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AIOU Course Code 6502-1 Solved Assignment Autumn 2021

aiou assignment 6502

Course: Educational Management and Supervision (6502)

Level: M.A/M.Ed (3 Credit Hours)                              Semester: Autumn, 2021


aiou assignment 6502

The four major types of educational management. The types are: (1) Centralized and Decentralized Education Management, (2) External and Internal Education Management, (3) Autocratic and Democratic Educational Management, and (4) Creative Educational Management. 1. Centralized and Decentralized Educational Management:

Educational management  refers to the administration of the  education  system in which a group combines human and material resources to supervise, plan, strategise, and implement structures to execute an education system.  Education  is the equipping of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, habits, and attitudes with learning experiences. The education system is an  ecosystem  of professionals in educational institutions, such as government ministries, unions, statutory boards, agencies, and schools. The education system consists of political heads, principals, teaching staff, non-teaching staff, administrative personnel and other educational professionals working together to enrich and enhance.At all levels of the educational ecosystem,  management  is required; management involves the planning, organising, implementation, review, evaluation, and integration of an institution.

Co-curricular activities

Co-curricular activities help students maintain a  holistic education , expressing their interests and talents. The activities help foster a sense of social integration, and add a sense of commitment and belonging to one’s community and country. Co-curricular activities include science-oriented talent-development programmes, clubs and societies, sports, uniformed groups, and visual- and performing-arts groups.  Co-curricular activities  may also include advocacy, botany, personal-care, innovation, research-methodology and current-affairs groups.

Curriculum planning and development

Curriculum  planning and development involves “the design and development of integrated plans for learning, and the evaluation of plans, their implementation and the outcomes of the learning experience”.It designs and reviews curriculum, promotes teaching and assessment strategies aligned with curriculum, formulates special curriculum programmes, creates clear, observable objectives, and generates useful assessment  rubrics .

Curriculum development can be described as a three-stage process encompassing planned, delivered and experienced curriculum. It may be shaped by pedagogical approaches contributed by theorists and researchers, such as  John Dewey ,  Lev Vygotsky ,  Jean Piaget ,  Jerome Bruner , and  Albert Bandura .

Curriculum development at the  preschool  level is based on several schools of thought. The  Kindergarten  was established by  Friedrich Fröbel  in Germany in 1837. Froebel described three forms of knowledge which he viewed as essential to all learning:knowledge of life, which includes an appreciation of gardening, animals and domestic tasks; knowledge of mathematics, such as geometry; and knowledge of beauty, which includes colour and shape, harmony and movement.The goals of Froebel’s kindergarten are to awaken a child’s physical senses through learning experiences and provide a common ground for individuals to advance.

Margaret  and  Rachel McMillan  were social reformers in England who spent their lives trying to address poverty and founded the Open-Air  Nursery School  and Training Centre in  London . Their goals were to provide loving care, health support, nourishment and physical welfare to children.Assistance was provided to parents to aid them in caring for, and interacting with, their children.  Pedagogical  models on how to engage and interact with young children were provided. The pedagogical principles of the Nursery School may be found in educational frameworks requiring teachers to nurture and teach a curriculum which covers an exploration of the world, aesthetics, music and movement, and literacy.

John Dewey  formulated the theory of  progressive education .His progressive-education philosophy embraces the idea that children should be taught how to think. Dewey was opposed to assessments, since they cannot measure whether or not a child is educated. The school community should offer learning opportunities which are interesting and meaningful and prepare individuals to live in a democratic society. Children learn through doing, cooperation, problem-solving and collaboration, with the teacher acting as a guide. Projects in Dewey’s curriculum encourage exploration, self-discovery and sensorial experiences which provide a holistic approach, focuses on the children’s interests, and are developmentally appropriate.

Montessori education  was developed by  Maria Montessori , who believed that children go through sensitive periods known as “windows of opportunity”. Everything in a Montessori classroom enhances and develops a child’s growth. Materials address children’s interests and the natural environment. The learning environment is focused on the child. The curriculum trains children to be responsive, and promotes a desire for skills mastery.

Waldorf education , created by the Austrian philosopher  Rudolf Steiner , focuses on the whole child: body, mind, and spirit. The curriculum is designed to provoke thought processes, develop sensitivity, and enhance creative and artistic fluency.The Waldorf curriculum consists of storytelling, aesthetics (arts), practical work, imaginative play, and discovery of nature. Modern schools adopting Waldorf education are independent and self-governing.

The  Reggio Emilia approach  developed in the small north-Italian city of  Reggio Emilia . Influenced by  constructivist  theories and the progressive-education movement, it is committed to uphold the rights of individuals. Key concepts in a Reggio Emilia school include a child’s right to education, the importance of interpersonal relationships amongst children, teachers and parents, and children’s interactions in work and play.Its curriculum emerges from the children’s interest, and is developed through projects and inquiry. Each individual plays an important role in the school, and parental involvement is a key aspect of the child’s learning and development.

Primary education

Curriculum development at the  primary  level focuses on the foundations of subjects, covering subject disciplines, knowledge skills and character development. Subject disciplines are the cores and foundations of language, science, humanities, the arts, technology, and social studies. Knowledge skills are personal skills and attributes such as communication, critical thinking, teamwork and judgement, which are developed through learning experiences based on the school’s pedagogical practices. Character development, according to  Elliot Eisner , is the implicit curriculum: the school’s hidden agenda. Character traits and attributes include resilience, self-discipline, empathy and compassion, focusing on the social and emotional development of each student. The curriculum development is a springboard towards personal and social capability, ethical and intercultural understanding, and sound moral judgement.

Secondary education

Curriculum development  varies at the  secondary  level, based on the course (or stream) in which a student is enrolled. Curriculum focuses on core subjects such as language, mathematics, science and the humanities. Learning experiences, strategic goals, national frameworks and school philosophy are also considered in curriculum development;schools consider values and progressive skills in the development of a holistic curriculum. Elective and vocational programmes are offered, which include social studies, art and music, design, and technology and computer studies.Specialized schools integrate programmes with corporate partners in information and communication technology, entrepreneurship, art, design, media and  Da Vinci Learning . Enhanced programmes in sports, arts, and language are also offered.

Tertiary education

Curriculum at the  tertiary education  level involves specific course design and development.  Griffith University  describes planning as based on previously-collected evidence; the process also involves assessment, technologically-informed learning and discipline-based capabilities. [45]  The process aims to prepare students for the workforce while enhancing their understanding of a subject. Griffith University considers four key elements in curriculum development:  learning analytics , external peer review, peer-based professional learning and professional learning workshops. [45]

Educational technology

Educational technology involves the integration, planning, implementation and management of  information and communications technology  (ICT) for effective learning and teaching. [46]  The educational-technology branch of an education system conceptualizes and develops ICT in education, integrating it with curriculum frameworks, staff development and management.

The focus of educational technology has shifted to online and web-based applications, learning portals, flipped classrooms and a variety of social networks for teaching and learning. [47]  Although educational technology includes ICT, it is not limited to hardware and educational theoretics. It encompasses several domains including collaborative learning,  learning theory ,  linear learning , online portal learning, and (where mobile technologies are used)  m-learning . These domains contribute to a personalized learning model and promote self-directed learning, as students take charge of their education.

Educational Administration and Management is a comprehensive textbook for students pursuing B.Ed. and B.El.Ed courses, Educational Administration and Management aims at helping students understand the theories and processes of this subject, and thereby become effective leaders and managers of the educational system tomorrow. This book provides the historical perspective of educational Administration and explains the concept of Educational management in detail which will help the student to understand various educational aspects. It also describes the basic characteristics of educational planning and implementation. The host of student-friendly features such as exercises and questions will help students in their study and exam preparations.

National education policy 1979

Element of direction:  Supervision is one of the  elements of direction  besides motivation, leadership and communication. It is performed at all levels of management as it means guiding the efforts of employees and other resources to achieve the desired output. It is, thus, narrower in scope than direction. 2. Functions performed by supervisors:

Concepts  are defined as abstract  ideas . They are understood to be the fundamental building blocks of the concept behind principles,  thoughts  and  beliefs . [1]  They play an important role in all aspects of  cognition . [2] [3]  As such, concepts are studied by several disciplines, such as linguistics, psychology, and philosophy, and these disciplines are interested in the logical and psychological structure of concepts, and how they are put together to form thoughts and sentences. The study of concepts has served as an important flagship of an emerging interdisciplinary approach called cognitive science. [4]

In  contemporary philosophy , there are at least three prevailing ways to understand what a concept is: [5]

Concepts can be organized into a hierarchy, higher levels of which are termed “superordinate” and lower levels termed “subordinate”. Additionally, there is the “basic” or “middle” level at which people will most readily categorize a concept. [6]  For example, a basic-level concept would be “chair”, with its superordinate, “furniture”, and its subordinate, “easy chair”.

Concepts may be exact, or inexact. [7]  When the mind makes a generalization such as the concept of tree, it extracts similarities from numerous examples; the simplification enables  higher-level thinking . A concept is  instantiated (reified)  by all of its actual or potential instances, whether these are things in the real world or other  ideas .

Concepts are studied as components of human cognition in the  cognitive science  disciplines of  linguistics ,  psychology , and  philosophy , where an ongoing debate asks whether all cognition must occur through concepts. Concepts are used as formal tools or models in  mathematics ,  computer science ,  databases  and  artificial intelligence  where they are sometimes called  classes ,  schema  or  categories . In  informal  use the word concept often just means any  idea .

Essential Meaning of nature 1 :  the physical world and everything in it  (such as plants, animals, mountains, oceans, stars, etc.) that is not made by people the beauty of nature She is a real nature lover. = She really loves nature. [=she loves to spend time outdoors]

Nature  is a British weekly  scientific journal  founded and based in  London ,  England . As a multidisciplinary publication, Nature features  peer-reviewed  research from a variety of academic disciplines, mainly in science and technology. It has core editorial offices across the  United States , continental  Europe , and  Asia  under the international scientific publishing company  Springer Nature . Nature was one of the world’s most cited scientific journals by the Science Edition of the 2019  Journal Citation Reports  (with an ascribed  impact factor  of 42.778), [1]  making it one of the world’s most-read and most prestigious  academic journals . [2] [3] [4]  As of 2012, it claimed an online readership of about three million unique readers per month. [5]

Founded in autumn 1869, Nature was first circulated by  Norman Lockyer  and  Alexander Macmillan  as a public forum for scientific innovations. The mid-20th century facilitated an editorial expansion for the journal; Nature redoubled its efforts in explanatory and  scientific journalism . The late 1980s and early 1990s created a network of editorial offices outside of Britain and established ten new supplementary, speciality publications (e.g.  Nature Materials ). Since the late 2000s, dedicated editorial and current affairs columns are created weekly, and  electoral endorsements  are featured. The primary source of the journal remains, as established at its founding, research scientists; editing standards are primarily concerned with technical readability. Each issue also features articles that are of general interest to the scientific community, namely business, funding, scientific ethics, and research breakthroughs. There are also sections on books, arts, and short science fiction stories.

The main research published in Nature consists mostly of papers (articles or letters) in lightly edited form. They are highly technical and dense, but, due to imposed text limits, they are typically summaries of larger work. Innovations or breakthroughs in any scientific or technological field are featured in the journal as either letters or news articles. The papers that have been published in this journal are internationally acclaimed for maintaining high research standards. Conversely, due to the journal’s exposure, it has at various times been a  subject of controversy  for its handling of academic dishonesty, the  scientific method , and news coverage. Fewer than 8% of submitted papers are accepted for publication. [6]  In 2007, Nature (together with  Science ) received the  Prince of Asturias Award  for Communications and Humanity.

Characteristics of Supervision. The characteristics of supervision are discussed below: Element of Directing: Supervision is one of the four important elements of directing. The other three being – motivation, communication and leadership. Universal activity: Supervision is a very common activity, which is required at different levels of management.

Definition : Supervision implies one to one and prompt guidance provided to the employees, along with instructing, monitoring and controlling them when they carry out any task or job to check if they are working according to the organization’s plans and policies, in a timely manner. Besides this, supervision also involves resolving the issues and work-related problems of the employees.


It is a conjunction of two words – ‘ super ‘ and ‘ vision ‘ which refers to over and above and to see or view. In a nutshell,  supervision means overseeing the activities of the employees .

Characteristics of Supervision

The characteristics of supervision are discussed below:

Supervision aims to ensure that the employees work in an efficient and effective way, to accomplish the tasks satisfactorily, which is assigned to them, by their supervisor.

Education is a purposeful and ethical activity and each activity as aspect has some aim before it. So, there is a close relationship between an activity and its aim.

An aim is a conscious purpose which we set before us, while   launching upon any activity. Just like that education is also unthinkable without aims. If there are no aims the educational process would not take place because an aim is a pre-determined goal which inspires the activity of education.

Aims act as basic  directions  while conducting a research or carrying out a project. It can be chunked into various objectives which help in reaching the aim easily. It has a long range perspective which reflects aspirations and ambition of the entity.

In the words of John Dewey “An aim is a foreseen end that gives direction to an activity or motivates behavior”.

Importance of Educational Aims

All our methods of teaching, our curriculum and our system of evaluation are shaped and molded according to our aim of education. It is the ignorance of right aims that has vitiated our educational system, its methods and its products, and has successfully resulted in the physical, intellectual and moral weaknesses of the race. There is a great necessity of aims in education because of the following reasons:

1.To direct efforts : Educational aims keep the teacher and the taught on the right track. They provide a line of action and guidance to the teachers. They give direction and zest to the work of the pupils. Educational aims help us to avoid wastage in time and energy.

2.To evaluate ourselves  : The aim is a yard-stick with which we can measure our success and failure. They are necessary to assess the outcome of the educational process.

Factors determining Educational Aims

Many factors have been contributing and do contribute to the determining of educational aims. These factors touch every phase of human life that was, that is or what will be.

1. Factors associated with  Philosophy of life  : Aims of education are always  influenced by the philosophy of life of the people of that country.

Difference between Aim and Objective

The word aim is often misconstrued with objective, as they talk about what an individual or entity may want to achieve.

The following points are important, so far as the difference between aim and objective is concerned:


Bloom’  Benjamin’s  has  put  forward  a  taxonomy  of  educational objectives,  which  provides  a  practical  framework  within  which educational  objectives  could  be  organized  and  measured.  In his taxonomy Bloom  divided educational objectives into three domains.  These  are:

The Cognitive Domain

The  cognitive domain  involves  those  objectives  that  deal  with  the development of intellectual abilities and skills. These have to do with the mental abilities of the brain

Learning outcome in Cognitive Domain

The domain is categorized into six hierarchical levels , comprehension,  application,  analysis,  synthesis  and evaluation. These levels are of  hierarchical and increasing operational difficulties  that  achievement  of  a  higher  level  of  skill  assumes  the achievement of the previous levels. This implies that a higher level of skill could be achieved only if a certain amount of ability called for by the previous level has been achieved.

Knowledge Level

Knowledge or memory is the first, the lowest and the foundation for the development of higher order cognitive skills. It involves the recognition or  recall  of  previous  learned  information.   For  measurement purposes,  memory  or  knowledge  involves  bringing  to  mind  the appropriate material. This cognitive level emphasizes the psychological process of remembering. Knowledge is remembering or retrieving previously learned material.

Knowledge can also be classified into the following:-

iii. Conventions (styles, symbols practices, allegories)

vii. Techniques and procedures or Methodology.

viii. Universals and abstractions.

x Knowledge of theories and structures (models, philosophies)

Comprehension Level

Comprehension is the ability to grasp or construct meaning from material. Comprehension is all about internalization of knowledge. It involvers making memory out of what is stored in the brain file. It is on this basis that what is stored inthe brain can be understood and translated, interpreted or extrapolated. It is only when you have known something that you can understand it.

Comprehension level is made up of the following:

iii.  Extrapolation : which involves the ability to draw implications and ability  to  identify  and continue  a  trend,  isolate  or  detect consequences, suggest possible meaning and estimate possible effect.

Application Level

As per the hierarchic nature of the instructional objectives  it is not possible to understand unless it is known..  It  also  means  that  one  cannot  apply  what  he/she  do  not understand.  The  use  of abstractions  in a  concrete  situation is  called application. These abstractions can be in the form of general ideas, rules, or procedures or generalized methods, technical terms, principles, ideas and theories which must be remembered, understood and applied. Understanding before correct application is an essentiality.

4 Major Approaches to Educational Planning – Explained

1. social demand approach:.

This approach was used in the Robbins Committee Report on Higher Education in Britain. In India too, this approach is a popular one while opening new schools and colleges in particular.

In this method are involved the following steps:

4 Major Approaches to Educational Planning – Explained!

Educational Planning

Educational planning, in its broadest generic sense, is the application of rational, systematic analysis to the process of educational development with the aim of making education more effective and efficient in responding to the needs and goals of its students and society.

The main approaches and techniques of relating educational planning to development planning, which are in use or recommended by various authorities are set out below. Usually combinations of methods are in operation

1. Social Demand Approach

The first approach of educational planning, which may be called the social method is in general use, but is scarcely a method at all, and is a starting point from which improvements must be devised. This method takes educational needs in terms of the current demand for education at the different levels and projects them on the basis of population increase, age distribution, long-term national or social goals (inarticulate or defined) and on the basis of what is known about state and consumer preferences for education. Among such goals and preferences are universal literacy, universal compulsory primary education, and cultural objectives. The stress is upon education as social infra-structure for development purposes, and as an end in itself. The financial implications of these targets are then considered.

The usual result is that the funds required for the educational expansion are found to be larger than those available either to launch or to sustain it, on the basis of projections of national income and revenue. A compromise is struck, and what is deemed to be a feasible plan emerges, cut down to the funds expected to be available. This is the traditional approach, and may work satisfactorily in high-income countries, although even in these, concern over flagging rates of growth and ever-increasing competition in export markets is leading to increased emphasis on the contribution of education to technological progress and productive efficiency

2. Manpower Requirement Approach

The second approach of educational planning, which we may call the manpower approach, is based on the fact that, as we saw earlier, the main link of education with economic development is through the knowledge and skills it produces in the labor force. To the extent that the educational system produces qualified people in the right numbers and places, the major part of the economic and social contribution of educational planning is achieved, provided that in so doing the educational system has not consumed so great a proportion of resources as to set back the development plan itself. Various methods exist of estimating future manpower requirements and the demand they will make on the education system.

3. Education-Output Ratio Method

The third method is based on the capital-output ratio approach and might be called the education-output ratio method. It relates the stock of educated people and the flow of children and students completing education at the different levels directly to the national output of goods and services without passing through the intervening stage of making manpower forecasts. A series of linear equations are set up relating the stock of persons who have completed a given level of education, and the number of students at each level, to the aggregate volume of production. These equations will show how the structure of the educational system should change with different growth rates of the economy. This method is developed by Professor Tinbergen.

4. Aggregate Method of Educational Planning

The fourth is the aggregate method of educational planning. This method tries to relate educational needs to the whole demand of society for education rather than to the level of output or to manpower, and is based on norms and patterns which emerge from an empirical study of the educational situation in countries at different stages of development. Among them are (a) the proportion of GNP devoted to education globally and (if possible) by sector; (b) the proportion of public expenditure devoted to education and its different sectors; (c) the proportion of over-all investment devoted to education; (d) the proportion of the population enrolled at the different educational levels; (e) the above information corrected by estimates of wastage; (f) the proportions of the school-age and student population enrolled at different levels.

A project consists of five different phases:  initiation, planning, execution, monitoring and controlling, and closure . Planning is the second phase of the project life cycle, where a plan after the initiation phase is made so the process of execution may begin. The project plan serves as a roadmap for the entire process of project management.

Project planning ensures project success and timely delivery, a crucially important function in any technical organization. Striving toward a perfect plan will help increase the probability of customer satisfaction and their trust in the organization for future investments. It’s the most crucial step in the reduction of risk and project failures. After all, no one gets points for a brilliant idea if the execution ultimately fails.

There are some necessary steps to project planning that can help yield a successful and efficient process. We can refer to different  project planning tools  like Gantt chart, PERT chart, or Critical Path Method when forming a project plan.

The following tutorial covers the basics of project planning, its fundamentals, why it’s so important for organizations, some popular tools used for project planning, and basic steps. We’ll also look at some opportunities to learn about these tools in more depth.

Enroll in our  PMP Certification Course  today and develop a strong foundation in the principles of project management.

What is Project Planning?

A project consists of five different phases: initiation, planning, execution, monitoring and controlling, and closure. Planning is the second phase of the project life cycle, where a plan after the initiation phase is made so the process of execution may begin. The project plan serves as a roadmap for the entire process of project management.

Project planning involves:

·         Defining Objectives

The definition must include what the project is comprised of, its main aim, what it intends to accomplish, and what marks its closure

·         Explaining the Scope

The explanation provides details on what the project intends to solve and who will benefit from the project

·         Scheduling Tasks

Each task is given a start date, an end date, and provides an estimate of how much time a task would take to complete

·         Generating Progress Reports

The document includes the work to be performed, deliverables, and the intended outcome of the project

Project Planning Fundamentals

Project Planning refers to defining fundamentals such as the following:

Determination of Scope, Cost, and Resources

Identification of the Problem

Identification of Stakeholders 

Definition of Project Objectives

Project planning ensures monitoring of the budget and schedule at every step. The project plan includes a schedule that guides team members in completing their tasks and helps them in knowing which tool they will need and when. It also helps the team stay engaged for higher project performance. The project plan ensures there is the active participation of all the team members and allows them to have an opportunistic approach towards their work.

Project planning ensures timely testing of the output at every step. When successfully implemented, everyone on the project team can foresee problems before they happen. This creates efficiencies and ensures the successful execution of the plan.

Additionally, project planning helps analyze, prioritize, and ensure an appropriate plan for all kinds of risks. Proper planning ensures that if there is more than one risk, they can be prioritized and dealt with accordingly. This step ensures that nothing will fall apart and the plan makes it easy for the project team to remember all the crucial details and deadlines.

Project Planning Tools

Project planning tools help everyone concerned keep track of project requirements and deadlines. Some of the most popular project planning tools include the following:

Gantt Chart

Critical Path Method (CPM)

Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)

Project Documentation

Project Planning Steps

There are seven essential project planning steps:

1. Identify and Meet Stakeholder

The stakeholders might include the project manager, the customer, or the team. The first step is to identify and meet the stakeholders to discuss their expectations and establish the project scope.

2. Define Scope

Project scope involves determining a list of specific project goals, deliverables, budgets, and deadlines. Project scope helps in establishing boundaries of the project and responsibilities of each team member.

3. Set and Prioritize Objectives

The objectives are set and prioritized once the expectations of stakeholders become certain. More exquisite detail to initial ideas is given, which serves as a reference point throughout the project.

4. Determine Deliverables 

Deliverables are the reason why the projects are created. It is one of the most critical steps of the project planning to determine what these deliverables will be and how they will be delivered in time.

5. Create a Project Schedule 

The project schedule outlines when different tasks of a project are supposed to begin and end. The project schedule helps measure the project progress and set up progress reports.

6. Risk Analysis

Identifying risks and considering how to deal with them is an essential step in project planning. Specific steps to prevent risks from happening or limiting their impact should be considered.

7. Set Progress Guidelines 

There must be a communication plan to update the stakeholders regarding the project progress. This can be done monthly, weekly, or daily so that all involved members can monitor the progress.

Salient features and flaws in project planning

Planning is firmly correlated with discovery and creativity. However, the manager would first have to set goals. Planning is an essential step what managers at all levels take. It needs holding on to the decisions since it includes selecting a choice from alternative ways of performance.

Scope and nature of Planning

The planning function of management has some special features. These features cast enlightenment on its scope and nature.

Also Check:  What is the Planning Process? 

Limitations of Planning

The limitations of Planning are furnished below:

(1) Planning Leads to Rigidity

(2) Planning May Not Work in Dynamic Environment

(3) Planning Reduces Creativity

(4) Planning Involves Huge Cost

(5) Planning is a Time-consuming  Process

(6) Planning Does Not Guarantee Success

Features of Planning

(1) Primary Function

(2) Achieving Objectives

(3) Futuristic/ Forward-Looking

(4) All Pervasive

Example:  A student may plan for his monthly test, a husband may plan to give surprise gift to his wife on the occasion of the anniversary, the CEO of a company may plan to launch a new product in the market, a sales manager may plan to achieve his sales target, a worker may plan for his production schedule, etc.

(5) Continuous Process

Examples:  If plans are prepared during a recession period and during its execution, the market plunges into a boom, then planners need have to make several changes for the period or to work on a different strategy to achieve the desired goals.   A company plans to sell 5000 cars but due to floods, the original plan cannot be implemented. The company will require changing its plans to achieve its sales target. So we can see that in both the above examples planning is not discontinued even for a while.

(6) Decision Making

and hence the need for planning arises.

(7) Planning is Mental Exercise

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AIOU MASTER ACADEMY - Educational Guide Line to Students of AIOU. But This is Not an Official AIOU Web

Educational Management and Supervision Code 6502 Assignments of Autumn 2021

Assignments of educational management and supervision code 6502 aiou.

Download Free AIOU Educational Management and Supervision Code 6502 Assignments For Exam Preparation

Educational Management and Supervision Code 6502

There are 2 assignments for this course. You will find all the assignments below. اس کورس کی 2 اسائنمنٹ ہیں آپ کو سب اسائنمنٹ نیچے مل جائے گی۔

Code 6502 Assignment Number 1

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Code 6502 Assignment Number 2

1. Alama Iqbal Open University ASSIGNMENTS :-

First and foremost Assignments are an essential part of the students. Because this plays a very important role. Moreove r , you can’t clear your semester without assignments. Most Importantly send your assignments in time. However, you can not pass exams without assignments. In other words, your attendance in exams is wasteless.

2. Assignments Recommendation:-

You will be considered to fail without submitting your assignment. In other words, even if you get 95% marks in the examination you will be considered as fail. If you clear your assignments, you have the chance to appear in the examination. Therefore you can have 3 attempts to appear.

Following are the passing marks of each assignment

In contrast, subjects having 2 assignments follow the above same percentage.

Above All AIOU Master Academy strives to help AIOU students. Moreover, we provide exams preparation notes like Key books ,  Guess papers , and  5 years papers.

3. Academy Mission:-

First of all our mission is to educate our young generation. Secondly Academy tries its best to build the civilized and sophisticated mankind in our country. besides, we are not indulged in any kind of miscellaneous activity that detracts students to take any shortcut in their education. subsequently, we always promote legal education as a priority, as well as helps students self-learning and build skills to perform best in their future.

4. Earnings:-

Our basic earning is by selling hardcopy notes like  Key books ,  Guess papers ,  5 years Papers to students at a very reasonable price. The Academy doesn’t earn by providing any kind of consultancy services. We assist students on Call  or  WhatsApp nor do we have premium support like others to earn money from needy students.

5. Free Notes:-

We also provide free  Guess Papers ,  5 Years Papers , and Soft Copy of  Assignments to students at our website. Assignments are only available on the website for guidelines and awareness about the conten t and pattern of related courses.

6. Online Earning:-

Despite this, our earning is from the internet, YouTube ,  and  Google . Similarly, They pay us because of the ads they publish on our YouTube channel  or on our website.

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Course: Textbook Development-I (6552) Semester: Spring, 2023 ASSIGNMENT No. 1

Q.1 Describe the history of textbooks and its effects on today’s textbooks?

A textbook is an organized body of material useful for the formal study of a subject area. A good textbook is distinguished by the following pedagogical features:

Textbook Structure

Topics are presented in major parts, chapters, sections and subsections that are organized in a way that facilitates understanding. This means that the text’s organization is based on the intersection of two requirements. The first of these are the requirements of the subject domain. Since most textbooks are developed by, or based on the contributions of subject matter experts, this requirement is usually well attended to. The second requirement is defined by the limits of the student’s mind. Cognition is a common human ability, but its needs and limits are frequently ignored by those who have already mastered a subject area. To make the best use of the student’s abilities, some rules can be spelled out for the structuring and presentation of ideas, concepts, and material. These rules should include:

As you visit classrooms, you probably notice that most, if not all, of those classrooms use a standard textbook series. The reasons for this are many, depending on the design and focus of the curriculum, the mandates of the administration, and/or the level of expertise on the part of classroom teachers.

Textbooks provide you with several advantages in the classroom:

When thinking about how you want to use textbooks, consider the following:

The  front matter  is the introductory section of your textbook and the first thing readers see. If you’re using an authoring platform such as Pressbooks, the system will set up some of these sections for you, including a copyright page and a table of contents. The following table lists the items typically included in the front matter and the order in which they appear. While most open textbooks will have many of these elements, very few will have all of them. Only include the sections relevant to your textbook.

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Q.2 Describe ESL books evaluation and textbook selection for classroom instruction? Also review ESL programs for improving skills.

Textbook evaluation can be divided into separate phases: pre-use (also known as pre-evaluation), during use (or in-use) and after use (or post-use).

Pre-evaluation: analysis Most textbook evaluation schemes distinguish two essential stages that are necessary at the pre-evaluation phase: a description or analysis phase, and an interpretation or evaluation phase. In the first phase, the contents of the book have to be carefully described in terms of scope and sequence, organization, and the types of texts and exercises contained within. The analysis phase will involve identifying these kinds of information:

Pre-evaluation: evaluation This stage of evaluation is more difficult since it involves subjective judgements, and these often differ from one person to another. For this reason, group evaluations are often useful. A number of checklists have been developed to assist at this stage of Pre-evaluation. However, checklists involve somewhat subjective categories and usually need to be adapted to reflect the particular book under consideration. In general, textbook evaluation addresses the following issues:

Goals : What does the book seek to achieve and how clearly are its learning outcomes identified? Syllabus : What syllabus framework is the book based on? Is the syllabus adequate or would it need to be supplemented (e.g. through additional activities for grammar or pronunciation)? Theoretical   framework : What language-learning theory is the book based on? Does it present an informed understanding of any underlying theory? Methodology : What methodology is the book based on? Is it pedagogically sound? Language   content : What kind of language does it contain and how authentic and relevant is the content? Is it an appropriate level of difficulty for the learners? Other   content : What topics and themes are covered and are they appropriate for the target learners? Organization : Is the book well organized into units and lessons, and within lessons are the purposes of activities clearly identified? Do units have a coherent, consistent organization and do they gradually progress in difficulty throughout the book? Teacher   appeal : Does the book look easy to teach and is it self-contained, or would the teacher need to develop supplementary materials to use with it? Would it require special training or could it be used by teachers with limited experience, and by both native-speaker and non-native-speaker teachers? Learner   appeal : How engaging would it be for learners? How would they rate the design of the book (including the photos and illustrations), the topics and the kinds of activities included? Is the material clearly relevant to their perceived language-learning needs? Are self-study components included? Ancilliaries : What other components does the book include, such as teacher’s book, workbook, tests, and digital and web-based support? Are all of these components published and available? Price : Is the book affordable for the intended buyers?

When a group-evaluation process is used, all of the issues above and others specific to the teaching context can be discussed, and if several books are being considered, a consensus reached on the book that most suits teachers’ needs. The decision may not rest entirely on the book’s merits. For example, if students are known to use a certain coursebook in private high schools, the book may be rejected for use in private-language programmes that attract university students.

Evaluating during and after use In-use evaluation focuses partially on the global needs of the institution: if testing is important, the comprehensive nature of the tests may be evaluated closely; if lab work is important, the pedagogical effectiveness and comprehensiveness of the online components may be evaluated in depth; if the school transitions students from a younger-learners programme to an adult programme, the ease of the transition from the coursebook for younger learners may be reviewed.

In terms of the classroom experience, however, and overall learner satisfaction, in-use evaluation focuses on how well the book functions in the classroom, and depends on monitoring the book whilst it is being used by collecting information from both teachers and students. Information collected can serve the following purposes:

This monitoring process may involve ongoing consultation with teachers to address issues that arise as the book is being used and to resolve problems that may occur. For example:

Various approaches to monitoring the use of a book are possible:

Post-use evaluation serves to provide information that will help decide if the book will continue to be used for future programmes.

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Q.3 Discuss textbook management and publication process in detail. Highlight the procedural issues.

Publishing Culture comprises of the virtues and codes that retain in any particular nation, which becomes the traditional value of that nation. Every country has its own Publishing Culture. The Publishing Culture of Pakistan is very assorted, which each ethnic group deriving its identity from its characteristics cultural values and norms which eventually makes it distinct from others.

Beginning of 20th century, western Publishing Culture has increased; a step towards disaster. Westernization has been spread throughout our country because of the media. The TV channels show various program holders and different characters in the dramas wearing westernized clothes. In addition to this, intimate scenes are becoming more common in programs.

Moreover, Urdu or English? A dilemma most Pakistanis are facing today especially the youth. Each country has its own mother language and they are not just a way of communication but also a part of their Publishing Culture. Most of the people are not proud to speak our own language now and this is mostly seen in the middle and upper class. Most Pakistanis are moving away from their mother language and adopting English. By adopting English we are not just adopting their language but also their Publishing Culture, values, customs and traditions and in the process are forgetting our own Publishing Culture. This confusion started when the British came to rule our land and since then people have been trying to copy their language and have associated it with prestige and class. Even our education is now focusing too much on English at all levels. It is true that English is an international language and is used worldwide, everybody should know it in order to excel abroad. Hence we need to find a balance between our choices of language between one that represents our Publishing Culture and the other that will take us to international markets.

Don’t let westernization win! It is hard to steadiness in Publishing Culture and language we are adopting but we have to poise it. Most of people of our society are being taken drugs, alcohol and prostitution for the sake of fashion and just to express modernism. Despite their openness, no actions are being taken to eliminate them in our society. Western Publishing Culture drive us away from our Publishing Culture as well as our religion.

Westernization has influenced every aspect of daily life ranging from cuisine to the basic human right. Westernization has not only created amongst the public but it was a step forward towards modernization and modernization in no sense can be regarded as harmful. On the other hand too much interest of youth towards western influences can be regarded as a negative impact on the society.

If we want to live with honor, dignity and secure our identity, we have to proudly own and love our country. If we want our upcoming generation should breathe freely as an independent nation in the world, then, today we have to work in the best interest of Pakistan. We have to rebuild our characters and minds to take the track which leads Pakistan to the destination our ancestors had dreamt of. To minimize and resist the effects of western and Indian channels, it is suggested that local channels should be strengthened and programmes should have better content. These channels should produce and broadcast quality programmes that could help in the promotion of Pakistani values and traditions and improve the image of Pakistan at international level.

Self-publishing companies aren’t publishers. On the contrary, they’re the services that enable you to get your book out of a folder in your computer and distribute it to the world for people to read. Of course, it gets a bit more complex than that, since there are several types of companies that can realize this for you. Pretty much all of them fall into three basic categories:

As we mentioned, you really are your own publisher throughout this whole process. That means that you get to retain all creative control over your books, and you get to make all of the business decisions. Generally, you’ll get to keep most of the profits (most book retailers and aggregators won’t charge you until a copy of your book actually sells, and then they’ll take a cut of the royalties.) But what’s best for your book will depend on your personal situation, and we’ll get to that in the rest of this post.

AIOU Solved Assignment Code 6552 Spring 2023

Q.4 Develop criteria to analyze the contents and structure of a secondary level textbook keeping in view the genre of textbook structure.

Memory and understanding are promoted by the use of a structure that mimics the structures we all use within our minds to store information. Before we can use or master a subject, we have to have a mental road map that allows us to navigate within and through the subject domain. The text can best aid understanding by making this framework visible early on within each section or topic. The extent to which the student understands that they are using a framework, and knows what that framework is, is important as they internalize and make use of the material presented.

Everything we know is tagged with an index or a title. These indices are critical to the ability to recall or retrieve the things we know and remember. Each concept, process, technique or fact presented should aid the student to assign a meaningful name for it in their own mental organization of the material. To be most useful, these names shouldn’t have to be relearned at higher levels of study. The names assigned by the text should be useful in that they support some future activities: communication with other practitioners, reference within the text to earlier mastered material, and conformity to the framework used for the subject. Each unique element of the subject domain should have a unique name, and each name should be used for only one element.

When we learn from an outline, an illustration, or an example, most of us are limited in our ability to absorb new material. As we become familiar with part of a subject domain this number expands, but for new material four to six new elements is a reasonable limit. If a chapter outline contains twelve items, the student will have forgotten the outline before getting to the last item. When a text fails to support this rule, it requires even a diligent student to needlessly repeat material.

Our mental frameworks are hierarchical. Learning is aided by using the student’s ability to couple or link new material with that already mastered. When presenting new domains for hierarchical understanding, the rules for meaningful names and manageable numbers have increased importance and more limited application. A maximum of three levels of hierarchy should be presented at one time. The root should be already mastered, the current element under consideration clearly examined, and lower levels outlined only to the extent that they help the student understand the scope or importance of the current element. This area is supplemented by two more rules within this rule: those of Connectivity and Cohesion. Connectivity requires consideration of what the student likely knows at this point. The more already mastered elements that one can connect with a new element, the easier it is to retain. Cohesion requires that the characteristics of new elements as they are presented be tightly coupled.

Most people learn by repetition, and only a few with native genius can achieve mastery without it. There is a pattern of repetition that aids in promoting the elements of a subject from short-term to long-term memory. Implementations of this rule may mean that frameworks and important hierarchies are repeated as many as five or six times, while frequently used elements are repeated three or four times, and elements of lesser utility may not be repeated at all. The first repetition should normally occur within a day of first presentation, followed by a gradually decreasing frequency. Exercises and review sections are ideally contributing to a designed repetition pattern.

AIOU Solved Assignment Code 6552 Autumn 2023

5 Rules of Textbook Development long description:

Q.5 what is the use of instructional objectives in development of textbook? How will you define chapter openness and closeness?

A key feature of effective teaching is the selection of instructional objectives that meet the needs of students and fit the constraints of the teaching and learning environment. There are many pressures for educators to match the audiovisual stimuli of television, computers, and electronic games with which students are experienced. The speed of personal computers and the ease of authoring systems permit instructors to design and customize computer-based audiovisual presentations and to develop computer-based assignments for their students. The tremendous increases in rates of information transfer, access to the Internet, and posting of objectives on the World Wide Web give instructors and students an almost limitless supply of resource material. In addition, the ease of electronic communications between an instructor and students, and among students, provides new opportunities for sharing questions, answers, and discussions during a course. At the same time, there remains a major role for student use of textbooks and for instructional use of demonstrations, films, videos, slides, and overhead transparencies.

Carefully scripted presentations and activities run the risk of emphasizing teacher delivery rather than student learning. Carefully planned and prepared instructional resources sometimes tempt instructors to race ahead and to cover more. The rapid-fire presentations combined with audiovisual overload can tempt students to remain intellectually passive. One way to avoid this is to intersperse activities which assess student understanding and encourage reflection and critical thinking. Another possibility is to reduce the pace of the class session, by pausing periodically to invite questions.

Instructional resources usually fall into one of two categories: student-centered and teacher-centered. In the student-centered model, instructional resources can be used for tutorials, problem solving, discovery, and review. In the teacher-centered model, resources are used for presentations of supplementary or primary material in the classroom. Information technology can also be used for communication and for information retrieval.

The mode of teaching so common today—the lecture-text-exam approach-is an artifact of centuries of European education. The professor’s main role before the wide availability of the printing press was to lecture on information obtained from a rare copy of an often ancient book. Despite the fears of the faculty at the University of Salamanca during the sixteenth century, the textbook rapidly became a useful supplement to the class lecture rather than its replacement. Today a textbook is available for almost every college science class. As McKeachie (1994) notes, ”. . . my years of experience in attempting to assess teaching effectiveness have led me to think that the textbook, more than any other element of the course, determines student learning.”

Books are a highly portable form of information and can be accessed when, where, and at whatever rate and level of detail the reader desires. Research indicates that, for many people, visual processing (i.e., reading) is faster than auditory processing (i.e., listening to lectures), making textbooks a very effective resource (McKeachie, 1994). Reading can be done slowly, accompanied by extensive note taking, or it can be done rapidly, by skimming and skipping. There are advantages to both styles, and you may find it useful to discuss their merits with your students.

One important aspect of any science class is helping the student to make sense of the mass of information and ideas in a field. This can be done by showing students how to arrange information in a meaningful hierarchy of related major and minor concepts. Well-chosen textbooks help students understand how information and ideas can be organized.

Textbooks have several major limitations. Although a well-written book can engage and hold student interest, it is not inherently interactive. However, if students are encouraged to ask questions while they read, seek answers within the text, and identify other sources to explore ideas not contained in the text, they will become active readers and gain the maximum benefit from their textbook. In order to meet the needs of a broad audience, texts are often so thick that they overwhelm students seeking key information. Texts are often forced to rely on historical or dated examples, and they rarely give a sense of the discovery aspects and disorganization of information facing modern researchers.

Science textbooks have evolved considerably from the descriptive and historical approaches common before World War II. Today’s texts are far more sophisticated, less historical, and contain more facts than in the past, with complex language and terminology (Bailar, 1993). Illustrations and mathematical expressions are more common. Emphasis has shifted toward principles and theory. Modern texts attempt to deal with issues of process as well as matters of fact or content. They are replete with essays, sidebars, diagrams, illustrations, worked examples, and problems and questions at many different levels. One result of these changes is that the average book length has increased two to four times in the past several decades.

In response to the need for quality science textbooks for all students, not just science majors, some authors are returning to descriptive and historical approaches. Generally, books for science literacy courses describe important ideas and discoveries, present a limited number of fundamental concepts, and emphasize the links among different facts and principles. Others (e.g., Trefil and Hazen, 1995) take an interdisciplinary approach, by covering a range of science disciplines in a coherent, connected manner.

Research on the effectiveness of textbooks has focused on two general areas: text structure and layout. The study of text structure has focused on how the reader builds cognitive representations from text. Recent work categorizes the structure of science text as either a proof-first or a principle-first organization (Dee-Lucas and Larkin, 1990). The proof-first organization develops a proof or argument that builds to a conclusion, usually in the form of a fundamental concept, principle, or law. In principle-first organization, a concept or principle is stated explicitly, then the evidence needed to support it is presented. The prevalence of the proof-first structure in contemporary textbooks may be due to the fact that most college science textbooks are written by scientists with little formal training in education. They present science the way it is practiced by experts. However, studies by Dee-Lucas and Larkin (1990) indicate that the principle-first structure is more effective for long-term retention and understanding by novice readers.

Layout and illustrations are important predictors of a text’s effectiveness. One of the most effective types of illustration, especially for students with low verbal aptitude, is a simple multicolor line drawing. Although more visually appealing, and more prevalent in the current textbook market, realistic drawings or photographs are less effective at enhancing student learning. The organization of information on a page also affects student learning.

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Diocese of San Jose

New Clergy Appointments for 2021

May 3, 2021

In order to serve the people of God, Bishop Oscar Cantú has made the following clergy appointments for the Diocese of San José, effective July 1, 2021:

Office of Pastor

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Rev.  Mark Arnzen , pastor St. Lawrence the Martyr Parish, Santa Clara

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Rev. Andres C. Ligot , pastor St. Elizabeth Parish, Milpitas  

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Rev. Anthony Mancuso , pastor St. Frances Cabrini Parish, San José

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Rev. Michael Syjueco , pastor St. Joseph of Cupertino Parish, Cupertino  

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Rev, Gregory Kimm , pastor St. Mary of the Immaculate Conception, Los Gatos

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Rev. Ernesto Orci , pastor Cathedral Basilica of St. Joseph, San José

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