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  • How to Write a Strong Hypothesis | Guide & Examples

How to Write a Strong Hypothesis | Guide & Examples

Published on 6 May 2022 by Shona McCombes .

A hypothesis is a statement that can be tested by scientific research. If you want to test a relationship between two or more variables, you need to write hypotheses before you start your experiment or data collection.

Table of contents

What is a hypothesis, developing a hypothesis (with example), hypothesis examples, frequently asked questions about writing hypotheses.

A hypothesis states your predictions about what your research will find. It is a tentative answer to your research question that has not yet been tested. For some research projects, you might have to write several hypotheses that address different aspects of your research question.

A hypothesis is not just a guess – it should be based on existing theories and knowledge. It also has to be testable, which means you can support or refute it through scientific research methods (such as experiments, observations, and statistical analysis of data).

Variables in hypotheses

Hypotheses propose a relationship between two or more variables . An independent variable is something the researcher changes or controls. A dependent variable is something the researcher observes and measures.

In this example, the independent variable is exposure to the sun – the assumed cause . The dependent variable is the level of happiness – the assumed effect .

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Step 1: ask a question.

Writing a hypothesis begins with a research question that you want to answer. The question should be focused, specific, and researchable within the constraints of your project.

Step 2: Do some preliminary research

Your initial answer to the question should be based on what is already known about the topic. Look for theories and previous studies to help you form educated assumptions about what your research will find.

At this stage, you might construct a conceptual framework to identify which variables you will study and what you think the relationships are between them. Sometimes, you’ll have to operationalise more complex constructs.

Step 3: Formulate your hypothesis

Now you should have some idea of what you expect to find. Write your initial answer to the question in a clear, concise sentence.

Step 4: Refine your hypothesis

You need to make sure your hypothesis is specific and testable. There are various ways of phrasing a hypothesis, but all the terms you use should have clear definitions, and the hypothesis should contain:

  • The relevant variables
  • The specific group being studied
  • The predicted outcome of the experiment or analysis

Step 5: Phrase your hypothesis in three ways

To identify the variables, you can write a simple prediction in if … then form. The first part of the sentence states the independent variable and the second part states the dependent variable.

In academic research, hypotheses are more commonly phrased in terms of correlations or effects, where you directly state the predicted relationship between variables.

If you are comparing two groups, the hypothesis can state what difference you expect to find between them.

Step 6. Write a null hypothesis

If your research involves statistical hypothesis testing , you will also have to write a null hypothesis. The null hypothesis is the default position that there is no association between the variables. The null hypothesis is written as H 0 , while the alternative hypothesis is H 1 or H a .

Hypothesis testing is a formal procedure for investigating our ideas about the world using statistics. It is used by scientists to test specific predictions, called hypotheses , by calculating how likely it is that a pattern or relationship between variables could have arisen by chance.

A hypothesis is not just a guess. It should be based on existing theories and knowledge. It also has to be testable, which means you can support or refute it through scientific research methods (such as experiments, observations, and statistical analysis of data).

A research hypothesis is your proposed answer to your research question. The research hypothesis usually includes an explanation (‘ x affects y because …’).

A statistical hypothesis, on the other hand, is a mathematical statement about a population parameter. Statistical hypotheses always come in pairs: the null and alternative hypotheses. In a well-designed study , the statistical hypotheses correspond logically to the research hypothesis.

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What is and How to Write a Good Hypothesis in Research?

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One of the most important aspects of conducting research is constructing a strong hypothesis. But what makes a hypothesis in research effective? In this article, we’ll look at the difference between a hypothesis and a research question, as well as the elements of a good hypothesis in research. We’ll also include some examples of effective hypotheses, and what pitfalls to avoid.

What is a Hypothesis in Research?

Simply put, a hypothesis is a research question that also includes the predicted or expected result of the research. Without a hypothesis, there can be no basis for a scientific or research experiment. As such, it is critical that you carefully construct your hypothesis by being deliberate and thorough, even before you set pen to paper. Unless your hypothesis is clearly and carefully constructed, any flaw can have an adverse, and even grave, effect on the quality of your experiment and its subsequent results.

Research Question vs Hypothesis

It’s easy to confuse research questions with hypotheses, and vice versa. While they’re both critical to the Scientific Method, they have very specific differences. Primarily, a research question, just like a hypothesis, is focused and concise. But a hypothesis includes a prediction based on the proposed research, and is designed to forecast the relationship of and between two (or more) variables. Research questions are open-ended, and invite debate and discussion, while hypotheses are closed, e.g. “The relationship between A and B will be C.”

A hypothesis is generally used if your research topic is fairly well established, and you are relatively certain about the relationship between the variables that will be presented in your research. Since a hypothesis is ideally suited for experimental studies, it will, by its very existence, affect the design of your experiment. The research question is typically used for new topics that have not yet been researched extensively. Here, the relationship between different variables is less known. There is no prediction made, but there may be variables explored. The research question can be casual in nature, simply trying to understand if a relationship even exists, descriptive or comparative.

How to Write Hypothesis in Research

Writing an effective hypothesis starts before you even begin to type. Like any task, preparation is key, so you start first by conducting research yourself, and reading all you can about the topic that you plan to research. From there, you’ll gain the knowledge you need to understand where your focus within the topic will lie.

Remember that a hypothesis is a prediction of the relationship that exists between two or more variables. Your job is to write a hypothesis, and design the research, to “prove” whether or not your prediction is correct. A common pitfall is to use judgments that are subjective and inappropriate for the construction of a hypothesis. It’s important to keep the focus and language of your hypothesis objective.

An effective hypothesis in research is clearly and concisely written, and any terms or definitions clarified and defined. Specific language must also be used to avoid any generalities or assumptions.

Use the following points as a checklist to evaluate the effectiveness of your research hypothesis:

  • Predicts the relationship and outcome
  • Simple and concise – avoid wordiness
  • Clear with no ambiguity or assumptions about the readers’ knowledge
  • Observable and testable results
  • Relevant and specific to the research question or problem

Research Hypothesis Example

Perhaps the best way to evaluate whether or not your hypothesis is effective is to compare it to those of your colleagues in the field. There is no need to reinvent the wheel when it comes to writing a powerful research hypothesis. As you’re reading and preparing your hypothesis, you’ll also read other hypotheses. These can help guide you on what works, and what doesn’t, when it comes to writing a strong research hypothesis.

Here are a few generic examples to get you started.

Eating an apple each day, after the age of 60, will result in a reduction of frequency of physician visits.

Budget airlines are more likely to receive more customer complaints. A budget airline is defined as an airline that offers lower fares and fewer amenities than a traditional full-service airline. (Note that the term “budget airline” is included in the hypothesis.

Workplaces that offer flexible working hours report higher levels of employee job satisfaction than workplaces with fixed hours.

Each of the above examples are specific, observable and measurable, and the statement of prediction can be verified or shown to be false by utilizing standard experimental practices. It should be noted, however, that often your hypothesis will change as your research progresses.

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How to Write a Hypothesis – Steps & Tips

Published by Alaxendra Bets at August 14th, 2021 , Revised On October 26, 2023

What is a Research Hypothesis?

You can test a research statement with the help of experimental or theoretical research, known as a hypothesis.

If you want to find out the similarities, differences, and relationships between variables, you must write a testable hypothesis before compiling the data, performing analysis, and generating results to complete.

The data analysis and findings will help you test the hypothesis and see whether it is true or false. Here is all you need to know about how to write a hypothesis for a  dissertation .

Research Hypothesis Definition

Not sure what the meaning of the research hypothesis is?

A research hypothesis predicts an answer to the research question  based on existing theoretical knowledge or experimental data.

Some studies may have multiple hypothesis statements depending on the research question(s).  A research hypothesis must be based on formulas, facts, and theories. It should be testable by data analysis, observations, experiments, or other scientific methodologies that can refute or support the statement.

Variables in Hypothesis

Developing a hypothesis is easy. Most research studies have two or more variables in the hypothesis, particularly studies involving correlational and experimental research. The researcher can control or change the independent variable(s) while measuring and observing the independent variable(s).

“How long a student sleeps affects test scores.”

In the above statement, the dependent variable is the test score, while the independent variable is the length of time spent in sleep. Developing a hypothesis will be easy if you know your research’s dependent and independent variables.

Once you have developed a thesis statement, questions such as how to write a hypothesis for the dissertation and how to test a research hypothesis become pretty straightforward.

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Step-by-Step Guide on How to Write a Hypothesis

Here are the steps involved in how to write a hypothesis for a dissertation.

Step 1: Start with a Research Question

  • Begin by asking a specific question about a topic of interest.
  • This question should be clear, concise, and researchable.

Example: Does exposure to sunlight affect plant growth?

Step 2: Do Preliminary Research

  • Before formulating a hypothesis, conduct background research to understand existing knowledge on the topic.
  • Familiarise yourself with prior studies, theories, or observations related to the research question.

Step 3: Define Variables

  • Independent Variable (IV): The factor that you change or manipulate in an experiment.
  • Dependent Variable (DV): The factor that you measure.

Example: IV: Amount of sunlight exposure (e.g., 2 hours/day, 4 hours/day, 8 hours/day) DV: Plant growth (e.g., height in centimetres)

Step 4: Formulate the Hypothesis

  • A hypothesis is a statement that predicts the relationship between variables.
  • It is often written as an “if-then” statement.

Example: If plants receive more sunlight, then they will grow taller.

Step 5: Ensure it is Testable

A good hypothesis is empirically testable. This means you should be able to design an experiment or observation to test its validity.

Example: You can set up an experiment where plants are exposed to varying amounts of sunlight and then measure their growth over a period of time.

Step 6: Consider Potential Confounding Variables

  • Confounding variables are factors other than the independent variable that might affect the outcome.
  • It is important to identify these to ensure that they do not skew your results.

Example: Soil quality, water frequency, or type of plant can all affect growth. Consider keeping these constant in your experiment.

Step 7: Write the Null Hypothesis

  • The null hypothesis is a statement that there is no effect or no relationship between the variables.
  • It is what you aim to disprove or reject through your research.

Example: There is no difference in plant growth regardless of the amount of sunlight exposure.

Step 8: Test your Hypothesis

Design an experiment or conduct observations to test your hypothesis.

Example: Grow three sets of plants: one set exposed to 2 hours of sunlight daily, another exposed to 4 hours, and a third exposed to 8 hours. Measure and compare their growth after a set period.

Step 9: Analyse the Results

After testing, review your data to determine if it supports your hypothesis.

Step 10: Draw Conclusions

  • Based on your findings, determine whether you can accept or reject the hypothesis.
  • Remember, even if you reject your hypothesis, it’s a valuable result. It can guide future research and refine questions.

Three Ways to Phrase a Hypothesis

Try to use “if”… and “then”… to identify the variables. The independent variable should be present in the first part of the hypothesis, while the dependent variable will form the second part of the statement. Consider understanding the below research hypothesis example to create a specific, clear, and concise research hypothesis;

If an obese lady starts attending Zomba fitness classes, her health will improve.

In academic research, you can write the predicted variable relationship directly because most research studies correlate terms.

The number of Zomba fitness classes attended by the obese lady has a positive effect on health.

If your research compares two groups, then you can develop a hypothesis statement on their differences.

An obese lady who attended most Zumba fitness classes will have better health than those who attended a few.

How to Write a Null Hypothesis

If a statistical analysis is involved in your research, then you must create a null hypothesis. If you find any relationship between the variables, then the null hypothesis will be the default position that there is no relationship between them. H0 is the symbol for the null hypothesis, while the hypothesis is represented as H1. The null hypothesis will also answer your question, “How to test the research hypothesis in the dissertation.”

H0: The number of Zumba fitness classes attended by the obese lady does not affect her health.

H1: The number of Zumba fitness classes attended by obese lady positively affects health.

Also see:  Your Dissertation in Education

Hypothesis Examples

Research Question: Does the amount of sunlight a plant receives affect its growth? Hypothesis: Plants that receive more sunlight will grow taller than plants that receive less sunlight.

Research Question: Do students who eat breakfast perform better in school exams than those who don’t? Hypothesis: Students who eat a morning breakfast will score higher on school exams compared to students who skip breakfast.

Research Question: Does listening to music while studying impact a student’s ability to retain information? Hypothesis 1 (Directional): Students who listen to music while studying will retain less information than those who study in silence. Hypothesis 2 (Non-directional): There will be a difference in information retention between students who listen to music while studying and those who study in silence.

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If you are unsure about how to rest a research hypothesis in a dissertation or simply unsure about how to develop a hypothesis for your research, then you can take advantage of our dissertation services which cover every tiny aspect of a dissertation project you might need help with including but not limited to setting up a hypothesis and research questions,  help with individual chapters ,  full dissertation writing ,  statistical analysis , and much more.

Frequently Asked Questions

What are the 5 rules for writing a good hypothesis.

  • Clear Statement: State a clear relationship between variables.
  • Testable: Ensure it can be investigated and measured.
  • Specific: Avoid vague terms, be precise in predictions.
  • Falsifiable: Design to allow potential disproof.
  • Relevant: Address research question and align with existing knowledge.

What is a hypothesis in simple words?

A hypothesis is an educated guess or prediction about something that can be tested. It is a statement that suggests a possible explanation for an event or phenomenon based on prior knowledge or observation. Scientists use hypotheses as a starting point for experiments to discover if they are true or false.

What is the hypothesis and examples?

A hypothesis is a testable prediction or explanation for an observation or phenomenon. For example, if plants are given sunlight, then they will grow. In this case, the hypothesis suggests that sunlight has a positive effect on plant growth. It can be tested by experimenting with plants in varying light conditions.

What is the hypothesis in research definition?

A hypothesis in research is a clear, testable statement predicting the possible outcome of a study based on prior knowledge and observation. It serves as the foundation for conducting experiments or investigations. Researchers test the validity of the hypothesis to draw conclusions and advance knowledge in a particular field.

Why is it called a hypothesis?

The term “hypothesis” originates from the Greek word “hypothesis,” which means “base” or “foundation.” It’s used to describe a foundational statement or proposition that can be tested. In scientific contexts, it denotes a tentative explanation for a phenomenon, serving as a starting point for investigation or experimentation.

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How to write a hypothesis for dissertation,? A hypothesis is a statement that can be tested with the help of experimental or theoretical research.

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What Is A Research (Scientific) Hypothesis? A plain-language explainer + examples

By:  Derek Jansen (MBA)  | Reviewed By: Dr Eunice Rautenbach | June 2020

If you’re new to the world of research, or it’s your first time writing a dissertation or thesis, you’re probably noticing that the words “research hypothesis” and “scientific hypothesis” are used quite a bit, and you’re wondering what they mean in a research context .

“Hypothesis” is one of those words that people use loosely, thinking they understand what it means. However, it has a very specific meaning within academic research. So, it’s important to understand the exact meaning before you start hypothesizing. 

Research Hypothesis 101

  • What is a hypothesis ?
  • What is a research hypothesis (scientific hypothesis)?
  • Requirements for a research hypothesis
  • Definition of a research hypothesis
  • The null hypothesis

What is a hypothesis?

Let’s start with the general definition of a hypothesis (not a research hypothesis or scientific hypothesis), according to the Cambridge Dictionary:

Hypothesis: an idea or explanation for something that is based on known facts but has not yet been proved.

In other words, it’s a statement that provides an explanation for why or how something works, based on facts (or some reasonable assumptions), but that has not yet been specifically tested . For example, a hypothesis might look something like this:

Hypothesis: sleep impacts academic performance.

This statement predicts that academic performance will be influenced by the amount and/or quality of sleep a student engages in – sounds reasonable, right? It’s based on reasonable assumptions , underpinned by what we currently know about sleep and health (from the existing literature). So, loosely speaking, we could call it a hypothesis, at least by the dictionary definition.

But that’s not good enough…

Unfortunately, that’s not quite sophisticated enough to describe a research hypothesis (also sometimes called a scientific hypothesis), and it wouldn’t be acceptable in a dissertation, thesis or research paper. In the world of academic research, a statement needs a few more criteria to constitute a true research hypothesis . 

What is a research hypothesis?

A research hypothesis (also called a scientific hypothesis) is a statement about the expected outcome of a study (for example, a dissertation or thesis). To constitute a quality hypothesis, the statement needs to have three attributes – specificity , clarity and testability .

Let’s take a look at these more closely.

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how to write hypothesis for dissertation

Hypothesis Essential #1: Specificity & Clarity

A good research hypothesis needs to be extremely clear and articulate about both what’ s being assessed (who or what variables are involved ) and the expected outcome (for example, a difference between groups, a relationship between variables, etc.).

Let’s stick with our sleepy students example and look at how this statement could be more specific and clear.

Hypothesis: Students who sleep at least 8 hours per night will, on average, achieve higher grades in standardised tests than students who sleep less than 8 hours a night.

As you can see, the statement is very specific as it identifies the variables involved (sleep hours and test grades), the parties involved (two groups of students), as well as the predicted relationship type (a positive relationship). There’s no ambiguity or uncertainty about who or what is involved in the statement, and the expected outcome is clear.

Contrast that to the original hypothesis we looked at – “Sleep impacts academic performance” – and you can see the difference. “Sleep” and “academic performance” are both comparatively vague , and there’s no indication of what the expected relationship direction is (more sleep or less sleep). As you can see, specificity and clarity are key.

A good research hypothesis needs to be very clear about what’s being assessed and very specific about the expected outcome.

Hypothesis Essential #2: Testability (Provability)

A statement must be testable to qualify as a research hypothesis. In other words, there needs to be a way to prove (or disprove) the statement. If it’s not testable, it’s not a hypothesis – simple as that.

For example, consider the hypothesis we mentioned earlier:

Hypothesis: Students who sleep at least 8 hours per night will, on average, achieve higher grades in standardised tests than students who sleep less than 8 hours a night.  

We could test this statement by undertaking a quantitative study involving two groups of students, one that gets 8 or more hours of sleep per night for a fixed period, and one that gets less. We could then compare the standardised test results for both groups to see if there’s a statistically significant difference. 

Again, if you compare this to the original hypothesis we looked at – “Sleep impacts academic performance” – you can see that it would be quite difficult to test that statement, primarily because it isn’t specific enough. How much sleep? By who? What type of academic performance?

So, remember the mantra – if you can’t test it, it’s not a hypothesis 🙂

A good research hypothesis must be testable. In other words, you must able to collect observable data in a scientifically rigorous fashion to test it.

Defining A Research Hypothesis

You’re still with us? Great! Let’s recap and pin down a clear definition of a hypothesis.

A research hypothesis (or scientific hypothesis) is a statement about an expected relationship between variables, or explanation of an occurrence, that is clear, specific and testable.

So, when you write up hypotheses for your dissertation or thesis, make sure that they meet all these criteria. If you do, you’ll not only have rock-solid hypotheses but you’ll also ensure a clear focus for your entire research project.

What about the null hypothesis?

You may have also heard the terms null hypothesis , alternative hypothesis, or H-zero thrown around. At a simple level, the null hypothesis is the counter-proposal to the original hypothesis.

For example, if the hypothesis predicts that there is a relationship between two variables (for example, sleep and academic performance), the null hypothesis would predict that there is no relationship between those variables.

At a more technical level, the null hypothesis proposes that no statistical significance exists in a set of given observations and that any differences are due to chance alone.

And there you have it – hypotheses in a nutshell. 

If you have any questions, be sure to leave a comment below and we’ll do our best to help you. If you need hands-on help developing and testing your hypotheses, consider our private coaching service , where we hold your hand through the research journey.

how to write hypothesis for dissertation

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This post is part of our dissertation mini-course, which covers everything you need to get started with your dissertation, thesis or research project. 

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12 Comments

Lynnet Chikwaikwai

Very useful information. I benefit more from getting more information in this regard.

Dr. WuodArek

Very great insight,educative and informative. Please give meet deep critics on many research data of public international Law like human rights, environment, natural resources, law of the sea etc

Afshin

In a book I read a distinction is made between null, research, and alternative hypothesis. As far as I understand, alternative and research hypotheses are the same. Can you please elaborate? Best Afshin

GANDI Benjamin

This is a self explanatory, easy going site. I will recommend this to my friends and colleagues.

Lucile Dossou-Yovo

Very good definition. How can I cite your definition in my thesis? Thank you. Is nul hypothesis compulsory in a research?

Egya Salihu

Please what is the difference between alternate hypothesis and research hypothesis?

Mulugeta Tefera

It is a very good explanation. However, it limits hypotheses to statistically tasteable ideas. What about for qualitative researches or other researches that involve quantitative data that don’t need statistical tests?

Derek Jansen

In qualitative research, one typically uses propositions, not hypotheses.

Samia

could you please elaborate it more

Patricia Nyawir

I’ve benefited greatly from these notes, thank you.

Hopeson Khondiwa

This is very helpful

Dr. Andarge

well articulated ideas are presented here, thank you for being reliable sources of information

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  • Writing Strong Research Questions | Criteria & Examples

Writing Strong Research Questions | Criteria & Examples

Published on October 26, 2022 by Shona McCombes . Revised on November 21, 2023.

A research question pinpoints exactly what you want to find out in your work. A good research question is essential to guide your research paper , dissertation , or thesis .

All research questions should be:

  • Focused on a single problem or issue
  • Researchable using primary and/or secondary sources
  • Feasible to answer within the timeframe and practical constraints
  • Specific enough to answer thoroughly
  • Complex enough to develop the answer over the space of a paper or thesis
  • Relevant to your field of study and/or society more broadly

Writing Strong Research Questions

Table of contents

How to write a research question, what makes a strong research question, using sub-questions to strengthen your main research question, research questions quiz, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about research questions.

You can follow these steps to develop a strong research question:

  • Choose your topic
  • Do some preliminary reading about the current state of the field
  • Narrow your focus to a specific niche
  • Identify the research problem that you will address

The way you frame your question depends on what your research aims to achieve. The table below shows some examples of how you might formulate questions for different purposes.

Using your research problem to develop your research question

Note that while most research questions can be answered with various types of research , the way you frame your question should help determine your choices.

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how to write hypothesis for dissertation

Research questions anchor your whole project, so it’s important to spend some time refining them. The criteria below can help you evaluate the strength of your research question.

Focused and researchable

Feasible and specific, complex and arguable, relevant and original.

Chances are that your main research question likely can’t be answered all at once. That’s why sub-questions are important: they allow you to answer your main question in a step-by-step manner.

Good sub-questions should be:

  • Less complex than the main question
  • Focused only on 1 type of research
  • Presented in a logical order

Here are a few examples of descriptive and framing questions:

  • Descriptive: According to current government arguments, how should a European bank tax be implemented?
  • Descriptive: Which countries have a bank tax/levy on financial transactions?
  • Framing: How should a bank tax/levy on financial transactions look at a European level?

Keep in mind that sub-questions are by no means mandatory. They should only be asked if you need the findings to answer your main question. If your main question is simple enough to stand on its own, it’s okay to skip the sub-question part. As a rule of thumb, the more complex your subject, the more sub-questions you’ll need.

Try to limit yourself to 4 or 5 sub-questions, maximum. If you feel you need more than this, it may be indication that your main research question is not sufficiently specific. In this case, it’s is better to revisit your problem statement and try to tighten your main question up.

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If you want to know more about the research process , methodology , research bias , or statistics , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.

Methodology

  • Sampling methods
  • Simple random sampling
  • Stratified sampling
  • Cluster sampling
  • Likert scales
  • Reproducibility

 Statistics

  • Null hypothesis
  • Statistical power
  • Probability distribution
  • Effect size
  • Poisson distribution

Research bias

  • Optimism bias
  • Cognitive bias
  • Implicit bias
  • Hawthorne effect
  • Anchoring bias
  • Explicit bias

The way you present your research problem in your introduction varies depending on the nature of your research paper . A research paper that presents a sustained argument will usually encapsulate this argument in a thesis statement .

A research paper designed to present the results of empirical research tends to present a research question that it seeks to answer. It may also include a hypothesis —a prediction that will be confirmed or disproved by your research.

As you cannot possibly read every source related to your topic, it’s important to evaluate sources to assess their relevance. Use preliminary evaluation to determine whether a source is worth examining in more depth.

This involves:

  • Reading abstracts , prefaces, introductions , and conclusions
  • Looking at the table of contents to determine the scope of the work
  • Consulting the index for key terms or the names of important scholars

A research hypothesis is your proposed answer to your research question. The research hypothesis usually includes an explanation (“ x affects y because …”).

A statistical hypothesis, on the other hand, is a mathematical statement about a population parameter. Statistical hypotheses always come in pairs: the null and alternative hypotheses . In a well-designed study , the statistical hypotheses correspond logically to the research hypothesis.

Writing Strong Research Questions

Formulating a main research question can be a difficult task. Overall, your question should contribute to solving the problem that you have defined in your problem statement .

However, it should also fulfill criteria in three main areas:

  • Researchability
  • Feasibility and specificity
  • Relevance and originality

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Learn How To Write A Hypothesis For Your Next Research Project!

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Undoubtedly, research plays a crucial role in substantiating or refuting our assumptions. These assumptions act as potential answers to our questions. Such assumptions, also known as hypotheses, are considered key aspects of research. In this blog, we delve into the significance of hypotheses. And provide insights on how to write them effectively. So, let’s dive in and explore the art of writing hypotheses together.

Table of Contents

What is a Hypothesis?

A hypothesis is a crucial starting point in scientific research. It is an educated guess about the relationship between two or more variables. In other words, a hypothesis acts as a foundation for a researcher to build their study.

Here are some examples of well-crafted hypotheses:

  • Increased exposure to natural sunlight improves sleep quality in adults.

A positive relationship between natural sunlight exposure and sleep quality in adult individuals.

  • Playing puzzle games on a regular basis enhances problem-solving abilities in children.

Engaging in frequent puzzle gameplay leads to improved problem-solving skills in children.

  • Students and improved learning hecks.

S tudents using online  paper writing service  platforms (as a learning tool for receiving personalized feedback and guidance) will demonstrate improved writing skills. (compared to those who do not utilize such platforms).

  • The use of APA format in research papers. 

Using the  APA format  helps students stay organized when writing research papers. Organized students can focus better on their topics and, as a result, produce better quality work.

The Building Blocks of a Hypothesis

To better understand the concept of a hypothesis, let’s break it down into its basic components:

  • Variables . A hypothesis involves at least two variables. An independent variable and a dependent variable. The independent variable is the one being changed or manipulated, while the dependent variable is the one being measured or observed.
  • Relationship : A hypothesis proposes a relationship or connection between the variables. This could be a cause-and-effect relationship or a correlation between them.
  • Testability : A hypothesis should be testable and falsifiable, meaning it can be proven right or wrong through experimentation or observation.

Types of Hypotheses

When learning how to write a hypothesis, it’s essential to understand its main types. These include; alternative hypotheses and null hypotheses. In the following section, we explore both types of hypotheses with examples. 

Alternative Hypothesis (H1)

This kind of hypothesis suggests a relationship or effect between the variables. It is the main focus of the study. The researcher wants to either prove or disprove it. Many research divides this hypothesis into two subsections: 

  • Directional 

This type of H1 predicts a specific outcome. Many researchers use this hypothesis to explore the relationship between variables rather than the groups. 

  • Non-directional

You can take a guess from the name. This type of H1 does not provide a specific prediction for the research outcome. 

Here are some examples for your better understanding of how to write a hypothesis.

  • Consuming caffeine improves cognitive performance.  (This hypothesis predicts that there is a positive relationship between caffeine consumption and cognitive performance.)
  • Aerobic exercise leads to reduced blood pressure.  (This hypothesis suggests that engaging in aerobic exercise results in lower blood pressure readings.)
  • Exposure to nature reduces stress levels among employees.  (Here, the hypothesis proposes that employees exposed to natural environments will experience decreased stress levels.)
  • Listening to classical music while studying increases memory retention.  (This hypothesis speculates that studying with classical music playing in the background boosts students’ ability to retain information.)
  • Early literacy intervention improves reading skills in children.  (This hypothesis claims that providing early literacy assistance to children results in enhanced reading abilities.)
  • Time management in nursing students. ( Students who use a  nursing research paper writing service  have more time to focus on their studies and can achieve better grades in other subjects. )

Null Hypothesis (H0)

A null hypothesis assumes no relationship or effect between the variables. If the alternative hypothesis is proven to be false, the null hypothesis is considered to be true. Usually a null hypothesis shows no direct correlation between the defined variables. 

Here are some of the examples

  • The consumption of herbal tea has no effect on sleep quality.  (This hypothesis assumes that herbal tea consumption does not impact the quality of sleep.)
  • The number of hours spent playing video games is unrelated to academic performance.  (Here, the null hypothesis suggests that no relationship exists between video gameplay duration and academic achievement.)
  • Implementing flexible work schedules has no influence on employee job satisfaction.  (This hypothesis contends that providing flexible schedules does not affect how satisfied employees are with their jobs.)
  • Writing ability of a 7th grader is not affected by reading editorial example. ( There is no relationship between reading an  editorial example  and improving a 7th grader’s writing abilities.) 
  • The type of lighting in a room does not affect people’s mood.  (In this null hypothesis, there is no connection between the kind of lighting in a room and the mood of those present.)
  • The use of social media during break time does not impact productivity at work.  (This hypothesis proposes that social media usage during breaks has no effect on work productivity.)

As you learn how to write a hypothesis, remember that aiming for clarity, testability, and relevance to your research question is vital. By mastering this skill, you’re well on your way to conducting impactful scientific research. Good luck!

Importance of a Hypothesis in Research

A well-structured hypothesis is a vital part of any research project for several reasons:

  • It provides clear direction for the study by setting its focus and purpose.
  • It outlines expectations of the research, making it easier to measure results.
  • It helps identify any potential limitations in the study, allowing researchers to refine their approach.

In conclusion, a hypothesis plays a fundamental role in the research process. By understanding its concept and constructing a well-thought-out hypothesis, researchers lay the groundwork for a successful, scientifically sound investigation.

How to Write a Hypothesis?

Here are five steps that you can follow to write an effective hypothesis. 

Step 1: Identify Your Research Question

The first step in learning how to compose a hypothesis is to clearly define your research question. This question is the central focus of your study and will help you determine the direction of your hypothesis.

Step 2: Determine the Variables

When exploring how to write a hypothesis, it’s crucial to identify the variables involved in your study. You’ll need at least two variables:

  • Independent variable : The factor you manipulate or change in your experiment.
  • Dependent variable : The outcome or result you observe or measure, which is influenced by the independent variable.

Step 3: Build the Hypothetical Relationship

In understanding how to compose a hypothesis, constructing the relationship between the variables is key. Based on your research question and variables, predict the expected outcome or connection. This prediction should be specific, testable, and, if possible, expressed in the “If…then” format.

Step 4: Write the Null Hypothesis

When mastering how to write a hypothesis, it’s important to create a null hypothesis as well. The null hypothesis assumes no relationship or effect between the variables, acting as a counterpoint to your primary hypothesis.

Step 5: Review Your Hypothesis

Finally, when learning how to compose a hypothesis, it’s essential to review your hypothesis for clarity, testability, and relevance to your research question. Make any necessary adjustments to ensure it provides a solid basis for your study.

In conclusion, understanding how to write a hypothesis is crucial for conducting successful scientific research. By focusing on your research question and carefully building relationships between variables, you will lay a strong foundation for advancing research and knowledge in your field.

Hypothesis vs. Prediction: What’s the Difference?

Understanding the differences between a hypothesis and a prediction is crucial in scientific research. Often, these terms are used interchangeably, but they have distinct meanings and functions. This segment aims to clarify these differences and explain how to compose a hypothesis correctly, helping you improve the quality of your research projects.

Hypothesis: The Foundation of Your Research

A hypothesis is an educated guess about the relationship between two or more variables. It provides the basis for your research question and is a starting point for an experiment or observational study.

The critical elements for a hypothesis include:

  • Specificity: A clear and concise statement that describes the relationship between variables.
  • Testability: The ability to test the hypothesis through experimentation or observation.

To learn how to write a hypothesis, it’s essential to identify your research question first and then predict the relationship between the variables.

Prediction: The Expected Outcome

A prediction is a statement about a specific outcome you expect to see in your experiment or observational study. It’s derived from the hypothesis and provides a measurable way to test the relationship between variables.

Here’s an example of how to write a hypothesis and a related prediction:

  • Hypothesis: Consuming a high-sugar diet leads to weight gain.
  • Prediction: People who consume a high-sugar diet for six weeks will gain more weight than those who maintain a low-sugar diet during the same period.

Key Differences Between a Hypothesis and a Prediction

While a hypothesis and prediction are both essential components of scientific research, there are some key differences to keep in mind:

  • A hypothesis is an educated guess that suggests a relationship between variables, while a prediction is a specific and measurable outcome based on that hypothesis.
  • A hypothesis can give rise to multiple experiment or observational study predictions.

To conclude, understanding the differences between a hypothesis and a prediction, and learning how to write a hypothesis, are essential steps to form a robust foundation for your research. By creating clear, testable hypotheses along with specific, measurable predictions, you lay the groundwork for scientifically sound investigations.

Here’s a wrap-up for this guide on how to write a hypothesis. We’re confident this article was helpful for many of you. We understand that many students struggle with writing their school research . However, we hope to continue assisting you through our blog tutorial on writing different aspects of academic assignments.

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The Craft of Writing a Strong Hypothesis

Deeptanshu D

Table of Contents

Writing a hypothesis is one of the essential elements of a scientific research paper. It needs to be to the point, clearly communicating what your research is trying to accomplish. A blurry, drawn-out, or complexly-structured hypothesis can confuse your readers. Or worse, the editor and peer reviewers.

A captivating hypothesis is not too intricate. This blog will take you through the process so that, by the end of it, you have a better idea of how to convey your research paper's intent in just one sentence.

What is a Hypothesis?

The first step in your scientific endeavor, a hypothesis, is a strong, concise statement that forms the basis of your research. It is not the same as a thesis statement , which is a brief summary of your research paper .

The sole purpose of a hypothesis is to predict your paper's findings, data, and conclusion. It comes from a place of curiosity and intuition . When you write a hypothesis, you're essentially making an educated guess based on scientific prejudices and evidence, which is further proven or disproven through the scientific method.

The reason for undertaking research is to observe a specific phenomenon. A hypothesis, therefore, lays out what the said phenomenon is. And it does so through two variables, an independent and dependent variable.

The independent variable is the cause behind the observation, while the dependent variable is the effect of the cause. A good example of this is “mixing red and blue forms purple.” In this hypothesis, mixing red and blue is the independent variable as you're combining the two colors at your own will. The formation of purple is the dependent variable as, in this case, it is conditional to the independent variable.

Different Types of Hypotheses‌

Types-of-hypotheses

Types of hypotheses

Some would stand by the notion that there are only two types of hypotheses: a Null hypothesis and an Alternative hypothesis. While that may have some truth to it, it would be better to fully distinguish the most common forms as these terms come up so often, which might leave you out of context.

Apart from Null and Alternative, there are Complex, Simple, Directional, Non-Directional, Statistical, and Associative and casual hypotheses. They don't necessarily have to be exclusive, as one hypothesis can tick many boxes, but knowing the distinctions between them will make it easier for you to construct your own.

1. Null hypothesis

A null hypothesis proposes no relationship between two variables. Denoted by H 0 , it is a negative statement like “Attending physiotherapy sessions does not affect athletes' on-field performance.” Here, the author claims physiotherapy sessions have no effect on on-field performances. Even if there is, it's only a coincidence.

2. Alternative hypothesis

Considered to be the opposite of a null hypothesis, an alternative hypothesis is donated as H1 or Ha. It explicitly states that the dependent variable affects the independent variable. A good  alternative hypothesis example is “Attending physiotherapy sessions improves athletes' on-field performance.” or “Water evaporates at 100 °C. ” The alternative hypothesis further branches into directional and non-directional.

  • Directional hypothesis: A hypothesis that states the result would be either positive or negative is called directional hypothesis. It accompanies H1 with either the ‘<' or ‘>' sign.
  • Non-directional hypothesis: A non-directional hypothesis only claims an effect on the dependent variable. It does not clarify whether the result would be positive or negative. The sign for a non-directional hypothesis is ‘≠.'

3. Simple hypothesis

A simple hypothesis is a statement made to reflect the relation between exactly two variables. One independent and one dependent. Consider the example, “Smoking is a prominent cause of lung cancer." The dependent variable, lung cancer, is dependent on the independent variable, smoking.

4. Complex hypothesis

In contrast to a simple hypothesis, a complex hypothesis implies the relationship between multiple independent and dependent variables. For instance, “Individuals who eat more fruits tend to have higher immunity, lesser cholesterol, and high metabolism.” The independent variable is eating more fruits, while the dependent variables are higher immunity, lesser cholesterol, and high metabolism.

5. Associative and casual hypothesis

Associative and casual hypotheses don't exhibit how many variables there will be. They define the relationship between the variables. In an associative hypothesis, changing any one variable, dependent or independent, affects others. In a casual hypothesis, the independent variable directly affects the dependent.

6. Empirical hypothesis

Also referred to as the working hypothesis, an empirical hypothesis claims a theory's validation via experiments and observation. This way, the statement appears justifiable and different from a wild guess.

Say, the hypothesis is “Women who take iron tablets face a lesser risk of anemia than those who take vitamin B12.” This is an example of an empirical hypothesis where the researcher  the statement after assessing a group of women who take iron tablets and charting the findings.

7. Statistical hypothesis

The point of a statistical hypothesis is to test an already existing hypothesis by studying a population sample. Hypothesis like “44% of the Indian population belong in the age group of 22-27.” leverage evidence to prove or disprove a particular statement.

Characteristics of a Good Hypothesis

Writing a hypothesis is essential as it can make or break your research for you. That includes your chances of getting published in a journal. So when you're designing one, keep an eye out for these pointers:

  • A research hypothesis has to be simple yet clear to look justifiable enough.
  • It has to be testable — your research would be rendered pointless if too far-fetched into reality or limited by technology.
  • It has to be precise about the results —what you are trying to do and achieve through it should come out in your hypothesis.
  • A research hypothesis should be self-explanatory, leaving no doubt in the reader's mind.
  • If you are developing a relational hypothesis, you need to include the variables and establish an appropriate relationship among them.
  • A hypothesis must keep and reflect the scope for further investigations and experiments.

Separating a Hypothesis from a Prediction

Outside of academia, hypothesis and prediction are often used interchangeably. In research writing, this is not only confusing but also incorrect. And although a hypothesis and prediction are guesses at their core, there are many differences between them.

A hypothesis is an educated guess or even a testable prediction validated through research. It aims to analyze the gathered evidence and facts to define a relationship between variables and put forth a logical explanation behind the nature of events.

Predictions are assumptions or expected outcomes made without any backing evidence. They are more fictionally inclined regardless of where they originate from.

For this reason, a hypothesis holds much more weight than a prediction. It sticks to the scientific method rather than pure guesswork. "Planets revolve around the Sun." is an example of a hypothesis as it is previous knowledge and observed trends. Additionally, we can test it through the scientific method.

Whereas "COVID-19 will be eradicated by 2030." is a prediction. Even though it results from past trends, we can't prove or disprove it. So, the only way this gets validated is to wait and watch if COVID-19 cases end by 2030.

Finally, How to Write a Hypothesis

Quick-tips-on-how-to-write-a-hypothesis

Quick tips on writing a hypothesis

1.  Be clear about your research question

A hypothesis should instantly address the research question or the problem statement. To do so, you need to ask a question. Understand the constraints of your undertaken research topic and then formulate a simple and topic-centric problem. Only after that can you develop a hypothesis and further test for evidence.

2. Carry out a recce

Once you have your research's foundation laid out, it would be best to conduct preliminary research. Go through previous theories, academic papers, data, and experiments before you start curating your research hypothesis. It will give you an idea of your hypothesis's viability or originality.

Making use of references from relevant research papers helps draft a good research hypothesis. SciSpace Discover offers a repository of over 270 million research papers to browse through and gain a deeper understanding of related studies on a particular topic. Additionally, you can use SciSpace Copilot , your AI research assistant, for reading any lengthy research paper and getting a more summarized context of it. A hypothesis can be formed after evaluating many such summarized research papers. Copilot also offers explanations for theories and equations, explains paper in simplified version, allows you to highlight any text in the paper or clip math equations and tables and provides a deeper, clear understanding of what is being said. This can improve the hypothesis by helping you identify potential research gaps.

3. Create a 3-dimensional hypothesis

Variables are an essential part of any reasonable hypothesis. So, identify your independent and dependent variable(s) and form a correlation between them. The ideal way to do this is to write the hypothetical assumption in the ‘if-then' form. If you use this form, make sure that you state the predefined relationship between the variables.

In another way, you can choose to present your hypothesis as a comparison between two variables. Here, you must specify the difference you expect to observe in the results.

4. Write the first draft

Now that everything is in place, it's time to write your hypothesis. For starters, create the first draft. In this version, write what you expect to find from your research.

Clearly separate your independent and dependent variables and the link between them. Don't fixate on syntax at this stage. The goal is to ensure your hypothesis addresses the issue.

5. Proof your hypothesis

After preparing the first draft of your hypothesis, you need to inspect it thoroughly. It should tick all the boxes, like being concise, straightforward, relevant, and accurate. Your final hypothesis has to be well-structured as well.

Research projects are an exciting and crucial part of being a scholar. And once you have your research question, you need a great hypothesis to begin conducting research. Thus, knowing how to write a hypothesis is very important.

Now that you have a firmer grasp on what a good hypothesis constitutes, the different kinds there are, and what process to follow, you will find it much easier to write your hypothesis, which ultimately helps your research.

Now it's easier than ever to streamline your research workflow with SciSpace Discover . Its integrated, comprehensive end-to-end platform for research allows scholars to easily discover, write and publish their research and fosters collaboration.

It includes everything you need, including a repository of over 270 million research papers across disciplines, SEO-optimized summaries and public profiles to show your expertise and experience.

If you found these tips on writing a research hypothesis useful, head over to our blog on Statistical Hypothesis Testing to learn about the top researchers, papers, and institutions in this domain.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1. what is the definition of hypothesis.

According to the Oxford dictionary, a hypothesis is defined as “An idea or explanation of something that is based on a few known facts, but that has not yet been proved to be true or correct”.

2. What is an example of hypothesis?

The hypothesis is a statement that proposes a relationship between two or more variables. An example: "If we increase the number of new users who join our platform by 25%, then we will see an increase in revenue."

3. What is an example of null hypothesis?

A null hypothesis is a statement that there is no relationship between two variables. The null hypothesis is written as H0. The null hypothesis states that there is no effect. For example, if you're studying whether or not a particular type of exercise increases strength, your null hypothesis will be "there is no difference in strength between people who exercise and people who don't."

4. What are the types of research?

• Fundamental research

• Applied research

• Qualitative research

• Quantitative research

• Mixed research

• Exploratory research

• Longitudinal research

• Cross-sectional research

• Field research

• Laboratory research

• Fixed research

• Flexible research

• Action research

• Policy research

• Classification research

• Comparative research

• Causal research

• Inductive research

• Deductive research

5. How to write a hypothesis?

• Your hypothesis should be able to predict the relationship and outcome.

• Avoid wordiness by keeping it simple and brief.

• Your hypothesis should contain observable and testable outcomes.

• Your hypothesis should be relevant to the research question.

6. What are the 2 types of hypothesis?

• Null hypotheses are used to test the claim that "there is no difference between two groups of data".

• Alternative hypotheses test the claim that "there is a difference between two data groups".

7. Difference between research question and research hypothesis?

A research question is a broad, open-ended question you will try to answer through your research. A hypothesis is a statement based on prior research or theory that you expect to be true due to your study. Example - Research question: What are the factors that influence the adoption of the new technology? Research hypothesis: There is a positive relationship between age, education and income level with the adoption of the new technology.

8. What is plural for hypothesis?

The plural of hypothesis is hypotheses. Here's an example of how it would be used in a statement, "Numerous well-considered hypotheses are presented in this part, and they are supported by tables and figures that are well-illustrated."

9. What is the red queen hypothesis?

The red queen hypothesis in evolutionary biology states that species must constantly evolve to avoid extinction because if they don't, they will be outcompeted by other species that are evolving. Leigh Van Valen first proposed it in 1973; since then, it has been tested and substantiated many times.

10. Who is known as the father of null hypothesis?

The father of the null hypothesis is Sir Ronald Fisher. He published a paper in 1925 that introduced the concept of null hypothesis testing, and he was also the first to use the term itself.

11. When to reject null hypothesis?

You need to find a significant difference between your two populations to reject the null hypothesis. You can determine that by running statistical tests such as an independent sample t-test or a dependent sample t-test. You should reject the null hypothesis if the p-value is less than 0.05.

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How to Write a Great Hypothesis

Hypothesis Format, Examples, and Tips

Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."

how to write hypothesis for dissertation

Amy Morin, LCSW, is a psychotherapist and international bestselling author. Her books, including "13 Things Mentally Strong People Don't Do," have been translated into more than 40 languages. Her TEDx talk,  "The Secret of Becoming Mentally Strong," is one of the most viewed talks of all time.

how to write hypothesis for dissertation

Verywell / Alex Dos Diaz

  • The Scientific Method

Hypothesis Format

Falsifiability of a hypothesis, operational definitions, types of hypotheses, hypotheses examples.

  • Collecting Data

Frequently Asked Questions

A hypothesis is a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more  variables. It is a specific, testable prediction about what you expect to happen in a study.

One hypothesis example would be a study designed to look at the relationship between sleep deprivation and test performance might have a hypothesis that states: "This study is designed to assess the hypothesis that sleep-deprived people will perform worse on a test than individuals who are not sleep-deprived."

This article explores how a hypothesis is used in psychology research, how to write a good hypothesis, and the different types of hypotheses you might use.

The Hypothesis in the Scientific Method

In the scientific method , whether it involves research in psychology, biology, or some other area, a hypothesis represents what the researchers think will happen in an experiment. The scientific method involves the following steps:

  • Forming a question
  • Performing background research
  • Creating a hypothesis
  • Designing an experiment
  • Collecting data
  • Analyzing the results
  • Drawing conclusions
  • Communicating the results

The hypothesis is a prediction, but it involves more than a guess. Most of the time, the hypothesis begins with a question which is then explored through background research. It is only at this point that researchers begin to develop a testable hypothesis. Unless you are creating an exploratory study, your hypothesis should always explain what you  expect  to happen.

In a study exploring the effects of a particular drug, the hypothesis might be that researchers expect the drug to have some type of effect on the symptoms of a specific illness. In psychology, the hypothesis might focus on how a certain aspect of the environment might influence a particular behavior.

Remember, a hypothesis does not have to be correct. While the hypothesis predicts what the researchers expect to see, the goal of the research is to determine whether this guess is right or wrong. When conducting an experiment, researchers might explore a number of factors to determine which ones might contribute to the ultimate outcome.

In many cases, researchers may find that the results of an experiment  do not  support the original hypothesis. When writing up these results, the researchers might suggest other options that should be explored in future studies.

In many cases, researchers might draw a hypothesis from a specific theory or build on previous research. For example, prior research has shown that stress can impact the immune system. So a researcher might hypothesize: "People with high-stress levels will be more likely to contract a common cold after being exposed to the virus than people who have low-stress levels."

In other instances, researchers might look at commonly held beliefs or folk wisdom. "Birds of a feather flock together" is one example of folk wisdom that a psychologist might try to investigate. The researcher might pose a specific hypothesis that "People tend to select romantic partners who are similar to them in interests and educational level."

Elements of a Good Hypothesis

So how do you write a good hypothesis? When trying to come up with a hypothesis for your research or experiments, ask yourself the following questions:

  • Is your hypothesis based on your research on a topic?
  • Can your hypothesis be tested?
  • Does your hypothesis include independent and dependent variables?

Before you come up with a specific hypothesis, spend some time doing background research. Once you have completed a literature review, start thinking about potential questions you still have. Pay attention to the discussion section in the  journal articles you read . Many authors will suggest questions that still need to be explored.

To form a hypothesis, you should take these steps:

  • Collect as many observations about a topic or problem as you can.
  • Evaluate these observations and look for possible causes of the problem.
  • Create a list of possible explanations that you might want to explore.
  • After you have developed some possible hypotheses, think of ways that you could confirm or disprove each hypothesis through experimentation. This is known as falsifiability.

In the scientific method ,  falsifiability is an important part of any valid hypothesis.   In order to test a claim scientifically, it must be possible that the claim could be proven false.

Students sometimes confuse the idea of falsifiability with the idea that it means that something is false, which is not the case. What falsifiability means is that  if  something was false, then it is possible to demonstrate that it is false.

One of the hallmarks of pseudoscience is that it makes claims that cannot be refuted or proven false.

A variable is a factor or element that can be changed and manipulated in ways that are observable and measurable. However, the researcher must also define how the variable will be manipulated and measured in the study.

For example, a researcher might operationally define the variable " test anxiety " as the results of a self-report measure of anxiety experienced during an exam. A "study habits" variable might be defined by the amount of studying that actually occurs as measured by time.

These precise descriptions are important because many things can be measured in a number of different ways. One of the basic principles of any type of scientific research is that the results must be replicable.   By clearly detailing the specifics of how the variables were measured and manipulated, other researchers can better understand the results and repeat the study if needed.

Some variables are more difficult than others to define. How would you operationally define a variable such as aggression ? For obvious ethical reasons, researchers cannot create a situation in which a person behaves aggressively toward others.

In order to measure this variable, the researcher must devise a measurement that assesses aggressive behavior without harming other people. In this situation, the researcher might utilize a simulated task to measure aggressiveness.

Hypothesis Checklist

  • Does your hypothesis focus on something that you can actually test?
  • Does your hypothesis include both an independent and dependent variable?
  • Can you manipulate the variables?
  • Can your hypothesis be tested without violating ethical standards?

The hypothesis you use will depend on what you are investigating and hoping to find. Some of the main types of hypotheses that you might use include:

  • Simple hypothesis : This type of hypothesis suggests that there is a relationship between one independent variable and one dependent variable.
  • Complex hypothesis : This type of hypothesis suggests a relationship between three or more variables, such as two independent variables and a dependent variable.
  • Null hypothesis : This hypothesis suggests no relationship exists between two or more variables.
  • Alternative hypothesis : This hypothesis states the opposite of the null hypothesis.
  • Statistical hypothesis : This hypothesis uses statistical analysis to evaluate a representative sample of the population and then generalizes the findings to the larger group.
  • Logical hypothesis : This hypothesis assumes a relationship between variables without collecting data or evidence.

A hypothesis often follows a basic format of "If {this happens} then {this will happen}." One way to structure your hypothesis is to describe what will happen to the  dependent variable  if you change the  independent variable .

The basic format might be: "If {these changes are made to a certain independent variable}, then we will observe {a change in a specific dependent variable}."

A few examples of simple hypotheses:

  • "Students who eat breakfast will perform better on a math exam than students who do not eat breakfast."
  • Complex hypothesis: "Students who experience test anxiety before an English exam will get lower scores than students who do not experience test anxiety."​
  • "Motorists who talk on the phone while driving will be more likely to make errors on a driving course than those who do not talk on the phone."

Examples of a complex hypothesis include:

  • "People with high-sugar diets and sedentary activity levels are more likely to develop depression."
  • "Younger people who are regularly exposed to green, outdoor areas have better subjective well-being than older adults who have limited exposure to green spaces."

Examples of a null hypothesis include:

  • "Children who receive a new reading intervention will have scores different than students who do not receive the intervention."
  • "There will be no difference in scores on a memory recall task between children and adults."

Examples of an alternative hypothesis:

  • "Children who receive a new reading intervention will perform better than students who did not receive the intervention."
  • "Adults will perform better on a memory task than children." 

Collecting Data on Your Hypothesis

Once a researcher has formed a testable hypothesis, the next step is to select a research design and start collecting data. The research method depends largely on exactly what they are studying. There are two basic types of research methods: descriptive research and experimental research.

Descriptive Research Methods

Descriptive research such as  case studies ,  naturalistic observations , and surveys are often used when it would be impossible or difficult to  conduct an experiment . These methods are best used to describe different aspects of a behavior or psychological phenomenon.

Once a researcher has collected data using descriptive methods, a correlational study can then be used to look at how the variables are related. This type of research method might be used to investigate a hypothesis that is difficult to test experimentally.

Experimental Research Methods

Experimental methods  are used to demonstrate causal relationships between variables. In an experiment, the researcher systematically manipulates a variable of interest (known as the independent variable) and measures the effect on another variable (known as the dependent variable).

Unlike correlational studies, which can only be used to determine if there is a relationship between two variables, experimental methods can be used to determine the actual nature of the relationship—whether changes in one variable actually  cause  another to change.

A Word From Verywell

The hypothesis is a critical part of any scientific exploration. It represents what researchers expect to find in a study or experiment. In situations where the hypothesis is unsupported by the research, the research still has value. Such research helps us better understand how different aspects of the natural world relate to one another. It also helps us develop new hypotheses that can then be tested in the future.

Some examples of how to write a hypothesis include:

  • "Staying up late will lead to worse test performance the next day."
  • "People who consume one apple each day will visit the doctor fewer times each year."
  • "Breaking study sessions up into three 20-minute sessions will lead to better test results than a single 60-minute study session."

The four parts of a hypothesis are:

  • The research question
  • The independent variable (IV)
  • The dependent variable (DV)
  • The proposed relationship between the IV and DV

Castillo M. The scientific method: a need for something better? . AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2013;34(9):1669-71. doi:10.3174/ajnr.A3401

Nevid J. Psychology: Concepts and Applications. Wadworth, 2013.

By Kendra Cherry, MSEd Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."

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Writing a Strong Hypothesis Statement

how to write hypothesis for dissertation

All good theses begins with a good thesis question. However, all great theses begins with a great hypothesis statement. One of the most important steps for writing a thesis is to create a strong hypothesis statement. 

What is a hypothesis statement?

A hypothesis statement must be testable. If it cannot be tested, then there is no research to be done.

Simply put, a hypothesis statement posits the relationship between two or more variables. It is a prediction of what you think will happen in a research study. A hypothesis statement must be testable. If it cannot be tested, then there is no research to be done. If your thesis question is whether wildfires have effects on the weather, “wildfires create tornadoes” would be your hypothesis. However, a hypothesis needs to have several key elements in order to meet the criteria for a good hypothesis.

In this article, we will learn about what distinguishes a weak hypothesis from a strong one. We will also learn how to phrase your thesis question and frame your variables so that you are able to write a strong hypothesis statement and great thesis.

What is a hypothesis?

A hypothesis statement posits, or considers, a relationship between two variables.

As we mentioned above, a hypothesis statement posits or considers a relationship between two variables. In our hypothesis statement example above, the two variables are wildfires and tornadoes, and our assumed relationship between the two is a causal one (wildfires cause tornadoes). It is clear from our example above what we will be investigating: the relationship between wildfires and tornadoes.

A strong hypothesis statement should be:

  • A prediction of the relationship between two or more variables

A hypothesis is not just a blind guess. It should build upon existing theories and knowledge . Tornadoes are often observed near wildfires once the fires reach a certain size. In addition, tornadoes are not a normal weather event in many areas; they have been spotted together with wildfires. This existing knowledge has informed the formulation of our hypothesis.

Depending on the thesis question, your research paper might have multiple hypothesis statements. What is important is that your hypothesis statement or statements are testable through data analysis, observation, experiments, or other methodologies.

Formulating your hypothesis

One of the best ways to form a hypothesis is to think about “if...then” statements.

Now that we know what a hypothesis statement is, let’s walk through how to formulate a strong one. First, you will need a thesis question. Your thesis question should be narrow in scope, answerable, and focused. Once you have your thesis question, it is time to start thinking about your hypothesis statement. You will need to clearly identify the variables involved before you can begin thinking about their relationship.

One of the best ways to form a hypothesis is to think about “if...then” statements . This can also help you easily identify the variables you are working with and refine your hypothesis statement. Let’s take a few examples.

If teenagers are given comprehensive sex education, there will be fewer teen pregnancies .

In this example, the independent variable is whether or not teenagers receive comprehensive sex education (the cause), and the dependent variable is the number of teen pregnancies (the effect).

If a cat is fed a vegan diet, it will die .

Here, our independent variable is the diet of the cat (the cause), and the dependent variable is the cat’s health (the thing impacted by the cause).

If children drink 8oz of milk per day, they will grow taller than children who do not drink any milk .

What are the variables in this hypothesis? If you identified drinking milk as the independent variable and growth as the dependent variable, you are correct. This is because we are guessing that drinking milk causes increased growth in the height of children.

Refining your hypothesis

Do not be afraid to refine your hypothesis throughout the process of formulation.

Do not be afraid to refine your hypothesis throughout the process of formulation. A strong hypothesis statement is clear, testable, and involves a prediction. While “testable” means verifiable or falsifiable, it also means that you are able to perform the necessary experiments without violating any ethical standards. Perhaps once you think about the ethics of possibly harming some cats by testing a vegan diet on them you might abandon the idea of that experiment altogether. However, if you think it is really important to research the relationship between a cat’s diet and a cat’s health, perhaps you could refine your hypothesis to something like this:

If 50% of a cat’s meals are vegan, the cat will not be able to meet its nutritional needs .

Another feature of a strong hypothesis statement is that it can easily be tested with the resources that you have readily available. While it might not be feasible to measure the growth of a cohort of children throughout their whole lives, you may be able to do so for a year. Then, you can adjust your hypothesis to something like this:

I f children aged 8 drink 8oz of milk per day for one year, they will grow taller during that year than children who do not drink any milk .

As you work to narrow down and refine your hypothesis to reflect a realistic potential research scope, don’t be afraid to talk to your supervisor about any concerns or questions you might have about what is truly possible to research. 

What makes a hypothesis weak?

We noted above that a strong hypothesis statement is clear, is a prediction of a relationship between two or more variables, and is testable. We also clarified that statements, which are too general or specific are not strong hypotheses. We have looked at some examples of hypotheses that meet the criteria for a strong hypothesis, but before we go any further, let’s look at weak or bad hypothesis statement examples so that you can really see the difference.

Bad hypothesis 1: Diabetes is caused by witchcraft .

While this is fun to think about, it cannot be tested or proven one way or the other with clear evidence, data analysis, or experiments. This bad hypothesis fails to meet the testability requirement.

Bad hypothesis 2: If I change the amount of food I eat, my energy levels will change .

This is quite vague. Am I increasing or decreasing my food intake? What do I expect exactly will happen to my energy levels and why? How am I defining energy level? This bad hypothesis statement fails the clarity requirement.

Bad hypothesis 3: Japanese food is disgusting because Japanese people don’t like tourists .

This hypothesis is unclear about the posited relationship between variables. Are we positing the relationship between the deliciousness of Japanese food and the desire for tourists to visit? or the relationship between the deliciousness of Japanese food and the amount that Japanese people like tourists? There is also the problematic subjectivity of the assessment that Japanese food is “disgusting.” The problems are numerous.

The null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis

The null hypothesis, quite simply, posits that there is no relationship between the variables.

What is the null hypothesis?

The hypothesis posits a relationship between two or more variables. The null hypothesis, quite simply, posits that there is no relationship between the variables. It is often indicated as H 0 , which is read as “h-oh” or “h-null.” The alternative hypothesis is the opposite of the null hypothesis as it posits that there is some relationship between the variables. The alternative hypothesis is written as H a or H 1 .

Let’s take our previous hypothesis statement examples discussed at the start and look at their corresponding null hypothesis.

H a : If teenagers are given comprehensive sex education, there will be fewer teen pregnancies .
H 0 : If teenagers are given comprehensive sex education, there will be no change in the number of teen pregnancies .

The null hypothesis assumes that comprehensive sex education will not affect how many teenagers get pregnant. It should be carefully noted that the null hypothesis is not always the opposite of the alternative hypothesis. For example:

If teenagers are given comprehensive sex education, there will be more teen pregnancies .

These are opposing statements that assume an opposite relationship between the variables: comprehensive sex education increases or decreases the number of teen pregnancies. In fact, these are both alternative hypotheses. This is because they both still assume that there is a relationship between the variables . In other words, both hypothesis statements assume that there is some kind of relationship between sex education and teen pregnancy rates. The alternative hypothesis is also the researcher’s actual predicted outcome, which is why calling it “alternative” can be confusing! However, you can think of it this way: our default assumption is the null hypothesis, and so any possible relationship is an alternative to the default.

Step-by-step sample hypothesis statements

Now that we’ve covered what makes a hypothesis statement strong, how to go about formulating a hypothesis statement, refining your hypothesis statement, and the null hypothesis, let’s put it all together with some examples. The table below shows a breakdown of how we can take a thesis question, identify the variables, create a null hypothesis, and finally create a strong alternative hypothesis.

Once you have formulated a solid thesis question and written a strong hypothesis statement, you are ready to begin your thesis in earnest. Check out our site for more tips on writing a great thesis and information on thesis proofreading and editing services.

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Start with a clear thesis question

Think about “if-then” statements to identify your variables and the relationship between them

Create a null hypothesis

Formulate an alternative hypothesis using the variables you have identified

Make sure your hypothesis clearly posits a relationship between variables

Make sure your hypothesis is testable considering your available time and resources

What makes a hypothesis strong? +

A hypothesis is strong when it is testable, clear, and identifies a potential relationship between two or more variables.

What makes a hypothesis weak? +

A hypothesis is weak when it is too specific or too general, or does not identify a clear relationship between two or more variables.

What is the null hypothesis? +

The null hypothesis posits that the variables you have identified have no relationship.

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What Is the Hypothesis in a Dissertation?

Elaine J. Dispo

Types of Research Hypotheses

Your dissertation hypothesis is the prediction statement based on the theory that you are researching in your study. Doctoral candidates test their hypotheses in their dissertations, their original research project that they write and defend in order to graduate. Here, you will learn about hypothesis types, writing and testing for your dissertation and hypothesis examples.

In your dissertation, you may create a hypothesis based on your research that predicts a relationship, called an "alternative" or "research" hypothesis. To balance your findings, you will also create a "null" hypothesis, which claims that the relationship that is to be proven in the research hypothesis does not exist. According to Alan Agresti and Barbara Finlay in “Statistical Methods for the Social Sciences,” the null is directly tested and predicts no effect, and the alternative contradicts the null and predicts an effect.

There can also be types of research hypotheses. As indicated in Research Methods Knowledge Base, a "one-tailed" hypothesis specifies a direction, either an increase or a decrease, while a "two-tailed" hypothesis does not specify a direction, only a change.

You must write your dissertation hypotheses before you collect and analyze your data. A useful hypothesis as testable and should include the independent variable, which you control, and the dependent variable, which is observed or measured based on the independent variable. For example, taking media consumption of violence as the independent variable and aggression as the dependent variable, the null hypothesis could state, “Media consumption of violence has no effect on aggression,” while the alternative hypothesis would state, “Media consumption of violence has an effect on aggression.” Similarly, if you wanted to create a one-tailed hypothesis, you would indicate a direction, such as, “Media consumption of violence increases aggression." Make sure that your statements are brief and straight-to-the-point and keep in mind the results you will measure in your study.

Research Methods Knowledge Base states that hypothesis testing assumes that both mutually exclusive hypotheses (research and null) exhaust every possible outcome and in the end, one is accepted and the other is rejected. When you analyze your data, you conclude whether you reject your null hypothesis and accept your alternative or fail to reject your null.

A dissertation can test a very broad range of hypotheses, depending on the discipline and focus of the writer. For example Antoinette Hill from Our Lady of the Lake University lent her research hypothesis to the title of her dissertation, "Are There Differences in Leadership Styles at Local, State, and National/Federal Levels among Advocates for People with Disabilities?" Her hypothesis used leadership as the independent variable and level of advocacy for people with disabilities as the dependent variable. Simply looking through the titles of dissertations published at a university of college each year can provide a long list of examples of a variety of hypotheses and ways to present them.

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  • Our Lady of the Lake University; Are There Differences in Leadership Styles at Local, State, and National/Federal Levels among Advocates for People with Disabilities?; Antoinette J.G. Hill
  • Our Lady of the Lake University; Do We March to the Beat of a Different Drum? Examining the Differences in the Perception of Leadership Styles between Academic Teachers and Music Teachers; Emma Yvette Dromgoole
  • Research Methods Knowledge Base: Hypotheses; William M.K. Trochim
  • Statistical Methods for the Social Sciences; Alan Agresti and Barbara Finlay
  • Online Stat Book: Type I and II Errors; David M. Lane et al.

Elaine J. Dispo, a journalist since 1996, specializes in education. She wrote for “Fil-Am Press.” Dispo earned the Texas Intercollegiate Press Association Frank W. Buckley Scholarship and the Students In Free Enterprise Sam M. Walton Fellowship. She holds her B.A. and M.A. in Communication and is a Ph.D. candidate.

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Each academic research revolves around specific statement or problem — a research hypothesis. 

A hypothesis is a suggested prediction for a phenomenon or observed event, based on prior knowledge or research. It is a tentative statement that can be tested through further investigation and analysis. A hypothesis usually takes the form of a statement that suggests a relationship between two or more variables.

Every research project, be it a a term paper, research paper or a dissertation, should begin with defining a hypothesis. While this may seem simple, in reality beginners face a lot of problems. This includes difficulty with formulating a hypothesis accurately and capturing the main idea. In this blog post, we will tell you how to write a hypothesis so it is accurate and correct.

What Is a Research Hypothesis: Expanded Definition

A research hypothesis is a statement or assumption that answers a question you asked earlier but haven't tested yet. In fact, this is basis of your work which you use to prove or reject your assumption. Major research projects most often deal with several hypotheses. These relate to various aspects of an issue under study. Thus, you will divide assumptions by research sectors and study them in a segmented manner. When making an assignment, one must work based on an existing theory and gained knowledge. One must also take into account that it must be testable. That is, it can be rejected or confirmed with methods of scientific research. Hypothesis example may look like this:

Hypothesis example

In your work, you must prove or reject this hypothesis by providing survey results. Show some statistical analysis , study of reports and other processed data.

Remeber that you can hire a paper writer who will integrate survey outcomes and conduct statistical analysis in your research paper hypothesis. 

Variables in Hypotheses

To make a qualitative guess, you should consider variables in your hypothesis. They can be divided into independent and dependent ones. In fact, you must establish causal relationship between two or more variables. Independent ( confounding variable ) is what researcher can control or change, i.e. initial condition. Dependent ( extraneous variable ) is what researcher studies. It is observed in created conditions. Before you start learning how to write an assignment with independent and dependent variables, you should define the main idea of your work. For example, you take an assumption that eating hedgehog meat reduces risk of cardiovascular disease. Independent variable is hedgehog meat consumption, which is cause. Improvement in cardiovascular health is a dependent variable – an intended effect.

How to Write a Hypothesis: 5 Simple Writing Steps

Novice researchers most frequently ask how to write a hypothesis statement. This is a complex process that includes compilation of laconic predictions. These are based on conducted experiments. We can support you in this task. We have developed 5 steps for researchers so they can write a high-quality and comprehensive assignment.

Step 1. Generate a Question Before Writing Your Hypothesis

At the first stage of writing a hypothesis for a research paper you must define a research question that you need to answer. It should be focused on particular problem. Try to make it specific and yet suitable for research within framework of your project. To write quality assignment, you must use 6 classic statements. Thus, you must clarify: who, what, where, when, why and how. You must make question understandable in terms of positioning problem. Example of correct hypothesis:

Example of correct hypothesis

Step 2. Gather Preliminary Research for Your Hypothesis

Before writing a research hypothesis, conduct some preliminary research to find out if your assumption is working and can be proved. You will get the key insights through observations or experiments. You can also use results of your colleagues who have already studied this issue. Thus, you will build a concept with formulated variables. You will study them and identify relationships between them.

Step 3. Write a Strong Hypothesis

With results of preliminary preparation and research questions, you can study how to write a strong hypothesis . First of all, highlight the main testing problem. You must formulate it as briefly as possible. Try to avoid stretching statements in an attempt to make paper longer. Be as clear as possible, avoid vague judgments. For example:

Example of badly written hypothesis

This is not good option. It is better to apply hypothesis in the form of:

Example of well written hypothesis

This is a clear sentence that is devoid of unnecessary details. It allows you to immediately see an expected effect. Get practical help in writing research paper if you wish for more quality.

Step 4. Refine Your Research Hypothesis

Make sure a hypothesis for a research proposal formulated correctly. You must check if it has following elements:

  • Dependent and independent variables.
  • An object or phenomenon for testing.
  • Expected outcome of study that you plan to work through. This must be part of an experiment or an observation.

This way, you will specify question under study. You also will be able to verify it if needed. That is, you will move from general to particular.

Step 5. Write a Null Hypothesis

You may need to write a null hypothesis. Why and when, you may ask? When you use this method for processing specific statistics. You should specify if you plan to prove your point on its basis. In fact, it is clear position that doesn’t establish links between variables. For example, this statement is null hypothesis:

Example of null hypothesis

It is basis for presenting one's own opinion. It allows to build an evidence base stemming from researcher's evidence.

What Is the Difference Between a Null Hypothesis and an Alternative Hypothesis

To better understand how to write null and alternative hypothesis that will form backbone of study, examine testable statements. Based on results, null hypothesis is prepared. It is a statement with no connection between variables. At the same time, scientists usually work with an alternative hypothesis. Here, they have already found a connection between phenomena. Ever considered custom research paper writing service ? So, the above statement about frequency of doctor visits can be modified to research of: 

Example of alternative hypothesis

Hypothesis Examples

Quite often, researchers find it difficult to formulate basis for  writing a research paper . Therefore, some examples of hypothesis will be useful for them. This will correspond to if-then connections. With their help you will also briefly outline the main part of current research. We will help you in formulating an assignment and offer several working options:

Hypothesis example

Tips on Writing a Hypothesis

It’s difficult to start writing a hypothesis for a research proposal. Especially for aspiring academics! After all, it is important that an assignment is clear and specific. It must also be viable for further development. Here are some tips to help you formulate your statement:

  • Analyze interesting aspects. Review current studies and problems on the selected topic. Highlight what you wanted to explore, perhaps it will be a concept close to your previous works.
  • Clarify the details. Spend time on preliminary analysis. You must also highlight controversial aspects and contemporary issues. Sometimes, even well-researched phenomena can be promising.
  • Focus on your own work. It’s always easier to continue than to start anew. At the same time, you might not have considered all the theses in the previous study.
  • Make the variables clear. Avoid ambiguous statements.

Sounds a bit difficult? College paper help is there for you.

How to Write a Scientific Hypothesis: Final Thoughts

So, if you've come this far, you should already know how to how to write a hypothesis step by step. Before starting writing, analyze the problem and the topic. You should highlight the thesis that can be developed further. We recommend going through the following steps:

  • Define the question you expect to receive an answer to.
  • Do some preliminary research.
  • Write it strongly.
  • Refine it with variables, subject and phenomenon, and expected result.
  • Make a null hypothesis and consider a different option.

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Frequently Asked Questions About Writing a Good Hypothesis

1. how can i improve my hypothesis.

To make the hypothesis working and of high quality, be sure you select both independent and dependent variables and add them to the statement. Examine the relationships of these elements. Think if you can prove them and explain them in further research.

2. Is there a maximum number of hypotheses that is allowed in one research paper?

You can write as many hypotheses as you want for your paper, because it all depends on your view on the topic and the desire to develop it in several directions. The main thing is that your project shouldn't be overloaded with too many hypotheses and that you pay enough attention to each of them.

3. How do I test my hypothesis?

It’s easy to test the statement before you write a hypothesis for a research proposal. Do an experiment: ask your question and try answering it. If you succeed, this assignment can be used for more detailed study.

4. How long is a hypothesis?

While writing the hypothesis, you must make it as direct as possible and, at the same time, clear it of extraneous judgments. Typically, it's 20 words long. We don’t recommend exceeding this volume, so as not to face difficulties in interpretation.

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How to Write a Hypothesis for a Dissertation

writing a dissertation hypothesis

If you are struggling to learn how to write a hypothesis, our recommendations will help you. When you are a student, whatever field or discipline you choose, you will most certainly have to write a dissertation hypothesis project. It is absolutely ok to write a hypothesis for a dissertation. It means that you will need to produce a comprehensive statement of your project’s main theme and intent. However, even when the hypothesis writing task is so widespread, many learners don’t know how to write a dissertation hypothesis. Read our blog below, and you will learn how to cope with this task.

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If you are looking for useful tips to help you set out on your dissertation journey, this is how you can make the whole thing easier. Generally, every dissertation will need to have a strong hypothesis. However, it may happen that your research project does not require one. You will need to provide your hypothesis in the introductory section of your project. It is always a kind of statement, an assumption that you make and plan to test in your dissertation. It is not a fact. It is just an expectation. You will need to carry out a series of scientific procedures to prove that it is true or false.

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While working on your dissertation proposal, use the following allegory. Imagine that your dissertation hypothesis is a tree. It has roots in your philosophy and your ideas about the future dissertation project. Then you will have to set the goals and objectives for your dissertation. These will resemble the branches of your hypothesis tree. Make sure that your dissertation hypothesis states clearly what you plan to test in your project. In case of any difficulties, learn how to write a hypothesis from our blog.

Creating an unambiguous and relevant hypothesis is one of the most difficult tasks in dissertation writing. Students experience major and minor issues as they are trying to create a captivating and explicit hypothesis. If you keep facing problems with your dissertation hypothesis, do not hesitate to request affordable and qualified dissertation writing help.

Hypothesis Types for a Dissertation

When you are working on a dissertation, you will need to develop a hypothesis. In essence, it is a brief description of a relationship between two or more variables. However, you will need to consider different types of dissertation hypotheses. Firstly, it is a research hypothesis. Secondly, it is a null hypothesis. Thirdly, it is an alternative hypothesis. The first and third types of hypotheses delineate a relationship among variables. The second type, the null hypothesis, is usually proposed as an alternative to the basic hypothesis. While a research hypothesis predicts a relationship between variables, a null hypothesis suggests that there is no such relationship at all. Be thorough selecting the right type of hypothesis for your dissertation or ask for help!

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How to Start a Hypothesis

You will write your hypothesis before you do anything else for your dissertation project. You will need an approved hypothesis before you begin your research procedures or start collecting data. Your hypothesis must state a relationship between an independent and a dependent variable. The independent variable is that which you can control. The dependent variable is that which is influenced by the independent one. For example, if you study the effects of media violence on family aggression, exposure to media violence will be your independent variable, and the scope of family aggression will be the dependent one. Your research hypothesis will say, “Exposure to media violence increases the scope of family aggression.” Your null hypothesis will say, “Exposure to media violence does not increase the incidence of violence and aggression in families.” In either case, your hypothesis will serve as guidance for your dissertation. You will have a clear understanding of the data that you need to collect to support or refute your assumptions.

How to Write a Hypothesis for a Dissertation – Learn the Principles of Good Hypothesis Writing

Follow these tips to learn how to write a hypothesis:

  • Begin with questions.
  • Brainstorming is one of the critical elements of successful dissertation hypothesis writing. Take your time to define the independent and dependent variables and outline the direction of a relationship between them.
  • Do not betray simple logic.
  • You do not need to be sophisticated to produce an impressive dissertation hypothesis. Be simple. Your readers should understand what assumptions you make and how you are going to test them. Writing a hypothesis is about simplicity. Be straightforward. Do not frame your hypothesis as a question. It is a statement of your position. It is an expression of your worldview. For example, “If I send a child to school early, he or she will show early career results in adulthood.”
  • No matter what types of hypotheses you choose, you must be able to test them.
  • You cannot go on without obtaining enough evidence to support or refute your hypothesis. Thus, when you are writing your dissertation hypothesis, make sure that you can test it. For example, you can assume that the world is flat, but you cannot make a space trip to test this assumption. Make sure that you have enough resources to carry out an experiment that will help you in your dissertation.

Creating a Dissertation Hypothesis Example

One thing that you should know is that writing a hypothesis is not the same as writing an essay or a novel. Ideally, your research hypothesis should be based on evidence derived from other studies or theories. It is a hypothesis which, once tested, will add to the existing knowledge in your field. For example, it is not currently known how immunity and cancer are related. Your research hypothesis can provide a new space for exploring this complex relationship, leading to new discoveries and making the lives of people better. Have issues with it? Ask for quality dissertation help. Outstanding hypothesis writers are here to provide you with a strong example of hypothesis when you need it.

Create a hypothesis that is compelling but simple.

Follow these tips to design an impressive dissertation hypothesis.

# 1: Don’t use any words like “proving” or “confirming”

You are not trying to prove anything against all odds. Assume a role of a discovery traveler. Instead of radical words like “confirm” or “prove”, use better alternatives such as “support” or “suggest”. Use simple language. Let your readers enjoy the process of exploring your hypothesis with you. Professional dissertation assistance is right around the corner. Just take it when you need it!

# 2: The rule of thumb

The rule of thumb is the gold standard of dissertation hypothesis writing. Do not forget about it when you are working on your sample!

# 3: Make your expectations clear

A brilliant dissertation hypothesis always provides a clear idea of what you plan to do in your dissertation and what relationship you want to prove in your experiment or research project. When you are done with writing, you will need to restate a hypothesis and revisit each stage of the process.

# 4: What are your variables?

You can’t produce a memorable dissertation hypothesis if you do not know your independent and dependent variables. Get dissertation hypothesis help to make it all easier!

# 5: Create a testable and measurable hypothesis!

When you are working on your hypothesis, you must use variables that can be measured and tested. Check twice before you create a workable hypothesis!

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How to Write a Hypothesis: A Step-by-Step Guide

How to Write a Hypothesis: A Step-by-Step Guide

A hypothesis is a proposed explanation or prediction that seeks to answer a research question. It is a statement that can be tested through empirical observation and analysis. When developing a hypothesis, it is important to have a clear understanding of its role in the research process.

Imagine a group of scientists seeking to understand the effects of a new drug on a specific medical condition. Without a hypothesis, their research would lack focus and purpose. However, with a carefully crafted hypothesis, they can set clear objectives and design experiments that will yield meaningful results. The hypothesis acts as a roadmap, guiding them through the intricate maze of data collection and analysis, ultimately leading to a deeper understanding of the subject matter.

Key Elements of a Strong Hypothesis

Constructing a hypothesis requires careful consideration of several key elements. These elements ensure that the hypothesis is robust and capable of withstanding the rigors of scientific scrutiny:

  • Clarity:  A hypothesis should leave no room for ambiguity or vagueness. It must clearly articulate the expected relationship between variables, allowing for accurate interpretation of results. By providing a precise explanation or prediction, researchers can avoid misinterpretation and ensure that their findings are reliable.
  • Testability:  A hypothesis must be testable through empirical observation or experimentation. It should be possible to collect data that can either support or refute the proposed explanation or prediction. Without testability, a hypothesis becomes nothing more than an abstract concept, devoid of practical value.
  • Falsifiability:  A hallmark of scientific hypotheses is their potential to be proven false. By allowing for the possibility of rejection, hypotheses encourage critical thinking and the pursuit of knowledge. It is through the process of testing and potentially refuting hypotheses that scientific understanding evolves and expands.

By incorporating these key elements into the construction of a hypothesis, researchers can ensure that their work is grounded in scientific rigor. A strong hypothesis sets the stage for meaningful research, paving the way for new discoveries and advancements in our understanding of the world.

Preparing to Write Your Hypothesis

Before diving into the actual formulation of your hypothesis, there are several preparatory steps you should take.

One important step in preparing to write your hypothesis is identifying your research question. This step is crucial because it helps you clearly define what you are seeking to investigate. By asking yourself what specific phenomenon or relationship you are interested in exploring, you lay the foundation for a focused and meaningful hypothesis.

For example, if you are studying the effects of caffeine on memory, your research question might be “Does caffeine enhance memory performance?” This question provides a clear direction for your hypothesis.

Another crucial step in preparing to write your hypothesis is conducting preliminary research. Before formulating your hypothesis, it is important to gather as much information as possible about your topic. This involves reviewing relevant literature, examining existing theories and findings, and familiarizing yourself with the current state of knowledge in your field. By conducting thorough preliminary research, you gain valuable insights that will inform the development of your hypothesis.

  For example, you might come across studies that have already investigated the effects of caffeine on memory and have found mixed results. This information will help you refine your research question and develop a hypothesis that addresses the gaps in existing knowledge.

Additionally, conducting preliminary research allows you to ensure the relevance and novelty of your hypothesis. By familiarizing yourself with the current state of knowledge, you can identify gaps or inconsistencies in the existing literature. These gaps or inconsistencies can serve as the basis for your hypothesis, allowing you to contribute new insights to your field of study. For example, if previous studies have focused on the short-term effects of caffeine on memory, you might decide to investigate the long-term effects, thus adding a novel perspective to the existing body of research.

In conclusion, before formulating your hypothesis, it is important to take  preparatory steps such as identifying your research question  and conducting preliminary research. These steps help you define the scope of your investigation, gather relevant information, and ensure the relevance and novelty of your hypothesis. By investing time and effort into these preparatory steps, you set yourself up for a successful and impactful research project.

Crafting Your Hypothesis

With a solid understanding of the basics and having completed the necessary preparations, it is now time to craft your hypothesis.

When formulating your initial hypothesis, it is important to consider the variables involved in your study. Variables are the factors or characteristics that can change or vary. You need to  identify the independent variable , which is the factor that you manipulate or control, and the dependent variable, which is the factor that you measure or observe to see if it changes in response to the independent variable.

Formulating an Initial Hypothesis

Your initial hypothesis should be based on a logical and informed understanding of the topic you are studying. It should be a clear and concise statement that predicts the relationship between the independent and dependent variables. By formulating a hypothesis, you are making a prediction about what you expect to find in your research.

  For example, if you are studying the effects of caffeine on memory, your initial hypothesis might be: “Consuming caffeine will improve memory performance compared to a control group that does not consume caffeine.”

Remember, your hypothesis is not a random guess. It should be informed by previous research, theories, or observations. It is essential to review the existing literature and scientific studies related to your topic to ensure that your hypothesis is grounded in evidence.

Refining Your Hypothesis for Clarity

After formulating your initial hypothesis, it is crucial to refine it further to ensure clarity and precision. This involves eliminating any ambiguities or imprecise language that could lead to misunderstandings. A well-refined hypothesis allows for a more accurate interpretation of results and facilitates the testing process.

One way to refine your hypothesis is to make it more specific. Instead of making a general prediction, try to narrow down your focus and specify the conditions or variables involved. This will make your hypothesis more testable and increase the precision of your research.

Additionally, it is important to avoid biased language or assumptions in your hypothesis. Your hypothesis should be objective and unbiased, reflecting a neutral stance. This ensures that your research is conducted in a fair and unbiased manner, allowing for reliable and valid results.

Refining your hypothesis also involves considering alternative explanations or variables that could influence your results. By acknowledging potential confounding factors or alternative hypotheses, you demonstrate a thorough understanding of your research topic and strengthen the validity of your study.

Overall, crafting a hypothesis is a critical step in the research process. It allows you to make an informed prediction about the relationship between variables and provides a framework for your investigation. By formulating and refining your hypothesis, you set the stage for a well-designed and meaningful research study.

Testing Your Hypothesis

Once you have crafted your hypothesis, the next step is to test it through empirical observation or experimentation. This phase involves the  design and implementation of a study  aimed at collecting data that can either support or refute your hypothesis.

Designing an Experiment

If your research question lends itself to experimental investigation, designing a controlled experiment is often the most effective approach to test your hypothesis. Careful consideration should be given to selecting appropriate variables, determining the sample size, and ensuring validity and reliability.

Analyzing the Results

Once you have collected the necessary data, the next step is to analyze and interpret your findings.  Statistical methods and data analysis techniques  can help identify patterns, correlations, or significant differences between variables. The results will either support or reject your hypothesis, leading to a deeper understanding of the phenomenon under investigation.

Ready to take your hypothesis from concept to completion? Dissertation by Design is here to support you every step of the way. Whether you need help refining your research proposal, analyzing qualitative data, navigating statistical complexities, or polishing your dissertation with expert editing, our team of experienced academic coaches is ready to guide you. Don’t navigate the dissertation process alone— schedule a free consultation  with us today and move forward with confidence.

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How to Write a Hypothesis with Examples and Explanations

20 August 2023

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A hypothesis refers to a statement that predicts the findings of a research study. Basically, researchers develop propositions to provide tentative answers to research questions that address different aspects of the research question. In this case, a scholar must use existing theories and knowledge to create an assumption. Besides, a researcher focuses on testing supposed claims through different methods, like experiments, observations, and statistical analysis of the data. In practice, the findings from a study can either support or refute a hypothesis. Then, when writing a suggestion, scholars should conduct adequate research on the topic, brainstorm for ideas, draft a hypothesis, revise a draft supposition, and write a final claim in simple language. Also, these steps lead to the development of accurate and precise propositions that identify relationships between independent and dependent variables. In practice, one should rely on a cause and effect theory when developing a hypothesis.

General Aspects of Writing a Hypothesis

A hypothesis suggests a sentence as a statement that gives a prediction about the findings of a research study. Basically, researchers make a hypothesis, which acts as a tentative answer to the research question. In this case, a proposition lacks scientific or scholarly proof. Then, a reasonable hypothesis must address different aspects of the research question. In turn, researchers must base a proposition on existing theories and knowledge. Besides, it has to be testable through various methods, like experiments, observations, and statistical analysis. In practice, the findings from a study can either support or refute a working hypothesis. Therefore, a hypothesis refers to a statement that tries to predict the results of a survey.

How to write a hypothesis

Independent and Dependent Variables

A hypothesis in some studies must contain independent and dependent variables. For example. experimental and correlational research examines relationships between two or more variables. In turn, independent variables refer to factors that researchers can control or change. Besides, a dependent variable refers to factors that scholars observe or measure. Then, a null hypothesis of experimental and correlational studies must predict relationships between dependent and independent variables. Moreover, such predictions should not be guesses but should contain evidence from research studies.

Types of a Hypothesis

There are different types of hypotheses that researchers can develop in their studies. In this case, the following are the common types of hypotheses:

  • A simple hypothesis refers to predictions of relationships between independent and dependent variables.
  • A complex hypothesis predicts relationships between two or more independent and dependent variables.
  • An empirical hypothesis is a working prediction that exists when a researcher tests a theory by using observations and experiments. Basically, this type of hypothesis goes through some trial and error methods to obtain the necessary findings. In some instances, researchers may change some variables around other variables.  
  • A null hypothesis , denoted as H 0 , exists when a researcher believes that a relationship does not exist between independent and dependent variables. Basically, this hypothesis may exist when a researcher lacks adequate information to make a scientific prediction. Besides, inferences made from the findings attempt to disapprove or discredit a null hypothesis.  
  • An alternative hypothesis , denoted as H 1 , attempts to disapprove a null hypothesis. In this case, researchers attempt to discover or affirm an alternative proposition. 
  • A logical hypothesis refers to a proposed explanation of a concept that contains limited evidence. In practice, investigators intend to turn a reasonable assumption into an empirical claim. Also, researchers put theories or postulate it to the test.
  • A statistical hypothesis is a claim related to studies that examine a section of the population. In this case, researchers identify a sample population and study their behaviors related to the research question. 

Crafting a Hypothesis

Researchers should focus on developing reasonable hypotheses for their studies. For example, one should consider different factors that relate to existing studies or theories. In this case, some predictions should pertain to research data and provide tentative answers to research questions. Hence, the following are the essential steps that a researcher should consider when developing a hypothesis.

Step 1. Researching

The first step in developing a hypothesis is to research and gather details related to the intended topic. Basically, researching allows a scholar to gain more knowledge concerning issues and factors and how variables change. Besides, this step will enable researchers to become familiar with the expected results. As a result, it influences a relevant hypothesis’s development.

Step 2. Asking Questions

A researcher should develop research questions before developing a hypothesis. For instance, investigators should create scientific questions that relate to the study and identified variables. In this case, brainstorming enhances the ability to determine relationships between independent and dependent variables. Basically, successful scholars remain focused on one cause and effect theory to ensure that they develop accurate ideas for a hypothesis. Therefore, the second step in developing a proposition is to brainstorm questions that reveal the relationship between independent and dependent variables. 

Step 3. Use Clear Language

Scholars should use simple and clear language when developing a hypothesis for a study. For instance, one should draft concise predictions that answer developed research questions. In practice, one should write a hypothesis in a form that proposes that an action leads to a specific result. Moreover, a researcher should not state a supposition as a question but as an affirmative statement that predicts outcomes from a particular course of action. Therefore, the third step in developing a hypothesis involves selecting a simple language for drafting scientific predictions. 

Step 4. Revising a Hypothesis

A scholar should revise a draft hypothesis to ensure that it makes a testable thesis through research and experimentation. For instance, a researcher should review a prediction to ensure that it captures relationships between at least two variables. Hence, a scholar must revise a drafted hypothesis to ensure that it captures a testable relationship between independent and dependent variables.     

Examples of a Hypothesis

1. sociology.

  • Research question – How does divorce affect sociological development among young children?
  • H 0 – Challenges that lead to divorce hurt young children’s social development, which affects their ability to interact with other people. 
  • H 1 – Most children manage to cope with domestic challenges that lead to divorce, enabling them to realize healthy sociological development.
  • Research question – How did tenebrism influence baroque art during the 16 th and 17 th centuries?
  • H 0 – The origin of tenebrism had a positive impact on the dynamic appearance of baroque art.
  • H 1 – Baroque art emerged as a unique art that did not have any form of external influence.

3. Geography

  • Research question – To what extent does geological activity affect the Earth?
  • H 0 – The movement of tectonic plates beneath the Earth’s surface results in volcanic eruptions and faults that lead to mountains and lift valleys.  
  • H 1 – Mountains and valleys are natural features with little connection with geological activities like the movement of tectonic plates beneath the Earth’s surface.

4. Philosophy Hypothesis

  • Research question – Do animals have rights and welfare in society?
  • H 0 – Wild and domestic animals are living creatures with a right to care and protection by humans.
  • H 1 – Wild and domestic animals are subordinate to a human, which implies that they do not have a right to care and protection.  
  • Research question – Does the consumption of genetically modified plants cause health complications in humans?
  • H 0 – Genetically modified foods are safe for human consumption and do not pose any possible health risks.
  • H 1 – Genetically modified foods interfere with healthy cell development, which leads to health complications.

4. Indigenous Studies

  • Research question – What role does culture play among indigenous communities?
  • H 0 – Cultural practices among aboriginals promote their identity and contribute to the members’ overall well-being.
  • H 1 – cultural practices among aboriginals do not significantly contribute to the quality of their lives.
  • Research question – Does fascism exist in the twenty-first century?
  • H 0 – The established forms of democracy in the twenty-first century do not allow political leaders to implement all the fascism elements.
  • H 1 – Some political leaders in the twenty-first century adopt radical policies that promote the existence of fascism.
  • Research question – Do neutrons have mass?
  • H 0 – Neutrons are small particles that have masses.
  • H 1 – Neutrons are small particles whose weight remains insignificant.

7. Health Studies

  • Research question – How do evidence-based treatment approaches enhance the quality of the treatments?
  • H 0 – Evidence-based treatment methods allow doctors to gather adequate and accurate information about the patient, which helps tailor treatment and care approaches to meet the patient’s needs.
  • H 1 – Evidence-based approaches do not enhance the quality of the treatments since they lead to inconsistency in the care and medications given to a patient.

8. Environmental Studies

  • Research question – To what extent do human activities contribute to global warming?
  • H 0 – Most human activities release greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, which results in the rise of average temperatures.
  • H 1 – Most human activities release insignificant amounts of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, contributing to global warming.

Summing Up on How to Write a Good Scientific Hypothesis in a Research Paper

A hypothesis gives a prediction about the findings of a research study. Basically, researchers develop hypotheses to provide a tentative answer to research questions. In turn, some of the factors that one must consider when writing a hypothesis include:

  • conduct adequate research on the topic;
  • brainstorm for ideas;
  • draft a hypothesis;
  • revise a draft proposition;
  • write a final hypothesis in simple language.

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How to Write a Hypothesis

Often, one of the trickiest parts of designing and writing up any research paper is writing the hypothesis.

This article is a part of the guide:

  • Outline Examples
  • Example of a Paper
  • Introduction
  • Example of a Paper 2

Browse Full Outline

  • 1 Write a Research Paper
  • 2 Writing a Paper
  • 3.1 Write an Outline
  • 3.2 Outline Examples
  • 4.1 Thesis Statement
  • 4.2 Write a Hypothesis
  • 5.2 Abstract
  • 5.3 Introduction
  • 5.4 Methods
  • 5.5 Results
  • 5.6 Discussion
  • 5.7 Conclusion
  • 5.8 Bibliography
  • 6.1 Table of Contents
  • 6.2 Acknowledgements
  • 6.3 Appendix
  • 7.1 In Text Citations
  • 7.2 Footnotes
  • 7.3.1 Floating Blocks
  • 7.4 Example of a Paper
  • 7.5 Example of a Paper 2
  • 7.6.1 Citations
  • 7.7.1 Writing Style
  • 7.7.2 Citations
  • 8.1.1 Sham Peer Review
  • 8.1.2 Advantages
  • 8.1.3 Disadvantages
  • 8.2 Publication Bias
  • 8.3.1 Journal Rejection
  • 9.1 Article Writing
  • 9.2 Ideas for Topics

The entire experiment revolves around the research hypothesis (H 1 ) and the null hypothesis (H 0 ), so making a mistake here could ruin the whole design .

Needless to say, it can all be a little intimidating, and many students find this to be the most difficult stage of the scientific method .

In fact, it is not as difficult as it looks, and if you have followed the steps of the scientific process and found an area of research and potential research problem , then you may already have a few ideas.

It is just about making sure that you are asking the right questions and wording your hypothesis statements correctly.

Once you have nailed down a promising hypothesis, the rest of the process will flow a lot more easily.

how to write hypothesis for dissertation

The Three-Step Process

It can quite difficult to isolate a testable hypothesis after all of the research and study. The best way is to adopt a three-step hypothesis; this will help you to narrow things down, and is the most foolproof guide to how to write a hypothesis.

Step one is to think of a general hypothesis, including everything that you have observed and reviewed during the information gathering stage of any research design . This stage is often called developing the research problem .

how to write hypothesis for dissertation

An Example of How to Write a Hypothesis

A worker on a fish-farm notices that his trout seem to have more fish lice in the summer, when the water levels are low, and wants to find out why. His research leads him to believe that the amount of oxygen is the reason - fish that are oxygen stressed tend to be more susceptible to disease and parasites.

He proposes a general hypothesis.

“Water levels affect the amount of lice suffered by rainbow trout.”

This is a good general hypothesis, but it gives no guide to how to design the research or experiment . The hypothesis must be refined to give a little direction.

“Rainbow trout suffer more lice when water levels are low.”

Now there is some directionality, but the hypothesis is not really testable , so the final stage is to design an experiment around which research can be designed, i.e. a testable hypothesis.

“Rainbow trout suffer more lice in low water conditions because there is less oxygen in the water.”

This is a testable hypothesis - he has established variables , and by measuring the amount of oxygen in the water, eliminating other controlled variables , such as temperature, he can see if there is a correlation against the number of lice on the fish.

This is an example of how a gradual focusing of research helps to define how to write a hypothesis .

The Next Stage - What to Do with the Hypothesis

Once you have your hypothesis , the next stage is to design the experiment , allowing a statistical analysis of data, and allowing you to test your hypothesis .

The statistical analysis will allow you to reject either the null or the alternative hypothesis. If the alternative is rejected, then you need to go back and refine the initial hypothesis or design a completely new research program.

This is part of the scientific process, striving for greater accuracy and developing ever more refined hypotheses.

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  1. How to Write a Strong Hypothesis

    Step 1. Ask a question Writing a hypothesis begins with a research question that you want to answer. The question should be focused, specific, and researchable within the constraints of your project.

  2. How to Write a Strong Hypothesis

    Step 1: Ask a question Writing a hypothesis begins with a research question that you want to answer. The question should be focused, specific, and researchable within the constraints of your project. Example: Research question Do students who attend more lectures get better exam results? Step 2: Do some preliminary research

  3. What is and How to Write a Good Hypothesis in Research?

    "The relationship between A and B will be C." A hypothesis is generally used if your research topic is fairly well established, and you are relatively certain about the relationship between the variables that will be presented in your research.

  4. How to Write a Hypothesis

    Step 8: Test your Hypothesis. Design an experiment or conduct observations to test your hypothesis. Example: Grow three sets of plants: one set exposed to 2 hours of sunlight daily, another exposed to 4 hours, and a third exposed to 8 hours. Measure and compare their growth after a set period.

  5. How To Write An A-Grade Research Hypothesis (+ Examples ...

    Learn what exactly a research (or scientific) hypothesis is and how to write high-quality hypothesis statements for any dissertation, thesis, or research pro...

  6. What is a Research Hypothesis and How to Write a Hypothesis

    Hypothesis usually involves proposing a relationship between two variables: the independent variable (what the researchers change) and the dependent variable (what the research measures). What is a Research Hypothesis? Research hypothesis is a statement that introduces a research question and proposes an expected result.

  7. How to Write a Hypothesis in 6 Steps, With Examples

    1 Simple hypothesis A simple hypothesis suggests only the relationship between two variables: one independent and one dependent. Examples: If you stay up late, then you feel tired the next day. Turning off your phone makes it charge faster. 2 Complex hypothesis

  8. What Is A Research Hypothesis? A Simple Definition

    A research hypothesis (also called a scientific hypothesis) is a statement about the expected outcome of a study (for example, a dissertation or thesis). To constitute a quality hypothesis, the statement needs to have three attributes - specificity, clarity and testability. Let's take a look at these more closely.

  9. What is a research hypothesis: How to write it, types, and examples

    How to write a research hypothesis When you start writing a research hypothesis, you use an "if-then" statement format, which states the predicted relationship between two or more variables. Clearly identify the independent variables (the variables being changed) and the dependent variables (the variables being measured), as well as the ...

  10. Writing Strong Research Questions

    A good research question is essential to guide your research paper, dissertation, or thesis. All research questions should be: Focused on a single problem or issue. Researchable using primary and/or secondary sources. Feasible to answer within the timeframe and practical constraints. Specific enough to answer thoroughly.

  11. How to Write a Hypothesis 101: A Step-by-Step Guide

    How to Write a Hypothesis 101: A Step-by-Step Guide Learn How To Write A Hypothesis For Your Next Research Project! Undoubtedly, research plays a crucial role in substantiating or refuting our assumptions. These assumptions act as potential answers to our questions. Such assumptions, also known as hypotheses, are considered key aspects of research.

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    Simple hypothesis. A simple hypothesis is a statement made to reflect the relation between exactly two variables. One independent and one dependent. Consider the example, "Smoking is a prominent cause of lung cancer." The dependent variable, lung cancer, is dependent on the independent variable, smoking. 4.

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    How to formulate a Hypotheses in Quantitative Research Qualitative Research Testing and Errors in Hypotheses Summary The research structure helps us create research that is : Quantifiable Verifiable Replicable Defensible Corollaries among the model, common sense & paper format Model Research Question Develop a Theory

  14. How to Write a Great Hypothesis

    The scientific method involves the following steps: Forming a question Performing background research Creating a hypothesis Designing an experiment Collecting data Analyzing the results Drawing conclusions Communicating the results The hypothesis is a prediction, but it involves more than a guess.

  15. Writing a Strong Hypothesis Statement

    Formulating your hypothesis. One of the best ways to form a hypothesis is to think about "if...then" statements. Now that we know what a hypothesis statement is, let's walk through how to formulate a strong one. First, you will need a thesis question. Your thesis question should be narrow in scope, answerable, and focused.

  16. What Is the Hypothesis in a Dissertation?

    In your dissertation, you may create a hypothesis based on your research that predicts a relationship, called an "alternative" or "research" hypothesis. To balance your findings, you will also create a "null" hypothesis, which claims that the relationship that is to be proven in the research hypothesis does not exist.

  17. How to Write a Hypothesis for a Research Paper + Examples

    Clear and specific: A good hypothesis is clear, concise, and specific in its formulation. It precisely states the relationship or expected outcome being investigated. Testable: It is testable, meaning it can be empirically examined through observations, experiments, or data analysis.

  18. How to Write a Hypothesis: 5 Simple Steps & Examples

    Step 2. Gather Preliminary Research. Step 5. Write a Null Hypothesis. Readability checker. Each academic research revolves around specific statement or problem — a research hypothesis. hypothesis is a suggested prediction for a phenomenon or observed event, based on prior knowledge or research.

  19. How to write a hypothesis: Help from Pros

    How to Write a Hypothesis for a Dissertation - Learn the Principles of Good Hypothesis Writing. Follow these tips to learn how to write a hypothesis: Begin with questions. Brainstorming is one of the critical elements of successful dissertation hypothesis writing. Take your time to define the independent and dependent variables and outline ...

  20. How to Write a Hypothesis: A Step-by-Step Guide

    This question provides a clear direction for your hypothesis. Another crucial step in preparing to write your hypothesis is conducting preliminary research. Before formulating your hypothesis, it is important to gather as much information as possible about your topic. This involves reviewing relevant literature, examining existing theories and ...

  21. Secrets of Writing a Dissertation Hypothesis

    15 min 0 10.04.2022 The hypothesis in a dissertation is part of the introduction to student work. It is located after the goal with objectives and before research methods. Despite its modest volume, this element's development is significant, since it is the mainstay of the entire study, its driving force.

  22. How to Write a Hypothesis with Examples and Explanations

    Step 1. Researching. The first step in developing a hypothesis is to research and gather details related to the intended topic. Basically, researching allows a scholar to gain more knowledge concerning issues and factors and how variables change.

  23. How to Write a Hypothesis

    It can quite difficult to isolate a testable hypothesis after all of the research and study. The best way is to adopt a three-step hypothesis; this will help you to narrow things down, and is the most foolproof guide to how to write a hypothesis. Step one is to think of a general hypothesis, including everything that you have observed and ...

  24. Tips on writing a correct dissertation hypothesis

    How to write hypothesis for dissertation: basic recommendations for authors Before making a hypothesis carefully analyze the problem you chose or were assigned to. Define both an object and a subject of research, and try to decide what theory you are going to prove to those people who will review your project.