously ice-covered water is exposed to more solar radiation. As a result, sea surface temperature (SST) and upper ocean temperatures are increasing throughout much of the Arctic Ocean and adjacent seas. Also contributing to the increase in SST are regional air temperatures and influx of warmer water from the North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The Chukchi Sea, northwest of Alaska, and eastern Baffin Bay, off west Greenland, have the largest warming trends: ~0.5° C per decade since 1982. In August 2016, SST was up to 5° C higher than the 1982-2010 average in regions of the Barents and Chukchi seas and off the east and west coasts of Greenland.
Increasing ocean primary production (conversion of CO 2 to organic material) is also being observed as summer sea ice extent declines, related to enhanced light availability. In 2016, there were widespread positive primary production anomalies throughout the Arctic Ocean and adjacent ice-affected seas, from 5% to 19% above the 2003-2015 average in Hudson Bay and the Barents Sea, respectively. The only negative anomalies were observed in the western (North American) Arctic (-11.9%) and the Sea of Okhotsk (-1.8%). For the period 2003-2015 there are statistically significant primary production trends in the in the eastern (Eurasian) Arctic, Barents Sea, Greenland Sea, Hudson Bay and North Atlantic; the steepest trends are in the eastern Arctic (37.9% increase) and the Barents Sea (34.8% increase).
The waters of the Arctic Ocean are more prone to ocean acidification (OA) compared to the rest of the global ocean, due their cooler water temperatures and unique physical processes (e.g. the formation and melting of sea ice). Even small amounts of human-derived carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) can cause significant chemical changes that other areas do not experience. Current data indicates that certain areas of the Arctic shelves presently experience prolonged ocean acidification events in shallow bottom waters. These waters are eventually transported off the shelf. As a result, corrosive conditions have been expanding deeper into the Arctic Basin over the last several decades. The inherently short Arctic food web linkages generate an increased urgency in the need to understand the impacts of OA on the Arctic marine ecosystem.
Ice on land, as represented by the Greenland Ice Sheet, saw a continuation of the overall increasing melting trend in 2016, with enhanced melt occurring in the southwest and northeast regions. The onset of surface melt ranked 2nd (after only 2012) over the 37-year period of satellite record (1979 - 2016). The duration of the melt season lasted 30-40 days longer than usual in the northeast and 15-20 days longer along the west coast, compared to the 1981-2010 average. Consistent with the spatial distribution of melt anomalies, the largest area of relatively low albedo (a measure of surface reflectivity) was located along the southwest coast, reaching down to ~20% below the 2000-2009 average.
The spring snow cover extent (SCE) has undergone significant reductions over the period of satellite observations (which start in 1967), particularly since 2005. In 2016, new record low April and May SCE was reached for the North American Arctic. The June SCE was the 3rd lowest on record over both the North American and Eurasian sectors of the Arctic. Warming Arctic surface air temperatures have a clear influence on the timing of snow melt. However, there is also evidence of decreasing pre-melt snow mass (reflective of shallower snow) which may pre-condition the snowpack for earlier and more rapid melt in the springtime.
Satellite observations of tundra greenness (a measure of vegetation productivity and strongly correlated with above-ground biomass) are available since 1982, with 2015 being the most recent year with a complete data set. Long-term trends over this period show greening on the North Slope of Alaska, in the southern Canadian tundra, and in much of the central and eastern Siberian tundra. A decreasing trend in greenness, or "browning", is observed in western Alaska (Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta), the higher-Arctic Canadian Archipelago, and western Siberian tundra.
Warming air temperatures in the Arctic are causing normally frozen ground (permafrost) to thaw. The permafrost is carbon rich and, when it thaws, is a source of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane. Northern permafrost zone soils contain 1330-1580 billion tons organic carbon, about twice as much as currently contained in the atmosphere. Tundra ecosystems are taking up increasingly more carbon during the growing season over the past several decades, but this has been offset by increasing carbon loss during the winter. Overall, tundra appears to be releasing net carbon to the atmosphere.
Changes in the tundra environment also affect the fauna they support, causing species to shift their distributions, adapt to novel conditions, or die out. Because of this linkage, small mammals, such as shrews, and their parasites can serve as key indicators for anticipating the consequences of environmental variability and changing interactions among species. Some Arctic shrews have recently acquired new parasites indicating poleward shifts of sub-Arctic faunas, and demonstrating increases in both Arctic biodiversity and overall complexity within these novel species networks.
In summary, there are numerous and diverse signals indicating that the Arctic environmental system continues to be influenced by long-term upward trends in air temperature, modulated by natural variability in regional and seasonal anomalies ( Fig. 0.1 ). The acceleration of many of these signals, the interdependency of the physical and biological elements of the Arctic system, and the growing recognition that the Arctic is an integral part of the larger Earth system are increasing the pressure for more effective and timely communication of these scientific observations to diverse user audiences. A key to meeting this challenging goal is to more directly convey the syntheses of observations across disciplinary boundaries, to better highlight Arctic system change.
Financial support for the Arctic Report Card is provided by the Arctic Research Program in the NOAA Climate Program Office. Preparation of Arctic Report Card 2016 was directed by a U.S. inter-agency editorial team of representatives from the NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, NOAA Arctic Research Program, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory. The editorial team was assisted by the Editorial Advisory Board. The 12 contributions to Arctic Report Card 2016, representing the collective effort of an international team of 61 researchers in 11 countries, are based on published and ongoing scientific research. Independent peer-review of the scientific content of Arctic Report Card 2016 was facilitated by the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment (AMAP) Program of the Arctic Council.
December 6, 2016
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Home / Guides / Citation Guides / APA Format / How to Cite a Report in APA
How to Cite a Report in APA
This guide will teach you how to cite a report in APA and create accurate references and text in-citations for various types of reports. That includes citations for government reports, annual reports, and reports made by both individuals, task forces, and organizations. The content of this guide is based on the 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (pp. 329-331).
Are you looking for information on how to cite a different kind of resource? Check out this EasyBib guide on creating an APA citation for a web page , or this one on formatting an APA book citation .
What is gray literature, when the title doesn’t describe the literature type, when the author and publisher name are the same, how to cite a report from an organization or government agency, how to cite a report with listed author(s), how to cite a report that is part of a series, how to cite a report by a group, task force, or working group, how to cite an annual report, how to cite a press release, what you need.
To begin, let’s take a few moments to define what gray literature is.
Basically, gray literature includes any research or work that was produced by an individual or organization through non-traditional publishing routes.
A report is one example of gray literature. Reports are original research documents that are published by companies, organizations, or working groups that are intended to present the key findings of a specific research project. Since they are not distributed in a traditional way, reports are considered gray literature.
Though gray literature isn’t a traditional source type (like books, journals, newspapers, etc.), there can be a lot of value in gray literature.
- Annual reports
- Codes of ethics
- Conference proceedings
- Financial health reports
- Government accountability reports
- GrantsPeriodic reports
- Issue briefs
- Policy briefs
- Pharmacological studies
- Press releases
- Technical reports
- Unpublished clinical trials
In some cases, the type of gray literature that you are referencing may not be clear by the title alone, as is sometimes the case with policy briefs and press releases . In these instances, you should include a bracketed description of the gray literature immediately after the title.
Author last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Date published). Title of the work [Work description] (Associated number) . Publisher name. DOI or URL
To see an example of brackets in use, go down to the section on how to cite a press release .
According to the Publication Manual , when the author and publisher are the same, do not add the publisher element (329). To avoid redundancy in these references, you only need to use the name as the author.
Author last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Date published). Title of the work [Work description] (Associated number) . DOI or URL
In this example, the report has been both authored and published by the U.S. Department of the Interior. In cases such as these, provide the name of the organization or agency only once as the author element at the beginning of the reference.
U.S. Department of the Interior. (2016). Agency financial report FY 2016. https://www.doi.gov/sites/doi.gov/files/uploads/doi_fy_2016_afr.pdf
In-text citation example:
- Parenthetical citation: (U.S. Department of the Interior, 2016)
- Narrative citation: U.S. Department of the Interior (2016)
If you’re still a little unsure about how to cite a report, try our EasyBib citation form for reports .
If you are interested in learning more about how to cite gray literature, check out Section 10.4 of the Publication Manual .
Organization or Agency. (Year Published). Title of report or gray literature in sentence case (Associated number). Publisher Name. DOI or URL
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. (2017). NIH Turning discovery into health. (NIH Publication No. 11-7634). https://www.nih.gov/sites/default/files/about-nih/discovery-into-health/nih-turning-discovery-into-health.pdf
Some government publications will have many departments listed as the author. According to the Publication Manual , you should choose the most detailed department and use that as the in-text citation author (Section 9.11).
- Parenthetical citation: (National Institutes of Health, 2017)
- Narrative citation: National Institutes of Health (2017)
If the report has a specific person or persons listed on the title page, then their names belong in the author position, and the organization belongs in the publisher position.
1st author last name, First initial. Middle initial., & 2nd Author last name, First initial, Middle initial. (Year Published). Title of report in sentence case (Associated number). Publisher Name. DOI or URL
Gerling, M., & Wilson, T. (2019). Evaluating the June area survey’s field enumerator training (RDD-19-01) . U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service, Research and Development Division. https://www.nass.usda.gov/Education_and_Outreach/Reports,_Presentations_and_Conferences/reports/Evaluating_the_June_Area_Surveys_Field_Enumerator_Training.pdf
For this example, we have chosen a research report which utilizes the U.S. Research and Development Division’s own indexing system (RDD-19-01). If the report is presented with a report number like this, it is included in the reference within parentheses right after the title.
In addition, there are multiple government agencies responsible for the report in addition to the individual authors. In this case, the agencies are all included in the publisher position and separated by a comma.
- Parenthetical citation : (Gerling & Wilson, 2019)
- Narrative citation : Gerling & Wilson (2019)
Here’s one more example reference:
Gorbunova, Y. (2013). Laws of attrition: Crackdown on Russia’s civil society after Putin’s return to the presidency . Human Rights Watch. https://www.hrw.org/report/2013/04/24/laws-attrition/crackdown-russias-civil-society-after-putins-return-presidency#page
Note: Since no report number was identified, it was not included in the citation.
Author last name, First initial. Middle initial., & Author 2 last name, First initial, Middle initial. (Year published). Title of report in sentence case (Series Name, Series Number). Publisher Name. DOI or URL
Robson, S.G., Heiny, J.S., Arnold, L.R. (2000). Geohydrology of the shallow aquifers in the Boulder-Longmont area, Colorado (Hydrologic Atlas, 746). https://doi.org/10.3133/ha746D
- Parenthetical citation : (Robson et al., 2000)
- Narrative citation : Robson et al. (2000)
Name of Group. (Year Published). Title of report in sentence case (Associated number) . Publisher Name. DOI or URL
International Space Station Independent Safety Task Force. (2007). Final report. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. https://www.nasa.gov/pdf/170368main_IIST_%20Final%20Report.pdf
- Parenthetical citation: (International Space Station Independent Safety Task Force, 2007)
- Narrative citation: International Space Station Independent Safety Task Force (2007)
Name of Organization or Company. (Year Published). Title of report in sentence case. URL
Yum! Brands. (2019). 2018 Annual Report. https://www.annualreports.com/HostedData/AnnualReports/PDF/NYSE_YUM_2018.pdf
Since annual reports are almost always published by the companies or organizations that commissioned them, the author and publisher name would be the same in a reference. To avoid this duplication, the organization name only needs to be listed once as the author; the publisher element can be left out.
- Parenthetical citation : (Yum! Brands, 2019)
- Narrative citation : Yum! Brands (2019)
Author Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Date published). Title of the work [Work description] (Associated number) . Publisher Name. DOI or URL
Chegg. (2019, June 6). Chegg reveals first of its kind equity plan to help its US employees pay off their student debt. https://investor.chegg.com/Press-Releases/press-release-details/2019/Chegg-reveals-first-of-its-kind-equity-plan-to-help-its-US-employees-pay-off-their-student-debt/default.aspx
- Parenthetical citation : (Chegg, 2019)
- Narrative citation : Chegg (2019)
A reference entry for a report, and other gray literature, will contain the the following source details:
- Author name
- Date published. Either year (2020) or year, month day (2020, February 14)
- Title of the work (in sentence case)
- Associated number (if applicable). Examples: Report No. 22, Project No. 567, Issue 101, etc.
- Work description (if needed). Examples: [Grant], [Policy brief], [Press release]
- Publisher name
- DOI or URL (if applicable). DOi would be formatted as https://doi.org/xxxx
Here’s a basic structure for citing gray literature:
Author last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Date published). Title of the work (Associated number) . Publisher Name. DOI or URL
American Psychological Association. (2020a). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000
American Psychological Association. (2020b). Style-Grammar-Guidelines. https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/citations/basic-principles/parenthetical-versus-narrative
Published August 10, 2012. Updated March 24, 2020.
Written and edited by Michele Kirschenbaum and Elise Barbeau. Michele Kirschenbaum is a school library media specialist and the in-house librarian at EasyBib.com. Elise Barbeau is the Citation Specialist at Chegg. She has worked in digital marketing, libraries, and publishing.
APA Formatting Guide
- Annotated Bibliography
- Block Quotes
- et al Usage
- In-text Citations
- Multiple Authors
- Page Numbers
- Parenthetical Citations
- Reference Page
- Sample Paper
- APA 7 Updates
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- Book Chapter
- Journal Article
- Magazine Article
- Newspaper Article
- Website (no author)
- View all APA Examples
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To cite a report in APA style, you need to have basic information including the name of the author/organization, publication year, title of the report, publisher, and/or URL. The templates for in-text citations and reference list entries for a report, along with examples, are given below.
In-text citation template and example:
Author Surname/Organization name (Publication Year)
Logan and Stults (2011)
(Author Surname/Organization name, Publication Year)
(Logan & Stults, 2011)
Reference list entry template and example:
Author or organization. (Year of publication). Title of the report (Report No. if applicable). Publisher. URL
Logan, J. R., & Stults, B. J. (2011). The persistence of segregation in the metropolis: New findings from the 2010 Census (Census Brief for Project US2010). American Communities Project, Brown University. www.s4.brown.edu/us2010/Data/Report/report2.pdf
The report title should be in sentence case and italics.
To cite a source with no title in APA style, it is important that you know some basic information such as the name of the author, date if possible, and other information depending upon the type of publication, such as journal article, book chapter, or map. The templates and examples for in-text citations and reference list entries for a source with no title are given below.
Author Surname (Publication Year)
(Author Surname, Publication Year)
Author Surname, F. (Publication Year). [Description of the work]. Source. URL (if applicable)
Google. (n.d.). [Map of Google to travel by road from Chennai to New Delhi, India]. Retrieved August 21, 2021, from https://www.google.com/maps/dir/Chennai,+Tamil+Nadu/New+Delhi,+Delhifirstname.lastname@example.org,69.8777929,5z/data=!3m1!4b1!4m13!4m12!1m5!1m1!1s0x3a5265ea4f7d3361:0x6e61a70b6863d433!2m2!1d80.2707184!2d13.0826802!1m5!1m1!1s0x390cfd5b347eb62d:0x52c2b7494e204dce!2m2!1d77.2090212!2d28.6139391
Note that the “retrieved” date should only be included if the source is likely to change or become unavailable. Since the Google map cited in the example entry may be slightly different depending on the day (due to traffic conditions, road closures, etc.), the “retrieved” date is included.
APA Citation Examples
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(Voice of the two sessions) Shan Yang, President of Hunan Academy of Agricultural Sciences: Bringing the latest "transcript" of hybrid rice to the meeting
"Shan Yang, member of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, and president of the Hunan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, who is attending the first meeting of the 14th National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference in Beijing, brought the latest "report card" on the research and promotion of hybrid rice." Shan Yang listed one A series of scientific research results: In 2022, the yield of "157" strain and "X56" strain of Xing'an League will reach 717.56 kg and 702.5 kg per mu in soda saline-alkali land respectively; the yield of Shuangliangyou 138 will reach 412.1 kg per mu in a large area of coastal saline land.
China News Agency, Beijing, March 4th (Reporter Tang Xiaoqing) "We are continuing to inherit and carry forward the career left by Mr. Yuan Longping." Member of the CPPCC National Committee, academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, Hunan Province, who is participating in the first session of the 14th CPPCC National Committee in Beijing Shan Yang, dean of the Academy of Agricultural Sciences, brought the latest "transcript" on the promotion of hybrid rice research.
"In order to continue to make hybrid rice a global leader and continue to make greater contributions to national food security, our efforts have not stopped." Shan Yang said, the State Key Laboratory of Hybrid Rice jointly established by Hunan Hybrid Rice Research Center and Wuhan University , Major breakthroughs have been made in the research of hybrid rice variety selection, salt-alkali-tolerant hybrid rice yield, and third-generation hybrid rice.
According to reports, in 2022, the Shuangliangyou 132 cultivated by the Hunan Hybrid Rice Research Center will produce 459.07 kilograms per mu in a large area of 156 mu in Jianning County, Sanming City, Fujian Province, realizing the largest hybrid rice seed production in China. Yield breakthrough; "Shuang 1S", an important achievement in the research and practice of hybrid rice seed production, created the highest record of average yield per 100 mu in hybrid rice seed production.
"Mr. Yuan's dream of growing high-yield rice on saline-alkali land in China is also becoming a reality." Shan Yang listed a series of scientific research results: In 2022, the yield per mu of the "157" strain and "X56" strain of Xing'an League in soda saline-alkali land will respectively reach 717.56 kilograms and 702.5 kilograms; Shuangliangyou 138 has a large area of 412.1 kilograms per mu in salty coastal tidal flats.
Yuan Longping's innovation team has cultivated new saline-alkali products such as Jingliangyou 326, Jingyou 007, and Shuangliangyou 138, which can withstand 3‰ saline concentration during the whole growth period and have a yield of more than 400 kg per mu.
"The strength of the innovation team is also strengthening." Shan Yang told reporters that Xie Daoxin, academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and professor of Tsinghua University, has built his only academician workstation in the Hunan Academy of Agricultural Sciences; Sun Chuanqing, a professor of China Agricultural University, was hired as a national key experiment of hybrid rice Office Executive Director.
The high-yield breakthrough of super hybrid rice has also been fruitful.
Last year, the Hunan Hybrid Rice Research Center arranged 7 research bases for double-cropping rice yielding 3,000 catties per mu and 4 research bases for one-cropping rice yielding 1,200 kg per mu in China.
Among them, the super hybrid rice Zhuoliangyou 1126 has an actual yield of 1,211.15 kg per mu in the demonstration base in Mengzi City, Honghe Prefecture, Yunnan Province.
"Teacher Yuan's dream of covering the world with hybrid rice is also continuing." Shan Yang revealed that so far, nearly 40 countries around the world have carried out research and demonstration of hybrid rice.
India, Vietnam, the Philippines, Bangladesh and other countries have successfully commercialized hybrid rice production.
At present, the annual planting area of foreign hybrid rice has reached 7 million hectares.
Among them, the Hybrid Rice Africa Branch Center has cultivated 5 hybrid rice varieties approved by the Madagascar government.
Last year, China and Madagascar marked the 50th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations, and the bottom of the official logo features rice ears design elements.
Shan Yang believes that the promotion of hybrid rice in Madagascar has provided "Chinese technology" and "Chinese experience" for countries around the world to achieve food security.
All business articles on 2023-03-04
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As in previous years, the 2016 update to the Arctic Report Card highlights the changes that continue to occur in, and among, the physical and biological components of the Arctic environmental system. Arctic air temperatures continue to increase at double the rate of the global temperature increase.
To cite a report in APA style, you need to have basic information including the name of the author/organization, publication year, title of the report, publisher, and/or URL. The templates for in-text citations and reference list entries for a report, along with examples, are given below. In-text citation template and example: Narrative:
Shan Yang listed a series of scientific research results: In 2022, the yield per mu of the "157" strain and "X56" strain of Xing'an League in soda saline-alkali land will respectively reach 717.56 kilograms and 702.5 kilograms; Shuangliangyou 138 has a large area of 412.1 kilograms per mu in salty coastal tidal flats.