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The Phenomenon of the 18th Century Institutional Printing House of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania: The Case of the Franciscans

Many of the printing houses in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania that operated during the 17th-18th centuries belonged to institutions the biggest part of which consisted of Catholic monk monasteries. Despite belonging to one group, the development path of each printing house and its contribution to book culture has unique features. Of the four institutional prin­ting houses operating in the 18th century in Vilnius, the printing house of the Franciscan Conventuals Monastery was the first to be closed and its operations terminated. The purpose of the article is to identify the following causes behind the issues and eventual closure of this printing house. Based on the expenses and income book of this printing house for the period 1752–1769 (it is preserved at the Department of Manuscripts of Vilnius University Library,) this paper examines various aspects of the Vilnius Franciscan Conventuals monastery printing house: funds, sources of equipment and paper, building location, relations with employees and hired craftsmen, orders, sources of income, profitability. In order to better understand the specificity of the institutional press, an effort was made to establish a link between the research outcome and the wider context by addressing the question of the impact of both the society of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Franciscan Order itself on the destiny of the printing house. In addition, the book of expenses and income reveals new biographical data about Vilnius engraver Franciszek Balcewicz.


The article is dedicated to the 90th anniversary of the birth of Igor Ivanovich Volkov, an outstanding chemist and geochemist, professor, Honored Scientist of the Russian Federation. His biographical data, his path in science, the main stages of the research, his main scientific works and the people around him are presented.

A Framework for Unlocking and Linking WWII Japanese American Incarceration Biographical Data

Unknown pages from maria kantakuzino’s biography.

Thе present publication is the first in historiography to highlight the unknown pages from the biography of Maria Andreevna Kantakuzino, wife of Foma (Toma) Kantakuzino, Major General of the Russian Army, an associate of Peter the Great. The research is based on documents discovered by the author in the State archives of the Russian Federation. The hallmark of this article is the fact, that the biographical data of Maria Cantacuzino are disclosed in the context of the political events of the 1st quarter of the 18th century, as well as her personal ties and correspondence with statesmen of the Russian Empire, the author reflects the issue of the financial situation of the countess in Russia. At the same time, the publication sheds light on the previously unknown biographical data of Maria Cantacuzino – the time and conditions of her arrival in Russia, the place of residence, as well as the date of her death. This publication, on the basis of archival documents discovered and introduced into scientific circulation, makes it possible to show the property status and possessions of the Cantacuzino family in Russia in the first half of the 18th century, as well as their fate after the death of the owners.

On the activities of E. A. Muravyova in the Roma section of the Union of Soviet Writers (until June 1941)

The article highlights the activities of the Section of Roma writers under the Bureau of National Commissions of the Union of Soviet Writers from the end of 1939 to June 1941 inclusive. This period is very significant for the restoration of the history of Soviet Romani literature for almost two years. From September 1939 to June 1941, Roma writers sought new productive contacts with the authorities in an attempt to revive Romani book publishing. The article presents new data based on previously unstudied archival documents and two letters from Roma writers. New facts about the book collection (almanac) of Romani stories translated into Russian and planned for publication in 1941 are presented and confirmed by archival documents, in particular, letters from the famous writer and poet Mikhail Timofeevich Bezlyudsky (1901–1970) and from the Crimean Roma Yu. B. Dzhaltyrov to Elizaveta Aleksandrovna Muravyova (1922–2007), whose contribution to the work of the Section is described on the basis of her biographical data. She also translated Roma tales and stories into Russian for future editions; she recorded Roma songs from performers for decades.

Ion Creanga’s personality: between document and fiction

Ion Creangă’s personality challenged the filmmakers on both banks of the Prut to create films in which to bring the famous storyteller back to the big screen. And if the genre of fiction film allows itself an artistic approach, with deviations and directorial inventions, then the non-fiction film is based on the document, drawing the true nature of the writer. In this context, there are a series of films, which aim to follow various aspects of the writer’s life, such as: Creangă (1973, directed by Vlad Druc), Creangă si Junimea (1989, directed by Ioana Holban), Ion Creanga’s God (1996, directed by Grid Modorcea), Ion Creangă (1999, directed by Anatol Codru) and others. But even these films are largely influenced by the writer’s work oscillating between document and fiction. We will refer to the films Ion Creangă’s God and Ion Creangă and analyze them from the perspective of that amalgam of events taken from the masterpiece of the writer Childhood Memories that form a common body with the rich iconographic material (photos, books, documents, archive documents, etc.) and biographical data, which being incorporated into a whole, give a special charm to the life of the writer.

О жизненном пути и научной деятельности Т. С. Теина

The article presents the biographical data and the main research results of Tasyan S. Tein, archaeologist, researcher of the Laboratory of History, Archeology, and Ethnography, NEISRI. He described the main stages in the development of the ancient Eskimo culture of Northern Chukotka, reconstructed the economy and culture, researched the social structure, religious beliefs, and rituals of Eskimos. Excavations on Wrangel Island made a significant contribution to the study of the Paleo-Eskimo period. T. S. Tein obtained representative and valuable materials from the most ancient settlement of sea mammal hunters. He researched the religion and shamanism of the Asiatic Eskimos, and completed detailed descriptions of the Eskimo seasonal festivals.

The study of biographies and the prosopographical method as a promising direction of historical studies

The article addresses the study of historical processes through the biographical data of heads of the Russian prison service between the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The prosopographical method allows demonstrating the sociocultural phenomenon of paradoxical perception of reality by the Russian society at the beginning of the 20th century. The slogans of representatives of the revolutionary movement calling for justice turned into brutal terrorist acts. The study comprises archival documents and materials from pre-revolutionary periodicals.

A first glance at the work of Dorothy Blumenstock Jones

Despite having occupied an important position in the United States Office of War Information (OWI) and having actively participated in a decisive period of Communication Research, Dorothy Blumenstock Jones is a name almost forgotten in the history of the field of communication. All we know about her biography is like some puzzle pieces, although she made significant contributions to the study of movies in the 20th century. This paper seeks to portray not only biographical data about Jones but especially to map her work and its proposals related to the development of film analysis and content analysis - and to place her on the list of pioneers of communication studies.


Аннотация. Текст включает в себя воспоминания о М. М. Громыко как научном руководителе автора статьи, а также запись интервью, где воспроизводятся важные биографические данные из жизни Громыко и академической среды Новосибирска 1960–1970-х годов. Автор отмечает причины, по которым Громыко не писала своей биографии, в том числе – в связи с репрессиями, через которые прошли семья ее отца и ее родственники, и сложностью жизни советского времени для вынесения определенных оценок происходящего. Abstract. The text includes memories of M. M. Gromyko, as the scientific advisor of the author of the article, but includes a recording of an interview, which reproduces important biographical data from the life of Gromyko and the academic environment of 1960–1970s in Novosibirsk. The author notes the reasons why Gromyko did not write her biography, due to the repressions through which the family of her father and their relatives went through, the complexity of life in Soviet times for making certain assessments of what was happening.

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Researching People and Biographical Data

In the early days of baseball biographical research, a researcher had to spend much of his time at the library or a genealogical research center poring over hard-to-read microfilm. It was a very painstaking, time-consuming effort as much of the microfilm had to be ordered through inter-library loan and then it was at least a 2 or 3 week wait until the microfilm arrived. Some researchers even purchased their own microfilm reader and bought their own film. Many of these dedicated historians found themselves needing glasses at a young age.

Fortunately, the expansion of the Internet has allowed the modern researcher to do most of this work at his or her own home computer. This article will try to describe many of the major tools that can be used to do baseball biographical research. Some of these tools are free and others require a subscription. I’ll try to indicate which ones cost money.

One of the handiest tools a researcher can use is , a site that requires purchase of a subscription. This site is targeted at genealogists and as such, is useful to the biographical researcher as well. The most significant database contained in is a database containing U.S. census records from 1850 to 1930. Census records are confidential for 72 years so the 1940 census will be available sometime in 2012. Unfortunately, the 1890 census was almost completely destroyed in a fire, and only a very small portion remains. These records contain a person’s name, age, address, family, birthplace, and occupation and are invaluable when trying to find someone. The 1900 census even contains the month and year of birth.

Ancestry also has a fairly sophisticated search tool that enables searches by name, age range, parents’ names, etc. Wild cards are allowed in the name search and it is possible to do a search just by the first name, something that comes in handy for someone with an unusual first name. The last name can also be searched by Soundex. Soundex is a method in which the system translates a name into a code and all names that fit that code are returned. For example, a Soundex search of the name Carle would also return Carl, Corley, Curley, Corll, etc. The records on the census sheets were hand-written, many of them over 100 years ago, so the name isn’t always legible and the person who transcribed the census had to make an educated guess what the name really was.. I have seen instances where a person’s name is spelled differently in 4 different censuses, in 1900, 1910, 1920, and 1930. That is why the Soundex search is so useful.

Ancestry also contains many other useful databases and they add more every day. There are databases containing both the WWI and WWII draft registration. The WWI draft registration is much more comprehensive than the WWII and contains cards for most men who registered for the draft who were born between 1872 and 1899. The cards contain the person’s name, age or birth date, occupation, and city of residence. These cards provided many corrections of inaccurate birth dates.

Ancestry contains death indexes for many states as well as the Social Security Death Index. The Social Security Death Index is an index of people who died between about 1963 and the present. It doesn’t contain everyone, but it is a good source to find deaths of people who died in the 1960s and later. It is updated on a monthly basis. Some states have death indexes as well and Ancestry has many of these. States such as California and Florida have very good death indexes. Others, such as Pennsylvania, have no death index at all.

City directories are also available through Ancestry. Unfortunately, most of these city directories are from the 1880s and 1890s. It would be more helpful had they continued through later years so a player could continue to be traced. It is possible to do a search in the 1890 Baltimore city directory, type “ballplayer”, and find all the people who have that occupation.

Ancestry has a myriad of other databases that might meet specific criteria that a researcher has when looking for a ballplayer. Also, many family genealogists store their information in Ancestry, so occasionally a ballplayer’s entire family tree might appear in an Ancestry database. It helps to check Ancestry every week to see what new databases might have been added. is probably the most indispensable site to have when doing baseball biographical research.

Another subscription site, , doesn’t have nearly as many databases as, but it does have some significant ones. It has the Social Security Death Index; however, theirs is updated on a daily basis while Ancestry’s is updated monthly. Their main holding is a pretty good collection of newspapers. These newspapers are broken down into two categories: America’s Obituaries (1977-Current) and Historical Newspapers (1690-1980). America’s Obituaries is pretty much exactly as it sounds. It contains obituaries from many different newspapers from 1977 to the present. They only have the obituaries; they do not have other articles from these papers. The Historical Newspapers contain complete newspapers, so all articles are available. Their copies of the Philadelphia Inquirer enabled researchers to find obituaries for several Philadelphia-area players who had been missing for many years. Genealogy Bank adds new papers every month, although it is difficult to determine what new ones have been added.

Speaking of newspapers, there are other sites that feature old newspapers. Two well-known newspapers that concentrated primarily on baseball were Sporting Life and The Sporting News . Sporting Life began in Philadelphia in 1883 and ran until 1917. The Sporting News began in St. Louis in 1886 and is still in operation today. SABR has a subscription to old microfilmed copies of The Sporting News linked from their website: It is called Paper of Record and is free to SABR members. It contains the years 1886-2003. Each issue of The Sporting News contains articles on all the different major league teams as well as some minor league teams. It also contains box scores of all major league games and many minor leagues. This is another invaluable tool for researchers. Obituaries which appeared in TSN’s Obituaries or Necrology feature from 1932 to 1992 are all included in The Baseball Index . Sporting Life is very similar to The Sporting News . It is available through the LA84 Foundation , a free site, thanks to a partnership between SABR, LA84, and the Baseball Hall of Fame. As of this writing, it is missing a few years, but they plan to add the remaining years as time goes on. Once again, having a search tool is essential to finding player information from this period of time and both Sporting Life and The Sporting News can be searched.

Two other pay sites are and . They have a lot of different papers from a variety of years and if a researcher is lucky, they will have a paper from the city that is needed., for instance, had old copies of The Fresno Bee and this enabled SABR researchers to find an obituary for Uriah Jones, whose whereabouts were previously unknown.

For modern papers, a site that has an index to all U.S. papers is . This is a good tool for looking up present-day obituaries for players who have died. The site directs the user to the home page for the newspaper in question. That paper’s site might also have a link to its archives. Different papers have different rules for accessing their archives. Some only go back a month or two, while others might go back to the 1980s. Some might charge a fee for accessing their archives; some might allow free access. It all depends on the paper. Many papers have their obituaries linked through serves as a central repository for obituaries from many different newspapers and the site allows searching through all these papers.

Another tool that has old copies of several major newspapers is ProQuest . ProQuest is very useful if research is needed in the Boston Globe , Chicago Tribune , Los Angeles Times , New York Times , Washington Post , Baltimore Sun , Hartford Courant , or Atlanta Constitution . They also have a few old black newspapers such as the Chicago Defender and Pittsburgh Courier . They also will periodically add new papers, although this does not happen frequently. Unfortunately, they limit their access to libraries. Some libraries have it available through the individual library’s website, but most don’t. Access is free for anyone with a library card to that library. However, once access is obtained, the user can search through 100+ years of all sections of these papers. We can all be hopeful that more papers will be added in the near-future. ( Related link: Click here to view the “Using Libraries” article )

One old newspaper has its own site: The Brooklyn Eagle can be found at and it covers the years 1841 to 1902. It also has a search tool, although it isn’t very easy to use. The site says that later years of the paper will be available at a future date, but it is unknown when that will be.

A new site that has recently come into use is . They have census records, although their records are not as complete as They do have copies of death certificates from Ohio, Texas, and the rarest of all locations, Philadelphia. They also have birth, death, and marriage indexes from quite a few different states. This is a free site and they add new databases all the time. Their search tool is primitive at best and requires you to provide a name in order to search. In the case of Philadelphia death certificates, the index doesn’t always direct you to the right record. If they ever get a new search tool, this site might become as indispensable as Ancestry.

Many states have vital records that are available online. Some, such as Missouri, West Virginia, and Arizona even have images of death certificates. Others, such as Pennsylvania, have such stringent privacy laws that it is next to impossible to get a death certificate even if that certificate is 70 or 80 years old. It is difficult to keep track of which states have what information. Fortunately, there is a site that has an index of all 50 states and links to various online indexes. This URL for the site is , a very nice site since all of the links are stored in one place.

Cemeteries are a great place to dig up information on old ballplayers. One nice online site to find cemetery information is Find A Grave . This website is updated constantly and all of the cemetery information is submitted by the general public. There is a search tool to search by name, or by name within a particular state. Often, pictures are provided of the gravesite or cemetery. It is always fascinating just to go through the site and look for pictures of the gravesites of famous athletes, movie stars, or political figures. Some large cemeteries have their own websites: Green-Wood Cemetery in Brooklyn, Spring Grove Cemetery in Cincinnati, and a network of Catholic cemeteries in St. Louis have free websites that you can search. Spring Grove actually keeps a list of all ballplayers buried in their cemetery.

Much information has been added via the Internet and more is being added every day. If you can’t find what you’re looking for, Google is a wonderful thing. If you’re looking for a player named Wilberforce Wildenburger, you can type his name into a Google search, and it may be that his grandson has already posted his biography on the Internet. For those unfamiliar with Google, that search tool can be found at .

As wonderful as the Internet is, not everything is posted there. Sometimes, you still have to resort to the old fashioned methods. Most public libraries have inter-library loan departments. If a newspaper or publication is unavailable online, chances are good that it is available through inter-library loan. Contact your library’s inter-library loan department, tell them what you need, and they will order it for you. Sometimes it is free and sometimes there is a nominal fee. Waiting time can be anywhere from about 10 days to 2 months. When it comes in, you generally have a certain period of time to look at it (on a microfilm reader at the library) before they have to send it back. Of course, you don’t have the fancy search tools that you have online, so this method is time consuming and tedious. But there is always a great exhilaration when you finally find the key clue that you had been looking for.

Baseball biographical research can be a frustrating experience. Many times you find yourself chasing a clue and find that it leads you nowhere. But just as police work as changed over the years and new technology has enabled the police to finally “get their man”, so has biographical research changed in the same way. We still have our cold cases, but we can always hold out hope that a new source will be added to the Internet that will provide exactly the information we need and we can cross another ballplayer off the “Most Wanted” list.

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National Academies Press: OpenBook

The Ecology of Industry: Sectors and Linkages (1998)

Chapter: biographical data, biographical data.

A. DOUGLAS ARMSTRONG is retired manager for pulp and paper feasibility at Georgia-Pacific Corp., where he served in various plant and management positions for over 40 years addressing operational and environmental concerns.

PATRICK R. ATKINS is director of environmental control at Alcoa. He joined Alcoa in Pittsburgh in 1972, after 4 years as a professor in environmental health engineering at the University of Texas at Austin, where he taught engineering, industrial hygiene, and ecology and directed M.S. and Ph.D. research projects for 23 students. In 1973, Atkins became Alcoa's manager of environmental control. He was named to his present position in 1980. Atkins also served as the company's chief environmental engineer from 1982 to 1984. Author of over 50 technical articles and editor of 2 books, he is a member of the American Society of Civil Engineers, the Water Pollution Control Federation, the National Society of Professional Engineers, and the Engineering Society of Western Pennsylvania. Atkins represents Alcoa on the environmental committee of the International Primary Aluminum Institute, the Business Roundtable, National Association of Manufacturers, and other national and international groups. He is a registered professional engineer in the states of Texas and Pennsylvania and serves as an adjunct professor at the University of Pittsburgh, teaching industrial waste-treatment technology. Atkins has a B.S. in civil engineering from the University of Kentucky and an M.S. and Ph.D. in environmental engineering from Stanford University.

KEITH M. BENTLEY is director of environmental engineering technical support at Georgia-Pacific Corp. In that capacity, he manages a group of engineers

that provides technical expertise to Georgia-Pacific's plants and mills. Bentley has experience reviewing plant activities to ensure compliance with applicable regulations; assisting in the design and selection of environmental control equipment; developing environmental policy; conducting regulatory development and analysis; and negotiating emission permits, variances, and compliance schedules with various regulatory agencies. He has over 23 years of experience in environmental engineering, the last 17 with Georgia-Pacific. Bentley has also held leadership positions on various committees within the Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry and the American Forest and Paper Association. He has a B.S. in chemical engineering from the University of South Carolina.

CHARLES G. CARSON III is vice president of environmental affairs at U.S. Steel. His responsibilities include overseeing U.S. Steel's environmental compliance and improvement activities and coordinating the company's relations with various environmental agencies and groups. Carson joined U.S. Steel in 1970 as a research engineer and progressed through a series of technical and management positions in various research and development areas. In 1985, he moved into U.S. Steel's commercial operations as manager of product development in the Tin Mill Products department. Carson was promoted in 1990 to general manager of Tin Mill Products. He has a B.S. in chemistry from Williams College and an M.S. and Ph.D. in metallurgy from The Pennsylvania State University.

PRESTON S. CHIARO is vice president of technical services at Kennecott Corp. He is primarily responsible for Kennecott's compliance with all federal, state, and local environmental requirements for all of its active mining and mineral processing operations as well as for its exploration, acquisition, and reclamation activities. Chiaro also oversees environmental audits and due-diligence assessments, provides assistance for getting permits, helps to promote industry concerns among regulators, and promotes energy efficiency and waste-minimization awareness. He joined Kennecott in 1991 to help direct a massive cleanup of historic mine wastes at Kennecott Utah Copper near Salt Lake City. In October 1992, Chiaro was named Kennecott's vice president of environmental affairs. Prior to joining Kennecott, he managed a large environmental cleanup contract for Ebasco Environmental. Chiaro has a B.S. and M.S. (cum laude) in environmental engineering from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. He is a registered professional engineer in five states.

ROBERT A. FROSCH is a senior research fellow at Center for Science and International Affairs of the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University and senior fellow at the National Academy of Engineering. In 1989, he revived, redefined, and popularized the term industrial ecology, and his research has focused on this field in recent years, especially in metals-handling industries. In 1993, Frosch retired as vice president of General Motors Corp.,

where he was in charge of the North American Operations Research and Development Center. After doing research in underwater sound and ocean acoustics, he served for a dozen years in a number of government positions, including deputy director of Advanced Research Projects Agency of the Department of Defense, assistant secretary of the Navy for research and development, assistant executive director of the United Nations Environment Program, and administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Frosch is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and holds a Ph.D. in theoretical physics from Columbia University.

ANN B. FULLERTON is president of The Fullerton Group, a media relations consulting firm. She has more than 10 years of product and program marketing experience for Fortune 500 companies, industry associations, and government programs. Fullerton's expertise includes design implementation and evaluation of marketing programs with substantive experience in the areas of high technology, science, and the environment. She has served as marketing advisor to senior management at AT&T, Northern Telecom, and Digital Equipment Corp. and has been recognized for her organizational and leadership abilities in taking ideas from concept to implementation. Fullerton has also served on the board of directors and chaired communications subcommittees of several industry associations, including the American Electronics Association, the Computer Business Equipment Manufacturers, the Center for Office Technology, and the Industry Cooperative for Ozone Layer Protection. She holds a B.S. (cum laude) in public relations from Boston University and an M.S. in communications management from Simmons College.

SERGIO F. GALEANO is manager of environmental programs for Georgia-Pacific Corp. His responsibilities are in product safety and assurance; policy and technology issues in connection with the environmental attributes of products; and trade and competitiveness issues. Galeano also chairs various committees of domestic and international forest products industry groups. He has received a number of honorary awards, among them membership in Phi Kappa Phi and the 1995 TAPPI Environmental Division Technical Award for outstanding technical contributions in the area of environmental protection. Galeano holds more than a dozen patents and has published extensively. He has an M.S. in civil engineering from the University of Havana and an M.S.E. and Ph.D. in environmental science and engineering, respectively, from the University of Florida at Gainesville. Galeano is a registered professional engineer and a diplomat of the American Academy of Environmental Engineers.

THOMAS E. GRAEDEL is professor of industrial ecology at the Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, a position he assumed after 27 years as Distinguished Member of Technical Staff at AT&T Bell Laboratories. He was the

first atmospheric chemist to study the atmospheric reactions of sulfur and the concentration trends in methane and carbon monoxide. As a corrosion scientist, Graedel devised the first computer model to simulate the atmospheric corrosion of metals. This work led to a voluntary position as consultant to the Statue of Liberty Restoration Project in 1984-1986. One of the founders of the emerging discipline of industrial ecology, he co-authored the first textbook in the field and has lectured widely on its implementation and implications. Graedel has published 9 books and more than 200 scientific papers. He holds a B.S. from Washington University, an M.A. from Kent State University, and an M.S. and Ph.D. from the University of Michigan.

G. FRANK JOKLIK began his career as an exploration geologist with Kennecott Corp. in 1954, heading up minerals projects in Canada and the United States. After 10 years, he joined Amax to manage the development of the Mt. Newman iron ore mines, Western Australia, and other projects. Joklik was subsequently elected a corporate vice president. In 1974, he resumed his career with Kennecott and, after several promotions, became president in 1980. He continued in that role through several changes of ownership. He retired from Kennecott in June 1993 and now operates from his office in Salt Lake City. A highlight of his career was the revitalization of Bingham Canyon mine where, through cost reduction and investment in the replacement of antiquated plant, a high-cost, inefficient operation was converted into one of the world's lowest-cost, most-productive, and environmentally clean producers of copper and precious metals. Under his management, Kennecott developed five new precious and base-metal mines in the United States, discovered and defined the giant Lihir gold deposit in Papua New Guinea, and through acquisition became the leading coal producer in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana. Joklik is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and a distinguished member of the Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration. He was elected Copper Club Man of the Year for 1988 and, in 1991, received the AIME William Lawrence Saunders Gold Medal for distinguished service to the mining industry. Joklik was born in Vienna, Austria, and grew up in Australia. After schooling at Cranbrook, he attended the University of Sydney, where he received B.Sc. (First Class Honors) and Ph.D. degrees in geology. In 1953, he came to the United States as a Fulbright Scholar at Columbia University.

ROBERT A. LAUDISE is adjunct chemical director at AT&T Bell Laboratories, where he is responsible for chemistry-related R&D throughout AT&T Bell Labs, adjunct professor of materials science at MIT, and adjunct professor of ceramics at Rutgers University. He has a special interest in green materials and processes. Laudise joined AT&T Bell Laboratories in 1956 and has served as director of materials research, physical and inorganic chemistry research, and materials and processing. His interests include solid state chemistry, materials science and con-

servation, and crystal growth. Laudise has spent considerable time studying hydrothermal crystallization and the preparation of piezoelectric, laser, nonlinear optical, and related materials. Most commercial processes for preparing crystalline quartz are based on his work. Laudise is the author of the book The Growth of Single Crystals and more than 150 publications on crystal growth and related fields. He holds 12 patents and has received numerous prizes and awards, including the A.D. Little Fellowship and the 1976 Sawyer Prize. Laudise is the past president of the International Organization of Crystal Growth, is a member of the American Chemical Society, National Academy of Engineering, National Academy of Sciences, and is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He chairs the National Materials Advisory Board and is editor-in-chief of the Journal of Materials Research. Laudise has a B.S. in chemistry from Union College and a Ph.D. in inorganic chemistry from MIT.

KENNETH J. MARTCHEK is program manager of pollution prevention and life-cycle analysis for Alcoa. He reports to the corporate director of environmental affairs and is responsible for awareness, development, and promotion of waste-reduction and product-stewardship initiatives for Alcoa worldwide. Martchek joined Alcoa in 1979 after 3 years with U.S. Research Laboratories, where he was responsible for process simulations of ore processing and blast-furnace operations. As a senior project engineer at Alcoa Technical Center, he supervised the operation of pilot plant facilities in the production of high-purity aluminum and solar-grade silicon. Martchek joined the environmental engineering staff of Alcoa in 1983 and directed a number of commercial project installations in water and waste treatment. In 1992, he received Alcoa's Davis Award for the R&D, design, and successful startup of a biological treatment facility associated with a new, high-speed electrocoating operation. Prior to assuming his present position, Martchek served as engineering manager for Alcoa's effort to develop ceramic electronic packaging. He is a member of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers and American Society for Quality. Martchek has a B.S. in chemical engineering from the University of Pittsburgh and an M.S. in chemical and biochemical engineering from Rutgers University. He is a licensed professional engineer in the state of Pennsylvania.

ELIZABETH H. MIKOLS is manager of environmental affairs for CBR-HCI Construction Materials Corp., one of the largest producers of portland cement in the United States and Canada. Prior to coming to CBR-HCI in 1989, she held environmental positions at Lonestar Industries, another major cement, concrete, and construction materials company. In addition to her 13 years in the cement industry, Mikols had 9 years of experience working in environmental regulatory agencies in New York and Connecticut. She participates on several environmental committees and task groups for industry associations and has delivered presentations at technical conferences and public meetings on a variety of environmental

subjects connected with the cement industry. Mikols is a member of the Air & Waste Management Association, a nationwide association of environmental professionals, and serves on the Dean's Strategic Advisory Council for the Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies. She has a bachelor's degree from the University of California at Berkeley and a master's degree from the School of Forestry and Environmental Studies at Yale University.

ROBERT J. OLSZEWSKI is director of environmental affairs, forest resources, at Georgia-Pacific Corp. Prior to joining industry, he worked for 6 years as Florida's forest hydrologist. In that position, Olszewski was responsible for implementing the forestry non-point-source pollution element of the state's water-quality plan and actively trained Florida's forestry community in silvicultural best-management-practice applications. His next job was with the Florida Forestry Association, where his duties included working with the forestry community, environmental organizations, the Florida legislature, and federal, state, and local governments on a variety of environmental and land-use regulations affecting forestry operations in the state. In March 1993, Olszewski accepted a newly created position with Georgia-Pacific, working for the Forest Resources Business Unit and the Environmental Policy, Training, and Regulatory Group on environmental issues affecting forestry operations at the company. He assumed his current post in January 1996. Olszewski is active with the Society of American Foresters (SAF), having served as Florida section chairman and as chairman of Georgia SAF's Chattahoochee chapter, and is chairman of the American Forest and Paper Association's Forest Wetland and Nonpoint Source Committee and Global Forestry Committee. He has a B.S. in forestry from Michigan Technological University and an M.S. in forest hydrology from the University of Georgia, Athens.

DEANNA J. RICHARDS is associate director of the National Academy of Engineering's Program Office and also directs the Academy's program on Technology and Environment (T&E). Hired in 1991 to launch the Academy's environmental effort, she has led groundbreaking work that has helped establish the field of industrial ecology. The T&E program has focused on technological trajectories of large-scale systems, as well as on best practices in environmental design and management in the manufacturing and service industries. Richards has directed several projects related to industry efforts to integrate environmental considerations in decision making. Before joining the NAE, Richards was an assistant professor of environmental engineering and worked for several years in that field. She has a B.S. (honors) in civil engineering from the University of Edinburgh and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees, also in civil engineering, from the University of Pennsylvania.

GAIL A. SMITH manages corporate environmental communications for Georgia-Pacific Corp., where she has worked since 1984. She is active in industry groups, serving on communications committees for the American Forest and Pa-

per Association and the Great Lakes Water Quality Coalition. Smith is also a member of the International Association of Business Communicators. She is a graduate of Brenau College in Gainesville, Ga., where she majored in business administration and English.

JONATHAN R. SMITH JR. is president of Rigdon Engineering, a consumer products engineering and development firm. His career in the pulp and paper industry began in 1969, when he became research engineer at Chesapeake Corp. of Virginia. Smith later joined the Mead Corp. as senior consultant, corporate human and environmental protection department. He then held increasingly responsible positions at Georgia-Pacific Corp., becoming senior manager of environmental affairs in 1991. Smith has published numerous articles in peer-reviewed journals and holds four U.S. patents. He is a diplomate of the American Academy of Environmental Engineers, a member of the Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, and Brunswick-Golden Isles Chamber of Commerce. Smith has a B.S. in chemical engineering from the University of Virginia and did graduate work in systems engineering at Ohio University and in water-pollution control at Vanderbilt University.

IAN M. TORRENS is head of power generation for Shell International in London, where he is responsible for business development activities involving use of Shell gas and coal fuels by electric utilities and independent electric power developers worldwide. He also represents Shell International Gas and Shell Coal International in a number of international bodies such as the International Energy Agency and the World Coal Institute. Prior to assuming his current position in 1995, Torrens was director of the Environment Control Business Unit at the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). At EPRI, he directed R&D in several areas relating to electric power generation: SO 2 , NO x , and particulate control systems; CO 2 mitigation; and waste and water management, including management of potentially toxic substances in air and water. Between 1973 and 1987, he was at the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in Paris, where he worked on energy issues in the OECD's International Environment Directorate. The author of three books and several papers, Torrens has a B.Sc. (first class honours) in physics from Queen's University, Belfast, and a Ph.D. in nuclear physics from the University of Cambridge.

KURT E. YEAGER is president and chief executive officer of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). After joining EPRI in 1974, he held a series of R&D management positions before being named, in 1990, as senior vice president of technical operations, responsible for the integrated management of all EPRI technical programs. In 1994, Yeager became senior vice president for strategic development and, in 1995, executive vice president and chief operating officer. Before joining EPRI, he was director of energy R&D planning for the Environmental

Protection Agency's Office of Research and associate head of enviornmental systems development at the MITRE Corp. Yeager has a bachelor's degree from Kenyon College and completed postgraduate studies in chemistry and physics at Ohio State and the University of California at Davis. He is a distinguished graduate of the Air Force Nuclear Research Officers Program and a fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

This volume provides insights into the environmental practices of five industry sectors: materials processing, manufacturing, electric utilities, and pulp and paper. The ecology of industry is presented in terms of systems of production and consumption, taking into account the flows of material, energy, capital, and information. The book examines ways to improve the environmental performance of these industries (and others, such as the service sector) and shows how decisions made by industry managers can leverage systemic environmental improvements elsewhere in the economy.

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